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Managing Director


General Manager

Deputy General Manager

Senior Manager


Deputy Manager

Senior Executive

Trainee (Qualif: B. Sc/Diploma/B.Tech- Stipend Rs.4500 – 15,000)

Worker (ITI)

56000 meters/day of shirting fabric
1.5 lakh meters of corduroy

On the product front, company has added various bottom weight qualities in singles as well as in
doubles in addition to existing products like corduroy, yarn dyed and solid dyed shirti ng's which
helps the company to supply widest product range coupled with small and large quantities of
products to meet the demand of garment manufacturers/exporters. The product range also covers
Men's and Ladies apparels and furnishing etc. l Corduroy for bottom-wear as well as shirting
from 4 Wales to 21 Wales per inch l Yarn Dyed stripes, Checks; Fil-a-fil, Chambray's in plains
as well as dobbies l Bottom-weights with different weaves

End use of Products

 Men's Wear Top And Bottom

 Formal As Well As Casual
 Skirts
 Jackets
 Shorts
 Furnishing

Count range In English(Ne)-12s,16s,20s,24s,30s,40s,50s,2/80s and 2/100s in 100% Cotton and

in Poly/Cotton and Poly/Viscose Blends-40s,45s and 60s
The cotton fiber grows in the seedpod or boll, of the cotton plant. Each fiber
is a single elongated cell that is flat, twisted, and ribbon like with a wide inner hollow (lumen).It
is composed of about 90 percent cellulose and about 6 percent moisture; the remainder consists
of natural impurities. The outer surface of the fiber is covered with a protective wax like coating
which gives the fiber a somewhat adhesive quality.

After this hydraulic pressing is done and cotton is been tested for the quality
control. And then it has been sent for even moisture distribution. After all these processes this
bale cotton gone to traders and textile mills receives these bale cotton from traders. As soon as
the cotton arrives at the mill after ginning process in large bales weighing about 500 pounds (225
kg) each it is been kept for 24 hours. And then spinning process starts:-

Fan which

(Stack of bales kept after (Even moisture distribution is been

hydraulic pressing) done through the bale cotton)

(Bale cotton kept for 24
STEPS: hrs rest before blending)
Cotton is passed from bales and then to apron. Apron moves cotton to blending
apron. Blending apron has sharp spikes the raise cotton until part of it is knocked off by the roll.
Some of the cotton stays on apron. The cotton knocked back by roll and continues to chum and
blend until picked up again by apron. Another roll strips off cotton that was not knocked back by
previous roll. Cotton falls on conveyor belt and is carried to next process.
It is necessary so as to obtain uniformity of fiber quality.


Lint cotton falls on apron and passes between feeder rolls to beater
cylinder. The rapidly whirling beater blades take off small tufts of cotton, knock out trash, and
loosen up the mass. The two screen rolls are made of screen material and air is sucked out of
them by fan. This draws the cotton from beater and
condenses it on the surface of the screen rolls from which it is
taken and passed on by the small rolls. Air suction through
cotton takes out dirt and trash. Conveyor belt passes cotton to
another type of beater. From beater the cotton passes to a
conveyor and is carried to picker. (Cotton going through the
opening machine where the
WHY IT’S BEEN DONE?- fibers are loosened)

It is necessary in order to loosen hard lumps of fiber and disentangle them;

cleaning is required to remove trash such as dirt, leaves, burrs, and any remaining seeds.
Mechanical bale pickers pluck thin, even layers of the matted fibers from
each of a predetermined number of bales in turn and deposit them into a hopper. The fiber is
mixed and passed to an opener. As the mass of fiber passes through the opener, cylinders with
protruding fingers open up the limp and free the trash. The kind and number of cylinders or
beaters, employed depend upon the type of cotton that is being processed. The commonly used
porcupine beater revolves about 1000 revolutions per minute. As the cotton is opened, trash falls
through a series of grid bars. When the cotton emerges from the opener, it still contains small
tufts with about two-thirds of the trash. It may be conveyed as lap.
GBR- Here the cottons are fed for homogenous mixtures and for removing
dirts.MPM-8 – it has got 8 chambers. Generally used for homogenous mixture of fibers like
while harvesting some cotton are from matured plants and some are not. So that it will affect the
fabric. So, after homogenous mixing all will be the same.

(Mixing of diff cotton bales) (Formation of lap)

(Laps formed)

Here fibers are rolled into roller at the same time

they are pressed also.

Time taken to roll one lap:-

40s Count 600 sec

50s Count 666 sec

20s Count 500 sec

Before the raw stock can be made into yarn, the remaining impurities must
be removed, the fibers must be disentangles, and they must be straightened. The straightening
process puts the fibers into somewhat parallel CARDING. The work is done by carding machine.
The lap is passed through a beater section and drawn o rapidly revolving
cylinder covered with very fine hooks or wire brushes slowly moves concentrically above this
cylinder. As the cylinder rotates, the cotton is pulled by the cylinder through the small gap under
the brushes; the teasing action removes the remaining trashes, disentangles the fibers , and
arranges them in a relatively parallel manner in form of a thin web. This web is drawn through a
funnel shaped device that molds it into a round rope like mass called card sliver. Card sliver
produces carded yarns or carded cottons serviceable for inexpensive cotton fabrics.

(Carding process taking place)

(Lap is been fed into
carding machine)

(Card sliver formed)

The lap from pucker unrolls and feed roll passes cotton licker in roll (covered
with saw toothed wire).The licker in roll passes fiber against cleaner bars and gives it up to large
cylinder which passes between the thousands of fine wires on surface of cylinder and on flats.
The cotton follows large cylinder to doffer cylinder, which remove lint from large cylinder. The
doffer comb vibrates against doffer cylinder and takes lint off in a filmy web that passes through
condenser rolls, coiler head, and then into can. The sliver may be passed from one can to
combing for further removal of foreign matter and parallelization of fiber or directly to drawing.

After carding, several slivers are combined. This results in a relatively
narrow lap of compactly placed staple fibers. The compactness of these fibers permits this cotton
stock to be attenuated, or drawn out, to a sliver of smaller diameter without falling apart.

When the fiber is intended for fine yarns, the sliver is put through an
additional straightening called COMBING. In this operation, fine-toothed combs continue
straightening the fibers until they are arranged with such a high degree of parallelism that the
short fibers, called noils, are combed out and completely separated out from the longer fibers.
The combing process forms a comb sliver made of the longest fibers, which, in turn, produces a
smoother and more even yarn. This operation as much as 25% of the original card sliver; thus
almost one fourth of the raw cotton becomes waste. The combing process, therefore, is identified
with consumer goods of better quality. Since long-staple yarns produce stronger, smoother, and
more serviceable fabrics, quality cotton goods carry labels indicating that they are made from
combed yarns or combed yarns.
(Combing process)

The combining of several fibers for the drawing, or drafting, process
eliminates irregularities that would cause too much variation if the slivers were pulling through
singly. The draw frame has several pairs of rollers, each advanced set of which revolves at a
progressively faster speed. This action pulls the staple lengthwise over each other, thereby
producing longer and thinner slivers. After several stages of drawing out, the condensed sliver is
taken to the slubber, where rollers similar to those in the drawing frame draw out the cotton
further. Here the slubbing is passed to the spindles, where it is given its first twist and is then
wound on bobbins.
Her six cans that were filled at cards feed each drawing from delivery. The spoons are connected
so that if any one of the six slivers from can should break, the machine automatically stops. This
prevents making uneven yarn later. Each of four set of rolls runs successively faster than
preceding set. The last set runs approximately six times as the first set; consequently, sliver
coming out is the same size as each one of six going in. but is attenuated to six times the length
per minute. The sliver is neatly coiled again in roving can by coiler head. The sliver is now much
more uniform and fibers much more nearly parallel. The sliver is now ready for roving frames.

(Drawing process-6 cans of comb (After drawing process)

sliver been fed)

(Inner arrangement-helical) (Cover) (Spring + helical structure)

These bobbins are placed on the roving frame, where further drawing out
and twisting take place until the cotton stock is about the diameter of a pencil lead. There are two
stages of roving; intermediate and fine. The operations are identical, but each machine yields a
finer product than the stock is received. Roving is the final product of several drawing out
operations. It is a preparatory stage for the final insertion of twist. To this point, only enough
twist has been given the stock to hold the fibers together. Roving has not tensile strength; it will
break apart easily with any easy pull.
The can of sliver from drawing frames is fed between three sets of drafting
rolls. Each following set of rolls runs faster than preceding sets. This pulls sliver and thins it
down, making fibers nearly parallel. The spindle turns flyer and is driven at a constant speed.
The front rolls (nearest flyer) are set at a sped that gives strand coming out of the rolls a
predetermined number of turns of twist per inch as it moves along between rolls and flyer. The
bobbin is driven by a source separate from gear that drives spindle and flyer. The bobbin is
regulated to turn automatically at a speed sufficiently faster than flyer, which causes roving to
wind on bobbin at same rate as it is delivered by front roll.


(Speed frame-back side) (Speed frame-front view-120


The roving, on bobbins, is placed in the spinning frame, where it passes
through several sets of rollers running at successively higher rates of speed and is finally drawn
out to yarn of the size desired. Spinning machines are of two types; ring frame and mule frame.
The ring frame is faster process, but produces a relatively coarse yarn. for very fine yarns, such
as worsted, the mule frame is required because of its slow, intermittent operation. The ring
frame, which is general in use, is more suitable for the manufacture of cotton yarns in mass
production. Its hundreds of spindles, whirling thousands of revolutions per minute, and its
constant spinning action provide a fast operation. The ring spinning frame completes the
manufacture of yarn (1) by drawing out the roving (2) by inserting twist, and (3) by winding the
yarn on bobbins-all in one operation. The bobbins of yarn are removed for such processing as
may be desired; for example, the yarn may be reeled into skeins for bleaching or may be wound
on cheeses, or spools, for ultimate weaving.
The principle of spinning is same as that used in roving except that the
operation is more refined and a ring and traveler are used instead of the flyer. From bobbin
roving is fed between set of drafting rolls to draw strand down to its final desired size. The
spindle turns bobbin at a constant speed. The front set of rolls is adjusted to deliver yarn at a
speed sufficient to insert desired mount of twist as strand moves along. The traveler glides freely
around ring. The tension caused by drag of traveler causes yarn to wind on bobbin at same rate
of speed as it delivered by rolls.

(Ring Frame)























(m/c form) New New Old New Old
SHELLROLL 11 11 11 11 9
LAP WEIGHT 20 20 20 20 13.2
LAP LENGTH 44.4 56 61 66.6 90
GRAMMO 450 400 330 300 300
TOLERANCE + or – 300gm + or – + or – + or – + or – 300gm
LIMIT 300gm 300gm 300gm
1. CV% of count
2. CV% of strength
3 .C.S.P
4 .U% & imperfection ( thin, thick, neps) & yarn hairiness.
5. Classimat faults

o Raw material faults

o 16 class faults(A to D)
o Long thick faults(E+F+G)
o Long thin faults(H+I)
o Objectionable fault(A4+B4+C3+C4+D3+D4)
6. T P I
7. Single yarn strength (gm)
8. R.K.M
9. CV% of single yarn strength
10. CV% of elongation


o Yarn dyed fabric

o Corduroys pile fabric
o Bottom weights fabrics
o Dobby fabrics & poplins

Trutzschler blow room line with TRUMAC 1992 1
two finisher scutchers
New trutzschler blow room line TRUMAC 2000 1
with one finisher scutcher
Old synthetic blow room line with Laxmi-Reiter 1978 1
one scutcher
Pre filter & fine filter unit TRUMAC 1998 1
CVT – 3 TRUMAC 1999 1
Roving waste opener TATHAMS 1960 1
Bonda waste opener TATHAMS 1960 1
Bale braker PLATTS 1946 1
Mixing bale opener(MBO) Laxmi-Reiter 1989 1
Trutzschler DK-740 card TRUMAC 1997-98 8
Trutzschler DK-780 cards TRUMAC 1998 4
Trutzschler DK-780 cards TRUMAC 2000 4
Waste collection system TRUMAC 1998 1
R.S.G grinder complete PERFECT 2000 1
High speed comber E7/4(old) Laxmi-Reiter 1991-92 4
High speed comber E7/4 Laxmi-Reiter 1995-96 4
High speed comber LK-250 Laxmi-Reiter 1998-99 6
Lap former E 2/4A Laxmi-Reiter 1994 1
Lao former E2/4A Laxmi-Reiter 1997 1
High speed comber LK-250 Laxmi-Reiter 2002 2
HS draw frame DO/6 model Laxmi-Reiter 1989 2
HS draw frame padmatex – 720 Padmatex 1992 4
HS RSB – 1 draw frame RIETER 1998 2
HS RSB – D – 30 draw frame RIETER 1999 2
Speed frame TS-15 model TEXTOOL 1992 4
Speed frame TS-15 model TEXTOOL 1994 1
Speed frame LF-1400 Laxmi-Reiter 1989 4
Speed frame LF-1400A Laxmi-Reiter 1997-98 2
Speed frame LF-1400A Laxmi-Reiter 2000 1
Ring frame MEI MEI 1989 4
Rig frame DJ-50N MODEL TEXTOOL 1992-93 50
Parallel winding m/c KAMITSU 1964 1
Parallel winding m/c KAMITSU 1971 1
Super doublers NMM 1978 1
T.F.O VEEJAY LAKSHMI 1999-2000 3
Cot mounting m/c C&C 1972 1
Cot mounting m/c DRONSFIELDS 1960 1
Cot mounting m/c VIRAJKA 1998 1
Cot buffing m/c SABAR 1980 1
Cot buffing m/c S draft DENIMAC 1992 1
Cot bercolising m/c H.SAGAR 1989 1



SME – 2
SME - 1



When dyeing is done after the fiber has been spun into yarn, it is described yarn
dyeing. There are several methods of yarn dyeing. The purpose is to have the dyestuff penetrate
to the fibers in the core of the yarn; this is similar to the penetration of the fibers in stock dyeing.
Cloth made of dyed yarns is called yarn dyed.
Yarn dyed fabrics are usually deeper and richer in color. Yarn dyed fabrics intended for
laundering must be quite colorfast, or bleeding could occur. The primary reason for dyeing in the
yarn form is to create interesting checks, stripes, and plaids with different –colored yarns in the
weaving process. Chambrays, for example, are usually woven with a colored warp and white
filling. Other combinations of different colored yarns are checked gingham, shepherd’s check,
plaid, seersucker, and heather mixtures.

Yarns can be dyed in the form of skeins or packages. Package-dyed yarns are more suitable for
woven fabrics, whereas skein-dyed yarns as more suitable for knits and carpets where a fuller
bulk is more desirable. However, package dyeing can be performed on a much larger scale and
with more uniform results. Consequently, it is the more commonly-used method.


In these enclosed machines where dyeing under pressure can take place, the
dye-liquor is circulated through wound packages of yarn until the dye is evenly exhausted. The
yarn is wound onto perforated tubes or springs, or other types of holders and the packages
formed are then mounted onto a perforated rod (spindle) or tube. In a commercial dyeing
machine seven hundred packages are tightly packed on a number of spindles which are arranged
vertically on a hollow base (the carrier).After loading, the carrier is dropped into a seating in the
dyeing tank, through which the dye-liquor is circulated. The dye-liquor is pumped through the
packages in either direction, according to need.

