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1643-1652

Pergamon Press Ltd 19RO. Printed in Great Britain

SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE*

(Received 7 June 1980)

Abstract - Experiments on free convective heat transfer from electrically heated platinum wires and a

platinum strip to supercritical carbon dioxide were performed for a wide range of bulk conditions. It is shown

that heat transfer can be predicted by a conventional Nusselt-type correlation if the dimensionless numbers

are based on integrated thermophysical properties in order to account for large changes in these properties.

The anomaly of thermal conductivity has to be considered. Agreement between the experimental results and

the correlation is within 10% even for very thin wires when for those a correction factor is introduced.

NOMENCLATURE Subscripts

C, specific heat capacity ; b, bulk condition ;

d, wire diameter ; c, at critical state;

9, gravitational constant ; 1, integrated mean value, equation (4);

h, heat transfer coefficient ; P, at constant pressure ;

h*, specific enthalpy ; PC> pseudocritical (temperature);

1, wire (strip) length; W, heater wall.

P? pressure;

r, co-ordinate normal to surface;

t, temperature [“Cl ; 1. INTRODUCTION

thermodynamic temperature [K] ; THE INCREASINGnumber of applications of heat trans-

2 coefficient of thermal expansion ; fer to supercritical fluids near their thermodynamical

4 thermal conductivity; critical point has revived the interest in investigating

r?, dynamic viscosity ; this particular heat transfer problem in the last two

V, kinematic viscosity; decades. In modern power plants heat is transferred to

Pt density ; supercritical water. Rockets are cooled with supercriti-

Gr, Grashof number ; cal fuel and superconductivity effects are achieved by

gd3 Pb - Pi cooling the conductor with fluids which are close to

__.

Gri,

v? Pi their critical points. Also highly charged machine

Nusselt number; elements like gas turbine blades and computer ele-

Nu,

hd ments are cooled with supercritical fluids.

Nui, > One of the earliest experimental investigations done

on heat transfer to a critical fluid is that of Schmidt et

NC+, modified Nusselt number with 63, [equa- al. [2]. They found that the free convective heat

tion (3)] omitted; transfer coefficient increases considerably as the liquid

J+, Prandtl number; approaches its critical state in a closed loop. This was

2VihF-hb* . attributed to the large changes of the thermophysical

Pri,

li t, - t, ’ properties with temperature in the critical region : the

coefficient of thermal expansion and the specific heat

Ra, Rayleigh number ;

capacity strongly increase, the dynamic viscosity de-

Rai, Gri Pri ;

creases. Meanwhile it is known that also the thermal

Ra*, modified Rayleigh number with A), [equa-

conductivity increases in the vicinity of the critical

tion (3)] omitted.

point. All these changes improve the mechanism of

heat transfer and particularly that of free convection. A

single closed pipe filled with carbon dioxide so that a

near critical state is reached within this ‘heat pipe’

*The material presented here is taken from a Dr.-Ing. thesis exhibits increases in efficient thermal conductivity up

submitted to the Universitlt Stuttgart by R. J. Neumann - to 12000 times the conductivity of copper [3].

bibliography reference rll. It is difficult to solve free convection problems

t Assistant Professor- of Mechanical Engineering, Un- analytically because the temperature and the velocity

iversidad de Concenci6n. Casilla 53-C. Concewi6n. Chile.

