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and pluricultural competence which is deliberately in promoting educational success for language minority stu-
transitory and heterogeneous, although unified in dents. In California State Department of Education Schooling
one repertoire, but that he or she should also have and language minority students: A theoretical framework. Evaluation,
Assessment and Dissemination Centre, Los Angeles.
been able to work using varied learning materials, GROSJEAN, F. (1985). The bilingual as a competent but specific
have tested various learning routes and have accord- speaker-hearer. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural
ingly enriched his or her own perceptions of lan- Development, 6, 467—77.
guages, cultures and learning pathways. GROSJEAN, F. (1982). Life with two languages, an introduction to
bilingualism. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press.
Suggestions for further reading HAWKINS, E. (1987). Awareness of language : an introduction
(revised ed.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
ABDALLAH, M. (1992). Quelle hole pour quelle integration? Paris: HYMES, D . (1972). O n communicative competence. In Pride
Hachette / C N D P . (Enjeux du systeme educatif). and Holmes (eds.), Sociolinguistics, Penguin Modern Linguistics
BAETENS BEARDSMORE, H. (1986). Bilingualism: basic principles. Readings.
Clevcdon: Multilingual Matters. KRAMSCH, C. (1993). Context and culture in language teaching.
BOURO1EU, P. (with L. Wacquant) (1992). Reponses. Pour une Oxford : Oxford University Press.
anthropologie reflexive. Paris: Seuil. LODi, G. & PY, B. (1986). Etre bilingue. Berne: Peter Lang.
BOURDIEU, P. (1994). Raisons pratiques. Sur la theorie de faction. M O O R E , D.(1994). L'ecole et les representations du bilinguisme
Paris: Seuil. et de l'apprentissage des langues chez les enfants. In C.
BYRAM, M. (1988). Cultural studies in foreign language education. Alleman-Ghionda (ed.), Multiculture et education en Europe,
Clevcdon : Multilingual Matters. Serie 'Explorationen', Peter Lang, Berne.
BYRAM, M., & ZARATE, G. (1994). Definitions, objectives and eval- ROMAINE, S. (1989). Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell.
uation qfsociocultural competence. Strasbourg: Council of Europe. TAYLOR, D.S. (1988). T h e meaning and use of the term 'com-
COLLOT, A., DIDIER, G. & LOUESLATI, B. (eds.) (1993). Laplural- petence' in linguistics and applied linguistics. Applied
ite cuhurelle dans les systimes educatifs europeens. Nancy : C R D P . Linguistics, 9, 2, 148-68.
(Coll. Documents, actes et rapports pour l'education). T R U C H O T , C. (ed.) (1994). Le plurilinguisme europeen. Theories et
C O S T E , D., M O O R E , D. & ZARATE, G. (1997). Plurilingual and pratiques en politique linguitique. Paris: Champion.
pluricultural competence. Strasbourg : Council of Europe. ZARATE, G. (1993). Representations de I'etranger et didactique des
CUMMINS, J. (1981). The role of primary language development langues. Paris: Didier.

