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The problem of signalized intersection is caused by the traffic volume continually increasing each year, automatically contributing high delay and frequent congestion and One indicator of traffic congestion at the roundabout is a decrease in vehicle speed [1]. Today’s operated traffic lights have not yet capable of overcoming congestion which often occurs in the peak hours. The existing condition on intersection has not yet been able to accommodate the populous traffic volume; it can be seen from each of intersection foot while experiencing the vehicles daley. The imprecised existing condition on the Antasari intersection in Banjarmasin, is seen from the 4-phase control with the cycle time at 177 seconds, the degree of saturation is ≥ 0.85, and the delay is ≥ 60 seconds; making it categorized as the intersection with F-level of service (the worst). This research aims to analyse the existing condition of the Antasari intersection’s performance, and to obtain some handling alternatives of Antasari intersection, with some approaches. To increase the performance of Banjarmasin’s Antasari intersection, some handling alternatives are executed, such as: the control of Cycle Time, the control of phase direction (phase simulation), and the phase change by using KAJI program. Based on the field data, obtained the performance of Banjarmasin’s Antasari intersection in existing condition: the cycle time is 177 seconds, degree of saturation is 2,879 or ≥ 0.85, delay is 963 seconds/pcu or ≥ 60 seconds/pcu, and the worst service level (F-level). In some intersection handling alternative results, there comes one alternative that is able to increase the intersection performance: through the phase simulation stages, with the phase adjustment of the north – south of KolonelSugiono streetamd the east – west of PangeranAntasari street, then the acquired results of the Service Level-C are: the delay value (D) is 23.33 seconds/pcu or ≤ 25 seconds/pcu, the degree of saturation (DS) is 0.671 or ≤ 0.85, and the cycle time (CT) is 67 seconds or ≤ 80 seconds.

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Antasari Intersection Banjarmasin City

M. Fajar Qomaru Zaman1, Iphan F. Radam2

1 Graduate Student of Transportation Engineering and Management, Magister Study Program of Civil Engineering,

LambungMangkurat Univers ity, Banjarmasin, INDONESIA

Email:fajar.qo maru zaman@g mail.co m

2 Study Program of Civil Engineering, LambungMangkurat University, Banjarmasin, INDONESIA

Email: ifradam@ulm.ac.id

caused by the traffic volume continually increasing each delay, level of service.

year, automatically contributing high delay and frequent

congestion and One indicator of traffic congestion at the I. INTRODUCTION

roundabout is a decrease in vehicle speed [1] . Today’s In accordance with the development of Banjarmasin City,

operated traffic lights have not yet capable of overcoming then one of such development aspects –along with its

congestion which often occurs in the peak hours. The activities—is the increasing of vehicles traffic volume,

existing condition on intersection has not yet been able to either of the street capacity side or even of its own traffic

accommodate the populous traffic volume; it can be seen characteristic. What is meant by such characteristics are

from each of intersection foot while experiencing the the volume, composition, and velocity. Especially in the

vehicles daley. The imprecised existing condition on the peak hours, there can be seen the long queue of vehicles

Antasari intersection in Banjarmasin, is seen from the 4 - on many intersections causing the vehicles going through

phase control with the cycle time at 177 seconds, the the long-enough average delay.

degree of saturation is ≥ 0.85, and the delay is ≥ 60 Like any other development countries, today’s big cities

seconds; making it categorized as the intersection with F- in Indonesia, especially Banjarmasin, are on the high

level of service (the worst). growth of urbanisation, as the result of its rapid economic

This research aims to analyse the existing condition of the growth rate, therefore the population’s needs for

Antasari intersection’s performance, and to obtain some movement are increasing as well. The private cars keep

handling alternatives of Antasari intersection, with some growing rapidly on their own, as the conveyances which

approaches. To increase the performance of have very big benefits for every individual especially in

Banjarmasin’s Antasari intersection, some handling the movement mobility. Meanwhile, the development of

alternatives are executed, such as: the control of Cycle transportation facility supply is very low, thus it is unable

Time, the control of phase direction (phase simulation), to follow.

and the phase change by using KAJI program. The problems on the signalized intersection are the high

Based on the field data, obtained the performance of delay and the frequent congestion occurrence. Recent

