101 The XYZ Special Alloy Fabrication Company has an order to roll a 4x4x15 in.
billet of a nickelbase super alloy to ½ in. thickness. They tried rolling it with a 5%
reduction per pass, but it split on the fourth pass. At a meeting the process engineer
suggested using a lower reduction per pass, the consultant suggested applying forward
and backward tension and the shop foreman was in favor of heavier reductions per pass.
With whom, if any do you agree. Defend your position.
Solution: ∆ ≈ h/√(Rrho) = 4/√[(6)(0.5)(4)] = 3.6 which is much larger than 1. To avoid centerline
cracking, D should be lowered. Therefore increase the reduction per pass as suggested by the
foreman. (Front and back tension are impractical on a 15 inch long billet in a 12 in. diameter mill
and if possible it woud only raise the level of hydrostatic tension at the center line.) Note using Eq
(105) gives ∆ = 3.56.
102 The Mannesmann process for making tubes from cylindrical billets is illustrated
in Figure 10.23. It involves passing the billet between two nonparallel rolls adjusted for
a very small reduction onto a mandrel positioned in the middle. Explain why the axial
force on the mandrel is low and why the mandrel, which is long and elastically flexible,
follows the center of the billet.
Solution: With a very small potential reduction, the contact length between the rolls and
bar is very small, so ∆ is large. Therefore, there is hydrostatic tension at the center,
making the required piercing force quite small. The mandrel tends to stay at the center
where the hydrostatic tension is greatest, and therefore the required piercing force the
least.
103 (a) Show that as r and α approach zero equations 10.11 and 10.12 reduce to
φ = 1 + ∆/4 for plane strain and φ = 1+ ∆/6 for axisymmetry.
(b) What percent error does this simplification introduce at r =
0.5 and α = 30°?
Solution: For plane strain, Eq. (1011) gives f = 1 + (1/2)tanα/εh, and Eq. (103) gives
∆ = (2/r 1)sinα. Substituting r = 1  exp(εh)  1 [1  εh + εh2/2  εh3/3!  ....],
r ≈ εh for small εh and sinα ≈ tanα for small α.∆ ≈ (2/εh 1)tanα, or 1/εh = 1/2 + ∆/(2tanα).
Substituting into Eq. (1011),
10.5 Some authorities define ∆ as the ratio of the length of an arc through the
middle of the deformation zone and centered at the apex of the cone or wedge formed by
extrapolating the die to the contact length.
(a) Show that for wire drawing with this definition ∆ = α (
1 +1 − r2
) /r.
(b) Calculate the ratio of ∆ from this definition to the value of ∆ from Eq. 104 for
(i) α = 10°, r = 0.25, (ii) α = 10°, r = 0.50, (iii) α = 45°, r = 0.50,
(iv) α = 90°, r = 0.50.
10.6 Backofen developed the following equation for the mechanical efficiency, η,
during wire drawing: η =[1+ C(∆ − 1)+ µ tanα ]−
1
for ∆ > 1, where C is an empirical
constant equal to about 0.12 and µ is the friction coefficient. Note that the term C(∆ 1)
represents wr/wi and the term µ/tanα represents wf/wi so η = (1 + wr/wi +wf/wi)1 =
(wa/wi)1.
(a) Evaluate this expression for µ = 0.05 and α = 0.3 for 2·≤ α ≤ 20°. Note
that for small angles ∆ < 1 so the redundant strain term, C(∆ 1) is zero.
(b) Plot η vs. α and find the optimum die angle, α*.
(c) Derive an expression for α* as a function of µ and r. Does α* increase
or decrease with µ? with r?
108 A highstrength steel bar must be cold reduced from a diameter of 2 cm to 1.2 cm
by drawing. A number of schedules have been proposed. Which schedule would you
choose to avoid drawing failure and minimize the likelihood of centerline bursts? Assume
η = 0.5 and give your reasoning.
(a) a single pass through a die of semiangle 8°.
(b) two passes (2.0 cm to 1.6 cm and 1.6 to 1.2 cm) through a die of semiangle 8°.
(c) Three passes (2.0 cm to 1.72 cm, 1.72 cm to 1.44 cm and 1.44 cm to 1.2 cm.) through
a die of semiangle 8°.
(d) Four passes (2.0 cm to 1.8 cm, 1.8 cm to 1.6 cm, 1.6 cm to 1.4 cm and 1.4 cm to 1,.2
cm) through a die of semiangle 8°.
(e, f, g, h) Same reductions as in schedules a, b , c and d except through a die of semi
angle 16°.
Solution: Use as low a ∆ as possible to avoid centerline bursts, i.e. a low die angle (8°) and as high
a reduction as possible without drawing failure. Neglecting work hardening, the highest strain
(reduction) per pass is εmax = η = 0.5
The total strain needed is 2ln(1/.65) = 0.86 so two passes are required. Therefore choose schedule B.