Perspectives on language proficiency and aspects of


competence2
Brian North Eurocentres Foundation, Zurich
who have developed key aspects of models of
1. Theoretical perspectives communicative competence have explicitly main-
The purpose of the study of which this paper is a tained the Chomskyan distinction, for example
summary was to explore issues in the nature of profi- Canale and Swain (1980:6-7) and Gumperz
ciency and its relationship to competence as part of a (1982; 1984).
process of trying to identify possible categories for • From a behavioural viewpoint, however, com-
description in a common reference framework. petence has been consistently taken to include 'a
There is some confusion over whether or not the combination of knowledge and skill' with 'profi-
concept of ability should be included in the term ciency in skills ...(being) required for the mani-
'competence' due to the use of the term in two festation of communicative competence'
schools of thought which come together in language (Wiemann and Backlund 1980:190). Hymes
learning: a cognitive school (linguistics) and a behav- understands competence 'to be dependent on
ioural school (communication). two things: (tacit) knowledge and (ability for)
use' (Hymes 1971:16; 1972:282) and as
• From a linguistic viewpoint, following Chomsky's McNamara (1995:162) points out, Hymes'
original distinction between competence and per- model includes a range of non-cognitive attrib-
formance (Chomsky 1965:4), competence has utes taken over from Goffman (1967:224) such
been seen as 'a certain mental state' excluding as gameness, composure, presence of mind, stage
ability (Chomsky 1980:48). Widdowson confidence, attributes related to the 'naturalness'
(1989:130) considered that Chomsky's pragmatic and 'poise' included by Savignon (1972) in her
competence does implicitly include ability, a line foreign language assessment criteria in 1972.
developed by McNamara (1995:163) who sees
Chomsky's pragmatic competence as a model of The behavioural view implies the centrality of
idealised performance. But many applied linguists socio-cultural competence in addition to such 'per-
2
This study has been abstracted from a study by the author of
sonality' factors. Widdowson (1983:83—4) considers
the same tide (available from Modern Languages Section, that competence consists of schematic (socio-
DECS, Council of Europe, F_67075 Strasbourg, France). cultural) and systemic (linguistic) knowledge, with
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two forms of culturally determined schematic knowl- put to use. Skehan (1995a) argues for the addition of
edge as highlighted by Carrell (1983, 1987): (a) con- a factor he calls 'ability for use' alongside Bachman's
tent schemata: conceptual, ideational knowledge; strategic competence, mediating between compe-
(b) formal schemata: rhetorical and organisational tences and the demands of the context. This concept
structure of different kinds of texts. Davies relates to an information processing view of lan-
(1989:168-69) sees competence as 'a set of scripts or guage use: as attentional demands increase, speech is
schemata or ritual interchanges, plus individual dif- likely to become more pragmatic, contextual and
ferences in terms of proficiency as realised in fluency, lexically organised (ibid: 16). In other words, in a sit-
style and creativity'. The range of scripts will depend uation demanding more processing, in a effort to
on what kind of life one leads. As Parks (1985:182) safeguard fluency, the learner tends to trade off accu-
remarks, it is not the size of one's repertoire of racy for communicative effectiveness. Skehan posits
scripts which is important, but their adequacy: they a shift in performance style in relation to the condi-
need only be as extensive as the activities one wants tions and constraints of the communicative situation.
to pursue. In common with Faerch & Kasper (1983) and
Davies (1989:160) concludes that communicative Bachman, Skehan considers that there is something
competence is difficult if not impossible to define and other than competence (in the classic meaning of
that 'it slides back and forth between knowledge and underlying innate ability) which comes into play as
control (or proficiency)' - cf. Bialystok & Sharwood- the learner allocates and balances resources differ-
Smith (1985). Davies calls the former knowledge ently to meet the demands of different tasks.
what and the latter knowledge how, and sees fluency Thus, though advances have been made, and a
as being part of the knowledge how. This is not so degree of consensus seems to be emerging, the
different from Spolsky's Knowing a language, and process of developing a model of communicative
Knowing how to use a language (Spolsky language use remains incomplete. Furthermore, the
1989:50-51), or indeed from the distinction com- implications of conditions and constraints for perfor-
monly made between declarative knowledge (know- mance have been neither incorporated satisfactorily
ing things) and procedural knowledge (knowing into a descriptive model of language use, nor taken
'how'). Some writers (Anderson 1982) consider that fully into account in the design of communicative
the latter (knowing 'how') is developed from the for- activities in syllabuses or in the standardisation of
mer (knowing things) while others (Bialystok and assessment procedures.
Sharwood-Smith 1985) consider the two types of
knowledge to be independent, with the former
2. User perspectives
developing from unanalysed to analysed whilst the
latter develops from controlled to automatic applica- In the absence of a widely available, validated model
tion (cf. Schmidt 1990:133-5 for discussion). of communicative language use, practitioners have
Taylor (1988:166) proposes the use of the term developed operational approaches to suit their needs,
'communicative proficiency' defining proficiency as with varying degrees of theoretical input. In terms of
'the ability to make use of competence' and perfor- describing language proficiency at different levels, an
mance as 'what is done when proficiency is put to analysis of existing instruments (North 1994) suggests
use'. Proficiency is here seen as something between that there are two fundamentally different ways of
competence and performance (Vollmer 1981:160), describing attainment in foreign language learning:
which offers a certain parallel to Halliday's concept
of meaning potential, what a speaker can mean, • On the one hand there is a 'quality' view: how
which Halliday claims is 'not unlike Dell Hymes' well does the learner perform in relation to
notion 'communicative competence', except that selected aspects of proficiency? These 'aspects'
Hymes defines this in terms of 'competence' in the may be defined separately for each level in a pro-
Chomskyan sense of what the speaker knows, file grid, or aspects considered salient at particular
whereas we are talking of a potential' (Halliday levels may be highlighted at those levels in a sin-
1973:54) - of the range of options characteristic of a gle holistic scale. Alderson (1991:72-74) calls
specific situation type (1978:109). such a perspective 'assessor-oriented' since it is
Bachman (1990) sees two separate knowledge intended to help improve consistency in the rat-
bases: knowledge structures (knowledge of the ing process as the assessors match what they see to
world) and language competence (knowledge of lan- what is described in the scale or grid. Bachman
guage), which are acted upon by strategic compe- (1990:315-323) talks of 'interactive-ability',
tence in the relevant context of situation to execute referring to the interaction between aspects of the
language as a physical phenomenon through psy- learner's proficiency in the given context. This
chophysiological processes. Thus in his view com- view is primarily the 'insider' perspective of
municative language use consists of a language specialists. The categories selected tend
communicative language ability and strategic com- to be things teachers can observe (e.g. fluency,
petence, which comes into play when that ability is accuracy, appropriacy, pronunciation).