1 Professor, Ins&t fii; Thermodynamik und WLimetech-

fields depend upon each other. In the critical region the

nik, Universitst Stuttgart, Pfaflenwaldring 6, D-7000 Stutt- integration of the governing differential equations is

gart 80, Germany. aggravated by the fact that the thermophysical proper-

1643

1644 ROIXUfo J. NI.IIMA?Nand EKIC‘HW. P. HAHYI

ties are extremely temperature dependent. Many au- of the thermal diffusivity and the geometry of the

thors used a modified substitution method developed heating surface.

by Ostrach [4] and Sparrow and Gregg [5] to

integrate the differential equations. 2. THERMOPHYSICAI, PROPERTIES

In most cases the evaluation was for heat transfer For carbon dioxide the following critical proper-

from a flat plate. Reimann and Grigull [6] solved the ties were taken : t, = 31.04 C, pC = 71.81 bar and p,

problem for the free convective heat transfer from thin = 468 kg/m3. Figure 1 shows that density /) and

wires. The agreement of the numerical solutions with enthalpy h* are extremely temperature dependent in

the experimental results obtained by all these authors the critical region, particularly in the vicinity of the

is fairly good only when the fluid is not in a near critical critical point. As a consequence, the coefficient of

state. Deviations in the near critical state may be due to thermal expansion /I’and the specific heat capacity cp

the neglection of the anomaly in thermal conductivity respectively, show a sharp peak at certain tempera-

near the critical point, in the older works. tures called therefore pseudocritical temperatures, t,.

In calculating heat transfer coefficients it is cus- The pseudocritical temperature I,, increases with

tomary to use Nusselt correlations. For free con- pressure (Table 1). The peaks in cp and /1 tend to

vection flow with dynamic forces being negligible infinity at the critical point and become smaller as the

compared to viscous forces pressure increases. All thermodynamic properties used

here were calculated with the canonical equation of

Nu =f(Ra, (1) state for carbon dioxide [ 111.

where The dynamic viscosity q [12] is also shown in Fig. 1.

It decreases with temperature, proportionally to den-

gd3PAt sity. The thermal conductivity i. shows a sharp peak

Ra=Gr,Pr; Gr=------ Pm%. (2)

vz ’ IL at the pseudocritical temperature.

Although no explanation has been found for this

Rigorously, a function of this kind can only be applied strange behaviour its existence is commonly accepted.

to solve physically similar heat transfer problems. This The thermal conductivity can be expressed as follows

means that the velocity distribution is in a fixed

relation to the temperature distribution, corrected i = ;,(T, p = 0) + ;({I) + Ai. (3)

only by the Prandtl number. This holds when the The first two terms represent the well-known de-

physical properties in equation (2) are not temperature pendence of a transport property on temperature and

dependent. It has been tried to determine Nusselt density. The third term Ai. accounts for the abnormal

correlations for free convection heat transfer near the peaks in the vicinity of the pseudocritical tempera-

critical point by evaluating the thermophysical pro-

perties at an arithmetic mean temperature and in-

troducing a suitable correction term. This method T,K

works when the critical or pseudocritical state in the 300 305 310

p,-s- ” ’ ” ” ’ ” ” ”

fluid is not approached too closely (k 2 K, e.g. chapter

5).

In the early fifties Goldmann [7] found that heat

transfer to supercritical water by forced convection is

sometimes accompanied by a noise like a ‘whistle’ and

by an increase in the heat transfer coefficient. He

postulated a special heat transfer mechanism which

was called by him ‘pseudoboiling’. Since then similar

phenomena have been observed at free convection

from electrically heated wires to supercritical carbon

dioxide by Knapp and Sabersky [8], Hahne et al. [9]

and Nishikawa et al. [lo]. The increase in heat transfer

started with oscillations of the wire at temperature

differences not less than 70K. No satisfactory expla-

nation for this unusual phenomenon has been pub-

lished yet.

The experiments described in this paper were de-

signed to find a correlation for heat transfer by free

convection from thin wires and a flat strip to

supercritical carbon dioxide near the critical point.

For this purpose, the extreme temperature dependence

of the thermophysical properties is taken into account.

Experiments on pseudoboiling phenomena were per- FIG. 1. Thermophysical properties of carbon dioxide at

formed and are reported in [l J. They exhibited effects 75 bar.

Free convective heat transfer to supercritical carbon dioxide 1645

. coming from a thermostat (h). The pressure in the

. vessel was controlled by either changing the tempera-

.

