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MATH 4330 - HOMEWORK 02: 09/4/2018 – 09/12/2018

Problem 1
Verify by drawing the appropriate graphs that the following identities are true. (This is not
the same as a proof, of course, but if you are a person who thinks visually, a graph is worth a
thousand lemmas.)

; ln ( x )ln ( 2 x )ln ( 2 x ) ; 5 ln ( x )ln ( x ) . To avoid taking


( 2 x) ( 3 x)
e
2 5
ex e
the logarithm of negative numbers make the plot only over positive values of x . Note: it will be
easier to see that the two expressions are graphically equivalent if you plot them with different
colors and thicknesses by using this option line in your plot command:
color=[red,green],thickness=[2,10]

Problem 2
Show by doing graphical experiments that the exponential function grows faster than any
power of x and that the natural log function grows more slowly than any fractional power of x.
Do this by choosing several fixed powers of x and then making plots over appropriately sized
windows. Recall that if you leave the vertical scale out of the plot command, Maple will choose
it appropriately. Note: when you do the exponential function you will probably run into a
floating point error because you are trying to plot numbers that are too big. The standard way to
avoid this problem is to plot the log of the functions instead. It is easier to tell how big the
numbers are if you use the function log10(x). Second note: when you do the fractional power
comparison you will have to use such big values of x that Maple will complain. So in place of x
use log10(x), i.e., use x=10^t and make the plots versus t instead of x.

Problem 3
Graphically verify the following trigonometric identities. Instead of overlaying two plots,
plot the left-hand side minus the right-hand side. Comment on why you don't really get zero.

sin( 2 x )2 sin( x ) cos( x ) ; cos( 2 x )cos( x ) 2sin ( x )2 .

2 2
1cos( x ) 1cos( x )
sin    cos  
x x
;
2 2 2 2

Problem 4
Show graphically that when you add sin( x ) and cos( x ) together you just get another
sinusoidal function with a new amplitude and phase shift. Make the plot by assigning the sum of
these two functions to a Maple function F and then plotting F(x). From your graph find the new
amplitude and the phase shift relative to the cosine function, i.e., find a formula for the addition
of sine and cosine in the form A cos( x )

Problem 5
The classic conic sections all have parametric forms. Use the parametric plot command to sketch
each of these curves using constrained scaling.

Ellipse: x( s )3 cos( s ) ; y( s )1.3 sin ( s ) ; s0 .. 2  .

Hyperbola: x( s )3 cosh( s ) ; y( s )1.3 sinh ( s ) ; s1.5 .. 1.5


(Once you draw this, figure out how to get the missing half of the picture.)

Parabola (rotated): x( s )s cos(  )s sin (  ) ; y( s )s cos(  )s sin (  )
2 2

s3 .. 3 .
Try plotting this for several different angles. Try drawing a rotated parabola using the y(x)
form.

Problem 6

In the polar plot command given below treat two numbers as adjustable, j and k, and just see
what kinds of different pictures you can make. Fractional values of j are interesting if you use
large values of k.
> j:=3;k:=2;
>
plot([cos(j*s),s,s=0..k*Pi],coords=polar,scaling=constrained,axe
s=none);
>

Problem 8

Modify the animate command above so that the function is smoother in x and so that it runs
smoother in time as well by experimenting with the numpoints and frames settings. Show, using
your animation, that the velocity at which the wavetops move (this velocity is called the phase

velocity) is given by v  . Also show that changing the sign of k changes the direction the
k
wave moves.

Problem 9

Show by making an animation that the sum of two waves of equal amplitude traveling in
opposite directions is a standing wave.