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• On the other hand there is a 'can do' view: what demonstrated by the Development of Bilingual
tasks can he/she do? (Bachman 1990:303-315: Proficiency project at Toronto (Allen et al 1983;
'real life') associated with reporting results from Harley et al 1990). In part this is due to a common
assessment (Alderson 1991:72-74: 'user -ori- failure to distinguish adequately between compo-
ented') and/or with helping in the design of a nents of competence — which exist separately — and
syllabus or test (ibid: 'constructor-oriented'). aspects of competence (Shaw 1992:10) or areas of
Scales for self-assessment or for continuous knowledge (Bachman and Palmer 1984:35) — which
assessment by the teacher (c.f. Brindley 1989 for do not necessarily do so. Even if components could
a review) also often take this form since the be identified, the results obtained from empirical
teacher/learner here generalises from the course analyses are in any case dependent in a variety of
or life experience in a reflective reporting of the ways on the sample of learners used (Carroll
results of that experience in terms of what he/she 1983:93; Czisko 1984:28 & 34; Farhady 1982:55;
can now do. This view is primarily an 'outsider' Sang et al 1986:60 & 70; Upshur and Homburg
view of non-specialists. The categories selected 1983:194) and the way in which the teaching
tend to derive from a pseudo-sociological classi- matches the learning experience and learning style of
fication of real life tasks derived from a needs the subjects concerned (Sang et al 1986).
analysis (c.f. Munby 1978).
3.1. Strategic competence
McNamara (1990 cited in Elder 1993) provides
evidence for this distinction between the 'outsider' Bachman defines strategic competence as 'a general
or task-completion perspective of employers and the ability, which enables an individual to make the
'insider' or quality perspective of teachers. This fits
most effective use of available abilities in carrying
with evidence that non-specialist native speakers out a given task, whether that task be related to
judge competence holistically in relation to fluency communicative language use or to non-verbal tasks'
(Lennon 1990), intelligibility (Brindley 1989:122), (Bachman 1990:102; 106). Faerch (1984:50) has
appropriate socio-cultural behaviour (Oksaar noted: 'There is considerable disagreement as to
1992:15) and an ability to use strategies adroitly towhether strategies should be considered a particular
keep communication going (DeKeyser 1988:115) in type of psycholinguistic process (Selinker 1972), a
order to complete the task. particular type of psycholinguistic plan (Faerch and
The pragmatism in the selection of operational Kasper 1983) or a particular type of interactional
categories is a reflection of the incomplete state ofprocess (Tarone 1981/83)', and the plethora of tax-
theory to offer a basis for the derivation of categories
onomies and lack of clear distinctions between
for either the 'insider' (qualitative) or the 'outsider'
learning strategies (learning to learn) and communi-
(real life) view. The state of play in relation to the
cation strategies (an aspect of proficiency) have not
qualitative description of aspects of communicative simplified matters.
competence ('insider view') and in relation to the Furthermore, as the Canale and Swain and Van
description of real life-related communicative lan- Ek models suggest, there was a tendency in earlier
guage activities ('outsider view') is outlined below.work on communication strategies to focus nar-
rowly on what have been called compensation
3. Models of communicative competence strategies. Perhaps as a result, of the 41 scales of lan-
guage proficiency for spoken interaction included in
There is a considerable amount of overlap between North's (1994) survey, of which 27 were developed
the three most influential models of communicative after Canale & Swain's model became available, only
competence: Canale and Swain (1980, 1981, modi- 3 take 'strategies' as a category. In one scale, strate-
fied by Canale 1983), Van Ek (Van Ek 1986, Van Ek gies are a sub-category of 'interaction' and in the
& Trim 1990) and Bachman (Bachman 1990, other two coverage is confined to repair and com-
Bachman and Palmer 1982, Bachman and Palmer pensatory strategies.
1996). Each of the three models has been adjusted in A broader view of strategic competence would
succeeding versions, but the most significant differ- encompass in relation to spoken interaction:
ence between the three is that Bachman, as men-
tioned above, follows Faerch and Kasper (1983) in • the planning, execution and assessment of the
taking a far broader view of the role of strategies achievement of communicative goals (Faerch
than either Canale or Van Ek and separates strategic and Kasper 1983);
competence completely from what he calls language • the cognitive strategies for framing ideas in dis-
competencies (grammatical, textual, illocutionary cussion, formulating and evaluating hypotheses
and socio-linguistic). (Barnes and Todd 1977);
Success in confirming the supposed structure and • the collaborative strategies for eliciting, com-
components posited by such models by operational- menting on and referring to other contributions
ising them in tests has been exceedingly limited, as (Barnes and Todd 1977);
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• the ability to keep discourse on course through — could be considered as related to pragmatic com-