4 l 31,2 OC

ture of the fluid in the auxiliary vessel (i) or with the

piston pump (k). Pressure measurements were made

A 32,l OC with two precision bourdon pressure gauges (m). The

+ 31,8OC temperature of the bulk fluid was measured by three

0 LO OC thermocouples located at various levels below the

v 50 OC heating element; the mean temperature of the heating

x 75 OC element was determined by measuring its electrical

resistance. Platinum is appropriate for these ex-

periences due to its high and well-known temperature

coefficient of electrical resistance.

With corrections to this mean temperature obtained

from the Fourier equation with inner sources the wall

temperature of the heating element was calculated.

n The wires and the strip were heated by applying a

ti constant voltage source. The heat flux was calculated

-x, from the measured voltage drop in a precision re-

sistance (0) and the heating element (c). Heat losses

P caused by radiation and axial conduction were

negligible.

Prior to the experiments the whole system was

nn- evacuated and filled alternately several times with

-1- 0 200 100 600 800 1000 highly pure 99.99 % carbon dioxide from the bottle (x).

--- p [kg/m31 The final filling of the system was assisted by cooling

both vessels (a and j) approximately 15 K below room

temperature and opening the supply line for a few

FIG. 2. Thermal conductivity of carbon dioxide at various minutes, thus undercooling the entering fluid below the

temperatures, measured and calculated according to [13].

temperature of the saturated carbon dioxide in the

bottle.

tures. Le Neindre et al. [ 131 proposed that this term be The test conditions are compiled in Table 1. For

evaluated by means of the ‘scaling laws’ or as a each pressure the bulk temperatures were primarily

function of the compressibility. Both methods were chosen as to be in the vicinity of the corresponding

applied and showed that for densities greater than pseudocritical temperature. The 0.3 mm dia wire and

approximately 260 kg/m3 the solution obtained with especially the strip could not be heated over the limit

the scaling law method agreed better with the measure- listed in Table 1 because the dissipated heat had to be

ments published by the same authors, while for smaller removed through the walls of the test vessel without

densities the function of the compressibility was more altering significantly the bulk condition.

appropriate. Figure 2 shows the theoretical solution

according to equation (3) and experimental data.

4. EXPERIMENTAL

RESULTS

Typical results for heat transfer coefficients as a

3. EXPERIMENTAL

PROCEDURE function of wall temperatures t, are presented in Fig. 4

A schematic sketch of the apparatus is shown in Fig. for a 0.1 mm dia platinum wire at 74 bar with bulk

3. Essentially, it consists of an electrically heated wire temperature t, as parameter. The lines shown in this

(strip) (c) mounted horizontally in a high pressure figure are calculated from equation (1 l), chapter 5 [ 11.

vessel (a). Experiments with three platinum wires of When I, is much lower than the pseudocritical

0.05, 0.1 and 0.3 mm dia and a platinum strip of temperature t, (e.g. t, = 10°C; 20°C; 25°C) the heat

0.0125 mm thickness and 5 mm height were performed. transfer coefficient increases gradually with the in-

All these elements were 67mm long. The pressure crease of t, until t, is slightly exceeded.

vessel* has an inner diameter of 114.3 mm and 76.2 mm With a further increase of t,, the heat transfer

inner length. A glass window (f) in each end plate coefficient decreases to a nearly constant and uniform

allows for Schlieren projections. Temperature control value. When tb draws near t, (tt, = 30; 31”C), the heat

was achieved by immersing the entire test chamber transfer coefficient and its rate of change becomes large

and reaches a maximum when t, x t,. Here, free

convection heat transfer coefficients reach the order of

*The authors gratefully acknowledge Professor Sabersky’s magnitude of those of nucleate boiling.

providing this vessel. A detailed description of it is given in For t, > t, (tb = 31.5 ; 35 ; 50°C) the heat transfer