Banjarmasin’s Antasari intersection in existing condition: traffic lights control operation have not yet been solving

the cycle time is 177 seconds, degree of saturation is the congestion frequently occurred in the peak hours. The

2,879 or ≥ 0.85, delay is 963 seconds/pcu or ≥ 60 existing condition on intersection has not yet been able to

seconds/pcu, and the worst service level (F-level). In accommodate the heavy traffic volume; this can be seen

some intersection handling alternative results, there on each foot of intersection encountering the vehicle

comes one alternative that is able to increase the delay. The imprecise existing condition of intersection

intersection performance: through the phase simulation control is seen from the 4-phase control with the Cycle

stages, with the phase adjustment of the north – south of Time at 177 seconds, Degree of Saturation is ≥ 0.85, and

KolonelSugiono streetamd the east – west of Delay is ≥ 60 seconds/pcu, can be categorized as the

PangeranAntasari street, then the acquired results of the intersection with the worst service level. According to the

Service Level-C are: the delay value (D) is 23.33 condition introduction survey, the volume of vehicles

seconds/pcu or ≤ 25 seconds/pcu, the degree of saturation turning right with the vehicles total volume is bigger,

(DS) is 0.671 or ≤ 0.85, and the cycle time (CT) is 67 compared to the vehicles heading straight and turning left,

seconds or ≤ 80 seconds. hence it causes queue and delay on the next green phase.

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To increase the intersection level service in order to moment where the front part of a vehicle passes a point

decrease the delay value of vehicle/second, this research until the moment where the front part of the next vehicle

analyses the recent performance of the intersection of passes the same point, and the Distance Headway is the

KolonelSugiono street – PangeranAntasari street and distance between the front part of one vehicle with the

PangarenAntasari street – KolonelSugiono street, and part of the next vehicle in a certain time [8].

giving précised problem solving alternative, either using The capacity of signalized intersection is based on the

the cycle time control, phase control, and intersection concept and the level of saturation degree [5]. Indeed that

geometrical control. This research will be devoted to the junction capacity tabulation in all conditions is

observe the traffic condition on one intersection location impossible to do, and the capacity on the thorough part of

which has the traffic lights with the turn left directlysigns. track is more needed than the capacity in the closed area.

The observed study area is the intersection with the traffic However, most street assembly will determine the limits

lights on the Antasari section in Banjarmasin. The of capacity and security from all tracks. The difficulty is

Antasari intersection in Banjarmasin is located in the to decide the total unit, either pedestrians or vehicles, that

district of Central Banjarmasin. will use the facilities, and along with the level of safety

and comfort. In the point of social view, in certain level,

II. THEORITICAL REVIEW we have to be ready to be able to accept bigger traffic

An intersection can be defined as a public area where two slowness to add its security level. However in most

or more streets are merged or intersected, including calculation which recovers traffic current, will be able to

streets and side-street facilities for traffic movement reduce the accident potential [9].

inside; and intersection is divided into two; they are the There are two types of main system in the traffic signal

plot intersection and the non-plot intersection. The plot operation: the fixed-time signal system and the traffic

intersection is an intersection where two or more main responsive. Fixed-time signal system is a signal operating

streets are merged, with each of the main street heads out system which uses fixed cycle time, the modification of

of an intersection and forms part of it. The non -plot this fixed cycle time can be set for a certain time period,

intersection is an intersection where two streets are such as for daily or weekly simulation, or to peak hour

intersected each other in different plots, without any from off-peak hour. Meanwhile the traffic responsive

relation and adjustment following the plot separator [2]. signal system is a signal operating system which uses the

An intersection usually has four types of basic pattern of changeable cycle time setting, in line with the existed

vehicle traffic movement which potentially causes traffic current condition [10].

conflicts of merging (merging with the main street), The intersection performance is to evaluate the

diverging (separating direction from the main street), performance of an intersection commonly can be seen

weaving (shifting street occurs), and crossing from the following parameters [5]:

(intersecting with vehicles from other streets) [3]. 1. The Delay

There are methods to decrease the traffic movement 2. The Number of Stop Vehicle

conflict on intersection [4]: 3. The Queue Length

1. Time sharing (involving the utilization control of the The Intersection Delay is the total time of average barrier

body of the street for each direction of traffic experienced by vehicles when passing through an

movement in certain periods) intersection [11]. The average traffic delay in j approach

