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前瞻裝置技術論壇

Dec. 2016

Philip Chang
Brian Su
Jian-hua Wu
Jacky Yu

1
Agenda 前瞻裝置技術論壇 Page 2

前瞻裝置無線技術面面觀
5G關鍵技術與測試方案
新興IoT無線技術-LoRa、NB-IoT、Bluetooth 5
802.11ax/802.11ad/802.11ay
LTE-A pro 發展與測試
行動裝置省電技術與測試
封包追蹤放大器
行動裝置耗電驗證
行動裝置高速數位介面及儲存技術
克服MIPI PHY、UniPro、UniPort-M、UFS與(LP)DDR4測試挑戰
What is news in 5G?

5G Wireless – The Next


© 2015 Keysight Technologies Generation of Mobile
Communications Page 3
5G Timing: Drivers
Industry rallying around these cardinal dates
2017 Milestone 2020 Milestone
Q4: Verizon to Launch July/Aug: Summer Olympics Japan

You Are Here


2015 Milestones 28Ghz Fixed Wireless Summer (Likely): 1st 5G Commercial
Sept: 3GPP 5G Workshop
Nov: ITU WRC 15
Dec: 3GPP RAN Plenary
2018 Milestones 2022 Milestone
2019 Milestone
Feb: Winter Olympics South Korea Summer (Earliest): 2nd
Nov (Likely): ITU-WRC 19
Summer: FIFA World Cup, Russia, 5G Commercial

2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022

R13 R14 R15 3GPP “Phase 1” 3GPP “Phase 2”


Some claim 5G commercialization here

Rel. 14 Rel. 15 Rel. 16 Rel. 17 & beyond

802.11aj 802.11ax 802.11ay


China mmW HEW ET > 45GHz

– 2018 and 2020 Olympics will showcase 5G.


– 3GPP: commercialization “Phase 1” (2020) and “Phase 2” (2022+)
• Study Items: New Radio “NR”; mmWave Channel Model; Scenarios & Requirements
• 4G LTE-A and IoT (CatM, NB-IoT) Continue (these are not 5G).
– Major operators actively planning/doing trials; none committing to pre-standards commercialization of 5G
(exception Verizon)
5G Wireless – The Next
© 2015 Keysight Technologies Generation of Mobile
Communications Page 4
What will 5G Do?
5G Key Performance Indicator (KPI) Compared to 3G/4G
1000X mMTC
eMBB Capacity

100X Data 100X


Rates Densification
– Peak data rate > 10 Gbps – Peak data rate > 10 Gbps
– Mini data rate > 50 Mbps 5G – Minimum data rate > 50 Mbps
– High user mobility – High user mobility
– Access in dense area
4G – Broadband access in dense area
3G
All requirements cannot be met by any single radio access technology (RAT)

100X Energy
Efficiency
– Ultra-high reliability
– Ultra-low latency

1mS Latency

Reliability
uRLLC 99.999%
5
© 2015 Keysight Technologies Source for Spider Diagram: ITU: 5D/TEMP/390-E
Page
5G eMBB Air Interface Key Technologies eMBB

t t t
p p
OFDMA f NOMA f SCMA f

New
Waveform & mmWave
OFDM vs. FBMC
BroadBand
UFMC

High SINR

Co-location
Full
Massive Dupliex-
MIMO ing

Low SINR

6
© 2015 Keysight Technologies 5G Key Technologies and
T&M Opportunities Page
mmWave: 5G Frequency bands >6GHz eMBB

Frequency Europe FCC (2016/6) ITU (2015/10) SI Japan Korea


28GHz (25-27GHz) 24.25-27.5 27.5-28.35 24.25-27.5GHz 27.5-28.5
27.5-28.5 BW 425MHzX2
32GHz
37GHz 37.0-38.6 37-40.5GHz
BW 400MHzX4
39GHz 38.6-40.0
BW 200MHzX7
40.5-43.5GHz UK at least FFS 42.5-43.5GHz
45.5-48.9GHz UK at least 45.5-47GHz
47.2-50.2GHz
50.4-52.6GHz
57-66GHz 59.3-71GHz
64-71GHz 66-71GHz (extend ISM— 66-76GHz
unlicensed)
71-76GHz UK at least
81-86GHz

Examples of Public Activity (Updated Summer 2016) Most Likely Uses of Spectrum as of Sept 2016
• FCC Announced rules on mmWave proposals 14 July 2016 • Significant investment in EMBB Mobile, Multiple Access <40GHz due to cost and simplicity.
• Ericsson will provide 28GHz system for SKT (Korea) and 15GHz system for • 28GHz: Korea, Japan, and USA
CMCC • 37-39 GHz USA and perhaps more likely for Europe
• AT&T, Verizon, T-Mobile filed for experimental licenses (3.5, 3.7, 15, 28, • 24-27GHz : Europe
37, 39GHz) • 45GHz: Focus for 802.11aj in China
• Most large players demonstrating high-rate capabilities from 15-90GHz • 57-86GHz Bands more likely for high-speed point-to-point and extensions of ISM-based WiFi

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Deployment – Low and High Freq Band eMBB

F1 F2

5G eNB
 HetNet: 4G macro and 5G macro are used for
F1 wide-area coverage. Pico and Femto of 4G/5G are
4G eNB
“Flashlight” used in hotspot.
 Coverage: the coverage of 5G is similar to 4G
F2  Coexistence: Inter-site and intra-site deployment
of 5G and 4G can be adopted.
“Headlamp”

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
RF/µW/mmWave Wideband, MIMO
Wideband Testbed
Today’s 5G Engagements: 30 Total WW Channel Sounding

U C
U C Docomo
Univ of Surrey 5GIC
C Multiple
Univ of Oulu CWC Samsung mmWave Channel
Verizon Air Interface/Channel
Multiple
mmWave U R 5G MFJapan
Univ of Bristol P C Multiple
mmWave VIRTUOSO
Air Intfc/Channel Korea Telecom
C Multiple
Huawei Ottawa
<6GHZ PHY/MAC NGMN P R 5G Forum Korea
Multiple Multiple
U NYU Wireless
mmWave P MET5G R FutureForum China
5G Metrology
U Multiple
UC San Diego
P Kwangwoon Univ
Multiple mmMAGIC C China Mobile Multiple
C mmWave Air Intfc
Multiple U U
Qualcomm SEU Nanjing
mmWave P TRIANGLE C MIMO & mmWave
Datang Beijing
5G Applications mmWave Channel
C Huawei C
26 Total Intel Shanghai
mmWave
Commercial: 11 P U Full Duplex,
METIS Tsing Hua Univ Reference
MIMO
Consortium: 9 mmWAVE MIMO & mmWave
Public
College: 10 Anite
Key
C NTU Taipei Confidential
Commercial Collaboration U Multiple
U University Collaboration
Consortium Research Project NAR Labs Taipei
Massive MIMO P
Multiple Sub-6
Wideband,
GHz MIMO
MIMO
R Regional/Country Consortium C
Tx/Rx Channel Sounding
SystemVue Simulation Signal Studio with 89600 VSA Software with
Software with 5G Library Custom 5G Custom OFDM/Demod

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 9
Agenda 前瞻裝置技術論壇 Page 10

前瞻裝置無線技術面面觀
5G關鍵技術與測試方案
新興IoT無線技術-LoRa、NB-IoT、Bluetooth 5
802.11ax/802.11ad/802.11ay
LTE-A pro 發展與測試
行動裝置省電技術與測試
封包追蹤放大器
行動裝置耗電驗證
行動裝置高速數位介面及儲存技術
克服MIPI PHY、UniPro、UniPort-M、UFS與(LP)DDR4測試挑戰
IoT Radios uRLLC mMTC

NFC 3GPP LTE-MTC, eMTC/Cat M, LTE-V 3GPP NB-IoT


EMV 3GPP GSM, WCDMA, EC-GPRS
3GPP2 Cdma2000, WiMAX

Cellular (licensed) <100km


<10cm WPAN <5km
Terms not precise
Proximity WHAN WNAN WWAN LPWAN (licensed)