PI. coefficient remains at comparatively small values

1646

PRESSURE VESSEL

SUPPORTING DEVICE

HEATING ELEMENT

COPPER CONNECTION PLATE

TUBE WITH THERMOCOUPLES

GLASS WINDOWS

INSULATED TANK

iHERMOSTAi

COOLER

AUXlLiARY PRESSURE VESSEL

PISION PUMP

THERMOSTAT

PREC!SION BOURWN-GAUGE MANOMETER

DC POWER SUPPLY

PRECISION RESISTANCE

MULTIPLE PRECISION SWITCH

VOLTMETER

LINE VOLTAGE PLOTTER

REFERENCE VOLTAGE AOJUSTER

VOLTAGE AMPLIFIER

THERMOCOUPLE SELECTOR

REFERENCE VOLTAGE ADJUSTER

ZERO VOLTMETER

BOTTLE

VENT VALVE

SAFEIY VALVE

either slightly decreasing or being approximately Generally, the heat transfer coefficients decrease as

constant with wall temperature. It is thus obvious that the wire diameter increases. The lowest values were

for tb > t,, the heat transfer coefficient is primarily a measured for the 5mm high strip. Compared to a

function oft, while for t, < t, it is a function of both t, 0.05mm dia wire the heat transfer coefficients for a

and tb. 0.1 mm wire were about 25 % lower, for the 0.3 mm and

Figure 5 gives the heat transfer coefficient for the for the strip they were roughly about 30% and 60%

same wire at a bulk pressure of 80 bar. The same lower respectively. Nevertheless, for all these heating

qualitative observations as described above can be elements the dependence of the heat transfer coefficient

made under these test conditions. Quantitatively the on the temperatures t,, t, and t, and on pressure was

peaks of the heat transfer coefficient at t, close to t, confirmed.

are smaller than before. At other supercritical pres- Boiling-like phenomena were not observed with any

sures as listed in Table 1 similar results were obtained of the platinum heating elements.

Bulk

pressures, bar Bulk Wall

Heating element (pseudocritical temperatures temperatures

Pt, 1 = 67mm temp, “C) (“C) approx (“C)

75 (31.75) 10, 25, 31,

0.05 mm wire

80 (34.86) 31.5, 32, 35

90 (4.8) 50 up to 500°C

0.1 mm wire 85 (37.86) 30, 31, 31.5 up to 600°C

90, 95 (44.0) 32, 35, 50

10, 25, 31

0.3 mm wire 74, 75, 80, 90 31.5, 32, 35. up to 200°C

50

35, 50

Free convective heat transfer to supercritical carbon dioxide 1647

IO I

I

this state increase much more than Nusselt numbers,

h max calculate d=O.l mm. pt even for peak heat transfer coefficients, so that in the

= 1.07

p=7Lbar, lb i 10°C 0 plot Nu vs Ra within a wide range of scatter a

0,9

ltpc =31,15T) zooc A

25% 0

dependence Nu x constant is falsely pretended. This is

o,fJ

30% 0 also observed in a correlation for horizontal slots filled

31% t

with CO, [14].

3159: A

35oc v

In order to take account of variable properties,

47 + 50-c x

I Nusselt [ 151 suggested to use an integrated mean value

I I ItI l- Calculated CUNPS

for any property P, as calculated from

1 1,

p=- P(t)dt. (4)

TV- tb s lb

for any property which does not assume an infinite or

an extremely large value as in the critical or pseudo-

critical state. Formally, an infinite value for a property,

yielding an infinite Rayleigh number would result,

equation (l), in an infinite Nusselt number. By de-

finition, however, any heat transfer requires a tempera-

ture difference. Therefore, as long as there are different

n

-10 20 30

II?/ LO 50 60

temperatures (at constant pressure) there are different

properties in a thermal layer adjacent to the heating

surface, maintaining some resistance to the heat

t, PC 1

transport. Consequently, the heat transfer coefficient

remains finite. (In our experiments, at the best, heat

FIG. 4. Heat transfer coefficient from a O.lmm Pt wire at transfer coefficients of h = 9700 W/m’ K were mea-

74 bar vs wall temperature. sured and h = 10700 W/m2 K was calculated.)

