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Copyright © 1996 IFAC 2a-14 1

13th Triennial World Congress, Sun Francisco , tJ SA


Gllunar Hillerstrolll ",I Kirthi Walgalna··

~ Control E'ngm t:e J'ing Group, Lu/e a Unive rsity, SO - 971 87 Lutea, SWeden
.. ,. Departmrnt of t ;n.qinee.ring ll1athemailCS, Univ ersity ofPeradeniya, Sri Lanka

Absti'8Ct. The aim of t.his paper is to present rep etitive control, controll ers for re-
jecting periodic disturbances or t racking periodic reference signals. This survey covers
bot.h \:ontinuolls and discrete time theory, together with a number of appli cations.

Keywords. Disturbance rejection; Reference trackin g; Nonminimum-pha~e

oystcrns; Lea.rning Control ; Adaptive syst.p,ms

I. I'ITRODUCTlON If the sampling frequ ency is cJlDSen according to Nyquist

(at least twice as fast as t.h e highest domiuating in-
The original aim of 7"epetiti1JC control was th e design of put signa.l frequency) , it suffice with a model of only
a continuolls time c.ont.r o lh~ r rejecting a periodic distur- the domillating fr~quencies. 'I 'his will give a faster tra n-
han ce or tracking i"\ periodic reference signal, which wa."> sient resp onse and better robustness margin!> tha.n cor-
ba.c;;ed on the know ledge of the pe ri orl t.ime only, When cesponding time-delay model (HilIerstrom and Sternby
peri odic inpu t. signals with infinite numb er of harmon- 19Y4, 1995). Jn tersample beha.v iour may also be taken
ics! for example wave, are considered it is clear into considera.tion by means of minimizing the power-
that a finit.e dim ensional con'l'Ol!er i.s noL sufficient. norm of Lhe steady-state tracking error (Langari and
Franc;s, 1994, 199~) .
A seemingly straightforward sollltion is based on the In-
tern al Model Principle (IMP) due to Francis and WOfl- To give a formal definition of repetitive co nt.rol seems lo
ham (1976). The controller utilizes, just like Integral be almost as hard as for adaptive control (Ast.rom and
Action , a m odel of t he input. signal to obtaiu '6cro error Wittenmark , 1995) . But it. has a close relat.ion to c.g.
asy mptotica.lly. Ln case only the period time is known , a the work by (Do,;soll a nd PateL 1988) or (Sa"kin and
delay with p os it.i\'~ f~edb ack arolllll..-I it. may be used as Pet.erscn, 19!J5). It may also he seen as a. special case of
a.n (infinite dimensional) internal uwdcl, to ohtain per- the decoupling problem. Regard less of whether the t erm
fect. regulation over a.1l fn~ qllt~ucies (Inaue, 1981 ; Hara "repetitive" is used or not, c()flsidering p eriodic signals
and Yamarnot.o, I!)~;:)). in control systems art~ importa nt from an application ,
as well as, from a thco n~tic;tl point of view.
l?l'om an implementation poi nt of vi ew, t.he delay is re-
alized i.u discret e time as a chain of delay elements; c.g. To be historically correct, t.his paper is organized to
(Tomizuka., H)88). In doing 1';° 1 th e (.ontroller becomes present. continuous and discret.e time repetitive]
finite dimensional and it reduces t.o a finite dimensional in lI a med order. Finally, a number of applications exam-
samp led dat.a problem. ples will he givclI. Three earli(!r works may Le mentioned
in t.his co ntext, Continuos time repetitive control and re-
lat.ed th eoretical problems for infinit.e-dimensional sys-
1 The nulhur is partly fund ~d hy the Swedis h National Bl.Il\rd for
tems may be found in (Yamitmoto, 1993) , Broberg and
Indus trial alld ' I'e chnical Deve l op"JJI~"l, whose finftllciaJ s upport is
Kreatly apprednte d. Molyet (1 992b) present a sho,t summary of both theory

and applicat.ions, and Kempf d al. (1993) compare fo ur all 'unstable part in the lead compensator G(s), to guar-
discrete time repetitive cont rol schemes for a computer antee the ..onvergence for a larger class of systems. To
disc file system . There a re also int.eresting relations to implement this controller, a 81BO stable convolution
learning bel..tcrment control (Uchiyama, ]978 ; Arimoto integral taken over a finite lf~ ngth window , is utilized.
et al. , 1884: Moore et al., 1992). Bu t rllI e to space li mi - By using this approach, t.he zero error property, even
tations, thcsf" aspects are not. elaborated on here. for high frequencies, is preserved, There is a poten tial
for further work in this direction , to find performan ce
limitat.ions of repetitive cont.rol systems.