2. Space sharing (using the principle of changing the can be determined based on the following formula [12]:

0.5 1 GR NQ1 3600

movement conflict, from crossing to braid or 2

DTj c

combination of diverging or merging) 1 GR DS c

In broad outline, the basic characteristics of traffic current

whereas:

are divided into three parameters [5]:

DTj = Average traffic delay for the j approach

1. Traffic volume

(seconds/pcu)

2. Traffic velocity

GR = Green ratio (g/c)

3. Traffic density

DS = Degree of saturation

The traffic volume data is calculated to get the value

C = Capacity (pcu/hour)

which represents the vehicles as many as 85% [6],

NQ1 = Total amount of the left pcu from the previous

velocity is the average speed in a space, density is the

green phase

total vehicles of each main street length unit, and current

Number of Stop (NS), is the average total of each vehicle

is the total vehicles which pass through certain spots on

(including continued stop in queueing) before passing

the main street per time unit [7]. The headway can be

through intersection, the following formula is calculated:

seen on two sides: the time headway and the distance

headway. Time Headway is the time interval between the

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NQ condition, from a group of conditions (ideal) previously

NS 0.9 3600

Qc stated.

whereasc is the cycle time, and Q is the traffic current S= So × F1 × F2 × F3 × F4 × Fn

(pcu/hour) from the explored approach. The protected approach of primary degree of saturation as

The total of pcu queue average in the first green signal the function of approach effective width (We).

(NQ) is counted as the total of remaining pcu from the So = 600 × We

previous green phase (NQ1 ) added by the total of Whereas:

incoming pcu during the red phase (NQ2 ). 𝑆𝑜 = Primary saturation traffic current (pcu/hour)

NQ = NQ 1 +NQ 2 𝑊𝑒 = Street width (meter)

According from several researches in several cities in

DS 12 8 DS 0.5

NQ 1 0.25 c DS 1 Indonesia, the degree of saturation value on the field turns

c out to be bigger which is 1.3 times with the empirical

formula corrected as follows [14]:

ifDS> 0.5; otherwise, NQ1 = 0 So = 780 × We

1 GR Q The calculation of degree of saturation as follows:.

NQ2 c

1 GR DS 3600 DS = Q/C = (Q×c) / (S×g)

whereas: Whereas:

NQ1 = total of remaining pcu from previous green phase. DS= Degree of Saturation

NQ2 =total of incoming pcu during red phase. Q= Total Traffic Current (pcu/sec)

DS = degree of saturation C= Capacity (pcu/jam)

GR = green ratio The signal time definition for the time control condition is

C = cycle time (sec) still executed to minimize the total delay of an

C = capacity (pcu/hour) = degree of saturation times intersection [15]. The equation of Cycle Time as follows

green ratio (S × GR) [13]”

Q = traffic current in such approach (pcu/sec) C = (1,5 × LTI + 5) / (1 − ∑FRcrit )

The queue length (QL) is acquired by the multiplication whereas:

(NQ) with the used average area per pcu C = Cycle time signal (second)

(20 m2 ) and the division with the entrance width. LTI = Total of lost time per cycle (second)

20 FR =Current divided with degree of saturation

QL NQ max (Q/S)

W ENTRANCE FRcrit = Highest FR value from all approaches leaving

Technically, the intersection controls with Traffic Signal for a signal phase.

Device (APILL) are as follow [13]: ∑(FRcrit) = Ratio of intersection current = total of FRcrit

1. The traffic current is bigger than the approach width. from all phases on that cycle.

2. Degree of Saturation. The recommended cycle time to be used depends on its

3. Cycle Time. control type. The phase control type and the suitable cycle

The traffic current calculation data is acquired based on time can be seen on Table-2.

the traffic survey result on the field Table-2.Phase Control and Cycle Time [13]

(Traffic Counting); that traffic current data is then

Control Type Cycle Time (second)

changed from vehicle/hour to pcu/hour by using the

passenger car equivalent (pce), on Table-1 below. Two-phase control 40-80

Table-1.Passenger Car Equivalent [13] Three-phase control 50-100

PCE Four-phase control 80-130

Vehicle

Protected Provoked

Type

approach approach The size level of service of a signalized intersection can

LV 1.0 1.0 be seen on Table-3 and Table-4 as follow.