Yarn package

Main tank

(Carrier inserting into the main tank)

These type of machines are also used, with the

proper modification, to dye loose fibers, tops and sliver, and warp
yarns. In dyeing warp yarns, a single perforated cylinder of the yarns
fits into the seating of the dye tank.
Packages that are too loosely wound may
collapse during the dyeing process. However, packages that are
too tightly wound may interface with the circulation of the dye-
liquor. In any case, the packages must be wound as uniformly as
possible. Sudden pressures changes should be avoided to
prevent possible distortion of the packages. Therefore, newer
package dyeing machines have the capability of controlling both
flow and differential pressure. Many times the packages are covered by a protective bag which
acts as a filter to prevent deposits of insoluble dye and other impurities on the yarn.
Modern package dyeing machines are made to operate at low liquor ratios. This
is achieved by eliminating the external expansion tank.
Yarn dyeing is done in mainly two stages:-


o Customer gives sample with its all specifications like count, color etc. The sample given is
generally known as eskloon (handkerchief shape).

o It is then checked in lab. There they will check it in a particular design like how many
threads they need.

o Then in hang form dyeing take place

o Approval from buyer. records of number of chemicals and recipe kept

o If its not correct they will re-produce or re-process. But if the quantity of shade required is
very less like 2 warp yarns in long intervals then shade variation in the cone can be tolerated.

o If approved go for bulk order


o Production Planning Department takes charge of bulk order. Depending on load, capacity,
constraint, date is fixed.


2.1 Receives soft package from winding department

o Yarn packages from winding department been received.

o There is a spring attached to the yarn package which helps in shrinking the yarn

o Uniform dyeing not possible if we use paper corn winded Yarn.

o So we generally use spring winding so that more yarn can be wounded as well as gives
uniform winding.

o It basically helps in loading process.

o Recipe is been made according to development stage.

o As per availability of recipe and P.P.C department dyeing is been done.

2.2 Loading yarn packages to carrier

o These packages are put in a carriage in compressed form.

o The main principle behind this is mechanism of compression. There is a pressing

device which compresses the packages.

o There is long cylindrical rod –spindle in which spring wounded yarns are been kept.
These rods have small pores in it which allows movement of dyeing chemicals in and
out during dyeing process.

o In each spindle there can be maximum 11 yarn packages can be kept. But it again
depends on compression mechanism.

o Compression is done according to

:-density package
:- vessel height in which these yarns are been dyed.

o These spindles are attached to a carrier. In one 400 kg carrier there can be almost 61

2.3 Dyeing

o The dyeing machine consist of:-

It depends on light, medium, dark, reactive dyes. All details are feeded onto the
processor and locked. as per the requirement one program is used.
:-Closing tank
In this chemicals are been put. And tube passes from this tank to main tank through
which chemicals pass through.
:-Main tank
It’s the main tank in which carrier is been put.

o First they put the carriage in the main tank in which 900 liters of water is been filled.
o Then chemical is put into chamber which later goes to closing tank.
o Programming done-according to chemicals, water, temperature
o Water coming out from bottom of spindle and spreads out.
o There are mainly two stages;-in –out and out-in
o 9-10 hrs is taken for dyeing 1 carrier.
o Capacity is 5-6 tones/day
After dyeing process almost double amount of water is present inside the package. Then water
comes down due to gravity.
There is another system known as automatic dosing system. In this chemicals
are put in different tank according to color we want program is been feeded and the chemicals
are taken automatically from these tanks and recipe is made.

(The rod is made of steel and

no holes present n it so that it
controls the movement of
In-out water in and through.)


Porous Dummy
spindle spindle
In same vessel we can have different
capacity. There are carriers known as dummy
carriers. These carriers consist of dummy
spindles. Dummy spindles are plain rod which doesn’t
have holes in them so that when dyeing process takes
place water is not wasted in and out through these
spindles. So these rods block the movement of water in
and out through the spindle.
Suppose in a 100kg m/c we want only 80 kg yarns to be dyed. We have to put all the spindles but
we cant waste 20 kg of dyed yarn. And if we use the simple porous spindles then most of the
colored water will try to come out of that spindle because the pressure applied is very less in
those spindles. So, variation in color may arise. In that situation we use dummy spindles which is
covered with the steel for the equal distribution of pressure of water in all the spindles. And it
also helps out in shade variation problem.

2.4 Hydro extractor

After dyeing yarn contain almost
double amount of water. This is been removed
through a hydro extractor. It consists of a l
oading device in which yarns are kept. Then this
is put into a chamber. Inside this chamber
the load rotate in a speed of 1700rpm. Time
taken is 10 minutes. Due to the
centrifugal force water comes out.
8 yarn package in 1 floor
Total 2 floors present
2.5 R.F.Dryer (Radio Frequency Dryer)
After hydro extracting there is still some amount of water present inside the yarn. Through radio
frequency further drying is been done.I n this dryer machine electrodes are present, which create
an electromagnetic field.H+ and O- polar molecules are been produced.This start vibrating and
create energy. Therefore H+ and O- get split. In
this temperature has to be controlled and also
height between these electrodes and yarns
have to be maintained.
Electrode 283.0mm
Conv.speed 5.7 m/h
Anode Ja 11.7 A
Grid Ig 2.4 A
After the drying process, the yarn packages are winded in a cone, like 2 yarn packages are
winded in one cone to check for the shade variation among different yarn packages.
1. Shade matching
If the shade is not matching this can be rectified by reprocessing it.
2. Levelness of package
From 2 cheese to 1 cone

Dyes generally used are vat, reactive dyes.

Colors used:-



Cotton yarn can be made into cloth by knitting or weaving but weaving is by far the most
important and the only one used here. Weaving is carried out on a loom where warp yarns run
lengthways from back to front. Using a shuttle, weft yarn is threaded widthwise. In early times,
using a hand-loom, it was found to be much difficult to raise alternate warp threads and lower the
others. The weft could then be carried between them in a straight line. The position of the warp
threads was then reversed and the weft sent back in the opposite direction.


The yarns as manufactured and packaged after spinning are not in the optimum condition to enter
the looms directly so as to produce fabrics. Package size, build and other factors make it necessary
for the yarn to be further processed to prepare it to be handled efficiently during fabric
manufacturing. The yarn package as it comes from spinning must be repackaged to meet the
particular needs and demands of fabric manufacturing.
Various steps for preparatory process of yarn for weaving are as follows:






OBJECTIVE: To transfer yarn from spinner bobbin to another suitable package for warping

 The fault level in the yarn must be reduced to an acceptable level.
 The yarn must not be damaged in the winding process.
 The package size, shape and build must be suitable for particular end use.
 The package size should be controlled to meet the particular economic requirement.

i) AUTOCONERS: These are machines used to remove impurities, irregularities, and imperfections
like thick or thin places, slubs, nebs or loose fibers from the yarn obtained from spinning. There is
a special feature called ‘auto-doffing’ in all of these. In this mechanism, after the yarn package
finishes, another package automatically drops and the winding process continues.
Doffing capacity = 60 doffs per hour.
Weight of the yarn = yarn length/ (1694* yarn count)

There are three types of autoconers used in the winding department:

a.) MURATEC MACHINE CONER 138 : Separation of electrics, pneumatics and mechanics
No. of machines = 2
No. of spindles in each machine=60

b.) SCHLAFHORST AUTOCONER 238 : Single( individual) spindle machine

 Automatic splicing.
 Uniform tension
 Electrode sensors are present
No. of machines = 2
No. of spindles in each machine=60

c.) SCHLAFHORST AUTOCONER 338 : Sensor-controlled winding process.

This is the latest machine with the following features:
 Uniform yarn tension.
 Ecopack: Exact length measurement. Accuracy is
measured in terms of micro and millimeters.
 Variopack: For stretchable yarns, to achieve uniform tension
without destroying the shape.
 Cradle pressure: Proper compact package to maintain uniform
 Speed: Fastest machine fully computerized.
No. of machines = 2
No. of spindles in each machine=60


Here, the length of yarn to be winded can be feeded and after the length is achieved, the machine
automatically stops.
Number of machines = 1
Number of winders in each machine = 6


Every yarn has a different level of hairiness. To avoid this, yarn singeing is done. A mixture of
certain volume of gas and air at a certain speed and temperature is used in the burner. As the yarn
passes through the burner, only the protruding fibers get singed. Yarn singeing is generally done
for stripe qualities, where the ground is of the same color.


Cone : this comprises of one or more threads, which are laid very nearly parallel to layers already
existing in the package. It may be tapered in both sides and package weight varies from 1-2 kgs.
Cheese : This consists of a single thread, which is laid in the package at an appreciable helix angle
so that the layers cross one another to yield stability. It is generally in cylindrical form and weight
varies from 1-2 kgs.

OBJECTIVE: To arrange a convenient number of warp yarns that can be collected in a sheet form
and wound on to a warper’s beam.
There are two types of warping methods followed:
i) DIRECT WARPING (BEAM WARPING): It is used for long
runs of grey yarns, single color yarns and simple patterns
of colored yarns. It can be used to make warp sheets. The
total amount of colored yarns involved is less than 15% of the total.
Direct warping machines are not computerized.
No. of direct warping machines = 3(JUPITER)
Suction devices are provided in between warping machines which suck all the unwanted cotton
fibers flying.


used for short runs especially for fancy pattern fabrics
where the amount of colored yarn is more than 15% of the
Sectional warping is a quick way to warp a loom with a
sectional warp beam and is best suited for very long warps (15 yards or more), any size or style of
yarn and 2 inch repeats (most sections on a sectional warp beam are 2" wide). It is not very well
suited for mixed warps with many or random yarn changes. It also requires more space and
equipment than other warping methods - spool rack with bobbins, bobbin winder, sley hook and a
tension box or warping paddle/guide.


i. Warp is winded onto spools (bobbins) - One spool per each warp end per 2" of warp. Only one
section of sectional warp beam is winded at a time.
Therefore the spool rack should hold the number of
bobbins of warp needed to fill one section of beam at
the desired number of ends per inch. If the weaving is
set at 12 e.p.i, and the sectional warp beam sections
are 2", 24 bobbins of warp are needed in the spool
rack (2" x 12 e.p.i. = 24 warp ends, hence 24 bobbins
per 2" section).
ii. The spool rack is positioned behind the loom.
iii. The warp is centered and number of warp sections is counted. For a 28" wide fabric, the center 14
sections are used (28" divided by 2" sections = 14 sections).
iv. A cord is tied to the warp beam in each of the sections used.

v. A warp end is
threaded from
each bobbin
through the tension box or warping paddle. The tension box or guide should be attached to the
back beam to help in winding the warp ends onto each section with even tension. The width of the
spread in the tension box reed or guide/paddle should be slightly less than 2" to allow for the width
of the pegs on the sectional warp beam. There may be a need to put more than one end per dent or
paddle hole to achieve this.
vi. The bundle of warp ends is knotted as close to the end as possible.
vii. Beginning at either of the outside sections of the specified sections, the cord is tied from the warp
beam to the knotted warp ends using a clove hitch knot. The tension box or paddle is positioned on
the back beam directly above the section to be filled. Note: the bobbins on the spool rack are
heavier at the beginning of the warping process. This weight makes the first sections tighter than
the later ones. It is best to have the tighter sections on the outside edges. Starting at one side and
filling sections in order straight across the beam will produce fabric with warps tight on one end
and loose on the other. Similarly, starting at the center and working towards the edges will produce
fabric with rippled edges.
viii. The beam is turned, watching carefully to see that the section fills evenly. If the warp piles up
unevenly, position of the tension box is adjusted. Each
revolution of the beam is counted as first section is filled. All
the other sections should be filled with the same number of turns
to avoid tension problems in the warp.
ix. When the section is full, a piece of masking tape is placed across the warp ends to keep them in
order. The tape takes the place of a cross. The warp is then cut one inch beyond the tape. The tape
is pinned into the filled section to secure it.
x. The tension box or paddle is moved to the other outside section and filled.
xi. When all the sections are full, pins are removed from each section and warp is pulled over the back
beam toward the shafts. A long stick is laid across the width of the loom and tied to the sides of the
loom to secure. The warp sections are taped to this stick.
xii. Thread the loom is threaded as for warping back to front (heddles are threaded; the reed is slayed
and tied onto the front apron rod).

The sectional warping machine consists of a drum which can slightly shift horizontally as the
sections of yarn are being rotated on it. Length of the drum is marked on it. The warp yarns comes
from a predefined arrangement of cones as per the color and design of the fabric. Length and width
of each section of yarn is calculated and each section is warped in a slanting manner on the drum
to avoid intermingling of sections. A lace is introduced and tied at the end hooks of the drum after
each section of yarns is separated by a rod. After all the sections are winded on the drum, this
beam is than winded on to a beam by the help of a roller. This beam is called the warp beam.
The sectional warping machines are fully computerized.
Creel capacity = 672
Hence, no. of sections = 672/ (no. of ends per section)

No. of sectional warping machines = 9 (PRASHANT GAMATEX, SUCKER MULLER


 Separate warping & beaming structure

Separate warping & beaming structure ensures smooth vibration free operation at high speed as
well as at higher winding tensions. This division into units provides greater processing flexibility
such as.
i. Allowing the machine to be operated with single or multiple creel for higher productivity in
respect to capital investment.

ii. Easy to reach the warping reel from every position during the different working phases.

iii. Facility to add the additional unit like waxing etc.

iv. Extremely convenient in operation and maintenance.

 Hydraulic Disc Brakes

To ensure gentle but extremely effective stopping of the machine, disc brakes are provided on both
sides of the drum, New Caliper braking device having sideways installation facilitate easy
servicing and settings of brake liners.

 Constant Beaming Tension

Most important and high technological feature only offered by 'Prashant Gamatex' to produce
perfect weavers beam to get optimum efficiency for automatic looms. Proportional control of the
brakes in our high tech Hydraulic power pack with the help of advance electronics, monitors
constant tension of the yarn sheet during beaming.

 Digital / Graphic On Line Display for desired process data

Intelligent Operational Panel (I.O.P.) having large size Digital display or graphic display is
provided for indicating total length, partial length, No. of section, section width, rotation as well as
all the messages and fault finding indications in case of machine stoppage.

 Solid steel drum - Dynamically balanced.

 Frequency variable A/C drives
 Hydraulic doffing & donning device
 Auto section advancing
 Constant warping and beaming speed
 Lost end memory & auto stop during beaming
Broken and lost end during warping can be memorized. Machine stops automatically before lost
end position during beaming to trace and tie the lost end to complete warp. This increases the
overall efficiency of high speed looms. All lost end data can be monitored on screen at a time and
also can take printout of the same.

 On Site Programming Facility

The design is inbuilt to memorize atleast 100 sets of different programs, which can be easily called
back and start the machine without any further delay
 Individually Controlled Tensioner Type model

Perfect warp beam can only be produced when tension of each

individual end is absolutely constant, irrespective of warping
speed, package diameter, or the types of yarn, we offer high tech
solution to meet all these demand for quality conscious

 To improve strength and abrasion resistance of the warp yarns by causing the fibers to adhere
 To make smooth and to lubricate the warp yarns so that there is minimum friction where they rub
together various parts in the weaving process.