The concr:pt of repetit.ive ('.ontrol (then called "controller
for rep' operation") Wi:l~ origi nally develop ed for
SISO plants in co ntinu ous t ime by Jn oue et al. (1981),
for tra.. king a periodit refereu("e signal with a. known pe- ,-'--,
riod T. duciJl~ rh e de lay modd 1/( 1 - e- 3 '1') in the . . . G(.)
RepetltlVe part '--,---'
feedback loo p, resul(,ed in Cl simple co nt.['ol system, Fig. 1 ........... . .......... j- a
with Q 1. t.hat {Ioes perfect a!:iymptoti c tracking of pe- r+ _e~----_~_~~
riodi c references provided closed loop syst.em st.abili ty.
To stabiliu' this loop is, however, a. no n t rivial problem
(lnoue d 0.1. , 19SI.; Ya mamoto alld lI ara, 1988). Sta-
hility analys is in (Hara and Yamamoto , 1985) reveal ed
that, with G(s) as a projwr and stable raLional t.rans-
1 _ Servo loop

Fig. I. Th e repetit.ive rontroller by Tnoue et al. (1981)


fer functi u lI, t.he stability could be guaranteed only for In parallel to using the infinite dim ensional delay oper-
plants P(s) \\'it.h rdative degret' zero (or a. system tha.t ator mod els for repetitive controller design, the use of
arc prop E'r bUl. not s t rictly proper ) . This restriction is finite dimensional Lapla.ce or D operator models is be-
due t.o the cont-roUer paramet.eri:6at.iol) (Sadegh , 1991 )1 ing explored. It is mot.ivated by that the high frequencies
and t.o t.he ullrealistic demand ofperft'cl t. racking for any would get. filtered out. a.n yway wh en passing t.hrough the
periodic sig:na.l, includiug its high frequency contents . process. It is abo seen a.s an illternative to first. includ-
To overcome t.his li mit.alion (IuolLc et at. , 1981a; IIara ing an infinite number of modes, and t hen lowpass filter
d al., 1988) modify t he repet.itive (outroller, by intro- them away. Hence, in view of that , it can be argued a
ducing a lo,," pass filter Q(s ) in t.he delay model (Fig. 1). finite-di mensional model:! of the periodic reference o r
Alt.hough some stabilit.y rob ustrwss is a.c hieved with this disturbance, is sufficient. A continuous time polynomial
modific:a ti on, t.rackiIl!~ pcr forma.nct~ is !;acrificed. A syn- controller pole placement. desIgn based on the IMP a nd
thesis aJgo rithrn for miuillllun ph<L.~e systems is given in solving Bezout identity, c,an he developed for processes
Rara et al. (L985). In Hara and Yamamoto (19S5) , it that do !lot have process time delays, The methodol-
ill ('x tend ed to nOIl-lllininlllm philse plan ts. Their stabil- ogy is similar to self tu ning ('ontrol or model reference
it.y a.nalysis shows, in pa.rticula.r , tha.t (Lny low pass tilter adaptive controller desiglls gjven in (Astrom and \Vit-
Q(s) sat.isfyi ng IIQU,')II :5 I ('an be used for minimum- tenmark , 1995; Feng a nd Palaniswarui, 1992). Alth ough
phase syst.Nns. \",hile there are band- width restrictions the design is straightforward, when th e numher of har-
on the filtl~ rjlJ)!; for J1011-rniniuulJll pha..~e plants. Hara et moni cs is large, the res tllting i:ontroller may have a. "cry
al. (19 R!)) also ill vest,igal es " r epe t.j Li ve controller for a high order.
class of non-linear systems. A system atic and compre- To track a. single sinusoidal reference Or to reject a single
hem;iv(' treatment of the !;tabihty i'\llalysis and the syn- sinusoidal dist.urban ce wit.h angular frequency w, (Kaze-
thesis of r e petjtivf~ c(]ntrollers is given for multivari ab l~ l'ooni, HHHJ) the original plant with the internal
sY!:it.cms in (Hara d d., 1£)88). mod el w' /(s2 + w'), an d use LQG/LTR. controller de-
The ilj.$uc of dffiigninJ~ tile low pas. . . filter Q is imporant. sign for t.h e ~\Igmented plani. . Liu aud Ho (1992) also
III fact, it is shown that fo r cert.ain cases the repeti- use this concept for mUltiple frequ encies, and propose a
tive co llt· r with filtering does not offer any improve- design algorithm t.o sntisfy prespecified bounds o n rela-
ments ovcr the cOllv,~ntional integra l co ntrol (Alter and tive steady stat.e tra.cking error and sensitivity fun ction.
Tsao, 1904). In (I'eery a nd l17.hay, W9:l) this iosue is Bot.h approaches has tht~ a.dvantage that no Bezout iden-
approach ed hy opl.imizing aJl El '""" cnndition, reflectin g t.ity need t.o be solved , MIld III;'lY bc applied to mul t ivari-
t he trade off het.ween closed loo p sp ;r.r. m performa.nce able sy:;t.cms, but not for nOD minimum phase systems.
and stability robustness.
As an alt.ernat.iw' to the lowpass filtering, Sadegh (1991) 2 1-1'odp.L'>1 nf onlY. nr ma.ny iso lated frequencies , wich also gen a rl'l.liz~
propo::;es a modified repetit.ivt' controller which includes 1.0 a larger class of signals than just the periorlic ones.

