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International Journal of Finance, Accounting and Economics

(IJFAE) ISSN: 2617-135X Vol. 1 (3) 1-17, October, 2018


www.oircjournals.org

Enterprise Resource Planning on Quality


of Financial Reports of Public
Universities in Uasin Gishu County,
Kenya. The Effect of Fixed Assets
Reporting

1Lydia Jemutai Tuitoek 2Kimani E. Maina


1 MSc Finance Student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology
2Lecturer Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology

Type of the Paper: Research Paper.


Type of Review: Peer Reviewed.
Indexed in: worldwide web.
Google Scholar Citation: IJFAE
How to Cite this Paper:
Tuitoek, J. L., and Kimani E. M., (2018). Enterprise Resource Planning on Quality
of Financial Reports of Public Universities in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The
Effect of Fixed Assets Reporting. International Journal of Finance, Accounting and
Economics (IJFAE) 1 (3), 1-17.
International Journal of Finance, Accounting and Economics (IJFAE)
A Refereed International Journal of OIRC JOURNALS.
© Oirc Journals.

This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial 4.0


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published content to any party.
International Journal of Finance, Accounting and Economics
(IJFAE) ISSN: 2617-135X Vol. 1 (3) 1-17, October, 2018
www.oircjournals.org

Enterprise Resource Planning on Quality of Financial


Reports of Public Universities in Uasin Gishu County,
Kenya. The Effect of Fixed Assets Reporting
1Lydia
Jemutai Tuitoek & 2Kimani E. Maina
1 MBA Student, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology

2Lecturer Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology

ARTICLE INFO Abstract


An enterprise resource planning is software that
Received on 28th September, 2018 integrates several sections in an institution as a
separated functional area and each functional area
Received in Revised Form 10th October,
includes a set of business processes with flowing
2018 data into a central database. Universities in Kenya
th
Accepted 18 October, 2018 are embracing the use of enterprise resource
planning in their financial operations. The study
Published online 21st October, 2018 seeks to determine the effect of fixed assets reporting
on quality of financial reports of public universities
Keywords: Enterprise Resource planning, Quality in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya. The research was
financial reports, Public Universities, Fixed Assets guided by the fixed assets theory. Descriptive survey
research design was used. The study used simple
random sampling technique in choosing the sample size from the accessible population and used the Yamane
formula to arrive at the sample size which was 92 respondents from the public universities in Uasin Gishu County,
Kenya. A pilot study was conducted in order to test the validity and reliability of the research questionnaire.
Content validity was used as a validity test while reliability was tested using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient.
Questionnaires were used to collect primary data. Data was analyzed using both descriptive and inferential
statistics. Data gathered from the questionnaires administered were analyzed using SPSS. The outputs were
presented inform of statistical diagrams, tables and graphs. The study used multiple linear regression and
correlation analysis to show the relationship between the variables. Findings revealed that fixed assets reporting
(β=0.250; p<0.05), positively and significantly influence quality of financial reports. The study therefore
concludes that quality of financial reports can be improved by timely reporting of expenditure and complete
recognition of fixed assets. This study recommends that the institution have more internal audit reviews to
appraise and check on the strength of the instituted controls within the system. The study will be important to
higher learning institutions since it will be able to come up with more effective measures of improving the quality
of financial reports through ERP system.

1.0 Introduction business system that help organizations to manage


Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) applications their resources in the effective way. Under the
are software suites that help organizations integrate circumstances, ERP system has become the
their information flow and business processes. They necessary tool in application of information
typically support the different departments and technology (IT). According to Shuhaimi et al.,
functions in the organization by using a single (2016) ERP systems are important in the monitoring
database that collects and stores data in real time of organizational process and performance. It
(Davenport, 2011). If ERP systems are fully realized facilitates the monitoring of budgeting and planning
in an institution, it reduces cycle time, enables faster functions to ensure that costs do not exceed the
information transactions, facilitate better financial budget.
management, lay groundwork for e-commerce, and Fixed Assets are all assets which cannot easily be
make tacit knowledge explicit. Noudoostbeni et al., converted into cash and which are usually held for a
(2010) points out that ERP is one of the main long period of time, including land, buildings, motor

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International Journal of Finance, Accounting and Economics
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www.oircjournals.org