HV 1.3 1.3 Table-3. Service Level on Intersection [16]

Degree of saturation (S) can be stated as multiplication

result of the primary degree of saturation (So), that is the A <5 Very good

degree of saturation in standard condition, with the B 5.1 – 15 Good

adjustment factor (F) for the distortion of actual C 15.1 – 25 Moderate

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D 25.1 – 40 Less 4. Existing Condition Analysis

E 40.1 – 60 Bad The existing condition analysis is based on the result

F >60 Very bad of existing condition data analysis using the KAJI

program.

Table-4.Service Level Criterion of the Intersection with 5. Evaluation and Improvement of Intersection

Traffic Light [17] Performance

Control Delayper It is done based on the result of existing condition

Level of Service (LOS)

Vehicle (sec/vech) analysis, then the alternative handling is done using

A ≤ 10 the KAJI program and based on existed theoretical

B >10 – 20 approach.

C >20 – 35 6. Suggestion and conclusion

D >35 – 55 The suggestion and conclusion is Kesimpulan dan

E >55 – 80 saran achieved based on data analysis and whether it

F >80 has been in line with the purpose and goal of the

research.

III. RESEARCH METHOD

There are two steps in analysing this research: IV. DISCUSSION AND RESULT

1. Data collecting. Based on the result of inventory survey and traffic survey

2. Data analysis. been carried out, the intersection geometrical data can be

This research step is commonly elaborated as follows: obtained, along with the cycle time control, and the peak-

1. Problem Identification hour vehicles volume data which are seen on Table-5,

Identifying the problems on Antasari intersection as Table-6, Table-7, Figure-1 andFigure-2.

seen on the cycle time and phase control. Table-5. Geometrical Data of Antasari Intersection

2. Determining the goal of research Approach width

The goal of this research is done based on the Location Approach WA W enter W exit

acquired problems. (m) (m) (m)

3. Data collecting North 12.6 7.38 14.46

Intersection

The data collecting is based on two steps which are East 15.5 10.24 13.5

Antasari -

the secondary data collecting and the primary data South 12 7.1 6.63

Sugiono

collecting; the secondary data collecting is done by West 11 11 10.22

requesting data in the related agencies, and the

primary data is done by the direct observation

survey on the field.

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Table-6.Existing Cycle Time

S ignal Time Cycle

All

Location Approach Time

Red

Red Yellow Green (second)

Intersection North 144 3 28 2 177

P.Antasari – South 154 3 18 2 177

K.Sugiono East 141 3 30 3 177

West 92 3 80 2 177

Phase 1 28 3 146 N

Phase 2 31 30 3 113 E

Phase 3 64 18 3 92 S

Phase 4 85 80 3 9 W

Fig.2: Diagram of Existing Condition Cycle Time

Peak

Period Location MC LV HV UM AMOUNT

Hour

K. SugionoSt. (N) 1168 201 5 28 1374

P. AntasariSt. (E) 07.10 – 3297 603 0 76 3900

Morning

K. SugionoSt. (S) 08.10 2650 225 0 110 2875

06.00 - 10.00

P. AntasariSt. (W) 1280 131 0 23 1411

AMOUNT 9560

K. SugionoSt. (N) 1198 487 29 15 1714

P. AntasariSt. (E) 13.50 - 2422 721 2 63 3145

Noon

K. SugionoSt. (S) 14.50 2050 499 56 57 2605

10.00-14.00

P. AntasariSt. (W) 1510 183 0 29 1693

AMOUNT 9157

K. SugionoSt. (N) 1815 389 11 20 2215

P. AntasariSt. (E) 16.30 - 3196 592 1 58 3789

Afternoon

K. SugionoSt. (S) 17.30 2201 234 1 66 2436

14.00-18.00

P. AntasariSt. (W) 2443 253 0 66 2696

AMOUNT 11136

Based on Table-7 above, it can be seen that the condition Time). As the data in analysing the intersection

of existing traffic volume can be ranked: the first rank is performance, the used data is the highest peak hour which

the afternoon peak hour at 16.30 – 17.30 (Central is the afternoon peak hour at 16.30 – 17.30 (Central