WFAN WLAN LPWAN (un-licensed)

Bluetooth/LE ISA100.11a (6LoWPAN) Wi-SUN (6LoWPAN)


ANT+ WirelessHART ZigBee NAN (6LoWPAN)
MiWi Many others Wireless M-bus
802.11a/b/g/n/ac (WiFi) Many others
ZigBee SIGFOX
Z-Wave 802.11ah (WiFi HaLow 1km) LoRa
Thread (6LoWPAN) 802.11p (V2X) Telensa
EnOcean 802.11af (white space) OnRamp/INGENU
Many others Weightless P
Many others
WPAN: Wireless Personal Area Network Blue: > billion units/year now
WHAN: Wireless Home Area
WFAN: Wireless Field (or Factory) Area Red: emerging
WLAN: Wireless Local Area
WNAN: Wireless Neighbourhood Area
WWAN: Wireless Wide Area
LPWAN: Low Power Wide Area Network

© 2016
2015 Keysight Technologies
Page 11
Low Power Wide Area (LPWA)

Coverage pools Region coverage Global coverage


Trash collection Pet tracker Capital asset Meter
Bike tracker

Social housing
monitoring

Street lighting Parking sensor

Fire detection
Soil moisture Embedded
Bag tracker asset status
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
Keysight in IoT Page 12
Cat M and NB-IoT
3GPP
Rel
3GPP Release 13 Deployment options 180kHz from 12x15kHz
subcarriers (OFDMA downlink)
13

GTI 2.0 (2016) 2017

CMCC推動NB-IoT於
2017年實現商用化 LTE 180kHz PRB
(Physical Resource Block)

25x180k=
4.5MHz 6x 180k=
1.08MHz

Typical 5MHz LTE Cat M NB-IoT


5MHz with 25 x 180kHz 1.4MHz with 6 x 180kHz 200kHz from 1 x 180kHz

Cat M in-band NB-IoT in-band


with LTE with LTE

Central control 6PRB NB-IoT LTE guard NB-IoT in 200kHz GSM NB-IoT in 200kHz GSM
band spectrum no guard spectrum with guard

© 2016
2015 Keysight Technologies
Page 13
Bluetooth® Standard Evolution

1999 2003 2004 2007 2009 2010 2013 2014 2016

V1.0 V2.0 + EDR V3.0 + HS V4.1 V5.0


Many problems Introduction of Alternate MAC/PHY Coexist with 4G 2Mbps BT LE (deviation
Difficult making EDR Unicast connectionless data Smart connectivity doubles to 370kHz)
products EDR Up to 2.1 Enhanced power control Data transfer
interoperable Mbps HS up to 24 Mbps improvement

V1.2 V2.1 + EDR V4.0 V4.2


Faster connection/ SSP, EIR Adoption of For IoT (Support IPv6/6LoWPAN)
discovery power consumption Bluetooth LE High privacy
Use AFH optimization LE up to 260 kbps Data throughput increase (10x
Up to 721 kbps Including classic, LE and HS packet capacity increase)

Bluetooth 5
Capability
– 4 x Longer Range
– 2 x Higher Speed
– 800% Broadcasting Capacity
Application
– Bluetooth mesh
Leverage Wear Device and – Extensible beacons
Handheld Experience to IoT – Direction & discovery: Indoor Location
© 2015 Keysight Technologies

Bluetooth® is a registered trademark of Bluetooth SIG, Inc.


Data from: iBeaconPage 14
Keysight IoT Wireless Test Solution

E6640A EXM MXG/EXG

N7617B N7624/5B

N9077A N9080/2A
PXA/MXA/EXA/CXA

N7606B N7610B

N9081A Short Rang Comm. N9064A


© 2015 Keysight Technologies
Page
Agenda 前瞻裝置技術論壇 Page 16

前瞻裝置無線技術面面觀
5G關鍵技術與測試方案
新興IoT無線技術-LoRa、NB-IoT、Bluetooth 5
802.11ax/802.11ad/802.11ay
LTE-A pro 發展與測試
行動裝置省電技術與測試
封包追蹤放大器
行動裝置耗電驗證
行動裝置高速數位介面及儲存技術
克服MIPI PHY、UniPro、UniPort-M、UFS與(LP)DDR4測試挑戰
Wi-Fi Evolution Path
1999… 2002-2006 2007-2011 2012 2013 2014 and beyond
802.11n
2.4 GHz 802.11a/b/g/j/p 802.11n 802.11ax Widely adopted and large
installed base

802.11ax 802.11ac/ax
Higher capacity, higher data
rate for mobile, computing and
5 GHz 802.11a 802.11n 802.11ac CE devices
802.11p
802.11p Wireless access in vehicular
environment at 5.8/5.9 GHz
802.11aj
802.11aj China (59-64 & 45 GHz)

60 GHz 802.11ad/WiGig/ay
802.11ad 802.11ay Wireless docking, in-room
wireless display, audio and more

802.11ah
802.11ah Home/building automation,
sensors and more

802.11af 802.11af
<1 GHz TV white space

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
17
18
Why do we demand for high efficiency Wi-Fi?

© 2015 Keysight Technologies Rock Page


IEEE 802.11ax vs. 802.11ac
How is it different from 802.11ac?
Multi-user with OFDMA and SDMA

802.11ac 802.11ax
Frequency Band 5 GHz 2.4 GHz and 5 GHz
Bandwidths 20 MHz, 40 MHz, 80 MHz 20 MHz, 40 MHz, 80 MHz

KEYSIGHT CONFIDENTIAL
Optional: 160 MHz, 80+80 MHz Optional: 160 MHz, 80+80 MHz
Modulation Type Up to 256QAM Up to 1024QAM
(Optional 1024QAM)
FFT Size 64, 128, 256, 512 256, 512, 1024, 2048
Sub-carrier space as 312.5 kHz Sub-carrier space as 78.125 kHz
OFDM Duration 3.2us + 0.8/0.4 us CP 12.8 us + 0.8/1.6/3.2 us CP
Multi-user MU-MIMO (DL), OFDMA + MU-MIMO (UL & DL),
technology up to 8 spatial streams up to 8 spatial streams
Data Rate Up to 7 Gbits/s (WAVE 2) Up to 10 Gbit/s
Application Multi-room distribution Indoor, Outdoor and IoT applications
(Multi-media home)
Key Performance Peak rate driver User experience driver
Indicators (KPI) • Link throughput • Average per station throughput
• Aggregate throughput • Area throughput
• Power efficiency
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
Page 19
802.11ax Design Challenges
Higher Order Modulation and Smaller Sub-
carrier Spacing
• Up to 1024QAM modulation requires higher SNR
• Smaller sub-carrier spacing needs better phase noise

Narrow Interference

KEYSIGHT CONFIDENTIAL
• Internal transmission signals or harmonics generated from
other devised falling into the same frequency band
• Apply new technologies like tone nulling, notch filtering, dual
sub-carrier modulation to eliminate the narrow interference

MU-MIMO (DL& UL)


• Each antenna might interfere with other antennas, damaging
performance
• True MIMO test becomes more important requiring more
complex detectors like Maximum Likelihood (ML) detector

Wi-Fi with OFDMA


• 802.11ax introduce OFDMA to maximize the resource
utilization and multiplexing flexibility

Keysight 802.11ax 20
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
Page
Keysight 802.11ax Solutions for R&D/DVT/Manufacturing
Up to BW160 Single Channel 2x2, 3x3, 4x4, 8X8 MIMO

M9421A PXI VXT


N7617B Signal
Studio for M9421A PXI VXT
WLAN Vector Transceiver (N) N5182B MXG
N5182B MXG Signal Generators
Signal Generator
E6640A EXM

89600 VSA MXA PXA


Software Signal Analyzer Signal Analyzer
M9421A PXI VXT
N9077A WLAN
Application

UXA M9421A PXI VXT


Signal Analyzer Vector Transceiver E6640A EXM

Visualizing 5G 21 802.11ax
Keysight
Massive MIMO
Page 21 © 2015 Keysight Technologies Moray Rumney Page 21
WLAN 802.11ad/aj
60GHz/45GHz
802.11ad MAC PHY standard was completed in 2013
• Channel bandwidth of 2 GHz

• SC and OFDM PHY’s

Protocol Adaptation Layer specifications developed by the WiGig Alliance (WGA)

A new 802.11 study group for ‘Next Generation 60GHz’ to start in July 2014
• MIMO and Channel bonding likely to be included. Targeting speeds of up to 24 Gbps for a single
channel, 100 Gbps for 3 channels

802.11aj is proposed to support operation in Chinese Milli-Meter Wave (CMMW) frequency


bands including the 59-64GHz and 45GHz, which is unlicensed band in China. Key 5G
project of 863 of China.