vehicle, computers & appliances, furniture & Financial reporting is a means of portraying
fittings, plant & equipment and even library books financial accountability, in order for an organization
(Kheru, 2013). An asset is an economic resource to review the financial activities of the past year and
owned by an entity that generates benefits or service make plans for the future (Sugut, 2014). Accounting
which will flow to the entity and whose costs of fair quality is derived from IASB framework where
value can be measured (Yuriy et al., 2016). In attributes such as timeliness, accuracy,
reporting of fixed assets in universities attention is completeness and comparability are the principal
made on the depreciation, disposal and revaluation elements. The board creates an impression financial
which occurred in a given financial period. statements with these attributes can justifiably be
Depreciation is a non-cash expense that reduces the considered to be of good quality (IASB, 2015).
value of an asset as a result of wear and tear, age or Accounting quality is the extent to which financial
obsolescence. Disposal is the sale, transfer of statements depicts actual economic situation that is
ownership or destruction of surplus or obsolete prevailing (Chen et al., 2010). It is imperative that
assets whereas revaluation is the upward or financial reporting should essentially supply high
downward adjustment of the net book value of a quality financial reports about economic entities that
fixed asset to account for major changes in the fair would reveal more information and be of prime
market value of the asset (UON, 2015). benefit to decision makers.
According to International Accounting Standards ERP is a software, a concept, a system or a package
Board, the essential principle of assessing the that integrate multiple modules as a separated
financial reporting quality is related to the functional area and each functional area includes a
faithfulness of the objectives and quality of set of business processes with flowing data into a
disclosed information in organization financial central database . This database could be uploaded
reports. These qualitative characteristics enhance the locally or into the cloud. It is possible to be
facilitation of assessing the usefulness of financial implemented on small, medium, or big institutions.
reports, which will also lead to a high level of quality In the new era, ERP becomes an essential part in
(Siriyama et al., 2017). To achieve this level, management of multiple fields including higher
financial reports must be faithfully represented, education sector (Althonayan, 2013). The
comparable, verifiable, timely, and understandable. advantages of using an ERP appear in enhancing
Thus, the emphasis is on having transparent information accessing and management processes,
financial reports, and not having misleading in addition to have the ability to plan and manage the
financial reports to users (Gajevszky, 2015). organization as well as upgrade services for
Usefulness of accounting information depends on students, staffs and also employees. Ideally,
the prevailing needs at a specified time and how it Implementation of ERP system in higher education
can be used to solve the particular problems and to is an indicator to a new technology revolution in that
fulfil this; it must be reported within the confines of country and it’s valuable for higher education
inherent qualities (Koros, 2016). institutions instead of legacy administration and
The central concept of financial accounting quality management systems (Abdellatif, 2014).
is that some accounting information is better and Studies show that in German universities belong to
more reliable than other accounting information in an organizational and cultural subset of
relation to its characteristic of communicating what organizations with special requirements regarding
it purports to communicate (Kirubel, 2016). That is stakeholders, business demands, and legislative
why; accounting quality is of great interest to several influences. Public universities in Germany are under
types of users involved in the financial reporting the pressure of adapting to legislative,
chain. Financial reports contain information needed organizational, and financial changes. Implementing
by investors and other users to enable them make a new IT system offers universities possibilities of
informed economic decisions (Gajevszky, 2015). reorganization, restructuring, streamlining, and
Quality financial reports are vital for users who financial optimization in addition to a technological
require them not only for investments but also for upgrade of legacy IT systems to an ERP system
decisions of economic nature. The usefulness of (Thomas, 2010). An ERP implementation is not only
financial reports are confirmed when they can highly visible, but also an organizational and
embody the economic realities of the organization in political project. Each group of stakeholders may
terms of relevance, reliability, comparability and follow their own agenda during the analysis,
presented in a form that can be easily understood development, and implementation of a university-
(IASB, 2015). special ERP system, and can foster or hinder the
success of the project.