10.9 Determine ∆ from the data of Hundy and Singer (Figure 10.6) for reductions of
2.3%, 6.5%, 13.9% and 26%. Make a plot of I.F. versus ∆.
Solution: Taking ∆ = [(2r)/2)√[ho/(rR)]
For r ∆ IF = Hs/Hc
0.80 0.212 1
0.60 0.286 1
0.26 0.540 1
0.139 0.789 1
0.097 0.966 80/72 = 1.111
0.065 1.20 79/68=1.162
0.046 1.44 70/58=1.441
0.023 2.06 1
plotting
1.2
IF
1.1
1.0
0 1 2
∆
Chapter 11
11.1. (a) Explain why inclusionshape control is of much greater importance in high
strength steels than in lowcarbon steels.
(b) Explain why inclusionshape control improves the transverse and thoughthickness
properties, but has little effect on the longitudinal ones.
Solution:a) The higher stresses necessary for forming are more likely to cause fracture.
The toughness generally decreases as the stress level rises.
b) Without shape control, the inclusions are elongated in the rolling direction. In a
transverse direction test they form a much larger area perpendicular to the tensile axis and
therefore an easy fracture path.With shape control they tend to be spherical so the area
perpendicular
112 Figure 11.1 shows that for a given sheet material, greater reductions are possible
before edge cracking if square edges are maintained than if the edges are round. Explain
why.
Solution: For square edges, the stress state is nearly planestrain compression. The
tensile force in the rolling direction required to cause the necessary elongation is about
half of the compressive stress.
For rounded edges, the middle of the edge sees very little compression so its elongation
(which must be the same as the center) requires almost pure tension in the rolling
direction.
11.3 (a) Wrought iron has a high toughness when stressed parallel to the prior working
direction, but a very low toughness when stressed perpendicular to the prior working
direction. Explain why.
(b) When wrought iron was a commercial product, producers claimed its corrosion
resistance was superior to steel. What is the basis of this claim?
Solution: a) The highly elongated silicates inclusions formed easy fracture paths for
cracks parallel to the rolling direction.
b) The insoluble silicate inclusions tended to block the corrosion, requiring corrosion
to follow a more tortuous path.
11.4 (a) With the same material, die angle and reduction central bursts may occur in
drawing but not in extrusion. Explain why this may be so.
11.5 Figure 11.18 is a Kuhntype forming limit diagram for upsetting a certain grade of
steel. The line gives the combination of strains that cause cracking.
(a) Superimpose on this diagram the strain path that leads to failure at point P.
(b) What differences in test variables would lead to cracking at point S?
0.3
P
S
0.2
ε1
0.1
0.4 0.2
ε2
b) Failure may occur at a lower compressive strain because of more friction or because
he heightdiameter ratio is lower.
Chapter 12
12.1 An old shophand has developed a simple method of estimating the yield strength
of steel. He carefully bends the strip with his hands and to a given radius, releases it and
dotes whether it has taken a permanent set. He repeats the process until it does take a
permanent set. A strip 0.25in thick, 1 in wide and 10 in long first takes a permanent set at
a radius of 10 in Estimate the yield strength.
122 A coiler is being designed for a coldrolling line of a steel mill. The coil diameter
should be large enough so that coiling involves only elastic deformation. The sheet to be
coiled is 1 mm thick, 2 m wide and has a yield strength of 275 MPa.
a) What is the minimum diameter of the coiler?
b) For this diameter find the horsepower consumed by coiling at 30 m/s.
Solution:
a) Assuming the Mises criterion, σx = 1.15Y (plane strain), but
σx = Eex/(1υ2) and ex = t/(2R) = t/D
1.15Y = (Et/D)/(1υ2), D = 207x109x0.001)/(1.15x275x106x0.91) = 72 cm.
b) Again, σx = 1.15Y and σx = Eex/(1υ2). The stored elastic energy per volume,
w, is w = (1/2)σxex = E'ex2 where E' = E/(1υ2).
ex varies with position, ex = z/R = 2z/D, where z is the distance from the neutral plane.
Taking L as the length coiled, b as the width and t the thickness, the total elastic energy,
W, is
W = 2Lb∫wdz = 2(1/2)E'exLb∫(2z/D)2dz where the integration is between z =0 (mid
plane) and z = t/2. (The factor 2 is to account for the material between z = t/2 and z = 0).
Integrating, W = 4LbE'(t/2)3/(3D2) = LbE't3/(6D2)
The work rate is Wv where v is the velocity = L/t', where t' is the time on roll a length L.
Substituting, W =vLbE't3/(6D2) = 30x2x207x109(0.0001)3/([0.91x0.0722) = 2.6Mw
12.4 For some designs, the minimum sheet thickness is controlled by the ability to
absorb energy elastically in bending without any plastic deformation. In this case, what
weight saving can be achieved by substituting aluminum (Y = 25ksi) for steel (Y =
35ksi) . Use the data in Problem 123.