Technical details of 802.11aj


• More close to 802.11ac; Add single carrier mode

• Support multiple antenna, up to 4 streams

• BW is up to 512MHz, ¼ of BW of 802.11ad Visualizing 5G


22
Massive MIMO
Page 22 © 2015 Keysight Technologies Moray Rumney Page 22
23
60 GHz Channel Plan by Region

1 2 3 4

5 6 7 8

CWPAN (China) also


planning
43.5-47.0 GHz deployment
TGaj (802.11aj)

Visualizing 5G
Massive MIMO
Page 23 © 2015 Keysight Technologies Moray Rumney Page 23
Antenna Design: beam forming is necessary at mmWave
RF mmWave

 Antennas: 2G, 3G, 4G are similar. Requires NEW design

 BSEE is very adequate Companies hiring Phd’s for antenna design

 Antennas are isotropic design Antennas are steerable beam array

 Test method was RF cable Antenna is bonded to BBIC. OTA test only

 Antenna was characterized Phased array antenna may need cal

 Modest power = adequate distance Small power available…must steer it

New Design

Page
25

60 GHz PHY Test Solution: Signal Path Interconnect


Controlling PC M8190A Wideband AWG (I/Q Generation)
(Could be Desktop, Laptop or Embedded)
Waveform
81199A Wideband Differential IQ AWG to PSG
Waveform Center (WWC)
PSG: E8267D-520-016 (I/Q Modulation)

VDI Up-converter

Differential IQ
AWG to Scope

MXG1: N5183A-520 MXG (Tx LO)


DUT
MXG2: N5183A-520 MXG (Rx LO)
Demod

89601B VSA SW LO/IF


Aux
RF In
LO/IF
10 MHz

M1971E WB Smart Mixer

5 GHz
WARNING : Exi t 89 600 V SA So ftwar e bef ore chang ing i nstru ment
setup

Acq'd Signal

DSA91304A Infiniium Digital Speed Analyzer


Visualizing 5G
Massive MIMO
Page 25 © 2015 Keysight Technologies Moray Rumney Page 25
Introducing E7760A and M1650A
1st World’s 1st 802.11ad Non Signaling One Box Tester
Y7707A 802.11ad Application SW
 Performs all tests in the 802.11ad standard
 Runs inside the E7760A
 Node Locked, Transportable, Perpetual, Time based

E7760A Wideband Transceiver


 1 VSA, 1 VSG in 2U form factor saves precious rack
space
 2 x IFIO ports (SMA): 2 – 18 GHz
 6x RF ports (Type N): 55 - 68GHz for mmWave
Transceivers (M1650A)

M16M1650A mmWave Transceiver, 55 – 68GHz


 Each M1650A is bidirectional and tunable
 Includes 2 meter cable to deliver signals near the DUT
 Single cable from E7760A provides the LO, power, and
control signals

26
802.11ay/NG60 status
Expect schedule: 2017
Target Max Data Rate: 20GHz (4,32GHz),
100GHz(8.64GHz)
Modulation: up to 64APSK (NUC)
Range: 10m -> 300 ~ 500m (LOS and NLOS)
MIMO and MU-MIMO up to 4x4
NUC 64APSK 4x4 MIMO
Channel Bonding Phase shifter
V pol Distance between array
Signal 3rd stream centers - d
PAA element

Signal 4th stream

H pol
Phase shifter
V pol
Signal 1st stream PAA element

Signal 2nd stream


PAA #2

H pol
PAA #1

H and V pol

Source: IEEE, “11-15-1145-00-00ay-su-mimo-configurations-for-ieee-802-11ay” H and V pol

Visualizing 5G
Massive MIMO
Page 27 © 2015 Keysight Technologies Moray Rumney Page 27
28
802.11ay/NG60 use cases

Data Center backup connection


Wireless Video
Replacement
8K UHD Set-top box
of wired interface
Service (TV controller)

Wireless Transfer
from fixed device

Blu-ray player

TV or Display Wireless Transfer


Smart phone/Tablet
from mobile device

VR/AR Backhaul Backhaul @60GHz

NG60 NG60
AP N-LOS Access AP
LOS Access
BUS
STOP

Visualizing 5G
Massive MIMO
Page 28 © 2015 Keysight Technologies Moray Rumney Page 28
Questions?
5G Wireless – The Next
Generation of Mobile
Communications Page 29

Thank you!
Agenda 前瞻裝置技術論壇 Page 30

前瞻裝置無線技術面面觀
5G關鍵技術與測試方案
新興IoT無線技術-LoRa、NB-IoT、Bluetooth 5
802.11ax/802.11ad/802.11ay
LTE-A pro 發展與測試
行動裝置省電技術與測試
封包追蹤放大器
行動裝置耗電驗證
行動裝置高速數位介面及儲存技術
克服MIPI PHY、UniPro、UniPort-M、UFS與(LP)DDR4測試挑戰
Increase the throughput
5G Massive MIMO and
mmW Design and Test
Solution Page 31

– Carrier Aggregation
LTE UE Category DL and UE Category UL
FDD Downlink TDD Downlink FDD Uplink TDD Uplink
Cat 0 1 Mbps 1 Mbps Cat 0 1 Mbps 1 Mbps
301 Mbps 263 Mbps Cat 3 51 Mbps (1CC) 30 Mbps (1CC)
Cat 6/7 (2CC 64QAM 2x2 MIMO) (2CC 64QAM 2x2 MIMO)
(1CC 64QAM 4x4 MIMO) (1CC 64QAM 4x4 MIMO)
Cat 5 75 Mbps (1CC 64QAM) 46 Mbps (1CC 64QAM)
452 Mbps 394 Mbps (3CC) Cat 7
102 Mbps 61 Mbps
Cat 9/10 (2CC or 2x2 MIMO) (2CC or 2x2 MIMO)
(3CC 64QAM 2x2 MIMO) (3CC 64QAM 2x2 MIMO)
1.5 Gbps 612 Mbps
603 Mbps 526 Mbps Cat 8
(5CC 64QAM 4x4 MIMO) (5CC 64QAM 4x4 MIMO)
(4CC 64QAM 2x2 MIMO) (4CC 64QAM 2x2 MIMO)
Cat 11/12
(3CC 256QAM, 2x2 MIMO) (3CC 256QAM, 2x2 MIMO)
Cat 13
151 Mbps 90 Mbps
(2CC 64QAM, 4x4 MIMO) (2CC 64QAM, 4x4 MIMO) (2CC 64QAM) (2CC 64 QAM)
391 Mbps 335 Mbps
Cat 13 (2CC 256QAM 2x2 MIMO) (2CC 256QAM 2x2 MIMO) In UE Capability Information Message
(1CC 256QAM 4x4 MIMO) (1CC 256QAM 4x4 MIMO)
<UL-DCCH-Message>
3916 Mbps 3355 Mbps
Cat 14 UE indicates the highest category it supports:
(5CC 256QAM 8x8 MIMO) (5CC 256QAM 8x8 MIMO)
Cat 15 750-799 Mbps 643 - 684 Mbps
(4CC 256QAM 2x2 MIMO) (4CC 256QAM 2x2 MIMO)
(2CC 256QAM 4x4 MIMO) (2CC 256QAM 4x4 MIMO)
Cat 16 979-1051 Mbps 838-901 Mbps
(5CC 256QAM 2x2 MIMO) (5CC 256QAM 2x2 MIMO)

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 32
What is Carrier Aggregation?
Page 33

• Combining (using) multiple LTE carriers together in order to


increase data throughput
• Extends the maximum transmission bandwidth, up to 100 MHz, by
aggregating up to five LTE carriers – a.k.a component carriers
(CCs)
• Initially defined in the 3GPP Release 10 standard

• To preserve compatibility with existing devices, all aggregated


carriers look exactly “like R8/R9” carriers.