In the weaving process, the warp yarns are subjected to rubbing and chafing against various
metallic parts of the looms as they are threaded through backrest, drop wires, harness and reed.
They constantly are rubbed together during shedding.
The warp yarns are subjected to tension constantly as well as intermittently during let-off, take-up,
shedding and beat up.
These two reasons lead to increase the end breakage level during weaving, which should be

Adhesives: Modified starch (texoplast), fabric glue, thin volume starch, Potato starch, starch from
corn, wheat, rice, etc., Carboxyl methyl cellulose (CMC), Poly-vinyl alcohol (PVA), Polyester
resin (acts as binder).
Mineral waxes, oils, vegetable waxes and oils, animal fats

Salicylic acid, zinc chloride, phenol, emulsifier, softeners, Polyethylene glycol
CHEMICAL 16Te 40COL 40 50 60 70 20 16OE Sample
GREY sizing
Texoplast 40 50 50 70 60 50 20 70 ___
PVA 6 6 10 10 10 15 ___ 10 8
Falixlose 25 25 25 ___ ___ ___ 60 20 ___
Seycofilm 4 6 6 12 15 15 4 6 3
M. Tallow 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 4 3
Pep 1000 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 100 ___
LV 40 1 ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___ ___
Water 15’’ 14.5’’ 14.5’’ 14’’ 14’’ 14’’ 14’’ 17’’ 100

1’’= 37.75 litres

1) SUCKER MULLER –HACOBA with PLC device( programmable logic control)
No. of machines = 1
2) JUPITER ( No. of machines = 1)


3) AMBICA ( No. of machines = 1)

No PLC device is present in this machine.
Sizing machine SE – C has one pair of squeezing rollers.
Sizing machine SD – C has two pairs of squeezing rollers.


1.) FEEDING DEVICE: Obtain a good point of grip for the warp.
This comprises of the following parts:
 Pressure roller: This has two main functions:
Stretch measurement and pulse generation.
 Carrier roller:carries the warp yarns forward
 Floating roller: determines the drawing force between carrier roller and first pair of squeezing
rollers. Measured value is indicated on the scale.
 Control bridge : protects the entire arrangement. The pneumatically operated bridge automatically
follows the roller movements.
 Rotary switch : lifts the pressure roller off the carrier roller pneumatically to allow knots or the
feed aid to be pulled through when the warp is being fed in.
It also moves the rollers back together.
 Guide roller: serves the pupose of length measurement in cases where sizing continues filament
 Contactless switch: Attached to a roller bearing. Pulses are transmitted to a second measuring
instrument (meter counter or stretch measuring device) located elsewhere.

These rollers should be brushed down with hot water containing a desizing agent before long
periods out of use to wash out all traces of size from the pores.
 The agent reaction time must be kept short to rule out solubilization of the roller surface.
Immediately afterwards, the cleaning agent is neutralized and removed with water.
 When regrinding one of the bottom squeeze rollers on a sizing machine with two squeezers(SD-C),
the roller with the largest external diameter must be installed in the last squeezer.
 Difference between two sqeezers in the first and second roller should not exceed 0.2 mm.
 Three type of grindings: rough, normal and fine.
 The rollers should be stored at 20 degree centigrade in a dark room and should be lifted only by
 Stuffing box packing: ‘Kevlar Aramide’ packing code is used. If tightened too securely,
i) Packing cord coated with Teflon on the backing will burn and sealing effect can be lost.
ii) Can lead to damage of bearings.

Automatic squeezing roller control ( PLC) : The pneumatic load on the squeezing roller is
increased and decreased according to the operating statuses of the machine.
Squeezing pressure is usually set lower for standstill and creep speed than for normal speed.
The squeezing pressure control facility allows the squeezing roller pressure to be adjusted
depending on warp speed.
The programmable logic control device helps in checking the amount of size imparted to a single
yarn. It measures the degree of viscosity of each individual yarn and sends a signal to the squeeze
roller. If the amount of size imparted is more, the pressure of squeeze roller has to be increased and
FQ2 V2
( KN)


Speed (m /min)


Maximum permissible steam pressure = 3.5 bar
If the customer wishes to work with lower steam pressures, a separate pressure reducing valve and
a safety valve must be installed.
There is an electro- pneumatic temperature control system.

 Heating and temperature control:

Heating is done by two systems:
i) Direct: By injecting steam directly into the size in the preliminary and main troughs by way of
distributor tubes. A condensate drain is used to prevent the size being watered down.
ii) Indirect: By injecting steam into the double wall of the size trough and thus heating a water
bath, which in turn heats the size.
Temperature of size is measured by a PT 100 temperature sensor in the main trough. Temperature
is regulated by means of a pneumatically controlled valve.
 Temperature restriction of indirect heating:
Sensor of the control valve is installed in the expanded cross section of pressure compensation
Water temperature = 80 degree centigrade
Size temperature = 70 degree centigrade
If internal heating temperature is too high, size can become baked on trough walls.


The condensate must be able to drain off at zero pressure. It consists of:
i) Double walled water bath.
ii) Sensor of temperature control valve.
iii)Condensate and pressure compensation line


The liquid level in the main trough is monitored with a bead tube. If the level falls too low, the
system shuts down.


If degree of sizing is too high or low, risk of thread breaks is increased.
Degree of sizing(%) = [Sa(%) * K(%)] / (100%) ; where
Sa = Sizing liquor take up. It is the ratio of the liquor taken up to the weight of untreated yarn.
K = Concentration. It is measured by a refractometer.


i) Concentration
ii) Viscosity of sizing liquor
iii)Temperature of sizing liquor
iv) Speed
v) Squeezing pressure
 Steam pressure:
Operating pressure = 0.5 to 3.5 bar
 Steam quantity:
SE-C = 50 kg/h
SD-C = 80 kg/h
 Condensate : must drain without back press.
 Air pressure :
Maximum Operating pressure = 10 bar
With squeezing pressure upto:-
60 KN => 6,5 bar
100KN => 8,5 bar
 Air quantity:
SE-C = 1.15 cubic mt/h (intake)
SE-D = 1.65 cubic mt/h
Air must be free of water, dust and oil.


This is used to apply various oils or waxes to the warp after sizing. It is fitted at the beginning of the
dry splitting zone immediately after the dancing roller, where the warp is still undivided.
This device consists of:
i) A melting funnel for solid media (waxes).
ii) A tray to contain the lubricant:
a) Tray is made of stainless steel and protected from fiber fly and other impurities with
cover plates.
b) The tray has a heating coil for internal heating.
c) Wax temperature in tray is controlled by a temperature controller and a pneumatic
d) Lubricant can only be removed via drain cock
iii) An applicator roll:
a) Made of stainless steel with a specially treated surface.
b) Driven in properly to the sizing machine’s warp speed by a frequency – regulated 3-
phase a.c. motor with a worm gear.
iv) if liquid media (oils) are used, it is fed via a transparent bottle with a capacity of 10 liters.

Sizing machine layout plan:


All the warp threads have to be threaded through the heald eyelet and its gap in the reed prior to
weaving. The heald is the part of the loom that is used to move the warp threads up and down. The
threads pass through eyelets on the heald. For a simple weave pattern alternate eyelets are moved up
to raise the corresponding warp threads, and the threads between are moved down. When the shuttle
travels back their positions are reversed. The reed is like a comb and its purpose is to control the
separation of the warp threads.
Some basic terms:

PREPATORY PROCESS FOR DRAWING-IN: The open space between each wire of the hook is
called dent. A warp end is passed through a dent with the help of the reed hook, after it passes
through the heald. This process is called denting.
Automatic drawing-in machines multiply the productivity
of each drawing-in operation 5- to 10- times in relation to
manual drawing-in thus enabling the required level of
processing flexibility.

1) STAUBLI DELTA 200 : The DELTA 200 is a high-performance drawing-in installation. It is used
wherever high production performance, a wide field of applications, and maximum flexibility are
required. The DELTA 200 draws-in warp yarns directly from the warp beam with 1 or 2 sheets, and
optionally up to 4 sheets.

2) STAUBLI DELTA 110 : These drawing-in installations are designed for weaving mills with
medium drawing-in requirements. The DELTA 110 also handles drop wires and is a universal
installation. Furthermore, a module is available that is specially designed for drawing-in course
yarns. Drawing-in takes place directly from the warp beam with 1 warp sheet, or optionally with 2
warp sheets.

Main characteristics:
DELTA 110 200
Drawing-in speed (ends/min) 100/140* 200
Number of warps in 8h (ca. ) 2-5 4-8
Warp widths (m) 2.3/ 4.0/ 6.0 2.2/ 2.8/ 4.0
Number of warp sheets 1 (2*) 2 (4*)
Reed density( teeth/ dm) 500 500
Max. number of frames (J/C-healds) 20 28
Max. number of frames (O-healds) 16 20
Max. rows of dropwires ____ 8
Number of dropwire paths ____ 2
Drawing-in element Hook Rapier
Yarn count range (tex) 3-250 3-330

MACHINE CONCEPT: Modular system

The different modules of these machines are as follows:
1) Main Module Basic Equipment:
Part modules:
 Control cabinet and electrics.
 Base Frame
i) Static auxiliary function
ii) Supporting unit for the machine infrastructure
iii) Holds electrics and pneumatics.

2) Yarn Drawn –in Module:

Serves to guide the separated warp ends through the heald, drop wire and reed.
3) Yarn Supply Module:
Part modules:
 Lifting Device
 Thread Frame
 Yarn Separation
 Yarn Supply
i) Handling the warp beam and thread sheet
ii) Separating and preparing the warp end for drawn- in.

4) Heald Module:
Part modules:
 Heald Magazine
 Heald Separation
 Heald Distribution
 Shaft holder\ Stave holder (harness truck)
i) Handling the healds from the magazine stack
ii) Distribution between the shafts

5) Reed Module:
Part module: Reed Transport
Function: Reed Handling
6) Drop Wire Module:
Part modules:
 Drop Wire Magazine
 Drop Wire Separating
 Drop Wire Distribution
 Drop Wire Transport( Harness Truck)
i) Magazing the drop wires.
ii) Distributing the drawn-in drop wires between the shafts.

7) Control Module
Part modules:
 Function Keyboard
 Control Keyboard
Function: Controls and co-ordinates the module computers assigned to the main module.

8) Master System Module

Part modules:
 Keyboard
 Monitor
 Master computer
 Printer
i) Accepts the drawn-in data from the operator
ii) Transmits it to the control computer.
iii) Manages the operating data.
iv) Visualizes the process sequence.

 Band gripper starts the drawing-in sequence before all modules are ready for drawing-in.
 If reed module is not ready, it reports after reed test.
 Gripper enters the dent (can be stopped if reed module is not ready, otherwise continues its
forward motion.
 Heald module reports at heald test. If it is not ready, band gripper is stopped before passing
through heald eye. If it is in ready state, gripper moves on.
 Drop wire module reports at drop wire test. If it is not ready, band gripper is stopped before
penetrating eye of the drop wire. If ready, gripper moves on.
 Yarn supply module reports at yarn test. If it is not ready, band gripper is stopped before entering
yarn take over. If ready, the gripper continues its motion.
 After yarn take over, band gripper which grips the yarn withdraws.
 Band gripper withdraws past the drop wire and heald positions.
 Drop wire and heald distribution systems move on.
 Reed transport ensures the reed position.
 Yarn ejectors are actuated in position ‘e’ and ‘f’ (in the diagram).
 One drawn-in cycle is over.

On the conventional loom, the warp beam is mounted at the back and the warp yarns are conveyed to
a cylinder called the cloth roll, which is at the front of the loom and on which the fabric is rolled as it
is constructed. Supported on the frame between these two cylinders( warp beam and cloth beam), the
warp yarns are ready to be interlaced by the filling yarns that run in the width of the cloth, thus
producing the woven fabric.
Four fundamental operations of weaving in any loom are as follows:
 Shedding: raising specific yarns by means of the harness or heddle frame.
 Picking : inserting filling yarns through the shed
 Beating up( battening) : pushing filling yarns firmly in place by means of the reed.
 Taking up and letting of : winding the finished fabric on the cloth beam and releasing more
of the warp from the warp beam.
Classification of power looms used is as follows:


No. of looms = 2


RAPIER LOOMS: these have a double rapier device that is, one on each side of the loom. one
rapier feeds the filling yarn halfway through the shed of warp yarns to the arm on the other side,
which reaches in and takes it across the rest of the way.
These rapier looms operate at speeds ranging from about 200 to 260 ppm at about the noise level
of missile looms. They can produce a wide variety of fabrics ranging from muslin to drapery and
upholstery materials.
AIRJET LOOMS: these looms use a jet of air to propel the filling yarn through the shed at rates
of up to 600 ppm. Air jet looms require uniform filling yarns. They are more suitable for use
with heavier than lighter yarns because the lighter weight yarns are more difficult to control
through the shed. Yet, if the yarn is too heavy, the airjet may not be able to carry the filling
across the loom. Within these restraints, the air-jet loom is effective and can produce a wide
variety of fabrics. These looms operate at a lower noise level than the shuttle, missile, or rapier

JACQUARD LOOMS: If the number of harnesses are more than 24, jacquard looms are used.
Any intricate design or motive can be developed using these looms. 10,000 ends can be
individually controlled in this loom

MACHINERY: Technical details


Installing the machine:

i) Lifting the machine by means of an

overhead conveyor or fork-lift truck. Always, the
right side is lifted first.
ii) Leveling of the machine: leveling is very
important for the productivity and life of the
machine. This has to be done with an accuracy of
0.3 mm/m over both the length and depth of
machine. The level position of the machine has to be checked in 3 places: on the two
frames and on the sley shaft.

Bidirectional communication : loom monitoring is done by the use of connector XCOMP at

the bottom of the control box .

Control clutch:
Control of the clutch and brake is obtained by a fixed programmed electric control. This
means that the current in the obtained clutch and brake coil can be changed by the micro-
processor, but can’t be adjusted through keyboard.
Voltage on the clutch and brake coil = 340 V dc
Resistance = 10 to 14 ohms.
Clearance between clutch disc and rotor = 0.3 to 0.9 mm.
Clearance between clutch disc and brake coil = 0 to 0.05 mm

Starting cycle (weaving):

It consists of three phases as follows:
 A current which is about 5 times more important than the nominal current is first sent, in
order to obtain a short regular movement of the clutch disc.
 An intervening over excitation level, which is about equal to 3 times the nominal current,
until the clutch disc stops slipping.
 A maintenance level, about equal to nominal current during the weaving cycle.

Weave settings for a symmetrical set-up of the warp beam with regard to the machine:

All settings can be carried out without warp beam and with the grippers in the machine.
 Marks on the reed holder
 Position of the slides
 The race board
 The lateral position of the left hand temple support
 The lateral position of the left hand temple profile
 Position of the filling guide
 Position of the right hand temple support
 Position of the right hand temple profile
 The temples: height and the lateral position.
 The reed :
i) Reed length (machine without tucking in device) = b + (35 to 40 mm)
(machine with tucking in device) = b + 70 mm;
Where, b = drawing-in width in the reed.
ii) Position of the first warp yarn in the reed:
Machine without tucking in device = 15 to 20 mm
Machine with tucking in device = 30 mm
iii) Position of the reed: 1mm from the filling guide.
 Position of the grippers (both left and right hand)
 Course of the gripper: should be done without a reed in the sley to avoid any damage on the
reed or grippers.
 Position of the gripper openers : sley position = 0 degree
 Setting of the gripper
Weave settings for an asymmetric set-up of the warp beam with regard to the machine:
Full set up is same as symmetrical except for that the left hand slide, temple profile, temple,
filling cutter and tucking-in device are not moved.
Filling and waste cutters:
There are two blades- fixed and movable both of which should be lubricated daily. Fix blade is
1mm below the filling yarn.
Cutters are driven by cam and operate on every pick.
 Tension of the filling clamp
 Setting of the filling cutter: both the blades are moved till the fix blade is 1mm from the
filling guide.
i) lateral position of cutter blades
ii) depth(backrest) position
iii) vertical position of fix blade
iv) vertical position of movable blade
v) cutting movement of the cutter
 Waste cutter:
i) Lateral position of waste cutter : 3mm from fabric selvedge
ii) Cutting pressure of the blades
iii) Vertical position: tip of the fix blade is 2mm below the fabric.
iv) Cutting stroke of the cutter
Filling presentation:
There are two types of filling presentations available:
 Independent filling presenter type W:
i) Position of the filling presentor : first hook at 185 mm from the left reed dent.
ii) Synchronization of the machine.
iii) Setting of the needle depth
 Independent filling presentor type Quickstep
i) Quickstep is an electronic filling presentor for 2-4-6 or 8 channels. Each channel is separately
driven by an electric motor. No mechanical drive of the filling presentation and the
synchronization with the machine is carried by microprocessor.
ii) Working: A channel can carry out two types of presentations:
a) A single presentation of a channel
b) Presenting the same channel several times.
Quickstep filling presentation is maintenance free and may consequently not be lubricated.

iii) Weave Settings : a) Mechanical

b) Synchronization
iv) Trouble shooting
1 Filling presentor Power supply is wrong/ wire is Replace or reconnect the wire/
doesn’t work not well connected/ no adjust the clearance between the
synchronization signal proximity switch and cam.
2 Irregular needle Moving arm and motor shaft are Tighten the screw on the moving
movement slipping/ motor doesn’t work arm/ replace the module unit.
3 Position of needle Motor polarity is connected the Change the wire connections in
inversed wrong way straight way

v) Mounting settings:
a) Replacing the motor of a module
b) Replacing the needle
c) Adjustment of needle on motor shaft

The shed:
 Position of the bottom shed: improving the gripper flight, bottom shed rests on the race board
as long as possible.
 Shed height is determined by position of two levers at a distance ‘c’.
C depends on harness frame number, required shed height, bottom shed pulled lower than the
guide plate.
 Synchronization of the dobby :
Sley position should be between 300 and 350 degrees.