Solution: The energy absorbed is U = ∫Fdδ but dδ = [AL3/(E'wt3)]dF, where δ is the
deflection, L is the span, t is the thickness, w is the width, E' = E/(1υ2) is the planestrain
modulus, F is the force, and A is a constant that depends on the load distribution and the
support. Integrating, U = ∫[AL3/(E'wt3)]FdF = ALAlF2/(2E'wt3)
For constant U, A, L, and w, F2/(E't3) must also be constant. Therefore, assuming that u
is the same for steel and aluminum, FAl2/(EAltAl3) = Fst2/(Esttst3).
(a) But the force is limited by yielding. Up to ant at yielding, the stress at the surface is
given by σ = Mc/I where the bending moment, c = t/2 and I = wtAl/12 so σ = 6M/(wt2)
or M = swt2/6. Realizing that at yielding σ = Y, and F is proportional to M, F is
proportional to Yt2. Substituting in a,
(YAl2tAl4)/(EAltAl3) = (Yst2tst4)/(Esttst3);
(tAl/tst) = (EAl/Est)(Yst/YAl)2
The weight, W, is proportional to the thickness, t, times the density, r, so
(WAl/Wst) = (ρAl/ρst)(tAl/tst) = (ρAl/ρsst)(EAl/Est)(Yst/YAl) =
(2.7/7.9)(10/30)(35/25) = 0.223
12.6 What fraction of the cross section remains elastic in Prob. 125a?
σx = E'ex and σx = C1 + C2exso
ex = C1/(E'  C2) = 25x103/(11x106  25x103) = 2.278x103
Solution: At yielding, ex = z/R, so at the elasticplastic interface, z = Rex =
1.98x2.278x103= 4.51x103in. Fraction elastic = 4.51x103/0.02 = 22.6%
12.7 It has been suggested that the residual hoop stress in a tube can be found by
slitting a short length of tube longitudinally and measuring the diameter, d, after slitting
and comparing this with the original diameter, d0. A stress distribution must be
assumed. Two simple stress distributions are suggested by Figure 12.11. For a copper
tube, d0. = 25 mm and d = 25.12 mm, t = 0.5 mm. Assume E = 110 GPA and υ = 0.30.
Find the residual stress at the surface using both assumptions about the stress
distribution.
a. b.
residualstress
residualstress

Figure 1211 Assumed stress distributions for Problem 127.
Solution: 7 M = ∆M = 2_t/2∆sxzdz, (assuming w = 1) and ∆σx = E'∆ex
= E'z∆(1/R) so M = 2t/2E'z∆(1/R)zdz = 2E'∆(1/R)(t/2)3/3
but also M = 2t/2σxzdz
Case A: σx = s's (a constant where σs refers to the surface). Then
M = 2σ's(t/2)2/2 = σ's(t/2)2 Equating,
12.8 A round bar (radius R and length L) was plastically deformed in torsion until it
the entire cross section has yielded. Assume an ideally plastic material with a shear
strength, k, and a shear modulus, G. When unloaded it untwisted by an amount ∆θ
(radians)
(a) Derive an expression for the level of residual stress, τ ′, as a function of the radial
position, r, and R, G and k.
(b) Find the relative springback, ∆θ/L in terms of G, k and R.
Solution: For equilibrium, T + ∆T = 0 so (2/3)„kR3 = („/2)G∆θR4/L
a) The residual stress, τ' = τ + ∆τ= k + ∆τ but
∆t = G∆θ = Gr∆θ/L and ∆θ/L = (4/3)k/(GR) so τ' = k[1 (4/3)(r/R)]
(At the surface where r = R, τ's = k/3)
∫ 2πτrdr=2πτR/3,
R 2 3
b) T = 0
∫ 2π γG γG∫2 γG γG
R R
∆T = (r/R
)∆ rdr=π
2(R/3
)∆
s π
2
(r/R
)∆ rdr=
3
π
2(R/3
)∆
s s
2 3
s
0 0
1210 Consider bending of a strip, 80 mm wide and 1.0 mm thick. The stressstrain
relation in the elastic region is σ = 210ε GPa and in the plastic region it is σ = 250 MPa.
(a) What is the limiting curvature to which the strip can be bent without yielding.
(b) If the strip is bent to a radius of curvature of 500 mm, what is the radius when it is
released. Assume bending by a pure bending moment.
Solution: a) ε = t/2ρ; ρ = t/2ε; Substituting εmax = (250/210)x103 = 0.00119 and
t = 0.001; ; ρ = 0.42 m
b) Using equation 1210, 1/r’ = 1/r 3σ0/(tE’) = 1/0.5 – 3x250x106√(4/3)/
[0.001(210x109/0.91) = 1.75, r’ = 0.57