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ISSN 1546-9239

© 2006 Science Publications

Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University

P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia

Abstract: This paper presents a hyperbolic mathematical model to predict the complete stress-strain

curve of drained triaxial tests on uniform dense sand. The model was formed in one equation with

many parameters. The main parameters that are needed to run the model are the confining pressure,

angle of friction and the relative density. The other parameters, initial and final slopes of the stress

strain curve, the reference stress and the curve-shape parameter are determined as functions of the

confining pressure, angle of friction and the relative density using best fitting curve technique from the

experimental tests results. Drained triaxial tests were run on clean white uniform sand to utilize and

verify this model. These tests were carried out at four levels of confining pressure of 100, 200, 300 and

400 kPa. This model was used to predict the stress-strain curves for drained triaxial tests on quartz

sand at different relative density using the data of Kouner[1]. The model predictions were compared

with the experimental results and showed good agreements of the predicted results with the

experimental results at all levels of applied confining pressures and relative densities.

However, the model presented by Almusallam and

Mathematical modeling of stress-strain curves of Alsayed[7] was found to have the ability to consider the

soil behavior obtained from triaxial tests gained great influence of different parameters affecting the stress-

interest during the last three decades due to the need for strain curve characteristics with only single parameter,

calibration of the recent constitutive soil models that which is the ultimate compressive strength of the

used in the analysis and prediction of the behavior of concrete, needed to run the model. The other

complex soil structures and soil/structure interaction parameters of the model are determined using the best-

problems using finite elements or finite difference fitting curve technique as a function of the compressive

method. An overview of constitutive models for soils strength of the concrete. The model was presented by

was given by Lade[2]. The Hyperbolic Mathematical Almusallam and Alsayed[7] and found to provide good

model is one of the simpler models that can simulate predictions of the experimental results for hardening

the nonlinear stress-strain curve of soil. Kondner[3] and softening parts.

proposed a functional form based on hyperbolic stress- Alshenawy[8] extended the application of the above

strain function which developed later by Duncan and model to predict the complete differential cavity

Chang[4] and extended by Kulhawy et al.[5], but this pressure-cavity volume change curve of an expansion

model is limited to the hardening part of the stress- of a thick-walled hollow cylinder test for both coarse

strain relationship. and fine Ottawa sands. Based on t the experimental

A versatile model presented by Richard and results, the confining pressure was chosen to be the

Abbott[6] has been used to represent the stress-strain input parameter to run the model. The other parameters

spectrum of different types of concrete. This model was were expressed as a function of the confining pressure

used by Almusallam and Alsayed[7] to capture the and determined using the best-fitting curve technique.

complete stress-strain curves (hardening and softening The computational results of the model were then

parts) for normal, high strength and light weight compared with the experimental results and showed

concrete tested under various loading conditions. The good agreements for both coarse and fine sands at all

authors have tried different empirical models to predict levels of confining pressures. The model was found to

the complete stress-strain curve and concluded that be able to predict the complete differential cavity

some models need to have two different formulas to pressure-cavity volume change curve at any value of

generate the complete stress-strain curve and other confining pressure other than used in the tests.

models could not take into account the influences of The main objective of this paper is to utilize this

different factors influencing the stress-strain curves. model to predict the stress-strain curve of consolidated

Also, it was found that some models require drained triaxial test on granular soil. The main

Corresponding Author: Awad Al-Karni, Civil Engineering Department, College of Engineering, King Saud University,

P.O.Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia

2108

Am. J. Applied Sci., 3 (11): 2108-2113, 2006

angle of friction and the relative density. The other fo

parameters were evaluated as a function of these

Kp

parameters using best-fitting curve technique. The

results of the suggested model was compared with the

Deviator Stress, σd

experimental results and found to be in a good K

agreement with the hardening and softening parts of the

curve.

suggested model consists of one equation which can be n

written for the triaxial test on soil to relate the change in

deviator vertical stress (σd) to the vertical strain (εv) in

the following form:

σd =

(K − K ) ε p v

+ K p εv

(1)

n 1/ n

1+

(K − K ) ε p v

Confining Pressure, σc

fo

Fig. 1: Illustration of the model's parameters

As shown in Fig. 1, the parameters K, Kp are the 100

initial and final slopes of the stress strain curve

respectively, the parameter fo is a reference stress and n 90

80

ln m (2)

n=−

f1 Kp 70

ln −

fo K − K p 60

50

2

ε ε (3)

f1 = σ p

d 2 1p − 1p 40

εv εv

30

where σ dp is the peak deviator vertical stress, ε vp is the

20

corresponding vertical strain and ε1 can be written as:

fo 10

ε1 = (4)

K − Kp 0

100 10 1 0.1 0.01 0.001

The advantage of this model is its ability to predict

the complete stress-strain curve for both hardening and Fig. 2: Gradation curve of the tested sand

softening parts.

pressure of 100, 200, 300 and 400 kPa at a constant rate

Experimentation: A set of consolidated drained of displacement of 0.3 cm sec 1.

triaxial tests was carried out in this study to calibrate

the proposed model. The tests were run on local white Evaluation of the model parameters: The parameters

uniform sand and the grain size distribution curve is that needed to be determined in order to execute the

shown in Fig. 2. The sand grains are almost rounded p

model in Eq. (1) are: K, Kp, fo, ε vp , σ , m and n. These

with an average grain size diameter of about 0.5 mm. d

The major properties of this sand are presented in Table parameters were obtained based on the experimental

1. According to the Unified Classification System, this results as functions of the main parameters which

soil is poorly graded sand (SP). include the confining pressure, the angle of friction and

The experiments were performed using triaxial the relative density using the best-fitting curve

testing apparatus using consolidated drained condition. technique.

The triaxial specimen was prepared at a high relative

density of 95% using split mold with 35.5 mm in i. The parameter K: The initial slope (K) of the

diameter and 71 mm in height. The value of the pore experimental stress-strain curves, which represent the

water pressure parameter (B) was not less than 97% for initial tangent modulus of elasticity of the sand, could

good degree of saturation. In the experimental program, be expressed as a function of the confining pressure

the specimens were tested at four levels of confining ( σ c ) by a linear equation (Fig. 3) as:

2109

Am. J. Applied Sci., 3 (11): 2108-2113, 2006

Dr

250000

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1

Tests results

Fitting values Tests results

200000 Fitting values

-500

150000

K (kPa)

-1000

K = 539.87σc - 278.5

Kp (kPa)

2

R = 0.9822

100000

-1500

Kp = -3269.5Dr2 + 749.84Dr - 438.06

R2 = 0.9913

50000

-2000

0

0 100 200 300 400 500

Effective confining pressure, σc (kPa) -2500

Fig. 3: Variation of K with confining pressure at Fig. 6: Variation of Kp with relative density at

Dr=95% σc=207 kPa

100 1600

Tests results Fitting values

80 Fitting values

1200

70

2

K = 183428Dr - 86755Dr + 34724

1000

60

K x10 (kPa)

2

R = 0.9762

f0 (kPa)

50 800

3

fo = 3.85σc - 28.5

2

40 R =1

600

30

400

20

10 200

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0

0 100 200 300 400 500

Dr

Effective confining pressure, σc (kPa)

Fig. 4: Variation of K with relative density at

σc=207 kPa Fig. 7: Variation of fo with confining pressure at Dr

=95%

Effective confining pressure, σc (kPa)

0 100 200 300 400 500 K = 540σ c − 278.5 (5)

0

Figure 4 illustrates the variation of K against the

-500

Tests results relative density (Dr) using the data of Kouner[1] where

Fitting values

K expressed as:

-1000 K = 183428Dr 2 − 86755Dr + 34724 (6)

Where the units of K and σ c are in kPa.