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www.oircjournals.org

In Australia universities have been and undergoing similar magnitude as corporate organizations. Some
major changes. Universities have been under more commonly identified ones are difficulty in accessing
pressures as a result of increasing number of information from paper files, improper means of
students and increased government pressures to exchanging information between various
reform their structures, lower their costs and achieve departments, lack of interconnection between
greater administrative efficiency. The introduction departments, difficulty in keeping the records of
of the ERP in higher education in Australia has students and staff error free and up-to-date, wastage
resulted in yet a further layer of change in of hundreds of hours by staff each month manually
universities to replace old administrative and entering information or performing administrative
management systems with new ones (Beekhuyzen, tasks that could be handled automatically such as
2012). The Australian government has pressured evaluations and generating results, lack of accuracy
universities into acting more like businesses, as the in maintaining the financial records such as fees,
level of funding has significantly reduced (Nielsen, salary and expenses, lack of automation in
2012). However, one of the reasons that universities calculating fee balances or finding fee defaulters,
have adopted ERP systems is to improve lack of automation for computing the staff's salary,
performance and learning services, and also to lack of easy means or quick way to access old
become more efficient in their operations in part to records (Frimpon, 2012).
deal with the range of other changes they have been The implementation of ERP systems in Ethiopian
facing (Fisher 2016). Consequently, universities universities is an enormously complex undertaking.
began to implement ERP systems to replace old and It is a high-risk project that needs to be managed and
outdated systems with more efficient ones planned properly because it can affect nearly every
(Cornford, 2011). ERP systems have become a aspect of organizational performance and
standard feature of most Australian higher education functioning. Many organizations do not achieve
institutions. success in their ERP implementation projects
The pervasiveness of information and (Shannak, 2016). The study explores CSF for ERP
communication technologies (ICTs) and the need to implementation in Ethiopia and how they affect the
automate organizational processes have led to organizations. It provides interesting results by
innovations in higher educational institutions in identifying the factors that actually have an impact
South Africa. The academic sector has joined the on the successful implementation of ERP and how it
business, finance, and manufacturing enterprises to affects organizations in Ethiopia. To ensure
leverage the power of ICT to gain differentiation and successful implementation, organizations must learn
competitive advantages (Karande etal 2012). The how to identify the critical issues that affect the
higher educational institutions in South Africa have implementation process and know how to address
introduced enterprise resource planning (ERP) them effectively to ensure that the promised benefits
systems to automate and integrate their business can be realized and potential failures can be avoided
processes, including recruitment, admission, (Alemu et al., 2017).
financial aid, student records, and most academic Kenyan Perspective of ERP on Quality of
and administrative services (Ghuman etal 2012). Financial Reports
The concept of ERP entails gaining the knowledge ERP systems have found widespread usage in both
of the best business practices and applying these public and private universities across Kenya. To
practices to improve or completely replace existing keep up with the management demands in the 21st
legacy practice (Ram et al., 2013). century as observed by Nyandiere et al., (2012)
In Ghana ERP refers to the use of commercial universities have turned to ERPs to replace their
solutions for both administrative and academic legacy systems. Though initial implementation was
purposes. Typical administrative functions may observed in manufacturing industries, universities in
include human resources, accounting, payroll, and Kenya have taken up the systems to provide
billing. Academic functions include recruitment, institutional-wide automation for their processes.
admissions, registration, and all aspects of student This has aided them automate their core business
records (Ram & Wu, 2013). Among the top reasons areas in student administration, finance, staffing,
why universities adopt ERP solutions are improved client management among others. On
student service, transformed enterprise processes, implementation, these systems are anticipated to
modernized computer systems, improved provide increased efficiency and effectiveness of
administration, maintaining competitiveness and processes, reduce overhead costs in ICT, improve
increased operating efficiency (Maheshwari et al., decision making, improve resource management as
2011) Modern universities have challenges of well as building business innovation while

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supporting strategic change (Sullivan & Bozeman, future work should consider using longitudinal
2010). surveys to account for continuing technological
Kenyan universities, as other business entities, are developments. A study by Wang’ombe & Kyalo
implementing various information systems to (2012) on evaluation of enterprise resource planning
facilitate their operations. The authors have also systems implementation experiences for selected
established that there are no significant differences public universities in Kenya recommends that
in information systems needs among Kenyan increased investments towards improvement in
universities, but there are significant differences in institutional connectivity, blending of internal and
strengths and weaknesses among the private and external skilled expertise to drive implementation
public universities in the capabilities of systems they initiatives is required. These studies showed
have implemented (Sullivan, 2010). Despite fears contradicting findings. Most studies conducted did
especially on delays in projects implementation and not discuss the effect of ERP system on quality of
system costs, Kenyan universities are in a position financial reports in higher learning institutions.
to implement ERPs to facilitate their operations. Therefore this study was undertaken to determine
However, the universities need to allocate more the effect of ERP system on quality of financial
funds to systems implementation if they have to reports of public universities in Uasin Gishu County,
successfully implement enterprise systems which Kenya.
generally require more resources than ordinary 1.3 Objective of the Study
software applications (Nyandiere et al., 2012). General objectives
1.2 Statement of the Problem The objective was to establish the effect of fixed
An ERP system is associated with a number of assets reporting on quality of financial reports of
benefits like speed of carrying out routine public universities in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya.
transactions, timeliness, quick analysis, accuracy 1.4 Research Hypotheses
and reporting of financial information. Tadjer H01: There is no statistically significant relationship
(2010) emphasizes that ERP systems are one between fixed assets reporting and quality of
database, one application and a unified interface financial reports of public universities in
across the entire institution. ERP systems offer Uasin Gishu County, Kenya
unique benefits to the organizations implementing 2.0 LITERATURE REVIEW
them. They do this by improving the quality of Theoretical Framework
financial reports through the provision of complete Fixed Assets Theory
and timely information (Hunton et al., 2013). Fixed assets theory was developed by Johnson in
According to Auditor General’s report of 2016 it is 1958. It was formalized by Edwards, and
evident that quality of financial reports of popularized by Hathaway in 1960. The theory
universities does not meet the expected standards. asserts that resources are stuck in fixed assets
Despite ERPs promise to benefit the institution, resulting in persistently low returns during the
quality of financial reports are still poor even with quarter century following World War II. It further
the existence of a well-established ERP system, suggests that over commitment of resources to these
instances of delay, inaccurate reporting, wrong fixed assets, leads to persistently low rates of return
posting and wrong balances have continued to occur (Mark & Pasour, 1981). The irrelevance of historical
due to inadequate knowledge of ERP system by the acquisition costs for current allocative decisions
accounting staff. Poor quality of financial reports does not mean that such costs are irrelevant for
leads to generation of misleading information which income statement, statement of financial position
will not be useful in decision marking by the users. and net worth calculations.
This will pose liquidity challenges to the universities The theory assumes that a firm with one or more
which lead to stalled development projects, delays in fixed assets implies over commitment of resources
payment of suppliers and staff and even some being in the sense that the value of marginal product for
declared insolvent. each of the fixed assets is less than its acquisition
Soliman & Karia (2015) did a research on higher price. This is because the value of marginal product
education competitive advantage ERP systems and of the resource lies between respective acquisition
recommends the way forward for decision makers and salvage prices, quantities of resources applied
regarding the dominance of a factor or a set of are fixed and no adjustment would be initiated
factors during the implementation of ERP systems. (Caves & Porter, 1976). Producers continue to use
Kalem & Olugbara, (2014) did a study on amounts of inputs purchased earlier when higher
identifying critical success factors the case of ERP product prices were anticipated. Capital losses are
systems in higher education and recommends that incurred whenever an asset and the services it