The warp beam:

 Set up of warp beam – i) Symmetrical ii) Asymmetrical
Adjusting the position of the warp beam flanges with regard to the warp beam barrel.

 The backrest:
i) Set up of the back rest: Equipped with 2 rolls- tension roll and rotating roll.
ii) Height and depth of the back rest to be adjusted:
For height, the essential conditions are grain of the fabric, warp breakages. There is higher
position for plain weave/heavy cloth and lower position for silk/ filament yarn.
Depth depends on elasticity of warp yarns. For light fabrics, whip roller should be as far as
possible from heald frame and for heavy weights, it should be near to heald frame.

 Let off (with tension sensor, or feeling roller mounted)

i) Bevel gears adjusted for let off
ii) Spring diameter chosen for different colors
 Warp detector :
Height and inclination of warp detector should be so that :
i) Warp yarns of bottom shed slightly touch the cross beams of warp stop during open shed.
ii) Drop wires in the upper shed are lifted as little as possible by the warp yarns.

Take up motion
 ETU electronic take up: Independent servo motor controlled by microprocessor.
Main parts of the take up motor:
i) Take-up housing
ii) Take up rolls and pressure rolls
iii) Cloth roll and friction clutch
 Main oil bath of TU motion parts in TU housing
reduces wear and tear.
Reverse take up facility
Pick density can be changed through auto- setting
Rotation speed controlled by mp

 Functions of the parts:

i) TU Housing: transfer drive power, change speed, increase twisting force, continuity,

ii) TU Roll :
a) Leads the woven fabric smoothly away from the cloth roll. Pressing force of two pressure
rollers on both sides is the same.
b) Depending on the type of fabric, the pressure imparted by pressure roller keeps changing.
iii) Cloth Roll and Friction Clutch:
a) Woven fabric smoothly and evenly wound onto the cloth roll.
b) Friction clutch can be adjusted to suit the fabric construction, ensuring even wounding.
 Lubrication and maintenance of the take- up motion:
Following actions to be performed at regular intervals:
i) Oil level in the take-up housing is sufficient to lubricate the gears inside.
ii) Gears and chain wheels of the take-up roll should be lubricated. Same tension on both sides
should be maintained.
iii) Cloth roll clutch should not get stuck.

Leno Selvedge Device

 Fixation of the device :
i) Device with needles is fixed on the first Aluminium profile( closest to the weaver’s side).
ii) Back lath of the device is fixed on the second profile.
 Drawing- in of the yarns:
i) The needle yarns are drawn in through the hole through the side walls of the device. Upper
yarn is drawn through the eye of upper needle and bottom yarn is drawn through the eye of
bottom needle.
ii) The leno yarns are directly drawn in through the two slots of the plastic sliding piece. In
double leno motion, leno yarns are drawn in at both sides in the same way.
 Harness frames are put on harness crossing for easier drawing in. a distance of 15mm in the
reed is kept between the two groups of leno yarns in case of double leno mechanism.
 Working Principle:
Leno yarns are both drawn in through the diagonal slots of the plastic sliding pieces. Both
plastic pieces can move separately. The front piece has a magnet.
For upward motion of pieces, front piece remains at bottom with regard to back piece. For
downward motion of pieces, front piece remains at top with regard to back piece.
This can be divided into four phases:
i) Phase-I: Both leno yarns are positioned in the upper shed. Both needle yarns are positioned
in the bottom shed. One pick is inserted.
ii) Phase-II : Needles move upwards and leno yarns move downwards. At the movement of
harness crossing, leno yarns cross between needle yarns.
iii) Phase-III: Needle yarns are positioned completely upwards (in the upper shed )
Leno yarns are positioned completely downwards( in the bottom shed)
One pick is inserted.
iv) Phase-IV: Needles move downwards and leno yarns move upwards. During harness
crossing, leno yarns are again crossing between needle yarns. During weaving, one leno yarn is
straightened so that only one leno yarn is visible in the fabric.


 Fixation of the device.
 Drawing in of the yarns :
Drop heald yarn is drawn-in through the eye of the drop heald between the two listings.
Leno yarn is drawn-in between the two listings in same direction of drop heald yarn.
For easier drawing-in, machine is put in position with open shed. In case of double leno
mechanism, a distance of 15mm in the reed between the two groups of leno yarns is
 Working principle : movement of leno heddle is divided in 4 phases:
i) Phase I: At the moment of crossing, drop heddle yarn is positioned above leno yarn.
ii) Phase II : One listing is pulled downwards, drop heddle and other listing is pulled upwards.
Yarns obtain tension and are positioned under yarn guide which is lower than bottom shed. So
the leno yarn between listing and drop heddle will slide downwards. Drop heald yarn is pushed
upwards by drop heddle.
iii) Phase III: now, direction of both the listings is interchanged. Leno yarn is positioned under
drop heald yarn.( same as phase I)
iv) Phase IV : leno yarn slides downward between drop heddle and second listing. Needle yarn
is positioned in front of the drop heald yarn.( same as phase-II)
 Lateral position of the device:
Sley position: On machines equipped with dobby, all harness frames are placed downwards.
The devices are moved until they warp yarns.
 The shed height: For some fabrics, height of leno harnesses is set according to warp yarns.
 Position of the cam

Tucking-in Device
 After the inserted pick has been beaten up by the reed and when the selvedge ends hold the
weft, weft is taken along the length of the selvedge by gripper. Weft is then cut between the
selvedge gripper and the selvedge ends at 11mm from the first warp end by cutter.
 Construction:
Number of weft ends is doubled on the selvedge edge stroke. No problems occur with fabrics
having less picks/inch than ends/inch.
With square clothes or clothes having higher weft density, higher tensions are caused in the
selvedge because of large shrink.
Hence, risk of warp breakages in the selvedges is greater during weaving and difficulty may
occur in the finishing of the cloth coz of construction of selvedge.
i) Number of warp ends in selvedge zone should be reduced.
ii) The weave in selvedge zone should be changed
iii) Thinner warp yarns should be used in selvedge

Dense Warp Weft Density
Square fabric

Change Use fine

Reduce warp Reduce warp selvedge
density by 30% density by 15% warp ends

When the machine is equipped with a tucking in device, it is advisable to put extra heald wires
between the selvedges and ground fabric, so that the drawing-in can be changed between the
selvedges and the ground of the cloth.
Number of heald wires depends on length of the tucked ends. It selvedge is perfect, extra heald
wires should be cut out.
 Drawing-in of the first warp yarn and the leno yarns:
In case of machines with tucking in device, reed is 70 mm longer than the drawing-in of the
fabric. The reed is also set at a distance of 1mm from the filling guide.
The first warp yarn is drawn-in at 30mm from the first left hand reed dent.
At the right hand side, the right hand waste yarn is positioned at 35-40 mm from the last warp


Installing the machine

 Unloading the machine
 Moving the machine : The machine can be moved by means of a crane or fork- lift track or by
wheels. Appropriate lifting beam must be used. Whole length varies from 3760mm to 6470mm.
 Leveling the machine: Auxiliary tools for leveling the machine are :
i. A leveling instrument with an accuracy of 0.3mm/m
ii. Two hydraulic lifting jacks
iii. A lifting hook which supports front side of the frame.
iv. The back side is jacked up by means of the warp beam support.
 Glueing the machine: To prevent the machine from moving due to vibrations, it is glued to the
floor with a two component epoxy glue.
 Leveling the control panel support:
 Fixing the double warp beam
 Warp beam bearing poitions
 Installing the control box


The 1131 and 2231 CAN plus Prewinder

 Aligning the pre-winder
 Positioning the balloon breaker
 Changing the sense of rotation of prewinder
 4-pick insertion
The fixed main nozzle: Parts of the fixed nozzle are:-
 Replacing injectors
 Changing assignment
 Weaving setting
The fixed main nozzle should be positioned such that the line leading from the prewinder
drums’ centre to the movable main nozzle is as straight as possible.
The movable main nozzle
 Parts of the movable main nozzle are:-
i. One or more main nozzle modules
ii. Injector
iii. Air inlet
iv. Nozzle extension
The filling yarn count dictates which injector and main nozzle body will be used.
The fixed and movable main nozzle cannot be exchanged with each other.
Injectors are available in different types like conical and cylindrical. The internal operations
uniquely identify the different injectors.
 Replacing parts:
The following actions can be undertaken without dismantling the movable main nozzle from
the machine:- i) Replacing the injectors
ii) Replacing the main nozzle module

 Channel assignment: It is advisable to use the channel nearest to the reed.

 Setting the pressure: The pressure can be set on the front left side of the machine. The
pressure of the main nozzle determines the speed of the filling yarn.
 The filling clamp: there is a filling clamp per channel at the main nozzle inlet. It is open
during filling insertion and clamps the filling if insertion doesn’t take place.
 The directional nozzle: To lead the filling in a right direction during the insertion start.
 Weaving settings: This can be adjusted in two ways:
i) Lateral position
ii) Depth adjustment
 The swinging main nozzle: Switching mechanism

Relay nozzles
 Arranged over the entire length of the reed, these assist the movable main nozzle in
blowing the pick through the reed guiding channel. Relay nozzles are fitted to the right of
the last warp ends to direct the pick towards the suction mouth
 Relay nozzles are divided up into groups, in that each group of nozzles is served
independently by a dedicated relay nozzle value. The second and rest of the relay nozzles
are placed at uniform distances, i.e., 74mm from one another.
 The more the relay nozzle is turned towards the reed, the higher the yarn flight in the
insertion channel.
 The higher the pressure, the lower the yarn flight in the insertion channels.

The pneumatic control

 Compressed air
 Pressure regulators
The pressure for the relay nozzles must be set as low as possible with no weaving faults
occurring and with a minimum number of machine stops.
i) MAIN VALVE REGULATOR: Regulates pressure on buffer tank(s) for main nozzle.
Pressure of main nozzle determines the speed of filling yarns.
ii) AUXILIARY PRESSURE REGULATOR: Regulates the pressure for the auxiliary
functions: a) pistons of pick finder
b) Pre-winder, threading and PFT threading
c) Chimney stretching nozzle
d) Extraction nozzle
e) tucking-in device
f) Clamp on main nozzle
g) 8 color switching valve
This is set for fixed value 6 bar.
Auxiliary Pressure = Supply pressure – 1 bar
iii) LEFT RELAY NOZZLE REGULATOR: Regulates the pressure on the left hand relay
nozzle buffer tank.
iv) RIGHT RELAY NOZZLE REGULATOR: Regulates pressure on the RH relay nozzle
buffer tank.
iv) QUICK COUPLING: Pressure from different regulators can be measured by means of a
manometer through quick coupling.
 Air distribution :
i) Main distribution block
ii) Air to buffer tank fixed main nozzles
iii) Air to buffer tank movable main nozzles
iv) Air distribution block
v) Air to LH and RH buffer tank
vi) Pneumatic unit above movable main nozzle (pneumatic unit)
vii) ELCA on buffer tank
viii) Parking brake
ix) Value block, pick finding, counter flow
 Main Nozzle Modules
i) For movable main nozzle: Positioned on cross beam
ii) For fixed main nozzle: Positioned on power box support behind the left side cover
 Temple Nozzle
i) Used for a filling detector in front of the reed or next to the reed.
ii) To prevent yarn ends RH side from returning in the fabric, temple nozzle mounted on
temple support.
Chimney stretching nozzle
It ensures that the filling yarn remains stretched during the closing of the shed. Extraction nozzle
blows the filling waste out of the chimney stretching nozzle after the sley beat-up.

Stretching relay nozzles

Waste guide is used to keep long filling waste away from the fabric. Extraction nozzle blows the
filling waste behind the waste guide. Filling detector is mounted nest to last warp end.
Stretching nozzle is mounted next to filling detector. On machines equipped with a waste guide,
the stretching relay nozzle is positioned behind the waste guide.

Filling detectors (in front of reed and next to reed)

 To control the arrival of filling yarn at RH machine side.
 Transmission of arrival time data to microprocessor.
 To make machine stop when it detects a filling yarn.
The filling detector’s function is based on the reflection of a light beam. They should be regularly
cleaned by alkaline solution.

Filling cutter
 It cuts the filling at the LH machine side at the end of insertion.
 It is found on left side of the machine next to air preparation of the movable main nozzle.
 Timing of cutting: Time is set around 10 degrees and is adjustable for each channel separately.
 The filling clamp: Used for a better control of the filling yarn at the LH machine side.

The Dobby
 The outside cam motion
 Harness frames
The optimum height setting depends on a number of factors like article type, weave, and machine


 EFFICIENCY: Warp preparation on the TPF tying frame is fast
and comfortably.
Even at 600 knots per minute, the warp threads are drawn through the
weaving harness in a perfect manner. Practically all staple fiber and
filament yarns can be tied without extensive adjustments.

 QUALITY: The unique, patented electronic double thread detection of the TOPMATIC PC
operates in warps with or without lease. The considerable reduction in double threads and
redirected warp threads lead to an increased efficiency of the weaving machine.

 SPEED: 600 knots/minute, automatic repetition in case of a separation faults.