The coefficient of thermal expansion and the specific

heat capacity tending towards infinity in the critical

5. CORRELATIONS state have to be especially considered in the aforemen-

Although the thermophysical properties in the tioned respect. They can be approximated as:

critical region are extremely temperature dependent

and heat transfer processes are not physically similar,

it is commonly accepted to use equation (1) for the

correlation of data.

A simple correlation plot, Nu vs Ra,with thermal

properties taken at film temperature (tb + t,)/2 results c~=(~)~=(~),=(~),. (6a)

in anomalies for data obtained for wall temperatures

near the pseudocritical state [9] : Rayleigh numbers in These approximations have the disadvantage that the

mean values only depend on the two boundary

temperatures and do not take into account an extreme

change of properties within the thermal layer. In order

to introduce an integrated mean property into equa-

tion (5a), Kato et al. [16] proposed to approximate the

product /I. At as

I IP

Our experiments showed that it is of advantage to also

approximate the specific heat capacity as

10 20 30 40 50 60 70 specific enthalpy. Neither density p nor enthalpy h*

assume infinite values, thus avoiding the aforemen-

tioned problem.

FIG. 5. Heat transfer coefficient from a O.lmm Pt wire at The factor 2 in equation (6b) stems from the

80 bar vs wall temperature. assumption to attribute the integrated enthalpy to the

1648 J. NEUMANN and ERICH W. P.

ROIXX.M> HAHNE

arithmetic mean temperature; this gives At = t, - below it: t, < t,, < t,

(tb + t,)/2 and provides a better fit to cp Case III : all temperatures are above the pseudocriti-

= dh*/dr. cal value: t, < t, < t,.

For the thermal conductivity the integrated mean

Figure 6 presents Nui as a function of Rai for a 0.1 mm

value iLiwas taken as a first choice, despite the fact that

dia platinum wire at 75 bar and various bulk tempera-

it exhibits an abnormal increase close to the critical

tures. For comparison a conventional, empirical cor-

point.

relation by van der Hegge Zijnen [18]

With these properties, the following numbers were

obtained : Nui = 0.35 + 0.25Ra:” + 0.45Raf’4 (10)

gd’ [lb - I’i is represented as a line. Deviations of _t 10% to this

Rai = Gri Pr,, Gri = 2 z ~--,

“i Pi line are also plotted in the diagram. This correlation

was selected because it is based on a great number of

Pr, = 2>V - hb* experiments as performed by many investigators on

I ~ (7)

Li t, - t, horizontal cylinders and wires for many fluids, it

The Nusselt number is derived from the boundary covers a range of 10m4 < Ra, < 109.

condition The experimental data for the cases I and III fall well

within the f 10% scatter region of equation (lo), since

the physical properties do not change extremely there.

When, however, t, approaches c,, the properties

This means that all the heat dissipated by the wall is change considerably and the heat transfer coefficients

transferred through a thin layer adherent to the wall, reach some maximum. For this case (II) the diagram

only by conduction. Thus the thermal conductivity in shows that Rai increases more rapidly than Nui and

the Nusselt number should be evaluated at wall loops are formed outside the lower boundary of the

temperature [ 171. However, due to its anomaly in the scatter region. At high temperature differences (e.g.

critical region, the thermal conductivity may increase (t, - tb) > 80 K ; tb = 1O’C) both numbers decrease

considerably while - as experiments show - the heat again and the systematic deviations converge in the

transfer coefficient does not increase correspondingly. & 10 % region of equation (10). The largest deviations

The experimental results proved the following Nusselt result for the lowest t,. As t, increases the deviations

number definition to be the most suitable decrease; for tb also close to t,, the experimental data

fall within the + 10% scatter region.