-1500

Kp (kPa)

-2000

Kp = -8.5σc+ 215

. the experimental curves can be expressed as a

R2 = 0.9655 function of the confining pressure by linear

-2500

equations, as shown by Fig. 5. Kp can be expressed

as:

-3000

K p = −(8.5σ c − 215) (7)

-3500 or as a function of the relative density according to the

Fig. 5: Variation of Kp with confining pressure at data of Kouner[1] as shown by Fig. 6, as

Dr=95% K p = - 3269.5Dr 2 + 749.84 Dr - 438.06 (8)

2110

Am. J. Applied Sci., 3 (11): 2108-2113, 2006

1100 1400

1000 1200

Tests results

Fitting values

900 1000

800 800

fo (kPa)

Tests Results

fo= 644.73Dr + 502.36 m=100

2 m=300

700 R = 0.9767 600

m=500

m=700

600 400

500 200

400 0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 0.00 0.02 0.04 0.06 0.08 0.10 0.12 0.14 0.16 0.18

Dr

Vertical strain, εv

Fig. 8: Variation of fo with relative density at

Fig. 10: Comparison between the predicted stress-

σc=207 kPa

strain curves at different values of m at

25 Chart Title Dr=95% and σc=400 kPa

1600

σc (kPa)

Tests Results

20 400

Fitting Values

1400 300

200

p

Peak Vertical Strain, ε v

100

Suggested model

1200

15

Deviator stress (kpa)

1000

10

p 2

εv = 25.581Dr - 46.936Dr + 29.039 800

2

R = 0.9867

5 600

400

0

0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1 200

Dr

Fig. 9: Variation of peak vertical strain with relative 0

axial strain(%)

Where the units of Kp and σ c are in kPa. Fig. 11: Comparison between the predicted and the

experimental results of the deviator stress at

Dr=95%

iii. The parameter fo: Figure 7 shows a linear

relationship between the reference stress (fo) and the

ε vp = 25.58Dr 2 − 46.94 Dr + 29.04 (11)

confining pressure which could be expressed as:

f o = 3.85σ c − 28.5 (9) This relationship was used in the calibration of the

model parameter m using the results of tests that

or as a function of the relative density according to the conducted in this study at a relative density of 95% and

data of Kouner[1] as shown in Fig. 8 as found to give good results.

f o = 644.7 Dr + 502 (10)

Where the units of fo and σ c are in kPa. v. The parameter σ dp : According to Mohr-Coulomb

failure criteria, the relationship between the peak

iv. The parameter ε vp : According to the tests results deviator stress σ dp and the confining pressure for sand

of Kouner[1], ε vp was found to vary with the variation of (at C=0, where C is the soil cohesion) is given by

the relative density as shown in Fig. 9 according to the 2sin φ

σ dp = σ c (12)

following relationship 1 − sin φ

2111

Am. J. Applied Sci., 3 (11): 2108-2113, 2006

700 700

600 600

Deviator stress, kPa

500 500

400

400

Test results from Koerner (1970)

300

Test results from Koerner (1970) 300 Suggested model results

200 Suggested model results

200

100

100

0

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35 0

Vertical strain 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20 0.25 0.30 0.35

Vertical strain

(a) Dr=22.3 (b) Dr=38.5

800 900

700 800

Deviator stress, kPa

700

600

600

500

500

400

400

Test results from Koerner (1970)

300 300 Suggested model results

Test results from Koerner (1970)

200 200

Suggested model results

100 100

0 0

0.00 0.10 0.20 0.30 0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

Vertical Strain

Vertical strain

(c) Dr=59.3 (d) Dr=0.745

1000

800

Deviator stress, kPa

600

400

Test results from Koerner (1970)

Proposed model results

200

0

0.00 0.05 0.10 0.15 0.20

Vertical strain

(e) Dr=0.826

Fig. 12: Comparison between the predicted and the experimental results of the deviator stress at confining pressure

of 207 kPa

Where φ is the angle of friction of the sand. Calibration of the proposed model: The calibration of

the model depends on the determination of the

vi. The parameter m: The parameter m will be parameter m since the other parameters are evaluated

evaluated after the calibration of the model. directly from the tests results. This was carried out by

testing the model for different values of m as shown by

vii. The parameter n: The parameters n can be Fig. 10 using the tests results at confining pressure of

calculated from Eq. (2). 400 kPa, the best value was found to be when m=700.