 YARN COUNT RANGE: 0.8-500 tex / Nm 2-1250 / Ne 1.2-740

 LEASE TYPE: All combinations in one machine, switch-over control for irregular lease
 DOUBLE END DETECTION: - Mechanical, for warps with lease
- Electronic, for warps with or without lease
 KNOT TYPES: - Single or double knots in one machine, selectable
- Length of knot ends selectable (optional)
GT511 electronic jacquard adapts 16-bit high per performance handler
for providing big function and ease of operation.
 The dot pattern liquid crystal display has Chinese operation I/F.
 The controller is equipped with 1.44 MB, DOS compatible, 3.5’’
floppy disc drive.
 Maximum speed = 1000picks/ minute
 Memory capacity = 8 MB. Therefore, data will not miss when in de-energized state, for
storing designs transmitted from floppy disc, to edit and weave the complicated JOB, which
is formed by various kinds of patterns.
 Information in the controller and loom can be preserved.
 Controller has configuration function, if used on special looms. Parameters like warp
program, weft program can be set.
 It has eight LED’s on the panel to display the state of supply, controller and loom.
 System will automatically start to self test when energized or operated and provide loom’s
test program for test weave when djusting the loom. .
 Many anti-interference ways to control power interference, radiation interference and
conduction interference.
 Each operation has detailed instruction, it is not necessary for the customer to remember too
much of the procedure.
CONTROLLER FASIA: This includes:
 LCD modular
 8 LED’s
 20 buttons
 Temperature = -5 to 40 degree Centigrade
 Relative humidity = 0% to 95% non condensation
 Power = 110 V +- 15% , 45 – 60 Hz
 Power consumption = 60 watts
 Running state: LCD model displays
i) Job number
ii) Pattern name
iii) Weaved cycles
iv) Remaining cycles
v) Weave pattern cycles
vi) Current pick
vii) Current speed

 Pattern program
 Application program
viii)Pattern application program :
a) Pattern directory
b) Memory usage
c) Pattern conversion
d) Return

ix) Job list application program :

a) Edit
b) Weave from first job
c) Weave from current pattern
d) Weave from designated pick number
e) Return
 Controller configuration
 Test program
 Exit
Grey Fabric Inspection occurs in fabric inspection for the weaving/ spinning defects. The
removable defects are removed and noted down, and irremovable defects’ location is noted down
and the frequency is noted. There is a roller attatched counter which counts the number of metres
inspected and helps in location the position of the defect.
In 300 mtrs, if 30 points/100mtrs of defects are detected, then the fabric is a defective
one. Inspection machine, s manufacturers are D. S. Topiwala.

Folding and Plaiting machine

1000/2500/5000 meters of plaited fabric blocks are formed as per requirement fabric passed
through 4 sets of rollers cleaning inside the machine.
2 fabric beams are stitched together with a single needle chain stitch machine for acquiring the
required amount of the length of the fabric roll.
2 plaiting machines of the make D.S. Topiwala Enterprise is present.
No. of Workers is 50/shift and the no. of machines is 12. The no of plaits of fabric folds to be
formed can be set in the automatic plaiting m/c.

Fabric inspection m/c Counter

Fabric inspection Plaiting Machine
Corduroy is a fabric comprised of twisted fibers that when woven lay parallel (similar to twill)
to one another to form the cloth's distinct pattern, a "cord." Modern corduroy is most commonly
composed of tufted cords, sometimes exhibiting a channel (bare to the base fabric) between the
As a fabric, corduroy is considered a durable cloth. Socially, the clothes made from corduroy are
considered casual, and are usually favored in colder climates during seasonal periods. Corduroy
is most commonly found in the construction of trousers. The material is also used in the
construction of (sport) jackets and shirts. The width of the cord is commonly referred to as
"wale"; the size of the wale. The width of the wale makes some uses more common than others.
Wide wale is more commonly found on trousers; medium, narrow and fine wale fabrics are
usually found in garments used above the waist.
The Basic weave of the corduroy fabric consists of a chain structure in the back of the cloth and
an uncut pile formation in the front.The pile are cut using a circular blade(cutter/knife) and a
needle which guides the blde throough the uncut pile loop.
Yarn dyed corduroy is manufactured as both bottom (thick) and shirtings (thin).
The density of the cutting rings is 21-28 rings/blades per inch. The cut fabric is collected in
plaited batches.
Two suction tubes are present which continuously sucks in the particles released while cutting.
Pressing and brushing Machine
Water sprayed onto the fabric surface once entering the machine. 8 belts move clockwise and
anti clockwise.
The process flow is:
Uncut Grey|
Grey uncut brushed (dry conditioned)

Grey Cutting (on Cutting Machine)

Inspection (Any uncut portion is again cut by razor, manually)

Brush at grey cut(Wet conditioning)




Corduroy (finish folding)

 Production rate of the corduroy dept. is 600 to 700 metres/day
 8 cutting machines are present
 The make of the machines are Franz Muller(Germany)(for cutting , pressing)- 2 nos
- Bresgres(Bigger brushing machine)
- Amritsar
Brushing Machine
 To and fro eccentric motion removes roughness further.18 circular rollers cum brushers
roll on the cut grey corduroy for brushing along the grain line.
 12 steam cylinders are used for drying after steaming in the first chamber, for improved
softness. At a temperature of 50 to 60 digree Celsius.
Corduroy inspection machines are Laxmi, tech shivam Industries, Vadodara)
In the brushing machine, moisture is imparted using a fine spray.
Then the fabric is passed through a set of 8 belts moving left and right alternatively.
5such sets of belts exist in the brushing system. After the brushing the cloth is stretched through
a set of 8 cylinders. !6 eccentric rollers are used for further brushing. 2 sections with 3 rollers and
2 rollers are present before the plaiting.
Preparatory processes are used:
 To improve the wettability for dyeing(for uniform ness and depth of color)
 To remove the impurities.
 Fabric should have perfect white color before dyeing.
Grey goods must be cleaned before they can be finished. They may contain warp sizing, oils,
other additives, dirt and soil. Complete removal is necessary in order to finish, dye, and print
goods effectively. The method of cleaning depends upon the fiber in the fabric, the kind of
impurities present, and the construction of the fabric.


If a fabric is to have a smooth finish, singeing and
desizing are one of the first essential
preparatory processes. Singing burns off lint and
threads as well as all fuzz and fibers ends,
leaving an even surface before the fabric passes
through other finishing processes. Especially for
achieving the uniform color in dyeing singeing is necessary because protruding fibers causes

Machine used:
Goller singing with impregnation unit type ‘WA’.
Speed of the machine: 79m/min
Squeeze pressure: 0.8 bar
Compensator pressure: 2.0 bar
Number of machine: 1
Meter counter production: 46m
Process happening:
First of all when the fabric from pleating department comes for finishing it is singed and desized
in this machine. Singing is accomplished by passing grey goods rapidly over gas flames, usually
two burners to a side, at a speed of 100 to 250 yards per minute. Fabric can be singed both face
and back side of the fabric, after that the fabric is washed with water to reduce the temperature,
then it is passed through a chemical solution to remove the starch and other chemicals while
sizing, called Desizing. The fabric collected at the end of the machine in a beam is hot and wet.
A single thread chain stitch machine is used to stitch two different fabrics. So the process is
continuous, only its setting has to be changed for different fabrics.

The intensity of the flame depends on the type of fabric. It varies from 8mbr-12mbr.
According to roller setting and fabric type, the fabric can be singed in two ways:
One side for two times. For fabrics like corduroy the face side is singed two times.
Two sides for 1 time
Burner pressure: 10.0 mbar r more.
Flame intensity: 10mbar or more.
There is a sensor in the machine which detects the temperature of the fabric. If the fabric is
burned then it sense it and the temperature is then controlled in the burner.

Suction unit:
In this unit the flames of the burned particles which are left on the fabric are extinguished.

Brushing unit:
After the fabric is singed it is passed through brushing unit where the burned particles are
brushed out.

The purpose of a desizing process is to remove sizes that have been attached to warp yarns
during a weaving process. Prior to the desizing process, therefore, the size analysis should be
performed in order to set desizing conditions suitable for the sizes. After the cotton cloth leaves
the burners, it is pulled through a solution of an enzyme, squeezed out in a heavy mangle, and
usually allowed to lie for several hours to allow the enzyme to digest the starch with which the
warp yarns were sized. There is a temperature indicator on the top which indicates the
Desizing temperature: 70 degrees Celsius.

Cotton fabrics contain primary and secondary impurities as shown in tables below, and the
purpose of Desizing and scouring is to remove these impurities.

Primary impurities Percentage

Pectic substance 2-3%
Cotton wax, cotton seed oil 0.3%
Protein 0.3-0.4%
Ash pigment 0.01-0.03%

Secondary impurities percentage

Starch 4-6%
PVA 3-5%
Acrylic size 0.5-1%
Wax 0.2-0.5%
After-wax 0.5.%

 Chemicals used in Desizing:

Enzymes: the pH range of the enzymes has to be maintained while desizing. There may be
difference in the enzymes used. It degrades the cellulose in fabric surface which in turn affect
the color of the fabric, the fabric becomes more faded. But the softness of the fabric is
increased by using enzymes in the chemical.
Sequestering agent: it removes the metal particles from the surface of the fabric.
Wetting agent
Hydrogen peroxide
Acetic acid

Both direct and indirect heating is given to the fabric.

After desizing the fabric is collected in the beam where the beam is kept rotating for 6-8 hours.
The rotation time is given for the enzymes to react with the fabric surface and sizing particles
and remove it.
Practically all cotton fabrics, except those that are to be napped, are singed.
Singing is basically of three types:
 Roller singeing
 Plate singeing
 Gas singeing

Singeing may also be done at the yarn stage, especially when the yarns are to be used for fine
quality cotton goods. Usually such yarns are fully mercerized, and singeing in this case is
referred to as gassing. Mercerized gassed yarns are sold in the trade as lisle.


After rotation for 8 hours, the fabric is washed with hot

water usually at 95`C.
Turbo rollers are used in this machine for efficiency in
washing which creates turbulence while washing through
rotating rollers. Some of the rollers used for washing have
One vacuum suction is present in the machine which removes the singing particles from the
fabric surface after reaction from enzymes for 8 hrs.
No. of machine: 1
Washing range for reactive dyed fabrics

After washing generally wet processing is done, dry processing is done only in few cases.


Bleaching, a process of whitening fabric by removal of natural color, such as the tan of linen, is
usually carried out by means of chemicals selected according to the chemical composition of the

 To remove the natural coloring matters and make the fabric in perfect white with
minimum damage to fibers and within the shortest possible time.

This process is necessary if discoloration or stains have occurred during the previous
manufacturing processes. All bleaching processes reduce the strength of the fiber.
Bleaching is carried out near or above boiling temperature under pressure for one hour or more.
After bleaching, the fabric is thoroughly rinsed with slight amount of basic solution to avoid
formulation of insoluble silicates.
Chemical bleaching is usually accomplished by oxidation, destroying color by the application of
oxygen, or by reduction, removing color by hydrogenation. Cotton and other cellulosic fibers are
usually treated with heated alkaline hydrogen peroxide; wool and other animal fibers are
subjected to such acidic reducing agents as gaseous sulfur dioxide or to such mildly alkaline
oxidizing agents as hydrogen peroxide. Synthetic fibers, when they require bleaching, may be
treated with either oxidizing or reducing agents, depending upon their chemical composition.
Cottons are frequently scoured and bleached by a continuous system.
Bleaching and Scouring


The wet fabric is feed. Normally wet fabric is preferred over dried.

Chemical unit (called as dip set):

The fabric is passed from the chemicals for bleaching and then it goes to the steamer where the
fabric is given reaction time at a temperature usually at 98`C. The pressure and the temperature
are decided according to the fabric. There is a camera fixed in the steamer to check for the fabric.

After that the fabric comes down to washing unit where it is washed with simple hot water.
There are four washing chambers.
Depending on the further processes the fabric is dried. It is optional. The fabric is dried through
indirect heating from the heated cylinders. There are total 10 cylinders and the fabric is passed
through them covering there surfaces. The temperature of the cylinders varies from 120`C to
125`C. the temperature also depends upon the type of the fabric and it is maintained
automatically and if it is not required then steam is turned off.
If the fabric is heavy then the temperature is high and for light weighted fabrics it is low.
The drying process depends on further processes. The fabric is not dried if it is going for
mercerization; it is dried only if it is going for finishing.

The treatment of cotton fabrics or garments with a cold concentrated solution of sodium
hydroxide for a minute or less is called mercerization. It is a value added process.
After this process the cotton fibers will swell, untwist and their beam shaped cross section will
change into round form giving smoothness to the fabric.
Tension is applied to the fabrics in the machine in the vertical direction with a tension cylinder,
and in the horizontal direction with a clip tenter. The processing time by the cylinder and the
tenter in total is 30 to 60 seconds. To prevent the fabrics from shrinking after going through the
tenter, the NaOH concentration in the fabrics needs to be decreased sufficiently when the fabrics
leave the tenter.
Also, since the piling on thick fabrics in a wet state leaves creases on the fabrics, the thick fabrics
need to be dried promptly.

Change in a cross-section of a cotton fiber during a mercerization treatment.

1-5 Swelling process in an alkaline solution

6 Removal of alkali by water substitution

7 After drying

 To increase the strength. It is increased by 15-25%
 To further enhance the lusture.
 To increase the affinity to water, dyes and other chemical finishes.
 Stable dimention

Machine type:
Mercerizing range type “optima”
No. of machine: 1
Speed of the machine: 40 m/min-50 m/min
Production per hour: 2400 m
No. of workers: 3
The machine runs depending on the order

Mercerizing zone:
Fabric is padded with about 20-25% caustic soda (NaOH solution) containing a wetting agent.
The temperature of the mercerizing zone is usually maintained at 65`C.
Two types of mercerization are done:
Wet on wet: Where wet fabric is used. It is not dried.
Hot mercerization: Where dried fabric is used for the process.
Stabilizing zone:
In this section the width of the fabric is stabilized, NaOH stabilizes the fabric structure. NaOH is
washed here because less GLP (gram per liter) NaOH is used for washing.
Washing zone:
There are four chambers for washing or four washers. In the last chamber Acetic acid is dozed to
neutralize the fabric before sending it to other departments. The fabric should be either neural or
acidic but not alkaline.
pH is controlled at 4.5
Water flow in each chamber: 1.01 /kg
Rubber is used in the rollers. If the rubber is damaged then it will affect the fabric and will leave
stains. Metal bearings are used in the machine. There is no sensor in the machine to detect the
fabric damage.

Main objective in the dyeing of textile materials are:
 Color the fibers uniformly.
 Achieve acceptable durability of the color to further treatments in production and normal
use. Fastness of the color material to sunlight and multiple cleaning is of prime
Conventional process:
The majority of the textile fibers are dyed by conventional batch method of dyeing referred to as
‘exhaust dyeing’. In a typical exhaust dyeing a concentrated solution or dispersion of the dye(s)
in water is made first. Then the dye-bath is prepared by diluting the concentrated dye solution
with proper amount of water. Certain chemicals, used as dyeing assistance, are usually added to
the dye-bath before and/or during the dyeing to assist in the proper absorption of the dyes by the
fibers. Throughout the dyeing process, the dye solution is circulated through the substrate
(fabric) and/or the substrate is moved within the dye-bath. The temperature is gradually raised
usually to temperatures close to boiling point of water, where it is kept for 30-60 minutes or
more, according to need. While dyeing, the dye is taken up slowly (exhaustion of the dye-bath)
by the fibers. Usually almost all of the dye is consumed, and the dye-bath is said to be exhausted.


Padding dyes the fabric as it is held at full width. The fabric is passed through a trough
containing dye and then between two heavy rollers which force the dye into the cloth and
squeeze out the excess. It is generally done on a continuous dye range which can accommodate a
large amount of fabric. The material is run in one operation through a pad, into a heat or steam
chamber to set the dye, then successively into a washer, a rinser, and a dryer.

Machine type: Goller (Germany)

Number of machine: 2
One machine is for reactive dyed machine and caustic size where there is no steamer.
And one machine has steamer which is for wet dyed fabric and caustic size.