Indonesian Time) with the volume of 11,136 Indonesian Time).

vehicles/hour; the second rank is the morning peak hour Using the 1997 KAJI program ver. 1.10, the existing

at 07.10 – 08.10 (Central Indonesian Time) with the condition analysis is done based on the most peak hour

volume of 9,560 vehicles/hour; and the third rank is the traffic volume data; the F can be seen on Table-8.

noon peak hour at 13.50 – 14.50 (Central Indonesian

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Table-8. Analysis ofExisting Condition

Degree of Delay(seco

Time Cycle

Peak Hour Approach Saturation nd ITP

(second)

(DS) /pcu)

K. SugionoSt. (N) 0.707

Morning P. AntasariSt. (E) 1.033

177 472 F

07.10 – 08.10 K. SugionoSt. (S) 2.018

P. AntasariSt. (W) 0.143

K. SugionoSt. (N) 1.180

Noon P. AntasariSt. (E) 1.142

177 963 F

13.50 - 14.50 K. SugionoSt. (S) 2.879

P. AntasariSt. (W) 0.189

K. SugionoSt. (N) 1.228

Afternoon P. AntasariSt. (E) 1.019

177 352 F

16.30 - 17.30 K. SugionoSt. (S) 1.801

P. AntasariSt. (W) 0.284

According to the existing condition analysis, the On the stage of cycle time change, there is change on

condition of Antasari intersection has the F-level of the service level but not too significant from the

service, means it is very bad; the worst condition is in the existing condition, F at first, changes to E, with

noon peak hour with the Delay (D) value of 963 Degree of Saturation value at 0.840 or ≤ 0.85.

seconds/pcu, and the Degree of Saturation of 2,879. From 2. Phase Simulation (4 Phases)

the result of existing condition analysis, there are some Phase simulation is done in 3 steps:

steps of intersection scenario control need to be done in a. Controlling the phase on the foot of intersection on

order to increase the performance and service as follow: the north and south of KolonelSugionostreet.

1. Cycle time recovery b. Controlling the phase on the foot of intersection on

2. Phase simulation (4 phases) the east and west of PangeranAntasaristreet.

3. Phase change c. Controlling the phase on the foot of intersection on

the north – south intersection of KolonelSugiono

1. Cycle Time Recovery street, dan the east – west of

In cycle time existing condition of 177 seconds, the PangeranAntasaristreet.

ideal cycle time control on 4-phase control is 80 – 130 On this stage of phase simulation, the analysis result

seconds, with such condition needs cycle time of the intersection performance enhancement can be

recovery; after changing the cycle time, the new cycle seen on Table-10.

time is 113 seconds. Based on the result of cycle time

recovery analysis, there is an increasing of

intersection service, which changes F to E, with the

analysis result on Table-9.

Table-9.Result of Cycle Time Recovery Analysis

Cycle Degree Delay

Performa Time of (secon IT

Approach

nce Stage (secon Saturati d/ P

d) on (DS) pcu)

K. SugionoSt. 0.834

(N)

P. AntasariSt. 0.840

Cycle

(E)

Time 113 41.65 E

K. SugionoSt. 0.819

Recovery

(S)

P. AntasariSt. 0.796

(W)

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Table-10.Phase Simulation is Done Using Intersection Performance Analysis Result.

Degree

Delay

Performance of

Approach CT (second) (second/ ITP

Level Saturatio

pcu)

n (DS)

Jl. K. Sugiono (N) 0.700

Control of Foot of Jl. P. Antasari (E) 0.711

Intersection Phase Jl. K. Sugiono (S) 0.724 27.6

78 D

of K.SugionoStreet 9

North - South Jl. P. Antasari (W) 0.714

Control of Foot of

Jl. P. Antasari (E) 0.763

Intersection Phase 31.6

Jl. K. Sugiono (S) 89 0.776 D

of P.AntasariStreet 3

East – West Jl. P. Antasari (W) 0.513

K.Sugiono street

Jl. P. Antasari (E) 0.663

North – South and 23.3

Jl. K. Sugiono (S) 67 0.671 C

P.Antsari Street 3

East - West Jl. P. Antasari (W) 0.386

Based on phase simulation result, there is change in PangeranAntasari street, with the C-level of

intersection performance enhancement, which are: the intersection service, and the Delay (D) value of 23.33,

first existing condition is F on the control of foot of and the Degree of Saturation (DS) value of 0.671 or ≤

intersection phase of the north – south of 0.85, meaning that the current on that intersection is

KolonelSugiono street, turns to D with the Degree of smooth.

