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我把所有句型按照自己的理解分成了 13 种,由于时间很紧,难免有不合理的地方,望大家

谅解~~ :)
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我写 ARGUMENT 所用的所有句型都是从这个东西里挑出来的~ ) q* [. x: F8 n) O, }4 J

其实我觉得最好还是自己总结比较好,印象比较深一些~ * N8 v) h+ x0 u" ?0 k+ W

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因为用别人的句子其实是————每个人都按自己的理性的行为结果是集体的非理性~呵
呵~

容易出现拼写错误的词:Assumption, available, guarantee, account, possibility, moreover,


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承接 Therefore/thus/hence/so/consequently/clearly/moreover/besides " R9 D$ c6 X! _. u7 ]

引导结论 conclude/claim/assert/propose $ l) M: A8 g0 s3 z

显示,表明 show/imply/prove/indicate/illustrate/demonstrate
建议 recommend/suggest/advise 倡议 advocate
预言,预计 predict/project/forecast/expect

首段开头句型: 8 X! ?- r: @2 F" G

1) In this editorial/argument, the author argues that __.The author also claim that __.To
support these claims the author points out that __. The author also points out that __.

2) This editorial/memo recommends that __.To support this recommendation, the author
points out that __.the author also points out that __ ,and that __.Finally, the manager cites that __. $ C; X& L-

e, a& F; S/ S

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首段结尾句型:
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3) I find the editorial/argument logically unconvincing in several respects. /I find this


argument specious on several grounds. ( p" ?- L5 J, n3 a

4) However, the argument relies on a series of unsubstantiated assumptions, which render it


unconvincing as it stands. /However, the argument/editorial relies on a number of doubtful
assumptions and is therefore unconvincing.

5) This argument depends on several unsubstantiated assumptions and is therefore


unpersuasive as it stands. ! {3 E2 G- u" l z$ e

6) This argument is problematic /flawed in several critical respects. 9 R% z0 A9 A3 g

7) A careful analysis of the study reveals several problems with the editorial’s argument. 1 {/ x- R# W0 n

8) The study suffers from certain statistical and other problems, which render the conclusion
based upon it unpersuasive.
9) As discussed below, the argument suffers from several critical flaws and is therefore
unpersuasive as it stands.

10) However, careful scrutiny of the evidence reveals that it accomplishes little toward
supporting the director’s claim, as discussed below. . W$ M6 O, _* z2 t4 A9 ~

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11) However, close scrutiny of the manager’s argument reveals several unproven assumptions,
which render it unconvincing. & n8 k# Q, [' n. |- ~. y

12) The argument suffers from several logical flaws and is therefore unconvincing as it
stands.

13) As discussed below, the argument suffers from several critical flaws and is therefore
unpersuasive.

调查,统计的准确性: . O3 q7 ?1 I1 H+ _3 j

14) Many ___ were actually excluded from the survey.

15) The result of the survey lacks validity/credibility/reliability and therefore could not lend
strong support to the arguer’s claim/propose. 1 V' ~# _% b* ]5 k& d

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16) The result of the survey lacks validity/credibility because/as the sample is too limited.
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17) The survey does not provide complete information concerning the effect ___ , K) {0 j: R i3 B' \5 ^

18) The number reported ___ does not necessarily reflect the number actually ___ & @% H) V5 a ^% |4 w

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19) The statistics comparing __ might be distorted in one or more respects ! K8 u6 ^ @ y6 \% `( r, ~

20) These statistics were based only on data from __. 1 K% p7 y# f- i& Q6 m) ?- W

21) The cited statistics about __ might be unreliable in other respects as well.
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22) It is unfair to conclude from one survey suggesting that __ 0 j6 Q/ C9 i2 Z

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23) Moreover, a single survey taken just prior to __ is sustainable.


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24) Although the number of __ is relatively high, the per __(capita) number might be
relatively low.

A 与 B 之间的关系(主要是因果关系):
25) A bears some relation to B./(Establish) a casual relationship between A and B 6 ?! G( E% w/ B v9 d+ L! \4 H

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26) No evidence was given to substantiate the claim that A contribute to B


27) The fact that A does not necessarily follow that B - _% i% n0 w3 k0 z' n

28) The mere fact that A proves nothing about B. C9 Q# T9 \; C( X( O ?

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29) The inference rests on the assumption (A) that B is unconvincing.

A与B 的进行比较(类比,类推)的问题: & r8 ?, q$ m* B6 \+ s# f" S. w

30) Are the two towns/companies comparable at every aspect?


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31) The comparison between A and B is incomplete, hence/consequently we can hardly


evaluate that ___
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32) The argument is unconvincing because it is based on a false analogy.

33) Without showing that all other conditions in the two areas have been essentially the same,
the author cannot convince me that __ 5 ]5 A$ N( \9 E( c% ?