After wet dyeing the fabric is feed to this machine. First of all the fabric from the beam is passed
through hydro caustic where the hydro caustic is put in a tank. Hydro caustic is used to fix the
color on the fabric and also for leveling.
Biancalani PRATO ITALI: used for polishing the fabric.
Quantity of hydro caustic: 35 gpl (grams per liter)
After that the fabric goes to the steamer which is located at a higher level where direct heating is
given to the fabric. Only steam is present in the streamer. The temperature of the steamer is
usually 100`C. The fabric stays in the steamer for a minute.
On the sides of steamers there are four tanks having hydro caustic after A-Ring.
The steamer is used only if the fabric is dyed from wet dyes, for a reactive dyed fabric the
steamer is switched off because reactive dyed fabrics are kept in rotation for 8 hours and no
rotation is required for wet dyed fabrics.
Water lock:
From the steamer which is located on the top of the machine the fabric comes down to water lock
where the fabric is cooled. The temperature of the fabric has to be reduced so it is washed with
water and other chemicals.
Number of washers: 7
Speed: 60 m/min

washer Set temperature(in C ) Real temperature( in C)

1 40 56
2 60 71
3 60 71
4 95 90
5 95 92
6 70 83
7 60 86

 First and second washer has soft H2O.

 Third washer has peroxide for wet dyed fabric and if the fabric is dyed through reactive
dye then Hexa Meta phosphate (HMP) is used.
 Fourth and fifth washer contains soap for both wet and reactive dyed fabric.
 Seventh washer contains acetic acid. Water from seventh washer can be transferred to the
first washer.

Water in the washers is changed if a new lighter shade of the fabric is used after darker
shade. Also if the shade of the color is changed or a new color fabric is fed then the currently
used water is discharged and new water is fed. Generally water is changed after every 1 or
half an hour.
For drying the fabric for further processes eighteen hot cylinders are used and through direct
heating fabric is dried. Out of them two cylinders were in the front, they are known as pulling

Basically the cycle which the fabric undergoes in pad steam machine is:
Beam A Ring hydro caustic Steamer

Final Fabric Hot Cylinders 7 Washers

Then it is passed through nip rollers where it is squeezed between two rollers. Basically nip
rollers are used to remove the excess water in the fabric.
The speed of the machine can be changed according to the fabric type like
For Bottom weight fabrics: 45 m/min
For shirting fabrics: 30 m/min.


1. Temperature 120 120 130 0 120 130 130 0
2. Fan speed 50 50 50 0 50 50 50 0
3. Damper 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
4. I.R 3+1 2+0
5. Moist 21% 45%


1. Temperature 120 130 140 150 120 130 140 150
2. Fan speed 70 70 80 80 70 70 80 80
3. Damper 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
4. I.R 3+3 3+2
5. Moist 22% 30%


1. Temperature 120 135 150 150 170 200 200 200
2. Fan speed 70 70 80 80 80 80 80 80
3. Damper 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
4. I.R 3+3
5. Moist 30% 40%


1. Temperature 120 135 150 150 180 200 200 200
2. Fan speed 70 70 80 80 80 80 80 80
3. Damper 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5
4. I.R 3+2 2+2
5. Moist 30% 40%

In this section colors are prepared for dyeing. Colors are mixed in a tank.
Number of tanks: 5
One dissolving tank and four tanks for different tanks.
The tank who needs the color for the particular machine takes the color from the dissolving tank.
Colors are prepared by mixing the dye with water and chemicals.

Following parameters are considered while preparing the dye:

Dissolving volume: 120 l
Preparations: 1
Preparation tank: anyone from the four tanks.
Total volume: 586 l
Heating mode: heating
Temperature 1: 50 C (temperature before adding color)
Temperature 2: 30 C (after adding color if more color is to be added after stirring)
Mixing time: according to the dye and chemicals used

CPB (cold patch batch):

This technique is a variation of pad dyeing. The fabric is immersed in the dye liquor at room
temperature. After the excess liquor is squeezed out by the pad rollers, the roll of fabric is
wrapped to prevent drying. It is then rotated slowly for up to 48 hours to obtain uniformity of
dye application. The fabric is then washed in a mild alkaline solution to remove the liquor
additives and unfixed dyes. Finally the cloth is extracted and dried.

The dye stuff and alkali are combined in one bath through which the fabric is passed. Excess
liquor is squeezed out on the mangle and the fabric is batched on rolls which are then covered
with plastic sheets to prevent evaporation. It is then subsequently washed.
 This method uses less energy and less water which results in less pollution
 It is as fast as the continuous range system at less capital expenditure
 Has the desired stability and rapid fixation while providing reliable and consistent shade.
This machine is used for reactive dyes. Dye or color and silicate caustic are put in trough. Only
colors are imparted to the fabric, no drying of the fabrics happens.

Newly constructed fabric is called greige goods or grey fabric. The goods must pass various
finishing processes to make it suitable for its intended end use. Finishing may change the
appearance of the fabric, its hand (feel), its serviceability, and its this unit:
Number of machine: 10
Number of workers: 25- 30 per shift

Monforts shrinkage range:

 In a huge tank plaited fabric is kept where it is continuously fed to the machine. When
one plait of fabric gets over, the second plait of fabric is stitched to the end of first fabric
by single needle lock stitch machine. First off all the fabric enters a unit containing a
cylinder, two big rollers, a trough containing liquid, liquid is sprayed from one thin roller
over a big roller for cooling the fabric.
 Then the fabric enters a huge unit containing one huge cylinder.
 After coming out through the cylinder.

Dhall shrinking range (sunforising machine):

Standard shrinkage: 4-5 %
Shrinkage in bottom weights: 7%

Plaited fabric 5-6 rollers 1 cylinder 5-6 rollers

 Pre shrinkage
 In this machine the fabric is passed through two different rollers and steam and it is made
to pass through a palmer which is like a thick blancket. After it is passed through this the
fabric gets its own shrinkage.
 00 shrinkage or no shrinkage is there in the fabric after this process.
 This processes required especially for cotton fabrics. Chemicals which gets spread over it
when it breaks it smoothes the surface.
 +- 3% shrinkage is allowed.

This process is applied at various stages of finishing. Usually the fabric is wet when it is run into
a tenter. After being relaxed during dyeing and finishing, all fabrics are coaxed back to normal
width on a tentering frame. The endless chain of mechanical fingers, or tenter-frame clips, grips
the fabric selvedges on entering the machine, which has been set for the narrowest width of the
fabric. Gently but firmly, the fingers stretch the fabric to a predetermined width as is passes
down the length of the tenter over live steam and subsequently heat, which dries and sets the
 drying of the fabric
 Evening of the fabric width

This machine basically consists of two endless chains

carried in rugged rails with a distance between them
that can be adjusted. The chains are equipped with clips or pins, which grip the selvedge of the
fabric and carry it into the heated housing where a blast of hot air removes any moisture. Pin
frames are mostly used on woolens or knitted goods; clip frames are favored for cottons.
Stentering is a continuous operation in that the goods enter one end of the frame, which usually
90 feet (30 m) long, and emerge from the other. The frame is equipped with devices that
straighten the filling and keep it at right angles to the warp, thus avoiding biased goods.
No of machine: 3
i. BRUCKER STENTER: Mahlo machine
ii. Harish stenter
iii. Primatex FS-100 stenter

Strength of the fabric is also improved from Stentering. Moreover silicon finishing is also given
simultaneously for feel improvement.

Mahlo: weft straightener
For checking of the fabric
For bow and skew
Number of cameras: 4(for identifying bow and skew)
There are rollers in the machine which imparts bow and skew to some fabrics. For example, for
bottom fabric skew is necessary, so the rollers are set according to the amount of skew required.
Photo sensors are fixed in the machine for better rest. The fabric stretched here where fan is
given to cool the excess temperature while heating. There are 4 heating system after Stentering.
There are 10 chambers each with different temperature and the distance between two chambers is
3 meters. Every chamber has a fan.

1st chamber 90
2nd chamber 98
3rd chamber 101
4th chamber 113
chamber 115
6th chamber 107
7th chamber 120
8th chamber 106
9th chamber 109
10th chamber 109

 Every chamber has a fan inside it.

 The standard temperature for all kinds of shirting fabrics is 110 `C but for bottom weights
it is kept 150 `C.
 Oil heating system. Oils are used for heating.
 Cooling cylinders
 Moisture controller: 3 small rollers. It is necessary for keeping the fabric a little wet also
necessary for shrinking the fabrics.

 This machine is also used for Stentering. Its working is equivalent to mahlo type the
difference lies in hearting mode. Here gas heating is given to the fabric instesd of oil
heating in Mahlo.
 Moreover bow and skew is adjusted manually.
 It has only 5 chambers.
 Pigment coating machine is attached to it especially for denims and only on one side.
Then effect is given after enzyme washing.

 It has only 4 chambers
 Oil heating is given

 Latest machine
 Rubber unit is present to give pressure. Shrinkage is set here. So the fabric is squeezed
 Vaco: sprays moisture in the fabric.
 After that the fabric goes for cooling.
 Pamer unit: made up of woolen blanket. Two cylinders are present one big and one small
for drying.

After the fabric is being processed various types of finishes are given to the fabric according to
the intended end use of the fabric.
It is basically of three types:

Normal finishing Mechanical Specific requirement according

finishing to the order

Other types of finishing include:

 Silicon finish
 Softener finish
 Wrinkle free finish:
These finishes are also sometimes referred to as crease resistance finishes. The purpose
of this finish is to prevent deformation of the fabric by undesirable and unintentionally
introduced folds and rumples.
 Chemical finish
 Water repellant finish:
A water repellent fabric is one that will resist absorption and penetration of
water for a given period of time, depending upon the length of exposure and the
force of water.
 Mechanical finish which includes peach finish, brush, calendaring, raise finish
 Teflon finish
 Soil release finish:
This finish will facilitate the removal of dirt or stains from fabrics treated with a
permanent press finish.
 Vitamin E finish
 Aloe Vera finish
 Anti-microbial finish:
Chemical antiseptic finishes impart a self-sterilizing quality to a fabric. The appearance
and feel of the fabric are unchanged, and no chemical odor remains. Dry-cleaning does
not impair the finish.
 Uv cut
 3X dry finish
 Durawhite finish etc

In chemical finishing, heat treatment is given where the fabric is passed through a vessel called
trough where chemical is put. And then through nip rollers which squeeze the fabric. The speed
and temperature of the machine is maintained according to the fabric type. The chemical gets
bonded with the structure of the fabric while it comes out this result in harsh surface of the fabric
so in the final stage softening finish is given to the fabric.

Peach finish (Mechanical finish):

Machine type:
Zetma (advanced gamatex)

Amerising machine:
 For smoothening the surface of the machine.

Calendar machine:
 Gives the fabric extra shine
 Heating system. Heat is applied through steam.

Calendaring is a final process in which heat and pressure are applied to a fabric by passing it
between heated rollers, imparting a flat, glossy, smooth surface. Luster increases when the
degree of heat and pressure is increased. Calendaring is applied to fabrics in which a smooth, flat
surface is desirable, such as most cottons, many linens and silks, and various man-made fabrics.
In such fabrics as velveteen, a flat surface is not desirable, and the cloth is steamed while in
tension, without pressing. When applied to wool, the process is called pressing, and employs
heavy, heated metal plates to steam and press the fabric. Calendering is not usually a permanent

Raising machine:
This process is given to the fabric for improving the aesthetic value of it. There are two rollers in
the machine and pins are protruding out of the outer surfaces of these rollers. When the fabric is
rubbed with these surfaces the yarns of the fabric gets pulled outwards which gives a different
It gives flammel effect.

4 point inspection happens in randomly selected samples of the fabric rolls.
A 4 point defect is considered a 2 defect and a 2 point defect is considered as a single defect.
A sample from each roll is taken for shade sorting and grouping
The reasons for the major defects (ex.-Crease, tight selvedge, stain) are analysed and a backup
report is sent to the concerned department. Acc. to the variations
After grouping, sent to checking for packing thela packing –India and Cartons are used for
corduroy .Plastic covers are used for packing
If the roll length is less than the specified length by the buyers, there are possibilities of rejection
or discount.
The shipment time also delays with defects and quality issues.
In 100 mtrs 35 points are allowed. 4 point defects not more than 4 are allowed in 100metres.
The packing and transferring data is fed simultaneously into the computer as the processes occur.
Processing of the order is done in small parts.
Requirement sheet comes from party and name of the method includes full detailing.
Randomly reinspection is done for every 5-10% of the lot and reports are made every day.
Pantaloon, Zodiac, Aditya, etc are major buyers of BVM..

According to size, fabric is classified into different categories:

1) Press( as Per buyers requirement)
2) Press Short length(If length is less than required)
3) Seconds(Continuous)
4) Good cut(Multiples of 1.3, etcmtrs)
5) Fent(45cm to 90 cmlength)
6) Dex(23to 44cm length)
7) <20cm long Chiwndy cleaning cloth
44 varities of type 7 are present. It is also used for children’s wear.

4 chain functions are present in the finish folding department:

1) Inspection
2) Feed back to concerned departments
3) Packing
4) Sampling
- Sent to aspiring customers if they like the sample, the bulk is ordered.
 50,000 metres of fabric are inspected per day.
 50,000 mtrs are packed per day
No. of workers are 78, ITI trainees are 15 and Unskilled workers are 20.
Defects after finishing
Dyeing :-
1) color stain
2) discharge daghi
3) dropping
4) dyed dhabba
5) Dyed tapki daghi
6) Dyed daghi
7) Dyeing crease
8) Dyeingpatches
9) Dyeing patta
10) Dyeing stopmark
11) Dyeing other
12) Group
13) Selvedge patta
14) Stitch impression
15) Watermark
1) Abrasion
2) Bleaching other
3) Crease
4) Hairiness
5) Backup Report:-1) hairiness
2) Hole
3) Tappi Daghi
1) Abrasion
2) Blanket Impression
3) Bowing
4) Finishing others
5) Finish crease
6) Finish variation
7) Holes
8) Mild stain
9) Selvedge torn
10) Tapki daghi
11) Width variation

2. I. g. SQC
Stage-I: Quality control of the Input Materials such as Fiber, Yarns, Grey Fabrics,
Chemicals and Dyes
Stage-II: Quality control of the Process through surveillance at each
manufacturing stage
Stage III: Quality control of Final Products

 Fully computerized & well-equipped in-house laboratory ensures high

quality parameters from fiber to finished fabric including all other inputs.
 Well-equipped physical and chemical testing laboratory to check all
incoming materials and finished products for their strength and colour
fastness, washing properties, shrinkage and shading, etc. as per
international norms.
 The quality of fabric is checked at grey and finished stages under 4-point
grading system. Finally folding and packing department has roll to roll
inspection facilities to ensure fault-free longer length quality fabric prior
to its delivery to customers.
 Moisture meter Aquadon: Portable digital moisture meter %of moisture is measured
 USTER TESTER 4 SX has 3sensors:
1) Sensor OH for Hairiness: Uneveness %, Thin% thick%, Neps, Hariness, Standard
deduction(variation) of hairiness, Relative count, Mass Diagram(cardiogram)
2) Sensor CS: Weighs
3) Conveyer: - Movement of rolls.
 Follows Total Quality Management, People, technology, product and services.
 Fully computerized and well equipped in house laboratory ensures high quality parameters
from fiber to finished fabric including all other inputs.
 The Equipment include Uster Hvi 900 Classic, Uster UT4-SX and Uster Classimat CMT-3,
Data Colour Matching system SF 600, Ahiba Spectra Dye with Auto dispersing system,
Labourtex Padder, dryer and pad steam.
FIBRE TESTING- Uster Zell wager-uster All cotton properties like
HVI-900 and bias software Switzerland length, strength, micronnaire,
MODEL color, trash
Cotton trash analyzer Statex eng. Ltd, Trash%
Moisture meter Star electronics and Moisture %of Bale cotton
engineering, Baroda yarn packages,etc
Yarn Testing; Zell wager-uster Unevenness of sliver
Uster tester-4(UT-43x) Switzerland Roving and yarn(frequently
With hairiness module faulty)
Uster classimat-3 with P.S. Zell wager-uster Seldom occurring faults like
High speed winder machine of Switzerland short length, long
6 spindles P.S. Mattler length(Total 23 in number)
KMI computerized electronic Kamal metal Industries Single yarn strength, fabric
tensile tester Ahmedabad tensile strength
Af coset electronic count Straten eng. (p) ltd. Count Checking
balance model FX-300 Coimbatore
Yarn appearance examination Ten lab industries For ASTM grade(yarn
machine Ahmedabad Appearance Board)
Kmi electronic twist tester Kamal metal Industries For twist Checking- z&s
Ahmedabad direction
Double yarn twist tester Good Brand and Co. ltd For twist Checking- z&s
England direction
Libra electronic digital Libra industries For weight purposes
weighting balance model Bombay
Fabric testing count checking Good Brand and Co. ltd Fabric Count Checking
instrument England

KMI computerized electronic tensile tester

Overall in charge of production activities of all the departments, quality of finished products,
total operation of production activities, waste reduction, judicious use of raw materials, spare
parts etc.
 To arrange production activities as per the requirement of marketing department
 To plan overtime work in various department, whenever necessary in consultation with unit
 Production scheduling and working out raw material requirements.
 Process control and associated activities in all production department/sections, reviewing and
disposition of nonconforming products during in process and final stages.
 Monitoring and measurement of processes and product in his area and implementing
appropriate corrective action to achieve planned results. Monitoring progress against quality
objectives and continual improvement and projects in consultation.