In the B',ate ~pace a pproach, the basic idea is to dy- that demands preview terms of the signal (noncausal).
nami cally decoupl€' the plant ~ tat.e from the disturbance An observer, for example as proposed in (Medvedev and
state, by selecting a pproprial.e feedb:u:k and feedforward HilIerstrom, t993a) could be used to get t.he::;e preview
controller co nfigurations and , ifnccessary, using observers terms (or derivatives terms).
for state es timat.ion . If dynamic decoupling is achieved ,
then only th(.~ initia.l -:onditiol1 in t.he disturbance s Late
would t'!ffec t the plant, stat.e. 3, lJISCRETE TIME REPETITIVE CONTROL
The subject of dynamic decoupling is extensively dealt Most results, both polynomial and state-space, obtained
for example ill (Wonham, 198,») ami (Wolovieh , 1974) , in continuous time can be tra.llsferred into discrete time.
In Rus~e ll ( 1986), t.he dynamic decoupling is achi eved The delay model in discrete t.ime is, however, finite di-
by the cumbinat.ion of a reduced order observer, a state mensional. To dist.igllish delay models form models of
fcp.dback a nd dist.urbance st.ate feedforward controller . isolated sinusiodals, as there will be no finite/infinite
'Vhen the pl a llt. are not. measurable, one could. dimensional difference, t..he latt er is denot ed by ..,,\..1.
employ a.n obsen te!' to obtain both plant and distur·
ham·.e st ates. Ru sse ll (198(3) also extend the scheme to a n Al t hough the first repetitive cont,rollers ab ove are devel-
adi\pt ive one, where the disturbance period is est imated oped ill continuous time, they are implemented digitally.
when it is unknown . Another method of dynami c deeou- In (Nakallo and "ara, 1986), a microprocessor imple-
"ling is prop",ed in Med vedev aLld lIillers trom (1993a) , mentation of a repetitive cOlltroller aloug the lines of
It is ha.-red on a novel continuous time dead beat. ob- [nolle et (1.1.(1981) , is fHt'.8Cnt.r d .
ser ver propoSf>d in Medvedt' v ami Toivonen (1992). T his Feedforward compensa t ion, for arbitrary reference sig-
cOlltrollt'r is furUIt:' r extended by introducing an dist ur-, using pole/zero cancella ti on is feasIble only for
bance estilllator ba...;;.ed on t ime delay Ilf~ural networks , stablc minimum phase plant::.. For nonminimum
in Medvedev an d Hillerstrom (lY9:Jb aLld 1995) . The phase plants
state spac€' co ntrolkr design pn'scntcd in (Sic-vers and
von Flot.ow, I n .R~) u~t:s t.he ll10dd ohtained by augmen t...
ing the plant model with disLurbance model. The LQG
controller design wit.hFrequency \\'eighting Within the
the inverse will be unstable, resulting in unbounded com-
Cost Func.t.ioll is used to determine the feedback and the
pensation signals, With A(z-I)/ B+ (z- ') cascaded, only
feedforw ard g'iiws. Since all these methods are based on
the nonminimum phase plallt.. zeros with possible de-
measured o r t's tiOlat cd dist.urban('e vector t.hey could