• Can be supported in Downlink only or both in Downlink and


Uplink

• Supported for FDD and TDD modes


Multi-cell Aggregation
Example of PCC+ 3 SCC: 2 Layers, 2x2 MIMO and only 64 QAM

Multi-cell carrier aggregation

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 34
Increase the throughput
5G Massive MIMO and
mmW Design and Test
Solution Page 35

– Carrier Aggregation

– 4x4 MIMO
Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential*
4x4 MIMO:
configuration
and
expectations

Source: PCTEL

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 36
Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential*

4x4 MIMO Support: How does eNB know UE supports it?


You guessed it: UE Capability Information

In UE Capability Information Message


<UL-DCCH-Message>
UE informs eNB that it is capable of supporting fourLayers in DL, for each of the bands it supports in CA

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 37
Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential*
2x2 MIMO example: How does it work + how to configure 4x4

Source: PCTEL
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
Page 38
Increase the throughput
5G Massive MIMO and
mmW Design and Test
Solution Page 39

– Carrier Aggregation

– 4x4 MIMO

– 256QAM
On 256 QAM DL Enhances the spectrum
efficiency for terminals
In UE Capability Information Message experiencing favorable channel
<UL-DCCH-Message> conditions.
UE informs eNB that it is capable of supporting
256QAM in DL

The UE Capability Information Message keeps getting bigger, as new features are being added in 3GPP and
technology evolves.

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 40
Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential*

How does UE know if it should decode 256QAM or other modulation?


MCS index itself has not changed, but the mapping shall be different, if Q256 is
used.
From 3GPP Spec 36.213 (PHY Layer):
Table 7.1.7.1-1. Modulation and TBS index table for PDSCH Table 7.1.7.1-1A. Modulation and TBS index table 2 for PDSCH

Mapping to
Modulation order
and TBS Index is
new

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 41
Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential*

E-UTRA Small cell enhancements - Phy layer aspects

– The study in the physical layer aspects (in 3GPP Rel-12 TR 36.872)
recommended:
• Downlink 256 QAM for low mobility sparse indoor scenarios
• Reduced transition time for small cell on/off
• Efficient radio-interface-based inter-cell synchronization (network listening)

– Downlink 256 QAM has been specified with much tighter EVM. From 36.104:

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 42
Increase the throughput
5G Massive MIMO and
mmW Design and Test
Solution Page 43

– Carrier Aggregation

– 4x4 MIMO

– 256QAM

– UXM support Cat 16 , 1G throughput !


News from MWC ‘16

Keysight UXM & QC Snapdragon X16 LTE modem


• Mobile Industry Milestone: 1Gbps IP Data Throughput
• 4x4 MIMO w/ Carrier Aggregation & 256QAM Downlink

UXM Multi-Unit Connectivity


Realistic data performance for functional test
Manage all LTE cells & component Main UXM Aux UXM
carriers from a single user interface

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 44
Setting the record straight: 3GPP 36.213 (V12.7.0) T. 7.1.7.2.1-1
“Downlink Throughput of 1 Gbps ~= 978.960 Mbps”
DL Category 16 978960 149776 (4 layers, 64QAM) ((x 2 for MIMO)x 2 for cells)
195816 (4 layers, 256QAM)
75376 (2 layers, 64QAM) (x 2 for MIMO) +
97896 (2 layers, 256QAM)

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 45
We could do more, but via simulation of UE

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 46
LTE-A pro
5G Massive MIMO and
mmW Design and Test
Solution Page 47

– What’s LTE-A pro?


New LTE marker agreed

– New marker “LTE-Advanced PRO” for Rel-13 and beyond

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 48
Cooperation and competition

LTE-A pro
5G Massive MIMO and
mmW Design and Test
Solution Page 49

– What’s LTE-A pro?

– Cooperation and competition with WIFI


It’s happening in multiple ways…
3GPP has focused in two areas to help Operators offload traffic in the
unlicensed spectrum:

• WLAN via LTE/WLAN Interworking (via offload or aggregation)

• LTE over unlicensed spectrum

Rel. 10 Rel. 11 Rel. 12 Rel. 13 Rel. 14

WLAN RAN Assisted RAN Controlled


Offload Interworking Interworking
Offload

LTE/WLAN LWIP
Interworking

Aggregation LWA
LTE-U
LTE over
LAA eLAA
unlicensed

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 50
LAA

5G Wireless – The Next


Generation of Mobile
Communications 51
LAA Overview and Design Targets
• Based on Carrier Aggregation with the Primary Cell being deployed in any
Licensed Band to ensure highest reliability and a set of SCells in unlicensed
spectrum to boost data rates.

Design targets:

1. Single global solution compliant with any regional regulatory requirement

2. Effective and fair co-existence with WLAN

3. Effective and fair co-existence with others Operators’ LAA deployments


© 2015 Keysight Technologies
Page 52
LAA Functionalities
LTE functionality required:
i. Listen-Before-Talk (LBT)
ii. Frame structure type 3:

• Discontinuous transmission with limited usage of channel

• Use of incomplete subframes

• Downlink only

• No PBCH

• Use of Band 46 (5.150 – 5.925 GHz)

iii. Discovery Signals to enable RRM

More information can be found in TR 36.889


“Feasibility Study on Licensed-Assisted Access to Unlicensed Spectrum“

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page 53
LTE-A pro
5G Massive MIMO and
mmW Design and Test
Solution Page 54

– What’s LTE-A pro?

– Cooperation and competition with WIFI

– Cellular IOT
Why do we need IoT?

Healthcare
Data rate / Power consumption
Manufacturing Agriculture

WiFi Cellular
Connected
cities Asset tracking

ZigBee
BT LE LPWAN Connected Smart Energy
NFC cars

Weareables
Range

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
3GPP IOT

5G Wireless – The Next


© 2015 Keysight Technologies Generation of Mobile
Communications Page 56
LTE-A pro
5G Massive MIMO and
mmW Design and Test
Solution Page 57

– What’s LTE-A pro?

– Cooperation and competition with WIFI

– Cellular IOT
• NBIOT
NB-IoT: Key parameters

LTE FDD Bands:


Frequency range
1, 2, 3, 5, 8, 12, 13, 17, 18, 19, 20, 26, 28, 66 Support for other features:
Duplex Mode FDD Half Duplex type B
HARQ (1 process only)
$ MIMO No MIMO support
UL Power Control (Open Loop only)
Bandwidth 180 KHz (1PRB)
Downlink: OFDMA RSRP, RSRQ Reporting
Multiple Access
Uplink: SC-FDMA
CSI Reporting
Downlink: BPSK, QPSK
Modulation Schemes Uplink: Single Tone: π/4-QPSK, π/2-BPSK Handovers in CONNECTED
Multi Tone: QPSK
Coverage 164 dB (+20dB GPRS) Carrier Aggregation

Data Rate ~ 10s kbps IMS


Latency < 10 seconds
eMBMS
Mobility Nomadic (only re-selections, no handovers)
Low Power eDRX, Power Saving Mode

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
NB-IoT: Operation Modes

1. Standalone:
• Replacing a GSM carrier
with an NB-IoT cell 3 2 1
In-Band Guard-Band Standalone

2. Guard band:
• Utilizing the unused

NB-IoT

NB-IoT

NB-IoT
resource blocks within a
LTE carrier’s guard-band
Frequenc
with guaranteed co- LTE
(i.e. 5MHz , 25PRB)
y

existence

3. In-band:
• Through flexible use of
part of an LTE carrier with
a self-contained NB-IoT
cell using 1PRB

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
POP QUIZ
How many Operators are planning to deploy
NB-IoT during the next 12-18 months?