The other functions of the PPC includes receiving inspection of all purchased products, in
process and final inspection and testing, compilation and maintaining the result of defect analysis
every month as applied to each manufacturing process, with hold in process and finished items
not meeting the requirement and reporting to management.


1. More Delay in production occurs in rainy and summer seasons

2. Major role in competition with other mills

3. Main strengths of the industry is considered, dobby looms and corduroy

4. spinning produces 56,000 mtrs per day

5. According to the Customer complaints, satisfaction, Monitoring of Process (marketing,

purchasing/ stores, production, delivery, maintenance, QC, sales) happens with an Internal

6. 2 SQC persons are involved between the PPC department and SQC, because complete
coordination is required.

7. currently, 80% of finishing department is utitlised

8. 10 days in a production season is provided for sampling



(Beams/day) month)
1 JAN. 1,16,057 18.3 11,29,615
2 FEB. 1,39,965 17.7 10,65,695
3 MAR. 1,83,930 17.5 10,38,715
4 APR. 2,15,145 19.4 11,34,925
5 MAY 1,48,637 19.9 10,42,630
6 JUNE 2,00,030 16.8 9,99,580
7 JULY 2,36,681 18.4 11,71,366
8 AUG 1,82,045 20.9 10,60,245
9 SEP 1,74,445 17.56 10,78,500
10 OCT 2,02,798 17.25 11,26,240
11NOV 2,26,520 20.2 10,43,453
12 DEC 2,54,805 19.5 12,19,719


1 9,58,086
2 9,17,783
3 10,00,738
4 10,02,280
5 9,14,719
6 8,80,885
7 10,42,005
8 9,25,160
9 9,84,231
10 10,00,596
11 _______
12 _______


The engineering department takes control over the overall maintenance of machineries,
processing plans and utilities, Building maintenance, overall in charge of electric maintenance,
Liaison work with Pollution Control Board, directorate of boiler and electrical inspectorate,
Overall supervision of security department, Maintenance of telephones, both internal and


1. Equalization: It’s a primary treatment. Water coming from dyeing section is washed. It is
then equalized or neutralized.

2. Reaction Tank: It’s a primary treatment. Piclic acid is used for slug formation, caustic for
neutralization of the water.

3. Magna Block: Slug and solids present are settled and precipitated.

4. Clarifier tank: Further separation of lighter solids.

5. Supernant Tank: Complete separation of water

6. slug slump collection of solid slug

7. filter press compresses the slug

8. Aeration tank: In this oxidation and removal of odors takes place.

Supernant tank Clarifie

A laboratory in the manufacturing industry plays an important role in the production standards of
the company. A sample production is carried out as per the proposed standards and variations
required are analysed as per the practicality. Chemical processing done at a small scale sampling

3 main activities in lab:

1) Fabric dyeing: Detects absorbency
2) Yarn dyeing
3) Before absorbency and after shrinkage and fastness testing

Lab Dyeing has two steps:

1. Lab dyeing before order for preparation before order and is matched with lab dip after drying
over original fabric pieces, IPC department.
2. Lab to bulk correlation is done after RFD and finishing. If shade variation comes it is sent
back to dyeing. RF dyeing: Ready for dyeing H2O2 improves whiteness.

Dye lab and process control lab consists of the following equipments.
Equipments for testing state of the fabric at the start and the end of the fabric
1) Wagner hot press.
2) Digi washer paramount
3) Washing machines: whirlpool
4) Tumble dryer
5) Oven
6) Tear tester: paramount
7) GSM cutter
8) Crock meter
9) PH meter
10) Microwave oven
11) Hank Preparation machine
12) Labortex padding machine
13) Labortex drying machine
14) Labortex pad steam
15) Data color dispenser: Combined lab dispenser and solution maker and is used for
yarn dyeing. Manually, values are fed into the computer for the dye recipe and the
recipe is combined automatically by the dispenser. It is only used for yarn dyeing,
the concentration not enough for fabric dyeing.
16) Data color CCM-SF600 plus
17) Crease recovery tester
Spectra photometer XW-2000 infrared sampling machine: Spectral value of the shade is
determined. A Spectrometer scans the color and calculates the spectral value.

Dyeing Lab Equipment

1) Color computer matching SF-600 plus(DCI)
2) Ahiba Spectra dye(DCI)
3) DCI combine lab dispenser and solution maker(AUTOLAB YO)
4) Labortex padding mangle
5) Labortex mini dryer
6) Labortex pad steam range
7) Gretage macbeth view box
8) Judge ii view box

Process Control Lab Equipment

1) Digiwash laundrometer
2) Tearing strength tester
3) Crock meter
4) GSM cutter
5) AATCC shrinkage ruler
6) Digital Ph meter
7) Wrinkle recovery tester
8) IFB, Miele Washing machines
9) IFB Tumble dryer
10) COD Assembly

Dark Room
GTI mini matcher

Dye sampling is same for fabric and yarn. The prepared sample is wrapped in paper, washed and
1. Cold pad batch for reactive dyes
2. Steam pad dry for VAT dyes and light shades
3. Guhaust method: requires high temperature.


Infra red sample dyeing machine
Fabric is dyed in a separate lab room.
Dye + caustic +silicate: This recipe is added to the trough of padding mangle machine, sample
fabric inserted into it, then dried in the oven.
Different pieces of fabric are stitched together so that all can be processed at the same time.
Paramount Tearing strength tester is also present
ter XW-2000
ng machine Data color dispenser

DJ&C is a major brand of direct buyers of BVM. UPPERLOOK is an apparel brand of BVM. It
has a retail outlet for its fabric in the company premises.



Exercises Overall control of all company activities, approves quality, ensures that quality policy
and quality objectives are established, periodic review of the quality management system,
ensuring availability of resources and communicating to the organization the importance of
meeting customer as well as statutory and regulatory requirement.


Responsible for setting quality objectives in their areas and obtaining MD’s approval; also
periodic review of progress against established objectives and continual improvement projects.


Responsible for Consolidating training requirements and preparing training calendar based on
approved training needs, Organizing requisite training programs inline with training calendar,
Induction training for new entrants, Safety and welfare activities, Maintenance of training


Ensuring development, implementation and maintenance of quality management system, issue

and control of the quality manual, quality system procedures, (and their revisions, resolving and
taking appropriate actions on matters of conflicting nature on quality system, arranging
periodical internal audits, reporting on the performance and any need for improvement, ensuring
promotion of awareness of customer requirements through out the organization., coordinating
management reviews, maintaining records of management reviews etc.


Executing various decisions taken by the board and the management, day to day functions of the
unit, overall responsibility for smooth functioning of all departments/sections and other related
functions of the unit, participation in the committee for review and disposition of nonconforming
product during various processing stages, approval of operational procedures applicable
exclusively to the unit, Monitoring progress against quality objectives and continual
improvement projects consolation with concerned HODs /Section Heads and MR.


 Hire The Best Add Value to Retain

 Empower to Build Mutual Trust and Opportunity to Grow
 Induction to BVM value system training imparts Behavior, Culture,
Knowledge and Skill.

There exists a union, BVM workers union for the welfare and representation of the workers.
There is a peaceful coexistence amongst the employees, workers and management.


Department Staff Workers
Spinning 19 414

Weaving 63 862
Processing 40 233
-Yarn dyeing
Engineering 44 104
Lab 26 10
SQC 20 0
Sales, Marketing, 57 144
grey & finish
General 78 41

Overall in charge of administration and personnel department, Looking after the duties of office
administration, liaison works with labor department, inspector of factories, ESI, PF and other
offices, Attend legal matters/court cases i.e. labor court, industrial tribunal, civil courts and labor
departments, Discussing with trade union of factory with regard to production, discipline,
grievances etc.,Settlement of terminal benefits of retired/VRS employees and those died in
service, Submissions of periodical returns to various Govt. departments, To supervise the
functions of Time Office as well as establishment, Maintenance of various files in connection
with official, legal matters, court cases, disciplinary matters etc., Conducting domestic enquiries,
initiating disciplinary proceedings against workers/staff., Recruitment and training.


Responsible for overall in charge of marketing activities, entering into requisite agreements with
dealers, agents, franchisees and monitoring their performance
 Identifying new products to be produced and also requirements of corporate customers
 Consolidate monthly indents from showrooms, dealers, etc and present data in the monthly
production review meetings
 Maintain proceedings of monthly production review meeting and intimate production targets
to all concerned
 Finalization of sale prices in consultation with management and implements sales promotion
schemes approved by managing director
 Maintain communication with dealers on progress against indents and coordinating with
dealers about the sales activities.
Mr. Kaushik Pandey is the HOD of marketing


The dispatch department is concerned with the dispatch of the ordered goods and its accounting.
The delivery details, the mode and the package details are recorded at this department. The
following are the norms, conditions and functions followed by the dispatch department:
1) Carrying forward ex- mill deliveries.
2) Charging of Excise duty and all other government taxes to the customers.
3) Transport, bank commission, Insurance and any other charges are denoted to the buyers to be
paid by them
4) If Hundi will be returned, interest will be charged at 30% per annum from the date of hundi
and they can even propose to the managing system to cancel all pending contracts of the buyers
5) Settlement of claim of fabric at fabric stage only
6) Verifying the count, pick-reed variation is as per T/C standard
7) Notification to the buyers about delay of delivery.
8) Charging of interest on the goods not taken within 1o days, at 30% per annum.


The yarn sample which is developed in the lab, is used for development of small swatches using
the desk loom which in turn is send to the buyer. If the sample is accepted by the buyer, they
produce the bulk order which the PPC manipulates.
There exists another sequence of order formation:
The buyer provides the design/ weave pattern which is processed by the design section and
provided to the deskloom for development, and the same process occurs
Either way, the deskloom section plays a very important role in the development of fabric and
order of it.
 The design of the sample is forwarded from the design section.
 Sizing machine(small, winding and size spreading ) is present for prearation of the yarn for
 Small samples of the size 6*16 inch are produced woven. Currently, 5 desk hand looms are
present which produce 15 samples per day.
 Total number workers who work in the design department are 9 to 10.

3 designers and 4 trainees are present in this section who develop the design and the weave
structure of the fabric as per buyer specifications or innovative fashion design release. They use
CAD for development of the designs:
The designs once developed are send to the marketing department who interact with the target
customers and sent the report to the PPC who in turn notify the design department about the
changes and to develop the final weave structure.
 The software use for design development is: TEXTRONICS
 Dobby designs are developed using individual colors for the warp and weft and providing the
intersection points as the dobby design.
 A color card is used for detection of the color match.
 Denting can also be done in the software(Since creel capacity is 480, the designs are done
Scanned picture can be converted into a pixilated digital image which coverts into a jacquard
design, the repeat size specified

Carries forward purchase activities since from the purchase requisition stage till settlement of
payment to the supplier and is responsible for stores activities since from receipts stage to till
accounting departments as per their requirement against indents. Service contracts like
transportation, calibration, maintenance, annual maintenance contract for computers, scales etc.
and looking after day to day correspondence pertaining to stores and purchase department,
pursuance of proposal which we sent to SPC for approval.

 Approved and completed orders are checked.

 Vendors are selected from ASL (Approved Select List)
 Due date for submission of tender is mentioned.
 Tenders are opened in front of committee members.
 Comparative statements are prepared.
 Intenders and user departments are consulted for suitability of the items.
 Proposal sheets are prepared with justifications/recommendations.
 Proposal is placed before JPC (Junior Purchase Consultant) for approval.
 PO (Purchase Order) is issued after the approval by JPC to the successful tender/supplier.
 Suppliers are pursued for timely supplies.
 Store department is informed for arrangement of inspections soon after the receipt of
 If items are accepted, then relevant document is sent to accounts department for payment to the
supplier as per payment terms.
 Rejected items are arranged.

2. IV. b. STORES

Responsible for Receipt and inspection of finished products, Stock entry separately for
accepted/rejected items, Separate storage of accepted/rejected items as per the conditions laid
down in the procedure. Maintenance of stock ledger. Inspections of rejected materials for fixing
discounts and declaring as seconds.

Issue/receipt of materials:
 Incoming items are checked with reference to purchase order details.
 Test certificate (TC)/ Test Report (TR) is checked.
 Items are kept in designated place marked as ‘A waiting’ inspections.
 Inspection of items by the Quality Control/user department is arranged.
 The accepted materials are shifted to the reserved/designated locations.
 Material inspection (MI) and Inspection Report (IR) are prepared, then signature is obtained of
inspecting authorities, department heads, SPO (Store Purchase Officer) and UH (Unit Head). In
case of rejection, purchase department is informed for rectification and follow up).
 Entries are made in GIR (Goods Inward Register).
 PC (purchase Credit note) is prepared.
 Material against complaint indents are issued after obtaining receivers signature.
 Receipts, issues, consumptions of materials accounts are maintained in prescribed
2. Storage and Preservation:
 Storage and preservation are arranged depending upon type, quality, and life of materials.
 Items are checked once in a month.
3. Handling: Proper handlings equipments are used ton avoid damage, spoiling, wastage of
4. Store accounting:
 Monthly statements of issues, consumptions are prepared and sent to Accounts.
 Receipt and pending order quantity are prepared.

Purchase statements are cashed


100% of the Raw material cotton/ cotton yarn fiber is composite. On an average the cotton fibre
consumption is 50 bales per day. Various counts of cotton, (such as 40s etc.,) are consumed. The
count of cotton will also depends on the type of fabric order and market conditions.
 A major amount of cotton is sourced from Gujarat (based at ahmedabad and manavadar),
which is shanker quality.
 The sourceing is done through agents and direct deals with trading companies such as vishal
trading company.
 MCV 5, PCH qualities are 50s count and are imported from USA.(12,000 bales were
imported recently.
 Cotton yarn produced is 125 metric tonne per month(28,000 spindles)(upto march 2006) but
from march 2006 the spinning mill has been expanded. The consumption of yarn in april was
200 metric tonne. T
 he deficient yarn quantity is provided by a supplier range namely arun textile, kkp spinning,
in salem, Nahar, Vardhman, Raja palyam mills, etc.
 The superior count of yarn bought is 2/80s and 2/100s counts. Gold / silver coated yarn is
also bought.