lays d, B- (;;-1) z-d, are left By using preview terms,
also be cn.t.f.gorized as extcrnal mod el repeti t ive con-
substit.ut(> Z-1 by z , and prcfi th e in put signal with
t.rollers .
B - ( z ) Zd a Zero Phase COlllpensation (Tomizuka. 1987 ),
For refe rc n ('.c~ t radin g, instead of using IMP based feed- but not unity amplitude, is o btained. This is developed
hack controllers, a feed forward cOlltrollcr can he de- for t.racking signals with a cer ta in degree of smoothness ,
signed in a t,-\,O dq.;; r~~ of freedom controller fra.m ework . but it may also be lIsc(.i for periodic reference tracking,
Simila.rly, wh en the dist urhances are rneasurable or ('.a n at the expense of an amplit.1Jd e error for the high fre-
ue estima.ted , a feed forward conholler can easily be em- quency components. ThiB problem ca n to some extent
ployed to a rhic.'ve disturbance decollpling. A Ithough, per· be over(.ome by using the technique described. ill (Gross
f~ct. referen ce t racking and complet.e disturbance dccou- et at"~ 1991) or the Extend ed Ba ndwidth Zero Phase
pling cann ot. be a chieved in gcn~ral for non m inimum Co ntroller (Torfs et at"~ 1992 ), III c""e of a kn own input
phase I)t OCCfl8{~S , 1,his is possi hll-' when the signals are pe- signal model (delay or type .1\.1 ), t he non minimum phase
riodi c. A t ime domain sOllltiotl t.o thi::; problem m ay hf. term may be compcnsat.ed. P,!rfec t t racking, zero phase
found in (S Fl.degh , HJ9t). III (Jaya."illriya and Tomizuka, and unity amplitude, ma.y be accomplish ed by a FIR fil-
1992) , a generalized feedforward controller design based ter fcedforward compensator, obtained by solving a Be-
on ortiLogo naiity condition is proposcd for tracking of zout identity (Walgama, 1991 ; Walgama and Sternby,
referell(, t.hat. r:an be described hy Laplace operator 1995). In ('ase of uncertainty in the process time- delay,
m o d el!;. a feedforward design is to pl't-fer while it does not jeop-
ardize stability (Middleton et ai" 1989; Hillers lrorn and
In (Jayasuriya and \, 1903) th e sam e feedfor-
Sternby, [995) but res ults only in a time shifted output.
ward cont ro ll er is ubta ined hy solving a 13ezoul. identity
as it. was proposed in (\tValgama, ]991) for discrete tillle [n an IMP feedback solu t io n one is confronted with
system s. A more dt'lailcd out.line may be found in the a (usually) large design equ atioll ~ when the plant has
following sec tio n. These feedfonvard controller designs bccn augmented by the inte rnal model (Middlcton et
could a lso h(' ll sed for dist.urhance decollpling if the dis- al. 1985,19S9). lf j,he samplin ~ interval h is sYllchronized
turbaJl ce can be measured or c8 I.illlaj,t ~ d . The direct 50- slIch that N samples per period is taken , T = N h , t.he re
lut.ioll of a Bezout idenht,Y gives (~feedforward controller will be a finit.e number or poles (e ven if t he cont. inuous