A. 10 kbps? Really?? NB-IoT is rubbish … Z E R O !

B. Between 5 and 10

C. More than 25 Operators

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Companies we know are working on NB-IoT

Operators
Chipset / IP vendors End Devices vendors
• Vodafone
• Neul • Optex
• CMCC
• HiSilicon/Huawei (collaboration) • Hisense
• China Unicom
• Intel (collaboration) • LG
• China Telecom
• Qualcomm (collaboration) • Samsung
• AT&T
• Sequans (call) • Kamstrup Meters
• Verizon
• Altair (collaboration) • Pietro Fiorentini Meters
• Sprint
• GCT (future collaboration) • Oviphone China wearable
• T-Mobile USA
• Mediatek • Veolia
• Bell Mobility
• Samsung LSI (future collaboration) • Nextivity
• SK Telecom
• Nordic semiconductors • Digi
• KT
• Ceva (IP) • Harman
• LG U+
• Commsolid (IP) (collaboration) • British Telecom
• RDA (collaboration) Base Station Vendors
• Telecom Italia
• ZXIC • Huawei
• Telefonica
• Mistbase • Nokia
• TDC Denmark
• NextG-com • Ericsson
• T-Mobile Netherlands
• Telia
Industry Forums
• Deutsche Telekom
Module vendors • 3GPP
• Megafon Russia
• U-blox • GCF
• Tele2
• Sierra Wireless • GSMA NB-IoT Forum
• NTT Docomo
• Telit • KDDI
• Gemalto • Turk Telecom
• Quectel • Etisalat
• Ooredo
• Safaricom
• Telstra
• Two Degree Mobile
• … Up to 50 Operators

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
LTE-A pro
5G Massive MIMO and
mmW Design and Test
Solution Page 62

– What’s LTE-A pro?

– Cooperation and competition with WIFI

– Cellular IOT
• NBIOT
• Cat M1
Category M1 features
Key Parameters
Feature Category M1 Any Category Comments
• 1.4MHz BW (1 NarrowBand)
• MPDCCH (no PDCCH, PCFICH,
Bandwidth Reduced PHICH)
Mandatory N/A
(BR) • NB hopping (re-tuning)
• FDD (opt. Half Duplex Type B) and TDD
$ BL • Specific SIB-BR (eMTC SIBs)
• Max TBS is 1000 bits (uni and multi-
cast)
Lower Complexity
Mandatory N/A • Limited number of Transmission Modes
(LC)
• Simplification of RRM
• Max power 20dBm (optional)
• Normal, Robust coverage
• Limited number of Repetitions
Mode A Mandatory Optional
• TPC, CSI support
• DCI 6-1A (PDSCH), DCI 6-0A (PUSCH)
CE
• Extended coverage
• Large number of Repetitions
Mode B Optional Optional
• No support for TPC, CSI
• DCI 6-1B (PDSCH), DCI 6-0B (PUSCH)
• Hyperframe support (H-SFN)
eDRX, PSM Optional Optional • C-eDRX values of 5.12s and 10.24s
• I-eDRX values up to 44 minutes

*BL = Bandwidth reduced Low complexity


*CE = Coverage Enhancement

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Cat-M1: Operation Mode

– Single Operation Mode with Cat-M1 devices embedded within the LTE cell

Typical 5MHz LTE 6 PRB x 180k=


5MHz with 25 x 180kHz 1.08MHz

Cat M1
1.4MHz with 6 x 180kHz

Cat M1 in-band
with LTE

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Cat-M1 sharing channel with LTE
MPDCCH and NB Hopping

The UE uses the 6 central PRB


to acquire sync and Broadcast
PDCCH

6 central PRB
Sync, Broadcast (1.4 MHz)

1 subframe (1ms)

Keysight Confidential 65
S800 2016

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Cat-M1 sharing channel with LTE
MPDCCH and NB Hopping

1 2

The UE uses the 6 central PRB LTE cells is divided in blocks of 6


to acquire sync and Broadcast PRB called Narrowbands (NB)

nNB = 3
PDCCH

PDCCH
6 central PRB nNB = 2
Sync, Broadcast (1.4 MHz)
nNB = 1

nNB = 0

1 subframe (1ms) 1 subframe (1ms)

The UE can only listen to just one


of the Narrowbands

Keysight Confidential 66
S800 2016

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Cat-M1 sharing channel with LTE
MPDCCH and NB Hopping
1 2

The UE uses the 6 central PRB LTE cells is divided in blocks of 6


to acquire sync and Broadcast PRB called Narrowbands (NB)
PDCCH

PDCCH
6 central PRB
Sync, Broadcast (1.4 MHz) MPDCCH
6 PRB
Cat-M1
PDSCH
1 subframe (1ms) 1 subframe (1ms)
Given Cat-M1 BW is only 1.4MHz,
It cannot read legacy PDCCH (and PCFICH,
PHICH)

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Cat-M1 sharing channel with LTE
MPDCCH and NB Hopping
1 2 3
The UE uses the 6 central PRB LTE cells is divided in blocks of 6 NB Hopping is posible to
to acquire sync and Broadcast PRB called Narrowbands (NB) improve frequency selectivity
PDCCH

PDCCH

PDCCH
6 central PRB
Sync, Broadcast (1.4 MHz)
Cat-M1
Cat-M1

1 subframe (1ms) 1 subframe (1ms) 1 subframe (1ms)

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Companies we know are working on Cat-M1

End Devices vendors Operators


Chipset vendors
• Vodafone (call)
• CMCC (visit)
• LG (Field) • China Unicom (HiSilicon material)
• Intel (collaboration)
• Samsung (Field) • China Telecom
• Qualcomm (call)
• AT&T (AVL 2016)
• Sequans (call)
• Verizon (IWPC presentation)
• Altair (collaboration)
• Sprint (3GPP)
• GCT (using Hisilicon)
• T-Mobile USA (meeting)
• Mediatek (Taiwan and Finland)
• Nextivity (email) • Bell Mobility
• Samsung LSI (Field)
• SK Telecom (NB-IoT Forum member)
• Nordic semiconductors (PR)
Base Station Vendors • KT
• Huawei • LG U+
• Nokia • British Telecom (meeting)
• RDA (collaboration)
• Ericsson • Telecom Italia (GSMA PR)
• Telefonica (GSMA PR)
• Mistbase (IP)
Industry Forums • TDC Denmark (TLO)
• NextG-com
• 3GPP • Telia
• Virtuosys
• GCF • Deutsche Telekom (HiSilicon material)
• Megafon Russia (NB-IoT Forum member)
Module vendors
• PTCRB • Tele2 (NB-IoT Forum member)
• U-blox (call)
• NTT Docomo (Japan Field)
• Sierra Wireless (PR)
• KDDI
• Telit
• Turk Telecom
• Gemalto (meeting)
• Etisalat
• Quectel (PR)
• Ooredo
• Safaricom
• Telstra
• Two Degree Mobile
69

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
NB-IoT and Cat-M1

• Both NB-IoT and Cat-M1 have fundamental changes in the


physical layer and adds new specific features which need testing

Customer Challenge:
Many of our potential customers will have products covering both
NB-IoT and Cat-M1; possibly GSM and LTE as well

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
LTE-A pro
5G Massive MIMO and
mmW Design and Test
Solution Page 71

– What’s LTE-A pro?