'challenging' for clarification (Burton 1980); petence (speaking meaning) rather than linguistic
• the turn-taking and topic management strategies competence. The word 'fluent' is often used even
(Sinclair 1981, Kramsch 1986) which even more broadly than this, in a way virtually indistin-
advanced students often still have trouble with guishable from 'proficient' (Lennon 1990). Yet on
(Faerch and Kasper 1983:45); the other hand few people would disagree that, as a
• communication compensation strategies, both minimum, one can think of proficiency in terms of
reduction strategies (Faerch and Kasper 1983) and accuracy as well as fluency (Brumfit 1984).
propositional strategies (Kellerman et al 1987). From a foreign language learning perspective, other
core aspects of fluency relate to the automatisation of
3.2. Pragmatic competence declarative knowledge into procedures (Bialystok and
Sharwood Smith 1985; Kennedy 1988; McLaughlin,
One definition of pragmatic competence is 'the abil- Rossman and McLeod 1983:136-7) and these aspects
ity to use language effectively in order to achieve a are clearly psycholinguistic (C.f. Schmidt 1992 for a
specific purpose and to understand language in con- review of relevant theories).
text' (Thomas 1983:92). This interpretation fits with Returning to the discussion above under
McNamara's (1995) view that pragmatic compe- 'Theoretical perspectives', the Brumfit accuracy/flu-
tence represents the beginnings of a model of perfor- ency distinction mirrors Davies's knowledge what
mance, is supported by Levinson's statement that and knowledge how, and Spolsky's knowing a lan-
'...to invoke Chomsky's distinction between compe- guage and knowing how to use a language, and also
tence and performance, pragmatics is concerned relates to Bialystok's contrast between knowledge
solely with performance principles of language use' and control. In each case one could consider the for-
(Levinson 1983:3) and is related to Skehan's treat- mer of the two aspects knowledge, the latter skill.
ment of'ability for use'. Both aspects in each dichotomy are necessary for
'Speaker meaning' - pragmatic competence - can proficiency, and in all cases fluency belongs in the
be distinguished from 'sentence meaning' - linguistic second aspect, skill. From a behavioural, communi-
competence (Thomas 1983:92 citing Leech 1983; cation theory perspective, there is no problem with
Levinson 1983:17 citing Grice 1957). As well as core seeing competence as a combination of knowledge
(dictionary) meanings, words acquire meaning and skill (Wiemann and Backlund 1980:190) and
through negotiation in use. Some learners just con- therefore for including fluency as part of compe-
cern themselves with getting their meaning across tence. Nevertheless fluency fits uneasily into a model
through a combination of discourse and lexical skill: of communicative language competence divided
chunk-accumulating memorisers as opposed to pat- into linguistic, pragmatic and strategic competence
tern-making problem-solvers (Skehan 1986; (as well as socio-linguistic competence) since,
1989:36-7). Schmidt's (1983) study of Wes, a although one can argue that the natural contrast (as
Japanese artist on a 3 year stay in the US gives a clas- in the dichotomies cited) is between linguistic com-
sic, extreme profile of a very successful, rhetorically petence (language resources) and pragmatic compe-
expressive communicator, who accumulated prax- tence (language use - including fluency), a case
eogrammes of possible moves in given contexts (c.f. could be made that there are aspects of fluency in
Ventola's (1983) flow charts of what might happen in each of the three: linguistic, pragmatic and strategic.
a service encounter) as well as routinized accessible
but unanalysed conversational scripts to go with them
(c.f. Widdowson 1989:132-3; 1990:91) which, in 3.3. Linguistic competence
terms of Levinson's (1983) features of pragmatics, dis- It is far from easy to associate knowledge and control
played: good discourse functions, good implicature of particular linguistic forms with competence at a
(Grice 1975), little textual cohesion but adequate particular level. Some scales of language proficiency
coherence for spoken language, but which appears to associate specific mistakes with different levels but
have resulted in what Skehan (1995b:552-3) has this is problematic for several reasons:
dubbed 'undesirable fluency' (excessive proceduralisa-
Firstly, this focus suggests that progress is a ques-
tion) - though one should note that his interlocutors
tion of making fewer errors, whereas the more the
are not reported to have seen it like this.
learner knows, the more likely he is to make errors.
If one takes the broad definition of pragmatic 'The learner is more apt to make errors due to his
competence discussed above, then most of what is first language knowledge the more he knows about
often understood under 'fluency' - including all the the second language' (Klein 1986:108).
elements of Fillmore's (1979) classic definition of Secondly, developmental stages are about emer-
mother tongue fluency (ability to talk at length; use gence not accuracy - about a 'qualitative change in
coherent, dense expression - i.e. say something; performance' which may well, however, leave gaps
have appropriate things to say in a wide range of - which could be filled through teaching
contexts; be creative and imaginative with language) (Pienemann 1992:23-24).