sampled si gnal has infini le balld-widthL due to aliasing. disturban ce. This scheme may also b e used wit.h funda-
The delay model 1/ (1 - z- N) included in a stabilized ment al frequency ad ap ta.tion to form an adaptive feed-
dosed loop , will give :1.ero erro r at th ~ sa mpling instants forward concelation scheme (Hillerstrom and Sterllby,
for all s ign a ls ",,·ith t.haL pe riod. If the sampling frequ ency 19946). These two schemes IIIay also be categorized as
is chosen too slow t.h{;~ inter-tmmpk ripple may he large, being extt~ rnal model co ntrollf'Ts. Adaptive schemes based
and if it is too fast. th e number of samples per period on t.he delay model for ffdection of periodic
N will grow. The o rder of t.he del ay model will grow may be found in (TsaD and Nemani, 1992) and trackin g
accordingly. g iving a high o rd€r controll€r and large de- of periodi c referen ces in (TsaJ) and Qiau , 1993) .
sign lls. This will no t be t.hp. case for sinusoida l
mod els M (Walgama, 1.09 1; Hillerstra m , 1994) , as they 4. APPLIC;\TiONS
model a number of fr€: qu c n("il~s. The paralHctcrs, bllt. not
the ord er , will change. Rep etitive control schemes have proven superior to nOll-
In vole pl acement desig n t here is. a large Ocxibility. 1t is, predictive ones (e .g. PI-control) , for a number of a ppli-
however , 1I 0 t obvious Whf 1"f' to plaw I.he poles . As an al- cations. Especially if the plan. dynamics includes delays,
t.erna.ti ve, linear qu adra ti c design (Led wic h and Holto n , much is to be gained by using repetitive schemes , taking
199:1), Lll c regeneration spectrum (Shaw and Srinivasa n, into a ccount the input s ignal phase and waveform . Th e
1993), and the solut.ion present.eo for plants in list of' a.pplications cOltId be made long, but due to space
(Sadegh , IOU!) ) , bas eJ o n frequency respon se of the pl a11 t iirnit aLi on o nly a few are referred here. Repebtive COll-
P(.:.d at the harmo lli c fr~qllenc ies , :k = e i 'JdIN , k = trol was firs L llltrodu (",ed in the contro l of a. proto n syn-
0 , .' ., N , ma.y be lI5e(L The last. dt-'SiglJ also extends to chrotroll magnet.ic power supply (Inoue et al., 1981 c) .
MIMO pl . ut s . It ha."I a lso been applied t.o a \·ompllf,er hard-dis c (Chew
and Tomizuka. 1990a) , C D player (Dotsch et al., 1995),
There are, hoyvever, som e st.andard tri cks to simplify the a peristaltic pump used in dialysis equipment.s and for
pole pl a cem ent design. Assuming stable and fast pl ant pum ping chemicals (Hillerstlom an d Sternby, 1994a ),
dYJlamics (if necess ary us ing an int.e rnalloop) the plant. robot cOlltrol (Tsai tt al., 1!188; Sadegh el al., 1990),
poles A( Z-l) coulfl b-e left ullaILert'C"l. which reduces the continuous steel casting (Jol ly et al., 1993) , thickness
problem to pla('.illg th e po les of the inLernal model. Plac- contro l in cold rolling (Garimella and Srinivasan, 1994),
ing th ese p oles radially iuwards th e o pen loop ones, will noise cancellation (Hn , L995; Micheau et al., 1995) , ac-
cause a damping (error convergen ce rat.e) determine(.l tive vibrat.ion compensation (Sicvers and von Flotow ,
by the radius. This solution jllt.welucc" (Ji gttal comb fil- 1988; lIiIJerstram, 1096), alld attitude sl ..bilization of
t.ering, and may be o bta ined based o n the gradi ent of satellites (Brollr'rg and Molyd , 1992a; Lawrence et al.,
t.he st.ored pl~ riodi c el)utrol a Clion vec t or (Ledwich and 1994 ).
Bolt.on , 19~JI), or by so lving a ~ta.nd<t, rd Hezout ident ity
(Billerstrotl! alld Stern by. 199'lcj. 5. RF:FBRENCES
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