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generates are priced on an internal opportunity cost management efficiency a case of Chinese
or shadow price basis which does not cover original universities, the author tries to find the problems and
acquisition cost adjusted for depreciation (Akerlof & conclude some useful counter measures, in the hope
Stigle, 1970). The theory is applied in fixed asset of providing certain references for university assets
reporting in that historical acquisition cost of an management sectors and improving the assets
asset is necessary to be identified and reported in management efficiency. The findings were that
order to obtain the right value of depreciation. University assets management is a daily work of
Current acquisition costs are relevant for universities, as well as a long-term hard work. It is
determining which assets are fixed and which ones significant for the long-term development of China’s
are not. The critique of this theory is that it does not education cause and ensuring the completeness of
encourage organizations to have more fixed assets university assets. They believe that as long as the
but basically more fixed assets is an indication of university dedicates to university assets
financial stability. management, they can certainly achieve the
Empirical Review appreciation of university assets and ensure their
Effect of Fixed Assets Reporting on Quality of contribution to the university development. There is
Financial Reports no attempt in this study to address the recognition of
Yuriy et al., (2016) conducted a study on fixed assets in the financial reports of universities in
methodological aspects of depreciation as an China.
economic category in Russia. The paper highlights Kheru (2013) conducted an investigation into the
the main aspects of the consideration of depreciation accounting treatment of property, plant and
effect, discussed elements of the methodology, equipment at public higher education institutions in
which manifest themselves in the formation of the South Africa. Based on the International Financial
classification of bases, principles and amortization Reporting Standards, this study used a mixed-
functions. Paying attention to the relationship of the methods research approach to collect data regarding
most important categories wear and depreciation. the accounting treatment of PPE at the 23 public
Foundations of wear classification were obtained. higher education institutions in South Africa.
The work could be structured terminologically, Analysis of results indicated that some institutions
organize the diversity of points of view presented in apply different useful lives for the same asset classes
the economic literature. In the future, attention others use threshold amounts for the recording and
should be paid to the methodological elaboration of depreciating of assets some use the same value for
the reproductive process; procedures of reflecting the recording and depreciating of assets while others
the depreciation fund to accounting system. record at one value but depreciate at a higher value
However the paper focuses only on one measure of and depreciate PPE at different rates as they apply
fixed assets. varying useful life to different asset classes. Given
According to Joana (2010) in her study on the that the activities or business of educational
impairment of tangible fixed assets in the institutions are similar in nature, this study
Portuguese organizations, the purpose of this project recommends that public higher education
was to understand the practices of organizations institutions need to apply consistent recording of
regarding recognition, measurement and disclosure assets in terms of their useful life as the useful life
of impairment of tangible fixed assets. The research of an asset has direct correlation with the surplus or
assumed the point of view of financial statements deficit of an institution. However the researcher
users. It contributes to provide a database of majored on one type of fixed asset which will not
information and an insight of the practices of the reveal the quality of financial reports.
Portuguese organizations about impairment of
Conceptual Framework
tangible fixed assets. The findings suggest that these
A conceptual framework is a set of broad ideas and
companies do not provide satisfying information
principles taken from relevant fields of enquiry and
about impairments, in the sense that, in many
used to structure a subsequent presentation (Smyth,
organizations, they do not provide information that
2014). Conceptual frameworks are used to explain
is understandable and do not meet all the
how the independent variables affect the dependent
requirements of IAS 36. However the research could
variable. The relationship between independent
have been conducted in higher learning institutions
variables and the dependent variable is of profound
to find out the disclosure of fixed assets in their
importance.
financial reports.
In a study conducted by Jingliang (2015) on
approaches of improving university assets

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Fixed Assets Reporting Quality of Financial Reports


 Depreciation  Timeliness
 Disposals  Accuracy
 Revaluation  Completeness
 Acquisition  Comparability
 Effectiveness