Nui = hd At higher bulk pressures, similar but smaller syste-

ii matic deviations were obtained. A comparison for

three different wire diameters at the same bulk con-

In the following analysis three different cases shall be

ditions is shown in Fig. 7. The deviations from

discerned :

equation (10) become smaller as the wire diameter

Case I: all temperatures are below the respective increases.

pseudocritical temperature: t, < t, < t, Figure 8 shows the experimental data for a flat strip,

Case II : the wire temperature equals or exceeds the simulating a vertical wall, at 74 bar and various bulk

pseudocritical value while the bulk temperature is still conditions. The characteristic length din equations (7)

7

6

5

Nut

1

Free convective heat transfer to supercritical carbon dioxide 1649

15

p=7Lbor, Pt itb < tpcl

12

d = 0,05mm, tb = 1ooc 0

10 25oc x

N”,8

6

and (9) was changed to the height of the strip (5 mm). increase considerably when t, is relatively low. Thus, as

Again for comparison a correlation developed by iLi increases, Nui somewhat stagnates causing the

Krischer [ 191 for a wide range of Grashof and Prandtl aforementioned loops.

numbers is plotted in the diagram. The scatter of This suggests that the thermal conductivity may not

experimental data is small confirming that a correction be evaluated properly from equation (4) or the anom-

function has to be considered only for thin wires and aly is overestimated by equation (3). Since the

case II. experimental data for small temperature differences

In all plots the systematic deviations are largest and t, close to t,, are well represented by equation (lo),

when t, is relatively low and t, exceeds t, only by little however, the second possibility might be excluded.

(case II). Then the peak values of fi and cp are within Some authors argue that the anomaly of thermal

the integration limits and Gr, increases considerably. conductivity is not significant for the heat transfer in

The increase of cp is partially counterbalanced by the this case. The contrary can be proven by calculating

increase of 3,,within a short temperature range, causing Nui as a function of Ra, without considering the

Pri to increase only moderately. On the other hand, as anomaly term A2 in equation (3) and plotting such a

shown in Fig. 4, the heat transfer coefficient does not correlation. This was done in Fig. 9 where now very

1650 RODOLH~ J. NEUMANN and ERICH W. P. HAHN~

i

Nu; t71 bar, 25 Y + A V

20 71 bo:, 31 ‘C 0 v x

75 bar, 3!.5”C n t0 l

lo-- , 1

a-

1X=0,35

+0.25Ro?+ 0.15Ra;"‘

Ll

10 LO IO' 10' IO' 10' 106 10'

Ra',

FIG.9.Correlation ofmeasured data for various wirediameters without considering the thermal conductivity

anomaly term A%in Nui and Rae

distinct deviations from equation (10) can be observed. and T being the thermodynamic temperature T

These start when the wall temperatures approach = t + 273.15.

closely the pseudocritical and they are largest when the This correlation (11) was used to obtain the calcu-

thermal layer spans the pseudocritical state. These lated curves h vs t, in Figs. 4 and 5.

deviations appear for every diameter investigated here. In Fig. 10 the correlation of data according to

The finding of a decrease in deviation of data from equation (11) is shown. The fit of data as also presented

equation (10) with increasing wire diameter (Fig. 7) in Fig. 7 is better here. All data are within a + 10 %

suggests a special consideration for thin wires. For scatter.

these, the thermal boundary layer thickness increases For technical use those temperature ranges were

unproportionally compared to the diameter, and examined for which simple film temperatures cl

conductivity prevails in a larger region around the = (t,,, + Q/2 suffice to determine the thermophysical

wire. As t, exceeds t, at low t, presumably only a very properties in the numbers of equation (10) and this

thin film has a high thermal conductivity, while the equation still yields agreement within + 10%. For the

mean thermal resistance of the boundary layer is still conditions listed in Table 1 these ranges are

high; thus the heat transfer coefficient does not

tb < Tw < $a, -2K and t,>tb>tpc+2K.

increase considerably. For surfaces with a greater

curvature radius, the thermal resistance due to con- Thus free convection heat transfer in the critical region

duction prevails only in a very thin film on the wall and can be predicted from equation (10) without perfor-

convection governs the heat transfer process. The ming integrations as long as bulk and wall tempera-

aforementioned influence of thermal conductivity is tures are either 2K below or above the respective

counterbalanced by the buoyancy effects. pseudocritical temperature.