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Thirdly, learner performance styles vary according Zarate 1994) who have a perspective on their own
to the conditions and constraints of the task which socio-culture as well as on that of the foreign language.
create a tension between increasing complexity and
retaining accuracy (Ellis 1985; Foster and Skehan
1994; Tarone 1983).
4. Categories for communicative activity
Descriptions of linguistic competence tend also to For some time, applied linguistics has been develop-
underestimate the importance of linguistic knowl- ing ways of organising language activity which go
edge stored lexically as routines and patterns, prefab- beyond the 1960s division into four skills. Breen and
ricated chunks. The fact that mother tongue Candlin (1980:92) posited three 'underlying abili-
speakers use such scripts and cliches all the time sug- ties', Interpretation, Negotiation and Expression,
gests that they are an aspect of foreign language which Brumfit (1984: 69-70; 1987:26) developed
competence at all levels. into Comprehension, Conversation or Discussion
and Extended Speaking/Writing. Alderson and
Urquhart (1984:227) proposed a scheme with
3.4. Socio-cultural competence Dialogue, Productive Monologue and Receptive
Socio-linguistic competence (often called appropri- Monologue each subdivided into spoken and writ-
acy) concerns knowledge of rules of style, directness, ten to give six basic categories. Swales (1990:58—61)
and appropriateness. Socio-pragmatic failure is argued that certain types of language use - casual
caused by different beliefs about rights/imposition, conversation or 'chat', and narrative story-telling -
e.g. physical closeness, power and turn-taking can be regarded as pre-generic, common to all soci-
conventions, mentionables/taboos, as opposed to eties and underlying all the genres of more spe-
linguistic mistakes or pragma-linguistic failure - cialised communicative interaction.
incorrecdy/inappropriately mapping form to func-
tion in speech acts (Thomas 1983). The use of • Chat is interactive with short turns, its coherence
wrong 'behavioremes' (Oksaar 1992) appears to provided through the way participants weave
be judged far more severely than L2 errors and to their contributions together. It tends to have low
be a far greater barrier to international understand- cognitive complexity and high contextual support
ing. Socio-linguistic competence in this sense is (implicature) (c.f. Cummins' 1979; 1980 concept
thus concerned with the choice of language BICS (Basic Interpersonal Communications
which is appropriate to the relationship between the Skills); Brown et al 1984:15 short turns).
participants. • Story-telling is productive, often prepared,
Another aspect of socio-cultural competence con- rehearsed, its coherence provided in the text by
cerns the question of what pattern of moves may the speaker/writer (c.f. Canale's 1984 concept
occur in the particular setting. Such praxeograms 'autonomous competence'; Brown et al 1984:15:
could be regarded as another aspect of pragmatic long turns).
competence except for the fact that all such • Story-telling also creates an inverse receptive
schemata are bound by socio-cultural conventions role as an auditor/recipient.
(Ventola 1983:247). A praxeogram for a situation
may also be called a script or scenario (Murphy & North (1992), following the arguments of
Cleveland 1991:150) of which, as Davies Brumfit, Alderson & Urquhart, and Swales, pro-
(1989:168-9) says, there are always more to be col- posed regrouping communicative activities under
lected, by native and non-native speakers alike. the three headings: Reception, Interaction and
Finally, the curriculum aim of developing intercul- Production. Such 'skill' categories can be cross-ref-
tural skills is to create '150% persons' (Lambert erenced to the macro-functions of different types of
1993:191) or 'intercultural speakers' (Byram and activity as suggested by the chart below.