Saturation value of 0.724;on the control of foot of

intersection phase of the east – west of 3. Phase Change

PangeranAntasari street, turns to D with the Degree of The phase change stage is done by changing from 4

Saturation value of 0.785;and on the control of foot of phases to 3 phases, with the adjustments as follow:

intersection phase of the north – south of 1. Change of 3 phases (merging of direction current

KolonelSugiono street, and the east – west of of east – west)

PangeranAntasari street, turns to C with the Degree of 2. Change of 3 phases (merging of direction current

Saturation value of 0.671. Of those three results, the ofnorth – south)

best intersection performance is the control of foot of The analysis result is acquired from phase change, as

intersection phase of the north – south of seen on Table-11.

KolonelSugiono street and the east – west of

Performance Approach Cycle Time Degreeof Delay(second/ ITP

Level (Second) Saturation pcu)

(DS)

Change of 3 K. SugionoSt. (N) 72 0.735 24.07 C

phases (merging P. AntasariSt. (E) 0.732

of direction K. SugionoSt. (S) 0.732

current of east – P. AntasariSt. (W) 0.543

west)

K. SugionoSt. (N) 64 0.691 21.52 C

Change of 3 P. AntasariSt. (E) 0.691

phases (merging K. SugionoSt. (S) 0.649

of direction P. AntasariSt. (W) 0.684

current of east –

west)

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Engineering Published by Pergamon Press .

Sugiono Street North – Southand Pangeran

[10] Willumsen, L.G, Coymans, J.E (1989), The

Antasari Street East – West.

Value of Fix ed Time Signal Coordination in

Developing Countries, Traffic Engineering &

V. CONCLUSION

Control, London.

There are many things to conclude based on the

[11] Tamin, Ofyar Z., (2000), Planning and Modeling of

accomplished intersection handling scenario analysis, and

Transportation (Perencanaan dan Permodelan

to answer the problem statement, all at once; it is

Transportasi), University of Institut Teknologi

concluded that:

Bandung, Bandung.

1. Based on the existing condition analysis, it is seen that

[12] Akcelik, (1989), Traffic Signals: Capacity and

the worst condition of Antasari intersection service

Timing Analysis, Australian Road Research Board,

level occurs in the noon with the F-level of service,

Research Report, Australia.

the delay (D) value of 960 seconds/pcu, the degree of

[13] Department ofPublic Work (1997), Indonesia

saturation value of 2,879 or ≥ 0.80, which shows the

Highway Capasity Manual (Manual KapasitasJalan

congestion on the intersection, and the cycle time of

Indonesia), Directorat Generale of Highway, Jakarta.

177 seconds or ≥ 130 seconds meaning that the

[14] Munawar, Ahmad., (2004) Rural Traffic

control of existing condition cycle time is not ideal.

Management (ManajemenLaluLintasPerkotaan),

2. From the accomplished control alternatives, the 4th

Beta Offset, Jogjakarta.

alternative is the best for increasing the intersection

[15] Webster, F. V. and Cobbe B.M. (1966), Traffic

level of service. In the 4th alternative, the phase on the

Signals, Road Research Technical Paper No. 56, Her

foot of intersection of Kolonel Sugiono street north –

Majesty’s Stationery Office, London.

south, and Pangeran Antasari street east – west, is

[16] Regulation of the Minister of Transportation of the

adjusted and the intersection level of service has

Republic of Indonesia Number 96 of 2015

increased to C, with the delay (D) value of 23.33

concerning Guidelines for Implementation of

seconds/pcu or ≤ 25 seconds/pcu, the degree of

Management Activities and Traffic Foundations ,

saturation (DS) value of 0,671 or ≤ 0.85, and the cycle

Jakarta.

time (CT) is 67 seconds or ≤ 80 seconds.

[17] Khisty, Jotin C. Dan Lall, Kent B, (2006), Transport

Engineering Basics Volume 2, Erlangga, Jakarta.

www.ijaers.com Page | 8

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