Independent Variables Dependent Variable


Figure 2.1: Conceptual framework for ERP on quality of financial reports

3.0 Research Methodology Population of the Study


Research Design A population refers to the entire group of persons or
Research design is the overall plan for obtaining elements that have at least one thing in common. The
answers to the questions being studied and for target population is the total number of subjects
handling some of the difficulties encountered during targeted by the study (Denzil & Lincoln, 2014).
the research process. The study adopted descriptive Accessible population is a subset of the target
survey research design. According to Mugenda and population. It is the part of target population which
Mugenda (2013) descriptive research design is a the researcher can actually access. The accessible
scientific method that involves observation and population was the accountants of public
description of behavior of a subject without universities in Uasin Gishu County as at 31st January
influencing it in any way. 2018. The unit of analysis for the study was the
public universities in Uasin Gishu County.
Table 3.1: Accessible Population
Stratum Frequency Percentage
Accountants-Moi University 92 77
Accountants-University of Eldoret 28 23
Total 120 100

Sampling Frame the population that adequately represents the entire


The sampling frame describes a list of all population group enabling a researcher to give an accurate
units from which the sample size was selected picture of the entire population as a whole, putting
(Schindler, 2013). It is a physical representation of the aspects of interest of the study into consideration
the target population and comprises of all the units (Orodho, 2012). For the purpose of this study, the
that are potential members of a sample (Kothari, sampling frame included the senior accountants and
2014). Sample frame defines all sets of elements in accountants.
Table 3.2: Sampling Frame
Total Number Percentage
Senior Accountants 60 50
Accountants 60 50
Total 120 100

Mugenda (2013) a large population requires a


Sampling Technique and Sample Size
formula to come up with the sample. Determining a
Sampling is the process by which a relatively small
final population for a large population is assumed to
number of individuals, objects or events are selected
be normally distributed at a confidence interval of
and analyzed to find out a feature of the entire
95% thus giving a margin of error of 5%. A sample
population (Woods, 2015). The sampling plan
is the smallest subset of a population that adequately
describes the sampling unit, sampling frame,
represents the entire group (Saunders et al., 2012).
sampling procedures and the sample size for the
The study used the Yamane (1967) formula to arrive
study. The study used simple random sampling
at the sample size. The selection formula is as
technique in choosing the sample size from the
follows:
accessible population. According to Mugenda and
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n= (N/ (1+N (e) n represents Sample size, N represents population


2
…………………………………………………… size and e represents margin of error
……Equation 3.1 Hence the sample size will be as follows;
Where: n=120(1+120*0.05²)
n=92

Table 3. 3: Sample Distribution


Stratum Frequency Sample Size Percentage %
Accountants-Moi University 92 71 77%
Accountants-University of
Eldoret 28 21 23%
Total 120 92 100%

Data Collection Instruments supervisor to express an opinion on the


The questionnaire was the selected instrument or terminologies used in the questionnaire.
tool for data collection for the study. A questionnaire 3.7.2 Reliability of the Research Instruments
is defined as a measuring tool whose main purpose Reliability is the consistency with which a research
is to communicate to the researcher what is required instrument measures the content area it is intended
and to elicit desired response in terms of empirical to measure. The coefficient ranges from minimum
data from respondents in order to achieve the desired (0.00) to maximum positive (1.00). A higher value
objectives. According to Kothari (2012) structured shows a more reliable generated scale. A cronbach
questionnaires are best suited for descriptive study alpha coefficient was used where a value of 0.7 was
as it is easily applied and requires less skill. the benchmark of deciding whether the instrument is
The questionnaire was administered to each member reliable. A coefficient above or equal to 0.7 is
of the sample population. The questionnaire was considered sufficient for most cases (Sreevidya &
developed with reference to the research objectives Sunitha, 2011).
aimed at answering the research questions. The
questionnaire had close-ended questions. The close- Data Collection Procedures
ended questions provided more structured responses After testing the validity and reliability of the
to facilitate tangible recommendations. The closed research questionnaire, the researcher sought the
ended questions was used to test the rating of various consent of Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture
attributes and this helped in reducing the number of & Technology and the management of the public
related responses in order to obtain more varied universities in Uasin Gishu County. The research
responses. questionnaires were then administered on the
Pre-Testing of Research Instruments sampled respondents by the researcher in person or
According to Cooper and Schindler (2013), a pilot by research assistants.
test is conducted to detect weaknesses in the design
and instrumentation and provides a proxy data for Data Processing and Analysis
selection of probability sample. A pilot study was Data preparation was carried by editing, sorting,
conducted to test the validity and reliability of coding, transforming and modelling data with the
research questionnaire. It involved 10% of the size aim of identifying and highlighting useful
of sample population hence 10 questionnaires was information that was used to support the decision
used in pilot test. making process (Barako, 2010). Analysis was
Validity of the Research Instrument through descriptive and inferential statistics.
According to Robison (2015), validity is the degree Descriptive statistics included use of mean, standard
to which results obtained from the analysis of the deviations, variance and frequencies. Inferential
data actually represents the phenomena under study. statistics included use of regression and correlation
This was achieved by pre testing the instrument analysis.
which was used to identify and change any The study conducted a correlation analysis to
ambiguous, awkward, or ineffective questions and establish the strength of the relationship between the
technique as stated by (Cooper & Schindler, 2013). independent and the dependent variable. Regression
Content validity of research questionnaire was analysis helps in generating equation that describes
enhanced by requesting industry experts and the the statistics relationship between one or more
predictor variables and the response variable.