2112

Am. J. Applied Sci., 3 (11): 2108-2113, 2006

It was found that the best value that is applicable to all List of Symbols

the confining stress levels with marginal deviation from Dr = relative density

the test results when m=300 as shown by Fig. 11. E = void ratio

Hence a value of m of m=300 was used to verify the

f0 = the reference stress

model.

f1 = constant

Verification of the proposed model: To verify the Gs = specific gravity

proposed model, it was used to predict the stress-strain K = the initial slope of the stress strain curve

curves for quartz sand tested using consolidated drained Kp = the final slope of the stress strain curve

triaxial tests that were published by Kouner[1]. The n = a curve-shape parameter

prediction of the stress-strain curves at different relative m = constant

densities via the proposed model is shown Fig. 12. This φ =angle of friction

figure shows that the predicted curves by the suggested

γd =dry unit weight

model are in a good agreement with the experimental

curves in both hardening and softening parts for all σd = deviator vertical stress

levels of the relative density. In the case of dense sand σ dp = the peak deviator vertical stress

or high confining pressure where the stress-strain curve εv = the vertical strain

has a well defined peak value and at high strain value of ε vp =the peak vertical strain

about 15%, the predicted deviator stress values become ε1 = constant

lower than those of the experimental results as the

strain increases where the experimental values stay

REFERENCES

almost constant as the strain increases. However, in

most of the practice problems, we may not need to go

beyond a vertical strain of 15%. This concludes that this 1. Kouner, R.M., 1970. Effect of particle

simple model is efficient in predicting the stress-strain characteristics on soil strength. J. Soil Mechanics

curve of the sandy soil at any value of confining and Foundation Division, ASCE, 96 (SM4): 1221-

pressure and relative density using the consolidated 1234.

drained triaxial test. 2. Lade, P.V., 2005. Overview of constitutive models

for soils. Geotechnical Special Publication No.

CONCLUSION

128: Soil Constitutive Model Evaluation, Selection

In this paper, a simple hyperbolic mathematical and Calibration. ASCE, pp: 1-34.

model is proposed to generate the complete deviator 3. Kondner, R.L., 1963. Hyperbolic stress-strain

vertical stress vs. vertical strain curve of the response: Cohesive soils. J. Soil Mechanics and

consolidated drained triaxial test on sand. The model Foundation Division, ASCE, 89(SM1): 115-143.

has the advantage of considering the influence of 4. Duncan, J.M. and C.Y. Chang, 1970. Nonlinear

different factors affecting the stress-strain curve analysis of stress and strain in soils. J. Soil

characteristics including the confining pressure, angle Mechanics and Foundation Division, ASCE, 96

of friction and relative density. The model was

(SM5): 1629-1653.

calibrated and verified using two sets of data of

consolidated drained triaxial tests at different levels of 5. Kulhawy, F.H. and J.M. Duncan, 1972. Stresses

confining pressures and relative density. The first set of and movements of Oroville dam. J. Soil Mechanics

data consists of four tests on dense sandy samples that and Foundation Division, ASCE, 98 (SM7): 653-

were tested at relative density of 95% and at four levels 665.

of confining pressure of 100, 200, 300 and 400 kPa. 6. Richard, R.M. and B.J. Abbott, 1975. Versatile

The other set consists of five tests that were published elastic-plastic stress-strain formula. J. Engg.

by Kouner[1] at confining pressure of 207 kPa and

Mech., ASCE, 10: 511-515.

different relative densities of 22.3, 38.5, 59.3, 74.5 and

82.6. The three main parameters that were used to run 7. Almusallam, T.H. and S.H. Alsayed, 1995. Stress-

the model include the confining pressure, the angle of strain relationship of normal, high-strength and

friction and the relative density. The other parameters lightweight concrete. Mag. Concrete Res., 47: 39-

of the model were determined using the best fitting 44.

curve technique as function of these main parameters. 8. Alshenawy, A., 2002. Mathematical modeling of

The model prediction curves were compared with the cavity expansion test on dry sand. Emirates J.

experimental ones and found to provide good Engg. Res., United Arab Emirates University, 7: 7-

agreements at all the levels of confining pressure and

24.

relative density for the hardening and softening parts of

the stress-strain curve.

2113

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