– Cooperation and competition with WIFI

– Cellular IOT
• NBIOT
• Cat M1
• CIoT Verification Challenges
Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential*

CIoT Verification Challenges

Long time between re-boot, unattended recovery

Reliability Remote software update, Server down, No coverage

Operator settings, IoT protocol selection, Authentication

Achieving deep in-building coverage

Superior Coverage 3rd party enclosure/antenna effects

Multi-radio interference/inter-mod

Lifetime SLA, software update drain

Battery Life Repetitions performance under extreme coverage

Unhandled software and network exceptions

Certification & regulation test e.g. GCF/PTCRB

Acceptance Operator acceptance, interop lab and field test

System integrator acceptance

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential*

CIoT Verification Challenges


UXM built-in app server
Test Automation Platform (TAP)

Reliability

General Purpose RF test tools


Superior Coverage
Antenna test systems

Lifetime SLA, software update drain

Battery Life Repetitions performance under extreme coverage

Unhandled software and network exceptions

Certification & regulation test e.g. GCF/PTCRB

Acceptance Operator acceptance, interop lab and field test

System integrator acceptance

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential*

CIoT Verification Challenges UXM built-in app server


Test Automation Platform (TAP)

Reliability

General Purpose RF test tools


Superior Coverage
Antenna test systems

Battery Life

Certification & regulation test e.g. GCF/PTCRB

Acceptance Operator acceptance, interop lab and field test

System integrator acceptance

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential* Keysight Confidential*

CIoT Verification Challenges


UXM built-in app server
Test Automation Platform (TAP)

Reliability

General Purpose RF test tools


Superior Coverage
Antenna test systems

Battery Life

T4000S RCT/RRM operator RF

Acceptance

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Agenda 前瞻裝置技術論壇 Page 77

前瞻裝置無線技術面面觀
5G關鍵技術與測試方案
新興IoT無線技術-LoRa、NB-IoT、Bluetooth 5
802.11ax/802.11ad/802.11ay
LTE-A pro 發展與測試
行動裝置省電技術與測試
封包追蹤放大器
行動裝置耗電驗證
行動裝置高速數位介面及儲存技術
克服MIPI PHY、UniPro、UniPort-M、UFS與(LP)DDR4測試挑戰
Envelope Tracking vs. Fixed Supply - Concept
Fixed DC
Supply Constant supply Efficient Inefficient

IQ RF
Up-
Baseband
converter
PA Variable envelope

Conventional RF Amplifier
Battery

Envelope
Envelope Shaping
detector table
tracking power Variable supply
supply (ETPS)

Baseband
IQ
Up-
RF
PA
Variable envelope
Converter

RF Amplifier with Envelope Tracking

PA ET and DPD 78
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
and Test Solution Page
Envelope Tracking - The How & Why
Continuously
adjust the
supply voltage
to change the
PA’s operating
point

• Improve battery life


• Increase RF amplifier performance over broad frequencies
• Lower distortion
• Reduce heat dissipation

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


PA ET and DPD
and Test Solution Page 79
行動裝置省電技術與測試 Page 80

– Envelope Tracking

– Digital Pre-Distortion
Digital Pre-Distortion (DPD) - Concept
Very Important Intercept Point
Pout DPD Gain
Psat Expansion Linearized DPD + PA Response

PA with Gain Compression

Linear DPD
Region Region Pmax correctable Raw PA output (no DPD)
Pin PA+DPD, after 1 iteration to extract DPD
coefficients

DPD corrects PA nonlinearities resulting in higher performing power amplifiers

+ =

PA ET and DPD 81
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
and Test Solution Page
DPD - The How & Why
Improve linearity of PA output signal by modifying the input

PA ET and DPD 82
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
and Test Solution Page
行動裝置省電技術與測試 Page 83

– Envelope Tracking

– Digital Pre-Distortion

– Crest Factor Reduction


Crest Factor Reduction - The How & Why
Reduce the PAPR to limit distortion produced in the PA

• CFR is not a linearization technique


• Two methods widely used: 1) Clipping and Filtering 2) Peak Windowing

PA ET and DPD 84
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
and Test Solution Page
CFR – Clipping and Filtering
• This is the conventional method, includes both hard clipping and lowpass filtering
• Clipping can cause sharp corners in a clipped signal, which leads to an unwanted out-of-
band emission (increased ACP)
• To reduce the unwanted out-of-band emissions, the clipped signal will go through a low-
pass filter to reduce the high frequency signals which correspond to the sharp corners in
the clipped signal.

© 2015 Keysight Technologies PA ET and DPD


© Keysight Technologies 2015 and Test Solution Page 85
CFR – Peak Windowing
• Peak windowing aims to smooth the sharp corners which result from hard clipping
• In the peak windowing algorithm, clipping is implemented by multiplying the original
signal in the region of the peak with a windowing function such as Kaiser, Gaussian and
Hamming.

© 2015 Keysight Technologies PA ET and DPD


© Keysight Technologies 2015 and Test Solution Page 86
ACP-EVM Performance Trade-off Using CFR

Example: CFR
using clipping &
filtering

If ACPR fails the


3GPP spec.,
applying CFR can
give a few dB
improvement,
enough to pass
or provide some
margin but EVM
will increase.

PA ET and DPD 87
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
and Test Solution Page
Where do ET, DPD and CFR apply?

ET DPD CFR

Exploring/Verification Access Point (AP) and Access Point (AP) and


WLAN (Mainly in R&D) Station (STA) Station (STA)

Cellular UE BTS (normally complicated BTS


with real-time feedback)
UE (normally pen-loop)

Benefit Save Power Improve Linearity Improve linearity


Improve linearity (PAPR)

PA ET and DPD 88
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
and Test Solution Page
行動裝置省電技術與測試 Page 89

– Envelope Tracking

– Digital Pre-Distortion

– Crest Factor Reduction

– Keysight PA Test Solution


Keysight Power Amplifier Bench-top and PXI Solution
Bench top Modular
Ideal for R&D / Interactive DVT Ideal for Automated DVT / Production
• Min. investment for bench-top install base • Optimized for test throughput
• Wideband solution support w/ AWG+PSG • Smaller footprint
• Front panel maximizes measurement insight • Reference Solution Software.
• Asset portability • Controls the programming DC Power and DUT

Bench top Modular

Design &
DVT Production
Development

Common Measurement Science


N6700B with N6782A (1 to 4)
4 channel SMU

N7614B Signal
Studio for PA Test X-Series
Envelope Measurement
PXIe VSG / PXIe VSA/AWG/VNA Applications
ETPS
Data

Timing
Alignment
N7614B
API
Ref Solution RF ETPA
ETP
SW A

DUT

PA ET and DPD 90
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
and Test Solution Page
Keysight Common Measurement Science N7614B
Easy exploration of PA performance improvement techniques using N7614B

1: RF waveform 3: Shaping table 5: ETPS 7: Standard


selection selection, time alignment configuration RF analysis

2: CFR technique & 4: DPD algorithms & 6: Output power


parameter selection coefficient export servo control

© 2015 Keysight Technologies PA ET and DPD 91


and Test Solution Page
RF Power Amplifier Test w/Envelope Tracking and DPD
Bench-top Solution for Design, Development and DVT

Closed Loop Operation


quickly explore the
N7614B N6705B DC Power Analyzer comprehensive
Signal Studio interactions
33600/33500 series AWG
for PA Test between the PA and
Envelope
non-linear
ETPS correction
techniques like
envelope tracking
Trigger
Timing and digital pre-
Alignment
distortion

RF
ETPA

X-Series Signal Generator

I/Q Waveforms: PA Technologies Measurement View:


• Pre-loaded waveforms Envelope Tracking: Opt. EFP • Distortion: AM-AM, AM-PM
• Signal Studio Digital Pre-Distortion: Opt. FFP • Spectrum: channel power, ACP
• User-defined waveforms Crest Factor Reduction • CCDF
(Matlab, CSV/TXT, BIN) • Delta EVM; Demod EVM vs. Power