RECEPTION INTERACTION PRODUCTION

Transactional Extracting Information- Obtaining and Exchanging Presenting Information


Language Use from Text/Speech Information and Services

Creative, Understanding Stories, Maintaining Social Describing, Narrating


Interpersonal Fictional Text Relationships and Interpreting
Language Use Experience

Evaluative, Understanding Discussion Presenting a Case


Problem-solving Argumentation and
Language Use Conclusions

Communicative Language Activity

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As with all sets of categories, which are but 'con- salesman? Quite a lot of discourse at work, especially
ceptual artefacts' (Clark 1987:40), examples can be in corridors, could best be described in its own right
found at the margins of the categories concerned; as Information Exchange. Each person brings the
examples can even be found which might move over other up-to-date with what's happening, which has
the boundary between categories. It is also extremely a phatic, social purpose, but also a transactional one.
difficult to avoid mixing different kinds of categories Finally, a number of activities which appear in
in the same set, as Figure 2 attempts to show: scales of proficiency seem to be examples of for-
Firstly, there are the activities related to the three malised instances of such shifting discourse.
macrofunctional uses of language in the left hand Interviews, for example, are formalised Transactions,
column of Figure 1: Transactional; Creative/ predominantly question-and-answer Information
Interpersonal; Evaluative. These are the three large Exchanges which masquerade as simulated
circles. The top circle (Casual Conversation) is one Conversation (c.f. Berwick & Ross 1993; Van Lier
of Swales' (1990) two pre-generic kinds of language 1989). Such formalised genre groups appear in the
use (Swales' second type, story-telling, could be in boxes outside the circles.
the same position on a similar diagram for Spoken As has been discussed above, there are inherent
Production). problems for any descriptive system in the way in
As befitting a pre-genre, Conversation or 'chat' can which sub-categories relate to each other. However,
have a broad definition which would include most of it could be argued that a set of categories organised
the content in the other two circles (Schegloff: as above is more capable of accommodating fuzzy
1972:375; Van Lier 1989:500). Alternately, Casual boundaries and category shifts than is the traditional
Conversation can have a narrower definition division into the four skills.
intended 'to create a friendly atmosphere, to establish
contact, to forge new social relationships and maintain
old ones' (Ventola 1979:278). 5. Towards balanced categories
But if Conversation can be defined to include the The fact that, despite considerable consensus, no
other categories, then these activities are not really universal, validated, theoretical model of either
completely separate. Moreover, a discourse which communicative competence or of communicative
starts by focusing on one macro-function may very activities exist or is likely to exist for some consider-
well slide into one of the others. A Casual able time leaves one with a pragmatic choice. Part of
Conversation in which the other person keeps ask- that choice entails making a decision or compromise
ing you for particular information starts to feel like a between the theoretical constructs of applied lin-
Transaction, and you begin to wonder what is going guists and the operational models used by syllabus
on - is he going to turnout to be a life insurance and tests designers.

Casual Conversation
(Maintaining Relationships)

Interviews [Talk shows]

Formal Meetings

Spoken Interaction

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To avoid acting on the one hand as a brake upon CANALE, M. & SWAIN, M. (1980). Theoretical bases of commu-
progress, or on the other hand as an obstacle to com- nicative approaches to second language teaching and testing.
prehensibility, categories used in a Common Applied Linguistics, 1, 1, 1—47.
CANALE, M. & SWAIN, M. (1981). A Theoretical framework for
Framework should be informed by the theory that is communicative competence. In A. Palmer, P. Groot and
available, but at the same time should be organised G. Trosper (eds.), Tlie construct validation of tests of communicative
in such a way that practitioners can relate the cate- competence. Washington D C : TESOL, 31-6.
gories they themselves use to those to be found in CARRELL, P. (1983). Some issues in studying the role of
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