The deviations principally depend upon c, - t,,,

t, - t, and p. For each of these terms a separate

correction function was determined from the experim-

ental data and the following modified correlation is

proposed for case II and thin wires 6. CONCLUSIONS

Nui = (0.35 + 0.25Raj'8 + 0.45Ra!'"(l +fif&-' Heat transfer coefficients for free convection heat

transfer in the near critical region can be predicted by a

(11)

conventional, and well-established Nusselt corre-

where lation. If a region of f 2 K around the pseudocritical

temperature is spared the thermophysical properties in

fi = xc-x, the NW and Ra numbers may simply be based on film

temperature.

Very close to the pseudocritical state where property

fi = tanh(30y)

changes are large, good agreement of experimental

data and the aforementioned correlation can be ob-

tained with integrated mean property values. The

anomaly of thermal conductivity has to be taken into

Free convective heat transfer to supercritical carbon dioxide 1651

50 p=7Lbor, 0

40

p.EObar, 0

I& 3,o

$1

2 2,0

I,6

1.3

‘1,O

FIG. 10. Correlation of measured data according to the corrected equation (11).

account. For thin wires a correction factor introduced transfer to carbon dioxide near the critical point, Inl. J.

Heat Mass Transfer 9, 41-51 (1966).

in the correlation yields & 10% deviation. Boiling-

9. E. W. P. Hahne, G. Feurstein and U. Grigull, Free

like phenomena do not occur on platinum wires up to convective heat transfer in the supercritical region, Proc.

investigated temperatures of 600°C. 5th Int. Heat Transf. Conf., Tokyo, Vol. 3, pp. 5-9 (1974).

10. K. Nishikawa, T. Ito and H. Yamashita, Free convective

heat transfer to a supercritical fluid. Mem. Faculty Engng,

Kyushu Univ. 30, 2 (1970).

11. R. Meyer-Pittroff and U. Grigull, Eine kanonische

REFERENCES Zustandsgleichung fiir Kohlendioxid, Wiirme- und St&l

iibertragung 3, 134- 145 (1973).

1. R. J. Neumann, Zur WIrmeiibertragung durch freie 12. M. P. Vukalovich and V. V. Altunin, Thermophysical

Konvektion im kritischen Gebiet von Kohlendioxid, Dr.- Properties of Carbon Dioxide. Collet, London (1968).

Ing. thesis Universitlt Stuttgart (1979). 13. B. Le Neindre, R. Tufeu, P. Bury and J. V. Sengers,

2. E. Schmidt, E. R. G. Eckert and U. Grigull, WBrmetran- Thermal conductivity ofcarbon dioxide and steam in the

sport durch Fliissigkeiten in der N;ihe Ihres kritischen supercritical region, Ber. Bunsenges. Phys. Chem. 77(4),

Zustands, Jahrbuch der Deutschen Luftfahrtforschung 2, 262-275 (1963).

53-58 (1939). 14. E. Hahne, Natural convection heat transfer through an

3. E. Hahne, WHrmetransport durch natiirliche Konvek- enclosed horizontal layer of supercritical carbon dioxide,

tion in Medien nahe ihrem kritischen Zustand, Int. J. W&me- und Stoffibertraguny 1, 190-196 (1968).