PA ET and DPD 92
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
and Test Solution Page
RF Power Amplifier Test w/Envelope Tracking and DPD
Dual-MXG Solution for Design, Development and DVT Acceleration
Closed Loop Operation
Accelerate the
N7614B N6705B DC Power Analyzer measurement
Signal Studio speed for LUT
for PA Test X-Series Envelope based DPD and
Signal Generator Envelope
shaping table effect
ETPS for ET with real-time
solution
EVENT1

Timing
Alignment
Pattern
Trigger In1

RF
ETPA

X-Series RF Signal Generator

PA Test Two MXGs Measurement View:


• Can apply LUT based DPD in • For ET, one is used as RF generator and • Distortion: AM-AM, AM-PM
real-time one is used as envelope generator • Spectrum: channel power, ACP
• Can apply shaping table for ET in • Speed is faster than the one MXG plus • CCDF
either ARB or real-time one AWG • Delta EVM
• 660 option is needed for real-time MXGs • Dynamic EVM (for WLAN)

PA ET and DPD 93
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
and Test Solution Page
RF Power Amplifier Test - Wideband DPD Solution
AXI Solution for Design, Development and DVT
Wideband DPD solution
for PA Test enabling by
N7614B Signal Studio Wideband IQ Inputs WLAN and LTE
(PSG Rear Panel) applications
Or Customer DPD
𝐼𝐼 𝑄𝑄

RF
PA

DUT

M8190A AWG + E8267D PSG N9040A UXA Signal Analyzer

Wideband PA Test Use Case Wideband Signal Generation Wideband signal Analysis
• DPD support only • Up to 2GHz bandwidth • the required bandwidth depends
• For wideband signal, such as • Automatic calibration including spectrum on customers’ DPD algorithms
80MHz or 160MHz WLAN flatness and IQ imbalance. • UXA support up to 510 MHz
• For wideband LTE BTS PA Test • Automatic or manual adjustment • Support I/Q data capture
• 89600B VSA may be needed for
demodulation

PA ET and DPD 94
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
and Test Solution Page
RF Power Amplifier Test w/Envelope Tracking and DPD
PXI Solution for Automated test in DVT and Production
PXI based solution is
N6700B with N6782A (1 to 4) targeting for high-
4 channel SMU throughput, automated
measurements with
CFR/ET/DPD algorithm
N7614B Signal Studio’s from N7614B
Envelope Tracking/DPD
Envelope X-Series Measurement
Applications
ETPS
Data

Timing
Alignment
N7614B
API
PXIe VSG/PXIe VSA/AWG/VNA
RF
Ref Solution SW ETPA
HW System Control
(IVI Drivers)
• Power & Spectrum DUT
Measurements
• Waveform &
Envelope Download
• IQ Data Upload

PA ET and DPD 95
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
and Test Solution Page
行動裝置省電技術與測試 Page 96

– Envelope Tracking

– Digital Pre-Distortion

– Crest Factor Reduction

– Keysight PA Test Solution

– N7614B Signal Studio for PA Test Introduction and


Example
PA ET/ET+DPD Test System Connection Diagram
with Bench-top Instruments and N7614B SW
PC installed with
N7614B signal studio LAN/GPIB

DC Power
Envelope Signal Generator
(33522B or 33622A)
LAN/GPIB
LAN/GPIB Ch1 out VETP
Ch2 out VETN ETPS

10 MHz Sync VETPS_OUT


Ref Out Timing Alignment
Required

Pattern
10 MHz TRIGGER1 10 MHz RF In
Trigger In Signal Analyzer
Ref In IN Ref In
Vcc (PXA/MXA/EXA)

RF Out
ETPA
10 MHz EVENT 1 RF Signal Generator
Ref Out (N5182B or N5172B)
PA as DUT

PA Test Seminar
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
7/3/2014
Page
N7614B GUI – Block Diagram View

I/Q Waveforms: Envelope Tracking: Opt. EFP ETPS settings:


• Free Pre-loaded waveform • Shaping Table Input • ETPS Gain
• Signal studio waveform • ETPS and ETPA settings • Vcc Offset
• User-defined waveform • Automatic or manual time • Vcm setting
• CFR (Crest Factor alignment • Vcc clipping/Min./Max.
Reduction) Processing

Instrument settings: Digital Pre-Distortion: Opt. FFP PA settings:


• LAN or GPIB connection • User-defined Look-Up Table • Loss in, Loss out
• RF generator settings • Close-Loop DPD: LUT, • Specify PA Input /output
• Envelope generator settings Volterra Series or polynomial power
• Signal analyzer settings • © Export
2015 KeysightDPD model
Technologies • Power servo mode
• Power sweep mode Page
N7614B GUI - Measurement View
Measurement View:
AM/AM AM/PM Distortion measurement
• AM-AM
• AM-PM
• CCDF

Spectrum measurement
• Channel power
• ACP

ACPR EVM vs. Power Mod quality meas.


• Delta EVM
• Dynamic EVM
• Demod EVM
(need XA option)

Red: signal with ET only


Green: signal with both ET and DPD

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
ET+DPD Measurement Example: AM-AM/AM-PM
Signal: LTE 5 MHz Full RB with QPSK Red: signal with ET only
Green: signal with both ET and DPD

Fixed DC Supply AM/AM, AM/PM ET+DPD: AM/AM, AM/PM


© 2015 Keysight Technologies
Page
ET+DPD Measurement Example: ACPR
Signal: LTE 5 MHz Full RB with QPSK

Fixed DC Supply ACPR: -36 dBc

ET Only ACPR: -40 dBc


ET+DPD ACPR: -62 dBc

26 dB ACP improvement
with ET+DPD

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Delta EVM – Independent from any standard specification
• Delta EVM shows the difference between the wanted
signal and the measured waveform
Instantaneous error
RF envelope “Delta EVM”
voltage

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
N7614B Signal Studio for PA Test
ET/ET+DPD Test Results (Example Result only)

Average
Measurement ACP Delta EVM Demod EVM
Power
LTE 5MHz FullRB w/ QPSK (dB) (%) (%)
(mA)

Waveform 360 -36 3.58% 1.88%

ET only 240 -40 2.22% 1.34%


(With Shaping Table)

ET +DPD 240 -62 0.46% 0.23%


(DPD Volterra, Iteration=2)

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


Page
Agenda 前瞻裝置技術論壇 Page 104

前瞻裝置無線技術面面觀
5G關鍵技術與測試方案
新興IoT無線技術-LoRa、NB-IoT、Bluetooth 5
802.11ax/802.11ad/802.11ay
LTE-A pro 發展與測試
行動裝置省電技術與測試
封包追蹤放大器
行動裝置耗電驗證
行動裝置高速數位介面及儲存技術
克服MIPI PHY、UniPro、UniPort-M、UFS與(LP)DDR4測試挑戰
Agenda Page

MIPI 實體層測試
C-PHY
D-PHY
M-PHY
(LP)DDR4測試及DDR5 說明
DDR4 Testing
DDR5 update
C-PHY Three Data Lane PHY Configuration

C-PHY C-PHY
Master Data Lane Module Slave Data Lane Module

C-PHY C-PHY
Master Data Lane Module Slave Data Lane Module

C-PHY C-PHY
Master Data Lane Module Slave Data Lane Module

– Data-rate completely agile, no discrete operating frequencies, continous range


– Embeddeded / encoded clocking
– RX testing is basically stressed eye testing
(eye closure mainly due to ISI and DCD caused by A,B, C – skew and Tr, Tf differences )

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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C-PHY Spec 1.2 CTS 1.0
TX Eye diagram test, RX jitter test.
Concern 1

C-PHY TX eye diagram test/ RX jitter test required to imply reference


channel that needs 6 port S-parameter to test but none of scope can
support 6 port s-parameter directly.

Original measurement Adding reference channel TX eye diagram test

Keysight has proposed to using 2 port S-Parameter as test


reference channel for C-PHY.