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Multiple regressions were done to analyze effect of


ERP system on quality of financial reports of public 4.0 Findings and Discussions
universities in Uasin Gishu County. The tool of
Response Rate
analysis was Statistical Package for Social Sciences
A total of 92 questionnaires were administered to the
(SPSS version 25). The results were presented using
respondents. All the questionnaires were
tables, pie charts and graphs to give a clear picture
successfully filled and collected from the
of the research findings. The following multiple
respondents. Self-administered way of
regression equation was used:
administering questionnaires was used. This
Y=β0+β1X1+ε………………………………………
represented 100% response rate as per Table 4.1. A
…………………………...Equation 3.1
response rate of 50% is adequate for analysis and
Where Y represents quality of financial reports
reporting, a rate of 60% is good and a response rate
β0 represents the y-intercept
of 70% and over is excellent (Mugenda & Mugenda,
β1, represents coefficients of independent variables 2013). Hence in this study the response rate was
X1 represents fixed assets reporting excellent.
ε represents random error term
Table 4.1: Response Rate of Respondents
Response Frequency Percentage %
Returned 92 100
Unreturned 0 0
Total 92 100

2013). A value of above 0.7 is recommended.


Reliability Test Results
Cronbach’s alpha is the most commonly used
The cronbach’s alpha was computed in terms of the
coefficient of internal consistency and stability.
average inter-correlations among the items
Cronbach’s alpha was used to measure
measuring the concepts. The rule of thumb for
realibilty.The higher the coefficient, the more
cronbach’s alpha is that the closer the alpha is to 1
reliable is the test.
the higher the reliability (Mugenda & Mugenda,

Table 4.2: Reliability of the Research Questionnaire


Variable Cronbach’s Alpha No of Items Comment
Fixed Assets Reporting 0.808 4 Reliable
Quality of Financial Reports 0.871 5 Reliable

The results indicated that budgeting had the highest


Background Information
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.875). Quality of
This section presents personal details of the
financial reports had the second highest Cronbach’s
respondents.It includes gender,age,duration in the
alpha coefficient (0.871). Revenue reporting had the
institution and the academic qualification. It is
third highest Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.835).
necessary for the determination of whether the
Fixed assets reporting had the second lowest
individuals in a particlar study are a respresentative
Cronbach’s alpha coefficient (0.808). Expenditure
sample of the target population and testing
reporting had the lowest Cronbach’s alpha
appropriateness of a repondent in answering the
coefficient (0.754). This implies that the research
questions for generalisation.
questionnaire meets the threshold as all the
Distribution of Respondents by Gender
constructs had Cronbach’s alpha coefficients greater
The study evaluated how accounting staff were
than 0.7.
distributed according to their gender. The results of
the analysis are presented in Table 4.3.
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Table 4.3: Gender of Respondents


Gender Frequency Percentage %
Male 53 57.6
Female 39 42.4
Total 92 100

It was established that 53(57.6%) of the respondents Distribution of Respondents by Age Category
were male whereas 39(42.4%) were female. This The study examined the distribution of accounting
shows that the sampled respondents were fairly staff based on their age categories. The results of the
balanced in terms of gender, however the findings analysis are presented in Table 4.4.
implies that the gender of the respondents could not
have significantly influenced decision making.
Table 4.4: Age Category
Age Category Frequency Percentage %
Below 25 years 6 6.5
26-30 years 8 8.7
31-35 years 13 14.1
35-40 years 24 26.1
41-45 years 18 19.6
46-50 years 13 14.1
Above 50 years 10 10.9
Total 92 100

The findings showed that 24(26.1%) were aged was the lowest frequency. This implies that the age
between 35-40 years being the highest frequency. of the respondents may not have significantly
Respondents between 41-45 years were 18(19.6%) influenced the quality of the financial reports.
while those between 31-35 and 46-50 years were Distribution of Respondents by Duration in the
13(14.1%). It was further noted that 10(10.9%) Institution
respondents were above 50 years and respondents The respondents were requested to indicate the
between 26-30 years were 8(8.7%) while 6(6.5%) period in which they had served in the institution.
were in the age category of below 25 years which The findings are shown in Table 4.5.