Heat Mass Transfer 8, 481-497 (1965). 15. W. Nusselt, Das Grundgesetz des Wkmelbergangs,

4. S. Ostrach, An analysis of laminar free-convection flow Gesundheits-lngenieur 42, 477-482 (1915).

and heat transfer about a flat plate parallel to the 16. H. Kato, N. Nishiwaki and H. Hirata, Studies on the heat

direction of the generating body force, NASA Report transfer of fluids at a supercritical pressure, Bull. Japan

1111 (1953). Sot. Mech. Engrs 11(46), 654-663 (1968).

5 E. M. Sparrow and J. L. Gregg, The variable fluid- 17. R. Gregorig, Verallgemeinerter Ausdruck fiir den EinfluB

property problem in free convection, J. Heat Transfer temperaturabhgngiger Stoffwerte auf den turbulenten

8OC(3), 879-886 (1958). WLrmetibergang, Wiirme- und Stoffibertragung 3,26-40

6 M. Reimann and U. Grigull, Analytische Untersuchung (1970).

von freier Konvektion und Filmsieden in laminaren 18. B. G. Van der Hegge Zijnen, Modified correlation

Grenzschichten mit temperaturabhgngigen Stoffwerten, formulae for the heat transfer by natural and by forced

W&-me- und Stqffiibertraguny 8, 167-178 (1975). convection from horizontal cylinders, Appl. Scient. Res.

I. K. Goldmann, Heat transfer to supercritical water at 6A, 129-140 (1956).

5000 psi flowing at high mass flow rates through round 19. 0. Krischer, Die wissenschafrlichen Grundlagen der

tubes, Int. Dee. Heat Transfer 3, 561-568 (1961). Trocknungstechnik, S. 139, 2. Auflage. Springer, Berlin

8. K. K. Knapp and R. H. Sabersky, Free convective heat (1963).

SUPERCRITIQUE

R&sum6 ~ Des expiriences sur la convection thermique naturelle autour de fils et d’un ruban en platine

chat&% electriquement, dans du gaz carbonique supercritique, ont it& conduites pour un large domaine de

conditions. On montre que le transfert thermique peut gtre ivalut par une formule du type de Nusselt si les

nombres sans dimension sont basks sur des propri&s thermophysiques intCgrtes de fagon B tenir compte

des grandes variations de ces propri&Cs. L’anomalie de conductivit6 thermique est consid&&e. On obtient un

accord meilleur que 10% entre les resultats expbimentaux et la formule, m&me pour les fils trts fins lorsque,

pour ceux-ci, un facteur correctif est introduit.

1652 RODOLFO J.NEUMANN and ERICH W. P. HAHNF

beheizten Platindrlhten und einem Platinband an iiberkritisches Kohlendioxid in einem weiten Bereich von

thermodynamischen Zustlnden untersucht. Der Warmeiibergang kann durch eine konventionelle Nusselt-

Gleichung bestimmt werden, wenn die Kennzahlen mit integrierten Stoffwerten gebildet sind, urn die grogen

Anderungen dieser Stoffwerte im kritischen Gebiet zu beriicksichtigen. Die Anomalie der Warmeleitfahigkeit

mug beriicksichtigt werden. Die Abweichung zwischen den experimentellen Ergebnissen und der

Korrelation liegt im Bereich + 104:, selbst fur diinne Drlhte, wenn fur letztere eine Korrektur

vorgenommen wird.

YIJIEPOAA

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OT HBI-FBBeMbIX 3JleKTPHWCKHM TOKOM n.NTHHOBbIX npOBO,IO’,‘ZK II MaTAHOBOfi JIeHTb, K CBCPX-

KPHTH’ieCKOfi OKHCN yrJIepOna B mHpOKOM BHana3OHe H3MeHCHHR yC,IOBHii B Cone. nOKa3aH0, 'IT0

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no 104; naxtenpu HCnO."b30BaHHH npoeonorer O'ieHbManor0 .nriaMeTpa,KornaHeO6XODriMO BBOBHTb

nOnpaBOHHbIH KO+@HnHeHT.

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