作者忽视其他原因的问题:
34) The arguer ignores other possible factors that may also leads/contribute to_. Perhaps _ Or
perhaps __ More over, perhaps __

35) There is a good chance that ___/It is entirely/highly possible that___ ' @+ [9 a# @" Q" p' {# X

( v. O/ g: B, q2 N! n& _

36) The arguer fails to take into account / rule out the possibility
that ___, thus/hence/therefore we can not evaluate the overall effect of ___
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37) The author overlooks the possibility that (only a small portion of )__
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38) The author also ignores the possibility that __


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作者偷换概念,错误等同的问题:
39) The arguer does not differentiate between ___ and ___
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作者提供信息不完全,或所给论据不支持论点的问题: 9 ]. s" x, \) }; e; |1 a$ h" Z+ t3 x

40) The arguer does not provide/offer any information concerning the ___./No information
concerning ___ is provided. . S2 M, S, I9 M3 n

41) However, this evidence provides little credible support for the argument’s/editorial’s
conclusion/assertion. * V+ T" W" [+ L. h, v

42) The evidence involving __ does not adequately show that __ 8 {( e+ h3 Q+ o6 q6 b D, E

43) A reduction/increase in the A rate does not necessarily indicate a reduction/increase in


overall A rate. 3 h9 j# y7 j5 U# W- F

44) For the majority of __ it is probably more important to __.Thus, I cannot accept the
author’s sweeping recommendation for all __
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作者假设前提谬误问题:
45) The assumption that ___ is
unfounded/unwarranted/suspicious/unreliable/unconvincing/groundless/suspect able. ; D& A3 o/ v, y7 U

46) No evidence could indicate that ___ 1 I# w2 g! `& O' g2 J, F% j

47) The author unfairly/fallaciously/falsely assumes that ___


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48) The number of ___(physicians) does not necessarily indicate the quality of ___(health
care)/leads to the result that___. " `; N) m/ T7 ?/ M4 F# Y$ O* x6 _# Z

49) Credibility of the evidence and feasibility of the conclusion is open to doubt ; U. W) Y" C" p

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50) The author’s assumption that __ is unsupported.


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作让步假设,推出谬误类句型:
51) Granted that A /even is A is true, there is no guarantee that/it does not necessarily follow
that ___. /Even though, it is true that __
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52) Even if A was responsible for B, the editorial’s claim that __ is unwarranted.
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53) Even assuming __, the author unfairly infers that __ . M+ R( ^6 C8 I5 Q

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其他论述段结尾句:
54) In short, without ruling out other possible explanations for the difference between __/
(scenarios), the author cannot safely/reasonably conclude that/(reasonably rely on these statistics
to support the claim that) __ % w" d( B, U& q0 Y, n

55) In short, without evidence that all other conditions that might affect __, the author’s claim
that __ is dubious at best.

总结,结论用语: ; C& v# |; @1 |, K3 \

56) In the absence of/Lacking data concerning that total amount of ___, the credibility of the
result of the survey is skeptical /unfounded/groundless/open to doubt. 1 f% P$ G# l# @2 X" }0 E

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57) Unless the arguer can provide substantial/valid/solid/concrete evidence concerning ___,
the conclusion can not be properly/safely drawn,

58) In sum, the author’s evidence accomplishes little toward supporting the author’s argument
for __

59) To evaluate the conclusion more efficiently/to make the conclusion more convincing/to
justify this claim, the author must provide supporting evidence. $ n9 ^ C O5 J

60) In short, without evidence that all other conditions that might affect ___, the author’s
claim that ___ is dubious at best.

61) In sum, the editorial relies on a series of dubious assumptions, which render it wholly
unpersuasive. 6 m% ?- N- ^' G0 P" ]! \8 m

62) To strengthen it(the argument) the author must show that __, and that __ * Y, H4 h ]* `

63) To (further) bolster the editorial’s claims the author must provide clear evidence that
reason A , and not some other phenomenon, was in fact responsible for (a increase/decline in __)

其他有用句型: i( P6 B6 j& t5 d& x4 P

64) Yet common sense informs me that ___ 3 x: J# y# h* E+ G. |2 f- B* R+ L

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65) The base amount of donations/the increase is not available. ( N# R/ T1 O/ i: J/ W% D+ f$ Z' L

66) A is a good indication of B 5 Q7 ]; A1 e5 t0 i! I) E

67) To support these claims the author points out that ___

68) 1. The major/main flaw/problem with the argument is that ___. 2. Another flaw that
weakens the logic of the argument is that ___. 3.Before I come to my conclusion, it is necessary to
point out that ___

69) 1. To begin with, the author has failed to convince me that __


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2. Moreover 3. Even if 4. Even assuming __