Table 4.5: Duration in the Institution


Years Frequency Percentage %
0-5 years 9 9.8
6-10 years 24 26.1
11-15 years 26 28.3
16-20 years 20 21.7
Above 20 years 13 14.1
Total 92 100

From the findings 26(28.3%) of the respondents 20 years and 9(9.8%) indicated that they have
indicated that they have worked in the institution for worked in the institution for a period between 0-5
a period between 11-15 years, 24(26.1% ) of the years. The findings showed that highest
respondents indicated that they have worked in the representation of the respondents had been in the
institution for a period between 6-10 years, institution for a period between 11 to 15 years which
20(21.7%) of the respondents indicated that they’ve means that they are conversant with the operations
served for a period between 16-20 years, 13(14.1%) of the institution and thus more knowledge and skills
of the respondents have worked for a period above contributing to quality of financial reports.
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Distribution of Respondents by Academic The study sought to ascertain the educational levels
Qualification of sampled respondents. The results are shown in
Table 4.6

Table 4.6: Academic Qualification


Academic Qualification Frequency Percentage %
Certificate 4 4.3
Diploma 6 6.5
Undergraduate 64 69.6
Masters 18 19.6
Ph.D 0 0
Total 92 100

From the results 64(69.6%) of the respondents the basis of virtually every quantitative analysis of
indicated that they had under graduate degrees, data (Kothari, 2014). This part presents the results of
18(19.6%) had master’s degrees, 6(6.5%) had the study in form of tables and it also presents the
college diplomas, 4(4.3%) had certificates and descriptive analysis based on each variable. The
0(0%) had Ph.D.With the majority of respondents respondents were asked to indicate whether they
having degrees, it is expected that they have agree or disagree on the statements based on a Likert
adequate knowlege of ERP system. This is an scale of 1 to 5 where 1=Strongly Disagree,
indication that the results obtained from the 2=Disagree, 3 =Neutral, 4=Agree, 5 =Strongly
respondents can be relied upon. Agree. The results of the study were presented as per
the objectives of the study. The statistics used were
Descriptive Findings and Discussions
minimum, maximum, mean and standard deviation.
Descriptive statistics are used to describe the basic
Fixed Assets Reporting
features of the data in a study. They provide simple
The study sought the views of the respondent’s on
summaries about the sample and the measures.
fixed assets reporting. The results are presented in
Together with simple graphics analysis, they form
Table 4.7.
Table 4.7: Descriptive Statistics for Fixed Assets Reporting
N Min Max Mean Std Dev
a) Accurate valuation of Depreciation affects quality of
financial reporting 92 3 5 4.413 0.800
b) Complete recognition of Disposed assets affects quality of
financial reporting 92 3 5 4.098 0.950
c) Timely Revaluation of assets affects quality of financial
reporting 92 3 5 4.413 0.800
d) Effective and efficient recognition of Acquired assets
affects the quality of financial reporting 92 1 5 4.217 1.248

From the findings the respondents agreed that financial reporting (mean = 4.098; std dev = 0.950).
accurate valuation of depreciation and timely The findings of the study concurred with the earlier
revaluation of assets significantly affects quality of study by Jingliang (2015) who revealed that there is
financial reporting (mean = 4.413; std dev = a positive relationship between fixed assets
0.800).The respondents also agreed that effective reporting and quality of financial reports. This
and efficient recognition of acquired assets affects implies that accurate valuation of depreciation,
the quality of financial reporting (mean = 4.217; std complete recognition of disposals and quality of
dev = 1.248). It was also noted that complete financial reports are positively related.
recognition of disposed assets affects quality of

Quality of Financial Reports listed statements about the quality of financial


The research sought to determine from the reports. The results are presented in Table 4.8.
respondents the extent to which they agree with the
Table 4.8: Descriptive Statistics for Quality of Financial Reports

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N Min Max Mean Std Dev


e) Implementation of ERP system has led to timely generation
of financial reports 92 1 5 4.022 1.266
f) The use of ERP system has enabled generation of accurate
financial reports 92 2 5 4.000 1.099
g) The adoption of ERP system has led to generation of
complete financial reports 92 1 5 4.120 1.299
h) ERP system has enabled comparability of financial reports
from previous financial years 92 1 5 4.120 1.299
i) ERP system has facilitated effective and efficient
generation of financial reports 92 3 5 3.913 0.834

The study established that respondents were in implies that ERP system has a significant effect on
agreement that the adoption of ERP system leads to quality of financial reports.
generation of complete financial reports and that
Inferential Analysis
also ERP system has enabled comparability of
After the descriptive analysis, inferential analysis
financial reports from previous financial years
was conducted using correlation and multiple
(mean = 4.120; std dev = 1.299). It was also noted
regression analysis to determine the extent and
that implementation of ERP system leads to timely
direction of the relationship between budgeting,
generation of financial reports (mean = 4.022; std
revenue reporting, expenditure reporting and fixed
dev = 1.266). The respondents agreed that the use of
assets reporting on quality of financial reports of
ERP system has enabled generation of accurate
public universities in Uasin Gishu County.
financial reports (mean = 4.000; std dev = 1.099).
The respondents were unsure whether ERP system
Correlation between Fixed Assets and Quality of
has facilitated effective and efficient generation of
Financial Reports
financial (mean = 3.913; std dev = 0.834). The
The study sought to find out the relationship
findings are in agreement with Wang’ombe & Kyalo
between fixed assets reporting and quality of
(2012) who noted that quality and functional
financial reports. The correlation analysis results are
attributes of implemented ERP systems have a
presented in Table 4.9.
significant influence on the quality of financial
reports generated by Kenyan universities. This

Table 4.9: Fixed Assets Reporting Correlation Analysis


Quality of financial reports
Fixed Assets Reporting Pearson Correlation 0.981
Sig. (2-tailed) 0.000
**. Correlation is significant at the 0.05 level (2-tailed).