The waste generated is tender every month. Ahmedabad cotton waste merchant association dalal
within 15 days of tender
If the Quantity of waste more the waste is tendered at the rate of 1000 kg/ day(at an average rate
of 35 rs/kg)
1. Trumat cuttling rs. 28
2. Luma file 38 rs/ kg
3. Comber waste mixed count 35 rs/kg
4. Cool zool 12 rs(50kg per day)
5. Cleaning wasters 13/KG, 50KG/DAY
6. Dropping 9-10rs/kg 200kg/day
7. Fly17-18rs/kg, 15-25 kg/day
8. Colored airjet waste
9. White airjet
10. Oiling waste
11. Soft waste
12. Hard waste perday
VAT 4% is added in the costing of the waste .
Ex: Sundar waste, Niranjan waste are the waste buying agents. The waste sales produce around
5-6 crores Rs per year.


1 5.47 3.41 2.44 1.15
2 6.60 4.06 2.86 1.12
3 5.40 3.38 2.64 1.09
4 5.01 3.26 2.04 1.32
5 5.52 3.63 2.28 1.21
6 5.09 3.41 2.34 1.10
7 5.39 3.62 2.09 1.35
8 5.59 3.82 1.94 1.30
9 5.99 3.99 2.3 1.39
10 5.96 4.1 2.04 1.21
11 5.68 3.9 1.94 1.12


The Textile division increased its turnover by 30% to Rs.194.44 crore in 2004-05, accounting for
27% of the Company's turnover of which domestic turn over has increased by 62% and
production has been grown by 21% over the previous year. Net revenue for the year 04-05 is
Rs.188.61 crores which is grown by 32% over the previous year. The previous year was the first
full year of working of the expanded capacity of 18 mn metres per annum and the business
arrangement with Canclini Tessile S.p.A, the only such association within the industry with a
reputed international textile company. The Company serviced brand-enhancing customers like
Van Heusen, Louis Phillip, Allen Solly, Peter England, Park Avenue and Pantaloons with larger
volumes. Value addition: Introduction of value-added products (structured fabrics with higher
thread counts in the shirting segment, yarn-dyed corduroy shirting and Pima cotton yarn-based
corduroy fabric in the corduroy segment).

Prompt settlement of supplier bill, Participation in committee for evaluation and selection of new
suppliers, Collecting information from units regarding for cash flow, MIS and other necessary
information, Preparation of balance sheet, Maintenance of accounts relating to corporation,
Scrutiny of wages bill and other bills connected to business transactions, Liaison with banks, AG
audits/statutory auditors, PF and ESI office etc
REGD. OFFICE :- Near Seven Garnala, Kalol (North GUJARAT) - 382 721.
(Rs. In lacs)
. Particulars Nine Quarter Quarter Year Year
Months Ended Ended Ended
Ended on on
Ended on on
on 31/03/2006 31/03/2005
31/12/2005 31/3/06
31/03/05 (Audited) (Audited)

[1] [2] [3] [4] [5]

1 Net Sales / Income from Operations 53538.29 31804.15 24186.04 85342.44 65871.56
2 Other Income 1381.33 1597.62 12.02 2978.95 1053.02
3 Total Income 54919.62 33401.77 24198.06 88321.39 66924.58
4 Total Expenditure 43908.65 27004.85 19865.65 70913.50 54553.23

(a) (Increase)/ Decrease in Stock in (185.54) 1032.58 (2112.24) 847.04 (1873.25)

(b) Consumption of Raw Material 30975.93 20077.72 17310.58 51053.65 41486.77
(c) Consumption of Stores & Spare 3908.81 1622.08 2096.06 5530.89 4859.02
(d) Staff Cost 2427.51 1314.94 832.30 3742.45 3055.00
(e) Other Expenditure 6781.94 2957.53 1738.94 9739.47 7025.69
5 Interest 2082.51 826.75 602.06 2909.26 2485.26

6 Depreciation 2233.12 835.37 668.29 3068.49 2825.03

7 Profit (+) / Loss (-) Before Tax 6695.34 4734.81 3062.07 11430.15 7061.06

8 Provision for Taxation

- Current Tax (Incl.FBT) 1886.97 (152.51) 304.13 1734.46 758.50
- Deferred Tax (309.91) 801.29 633.55 491.38 1290.51

9 Profit After Tax & Before Prior Period 5118.28 4086.03 2124.39 9204.31 5012.05
Excess/(Short) Provision of Taxation
Year(Net) (2.66) 378.63 (2.66) 378.63
10 Profit After Tax 5118.28 4083.37 2503.02 9201.65 5390.68

11 Paid - up Equity Share Capital (face 1847.67 1973.17 1847.67 1973.17 1847.67
value of Rs. 2 each) See Note :3
12 Reserve and Surplus 42973.39 32371.44
(Excluding Revaluation Reserves )
(See Note - 7)

13 Earning per share of Rs.2/- each (Rs.)

-Basic EPS 5.54 4.40 3.32 9.95 7.14
-Diluted EPS 5.04 3.96 3.20 8.93 7.10
14 Aggregate of Non-Promoter
- Number of Shares 61284125 66084125 61284125 66084125 61284125
- Percentage of Shareholding 66.34% 66.98% 66.34% 66.98% 66.34%

The above Financial Results were reviewed by the Audit Committee and were thereafter taken on record by the Board of Directors at its
meeting held on April 25, 2006.
The Board of Directors have recommended dividend @ 44 % i.e. Rs.0.88 per equity share for the year 2005-06,subject to approval of
Equity Share of Rs.10/- has been sub-divided in to Five Eqity Shares of Rs.2/- each, hence all related references for the previous year periods
have been restated for the sake of comparability.
62,75,000 equity shares were allotted during the period 23rd March, 2006 to 31st March, 2006 consequent to exercise of 12,55,000 warrants
out of 31,85,000 warrants issued in 2004-05 and outstanding on 31/03/05 at Rs.56.02 per share. Further, the holders of 19,30,000 remaining
warrants in respect of the said issue are entitled to apply for five equity shares per warrant at any time up to 31st July, 2006
During the year the Company issued USD 50 million Zero Coupon Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds due 2010. The bonds are
convertible into 1,19,56,575 shares at any time upto 14th September, 2010. Subsequent to 31st March, 2006, FCCBs aggregating to US$ 8.5
million (Rs.3731.50 lacs) have been converted into 20,32,616 equity shares upto 24th April, 2006.
The Company has received Rs.15021.76 lacs from proceeds of preferential allotment of equity shares/ warrants up to 31.03.2006. The
proceeds have been utilised for capital expenditure of Rs.9655.32 lacs including ongoing capital expenditure of Rs.3070.47 lacs and for
repayments of loans of Rs.5366.44 lacs
Reserve is reduced by Rs.16500 lacs on account of adjustment of Brand Value.
There were no Investors' complaints pending as on 01-01-06. Complaints received and disposed off during the quarter were 16 each and no
Investors' complaints were lying unresolved at the end of the quarter.
9 Figures for the previous year/quarter have been re-grouped / rearranged wherever necessary.


Date : 25/04/2006 (Dinesh B. Patel)

Place : Ahmedabad Chairman
Rs. in lacs


2005 2004
SOURCES OF FUNDS: Schedules Rupees Rupees Rupees

Shareholders' Funds:
Share Capital 1 1847.67 1456.17
Reserves & Surplus 2 48871.44 33742.01
50719.11 35198.18

Share Warrants-Fully Convertible 1392.12 -

(See Note 6- Schedule 20)

Loan Funds :
Secured Loans 3 33822.26 29822.23
Unsecured Loans 4 18.66 35.49
33840.92 29857.72

Deferred Tax Liability (Net) 5703.56 4413.05

(See Note 13-Schedule 20 )
TOTAL 91655.71 69468.95


Fixed Assets:
Gross Block 5 66942.44 62951.62
Less: Depreciation 17598.33 14926.48

Net Block 49344.11 48025.14

Capital Work in Progress 2962.47 1833.20
52306.58 49858.34
Investments: 6 16746.75 5686.22
Current Assets, Loans & Advances:
Inventories 7 10684.68 7545.67
Sundry Debtors 8 14811.39 11572.65
Cash & Bank Balances 9 7831.52 1922.80
Loans & Advances 10 4445.16 3598.76
37772.75 24639.88

Less: Current Liabilites & Provisions 11 15780.65 11035.38

Net Current Assets 21992.10 13604.50

Miscellaneous Expenditure
(To the extent not written off or adjusted) 12 610.28 319.89

TOTAL 91655.71 69468.95

Significant Accounting Policies 19
Notes forming part of Accounts and
Contingent LIabilites 20

Segment Wise Revenue, Results and Capital Employed For Financial Year ended 31st March

(Rs. In lacs)

Sr. Particulars Nine Months Quarter Quarter Year Ended on
Ended on
No. Ended on Ended on Ended on 31/03/2006 31/03/2005
31/12/2005 31/03/06 31/03/05 (Audited) (Audited)

1 Segment Revenue

a) Textile 17625.78 7307.00 6507.87 24932.78 19096.29

b) Plastics 36306.94 24479.23 17566.51 60786.17 47497.64
c) Un allocated 221.63 115.43 54.02 337.06 141.51

Total 54154.35 31901.66 24128.40 86056.01 66735.44

Less: Inter Segment

0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00

Total Revenue 54154.35 31901.66 24128.40 86056.01 66735.44

2 Segment Result
Profit/Loss (before tax and
interest from each
a) Textile 2549.06 1359.35 1315.39 3908.41 3090.22
b) Plastics 5268.88 2598.33 2227.32 7867.21 6148.39
c) Un allocated 959.91 1603.88 121.42 2563.79 307.71

Total 8777.85 5561.56 3664.13 14339.41 9546.32

Less : Interest 2082.51 826.75 602.06 2909.26 2485.26

Total Profit before Tax: 6695.34 4734.81 3062.07 11430.15 7061.06

3 Capital Employed
(Segment Assets - Segment
Liabilities) :
a) Textile 17482.96 24086.40 14875.16 24086.40 14875.16
b) Plastics 20775.86 12175.12 5692.87 12175.12 5692.87
c) Others 23360.46 14969.03 37246.76 14969.03 37246.76

Total 61619.28 51230.55 57814.79 51230.55 57814.79

The Company is organized into two main business segments, namely:
Textile - Fabric and Yarn
Plastic - Water Tanks, Doors, Windows, Prefab, Sections, etc.

Segments have been identified and reported taking into account the nature of products and services, the differing risks and returns, the
organization structure, and the internal financial reporting systems.
2 Segment revenue in each of the above business segments primarily includes sales service charges, rent, profit on sale of Fixed Assets
(net), Miscellaneous sales and Export Incentive.
3 Figures for the previous year/quarter have been re-grouped / rearranged wherever necessary.

Disclaimer clause: The information furnished above is certified by Sintex Industries Limited to be
true, fair and accurate (except in respect of errors in or omissions from documents filed electronically
that result solely from electronic transmission errors beyond our control and in respect of which we
take corrective action as soon as it is reasonably practicable after becoming aware of the error or the
omission). SEBI, the Stock Exchanges or the NIC do not take any responsibility for the accuracy,
validity, consistency and integrity of the data entered and updated by it.
Name of the compliance officer :
Mr. L.M. Rathod
C.F.O & Company Secretary
Sintex Industries Limited
Kalol (N.G.) - 382 721
Rs. in lacs
2005 2004
INCOME: Schedules Rupees Rupees Rupees

Gross Sales 71516.37 58077.54

Less: Excise duty & Sales Tax recovered on Sales 5644.81 5108.39
Net Sales 65871.56 52969.15
Other Income 13 1053.02 875.71
Increase in stock of Finished and Process stock 14 1873.25 882.23
68797.83 54727.09

Raw Materials consumed 15 31814.72 25437.04
Employees' Emoluments 16 3055.00 2646.22
Manufacturing & other expenses 17 21556.76 16834.96
Interest and finance charges 18 2485.26 2623.68
Depreciation 2825.03 2263.45
61736.77 49805.35
Profit before Taxes 7061.06 4921.74
Provision for Taxation
Current Tax 758.50 545.00
Deferred Tax 1290.51 995.10
2049.01 1540.10
Excess/(Short) provision of taxation of earlier years (Net) 378.63 (15.51)
PROFIT AFTER TAX 5390.68 3366.13
Balance brought forward from previous year 7533.10 7302.53
Profit available for Appropriations 12923.78 10668.66

Interim Dividend - Preference Shares 0.00 126.54
Proposed Dividend - Equity Shares 739.07 436.85
Tax on Dividend 96.60 72.17
General Reserve 1000.00 1000.00
Capital Redemption Reserve 0.00 1500.00
Balance carried to Balance Sheet 11088.11 7533.10
TOTAL 12923.78 10668.66

Earnings per share ( Refer Note 15 of Schedule 20 )

Basic 35.71 22.14
Diluted 35.49 22.14
Significant Accounting Policies 19
Notes forming part of Accounts and
Contingent Liabilities 20

Plant Capacities
- Overall capacity22 million meters per annum
- Can deliver finished widths up to 63 inch
- Plant specifically designed for varied product mix (
115 GSM to 450 GSM)
- Can handle 100% Cotton as blended fabric
- Equipped to provide specialized finishes
- Testing and QC Lab equipped to satisfy most
discerning customers
- On line quality checking system

A tradition of continuous modernization and up-gradation of technology has enabled BVM in
becoming globally competitive. It is fully geared to offer international quality textile products,
manufactured to the latest trends and styles.

Machineries and Capabilities:

- Spinning Division : 30000 spindles
- Trumac Blow Room (2000)DK780 Cards (2000)
- RSB1 Draw Frame from Rieter (1999)
- LK 250 Comber (2002)
- LF 1400 Speed Frames Textool Ring Frame (2000)
- TFO Vijay laxmi (2000)
Winding Section
Murata & Schlafhorst, Automatic 238 and 338 models. All the machines are equipped with
Automatic Splicing, Electronic Yarn Clearers and other automatic devices.


38 Air-jet and 123 Rapier looms from PICANOL. (Year of Installation - 1999)
The existing Rapier looms are capable of producing checks of 4 to 8 colors in
weft and are equipped with dobbies which can produce designs up to 22
shafts. 72 more Omni Air Jet looms with the capacity of producing fault-free

Processing Machineries
Selected latest state of the art, eco friendly, open-width continuous process system ensuring
consistent whiteness / shade across and along the fabric, higher productivity and shorter lead
times. It consists of pretreatment machineries like the Osthoff Singeing with eco friendly dust
free Vibra plus cleaning system. Goller Desizing, washing, bleaching and mercerizing machines.
High level of automation and on-line - on-site process control gives high degree of consistency
and reproductivity.

Criteria of selecting technology in BVM are:

- Maximum possible accuracy first time, on time and every time.

- Eco- friendly technology
- Economizing on water, energy and salt utilization.

Pretreatment Machineries

- OSTHOFF singing - Goller desize

- EFFECTA Washer- Goller
- Continuous Bleaching - Goller
- OPTIMA Chainless Mercerize-Goller

Fabric Dyeing
Fully computerized German machineries from the Kusters, Bruckner and Goller are present. All
continuous machines with automatic colour kitchens and all level micro processor controls are
installed for better productivity and quality in shorter lead time.

Dyeing machineries (year of installation)

- Cold-pad batch- KUESTERS ( 2001 )
- Pad-dry - BRUECKNER ( 2001 )
- Pad-steam-Goller ( 2001 )
- FONG's / STAFFI Yarn Dyeing Machines ( 1998 )
- RF- dryer ( 1998 )
Finishing machineries
- Shrinking range - MONFORTS
- Stenter- BRUCKNER
An excellent management system provides the backbone to the development process of the