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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C-PHY Spec 1.2 CTS 1.0
TX Eye diagram test, RX jitter test.
Concern 2

Current CTS can not promise, TX eye diagram test result and RX jitter
calibration method is same so that both test will be correlated
between. Because oscilloscope can’t make one eye diagram for 3
VAB, VBC, VCA waveforms, which will be required for RX jitter
calibration.

Which eye diagram to use


RX jitter calibration?

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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C-PHY Spec 1.2 CTS 1.0
TX Eye diagram test, RX jitter test.
Keysight will use/propose combined one eye diagram for eye mask
test.

3 single VA,VB, VC
Makes differential
VAB, VBC, VCA

Based on differential
Signals generate clock

Stich VAB, VBC, VCA


As one long signal

Also stich generated


clock signal

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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Combined 3 waveforms to 1 eye diagram
Test results

Result show
that eye
shape is not
same

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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Agenda Page

MIPI 實體層測試
C-PHY
D-PHY
M-PHY
(LP)DDR4測試及DDR5 說明
DDR4 Testing
DDR5 update
D-PHY specification 2.0 CTS1.0
Concern 1. Higher speed - TX

– RTB issue, current Reference termination Board is not fit to test over
1.5Gbps, due to LP to HS switching speed.

4.5Gbps signal measure from RTB, 4.5Gbps original signal, added STD channel
added STD channel

– Unless UNH-IOL or other vendor provide new RTB, test result will be
impacted by this limitation

Start in consideration on direct connection or Active


termination adopter, RTB will used for Global parameter
test only

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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D-PHY CTS 2.0 consideration
Concern 2. Eye diagram test - TX

– Eye diagram test will be performed after passing reference channel while
applying TX EQ(de-emphasis), Keysight will provide reference channel as
S-parameter model so do not need to change probing due to reference
channel.
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
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D-PHY CTS 2.0 consideration
Concern 2. Eye diagram test - TX

– Do we need to consider moving eye diagram?

– D-PHY specification 1.2 support SKEW calibration, but Oscilloscope


does not support this feature. So if there has inter skew between
clock and data, eye mask can be violated due to inter skew which
can be compensated by skew calibration in real environmental.

CLK
Inter skew

Data Keysight will add to finding optimal


Eye position within +/-0.2UI range

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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Agenda Page

MIPI 實體層測試
C-PHY
D-PHY
M-PHY
(LP)DDR4測試及DDR5 說明
DDR4 Testing
DDR5 update
M-PHY Physical Layer
High Speed and Low Speed Modes

– High Speed NRZ (HS) and Lower Speed (LS) modes


• Common LS mode: Pulse Width Modulation (PWM)

– Always differential and 8b/10b coded

– High and low voltage swing operations

– Terminated (100 ohm) or not terminated operation

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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M-PHY 4.1 CTS consideration
Concern 1, wrong spec
M-PHY CTLE USB 3.1 Gen2 CTLE

CTLE shape is looks like USB3.1 Gen2 CTLE but equation is totally different
How we can get similar shape?
© 2015 Keysight Technologies
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M-PHY 4.1 CTS consideration
Concern 1, wrong spec
M-PHY CTLE USB 3.1 Gen2 CTLE

? USB 3.1 Gen2


use Aac value
to limiting boost
Okay, MIPI effect(peaking)
Equation has Vdc,
also has
Wpz, Wp1 and
Vac. But
Wp2 as variable.
where in
Where is fp1?
equation?

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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MIPI Technology Industry Roadmap

Q3 2016 Q4 2016 H1 2017 H2 2017


M-PHY
M-PHY M-PHY v 4.0
4.0 compliance

D-PHY D-PHY
2.0
D-PHY 2.0 Pre D-PHY v2.0
compliance compliance

D-PHY 2.0
D-PHY (M8085A)
1.2 CTS

C-PHY C-PHY v1.0


C-PHY v1.2
C-PHY compliance
compliance 1.2
C-PHY 1.2
(M8085A)

I3C protocol I3C protocol


Others I3C v0.8 Phase 1 Phase 2
C-PHY
SPMI 2.0 protocol
protocol

*Roadmap based on fiscal quarters Industry spec drop


Keysight scope solution (Tx)
Keysight receiver solution (Rx)
Keysight protocol solution (P)

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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Keysight MIPI Physical Testing solution
MIPI All TX

9K/90K/90KX S, V, Z series scope S, V, Z series scope


series scope

M-PHY RX

J-BERT N4903B J-BERT M8020A J-BERT M8020A

C-PHY RX

AWG M8190A AWG M8195A

D-PHY RX

ParBERT 81250 AWG M8190A AWG M8195A

~2013/2014 2015 2016 ~


© 2015 Keysight Technologies
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Agenda Page

MIPI 實體層測試
C-PHY
D-PHY
M-PHY
(LP)DDR4測試及DDR5 說明
DDR4 Testing
DDR5 update
Measuring The DDR4 Eye (tDIVW and vDIVW)
DDR4 Measured Eye Diagram
Use the smallest observed timing or voltage margin

Test supported with


N6462A DDR4
compliance app
• Clock Tests
• Electrical
• Timing
• Eye diagram

DDR4 Speed grades:


1600, 1866, 2133, 2400,
2666, 3200 MT/s (as per
JESD79-4)

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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Mask Voltage Position - Vcent

• LPDDR4 Vref is an internal signal – not visible during system operation


• Vref can driven out DQ pins only when DRAM is in special test mode
• Vcent = estimate of the internal Vref derived from DQ eyes

Vcent

How to determine Vcent:


1. Find the widest part of the eye for each DQ
2. Select the highest and lowest eyes
3. Vcent = Midpoint (all DQ eyes) = Average(highest, lowest)

Vcent necessary to enable in-system measurements

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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DDR4 / LPDDR4 Insight with a Logic Analyzer
Connect Acquire View & Analyze

DIMM
SODIMM
Interposers
Capture highest data rates!
Address and command for DDR4
or LPDDR4 up to 5000 Mb/s
Data up to 4000 Mb/s Memory Analysis SW
Listing with Decoders
Capture smallest eyes! Traffic Overview
100mV x 100ps at probe point. Protocol Compliance
New
Sequential Triggers up to across Speed changes
2.5GHz or 4000 Mb/s! Performance Analysis

12.5GHz Timing Zoom Bus Level Signal


Waveforms
Mid-Bus & 256k deep Integrity Insight
specialty Probing
Up to 400M deep traces New

U4164A Logic Analyzer B4661A Memory


Module
© 2015 Keysight Technologies Analysis SW
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Key User Requirements
Addressed by new features of U4164A

– Maximum visibility of simultaneous R/W traffic capture for DDR4 and LPDDR4
• U4164A has new comparator that enables single point probing, relaxing routing constraints and decreasing probe
loading.

– Higher speed timing mode


• U4164A has new ¼ channel 10GHz timing mode with SW deskew. (2 x U4154B)

– Deeper captures
• U4164A has twice the memory depth option of U4154B, with 400M option

• 400M option in State modes and full channel Timing, 800M in half channel timing mode and 1.6G in ¼ channel timing
mode.

– Continuous state mode capture through resets and clock off periods.

• U4164A has new clock hysteresis to improve state capture through clock tri-state events.

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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Agenda Page

MIPI 實體層測試
C-PHY
D-PHY
M-PHY
(LP)DDR4測試及DDR5 說明
DDR4 Testing
DDR5 update
What’s new in DDR5 proposed spec?
Source: Intel DDR5 Technical Review
1. Speed bin: up to 6.4GT/s

2. New Tx jitter specs (defined separately for DQ and DQS)

3. DFE for Data Buffer

Testing requirements may add:

1. Jitter characterization on DRAM, Host and Buffer

2. Equalization for unmatched DQ/DQS at Receiver

3. More accurate simulation models to optimize system margin

EZJIT Complete Jitter


Decomposition Software

© 2015 Keysight Technologies


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Questions? Page

Thank you!