The results revealed that there was a strong positive implies that fixed assets reporting significantly
correlation between fixed assets reporting and influence quality of financial reports.
quality of financial reports (r=0.981; p<0.05. This
Multiple Regression Analysis
The study determined combined effect of budgeting, assets reporting on quality of financial reports. The
revenue reporting, expenditure reporting and fixed results of model summary are shown in Table 4.10.

Table 4.10: Multiple Regression Model Summary


Model R R Square Adjusted R Square Std.Error of the Estimate
1 .982a 0.965 0.963 0.18254
a. Predictors:(Constant), Budgeting, Revenue, Expenditure and fixed assets reporting
b. Dependent Variable: Quality of Financial Reports

Model summary is used to analyze the variation of independent variables. The study analyzed the
dependent variable due to the changes of variations of quality of financial reports due to the

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changes of fixed assets reporting (R=0.965). This Assessing the Fit of the Multiple Regression
implies that there was 96.5% variation of quality of Model
financial reports. The remaining 3.5% imply that The study sought to know whether the multiple
there are other factors that affects quality of financial regression model was fit for the data. The analysis
reports which were not discussed in the study. From of variance (ANOVA) was used to determine
the findings, the study noted that there was a strong whether the data used in the study is significant. The
positive relationship between the study variables. results are presented in Table 4.11.

Table 4.11: Results of ANOVA


Sum of Squares Df Mean Square F Sig.
Regression 79.870 4 19.967 599.258 .000b
Residual 2.899 87 0.033
Total 82.769 91
a. Dependent Variable: Quality of Financial Reports
b. Predictors: (Constant), budgeting, Revenue, Expenditure & Fixed Assets

From the ANOVA statistics, the processed data had expenditure reporting and fixed assets reporting
a significance level of 0.000. This shows that the significantly affects the quality of financial reports.
data is ideal for making conclusions on the
population’s parameter as the value of significance Regression Coefficients
(p-value) is less than 5% (F =599.258; p<0.05). This The study evaluated the t-test of statistical
implies that budgeting, revenue reporting, significance of each individual regression
coefficient. The findings are presented in Table 4.12.

Table 4.12: Evaluating Individual Regression Coefficients


Model Unstandardized Standardized
Coefficients Coefficients
B Std. Error Beta t Sig.
(Constant) 1.366 0.181 7.551 0.000
Fixed Assets Reporting 0.250 0.318 0.431 3.926 0.000
a. Dependent Variable: Quality of Financial Reports

The findings indicates that budgeting is a significant a statistically significant and positive relationship
predictor of quality of financial reports (t= 2.084; between fixed assets reporting and quality of
p<0.05). Therefore the study rejected the null financial reports. This implies that fixed assets
hypothesis that budgeting has no significant effect reporting had significant positive relationship with
on quality of financial reports at a significance level quality of financial reports. From the outcomes of
of 5%. It was concluded that budgeting has the t-test of individual regression coefficients, it was
significant relationship with quality of financial clear that all the independent variables and the
reports of public universities in Uasin Gishu County, constant would be included in the regression
Kenya. The study findings concur with Mehdi equation as they were significant (p<0.05).
(2014) who established that there was a statistically Regression Model
significant and positive relationship between the The regression function shown in Equation 4.1 was
budgeting and quality of financial reports. This used to explain results of regression analysis.
implies that budgeting has significant positive Y = 1.366+
relationship with quality of financial reports. 0.250X4……………………………………………
The study found out that fixed assets reporting is …………………Equation 4.1
significantly predicts quality of financial reports (t= It was also noted that improving fixed assets
3.926; p<0.05). The study rejected the null reporting by 1 unit enhances quality of financial
hypothesis that fixed assets reporting have no reports by 0.250 units. Results in equation 4.1 above
significant effect on quality of financial reports of also indicate that if institutions don’t implement
public universities in Uasin Gishu County, Kenya at quality of financial reports, results will be constant
a significance level of 5%. The study is in agreement at 1.366 units. Out of the four factors analyzed,
with Jingliang (2015) who established that there was revenue reporting was the most important in
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generating 1 unit of quality financial reports. assets. The study therefore concluded that budgeting
Therefore higher learning institutions ought to focus is positively related to quality of financial reports.
on revenue reporting to enhance quality of financial Fixed asset reporting affects quality of financial
reports. reporting. Accurate valuation of depreciation affects
The findings from the multiple regression analysis quality of financial reports. Complete recognition of
are in agreement with the prepositions of the theories disposed assets affects the quality of financial
that this study was anchored on. Fixed assets theory reports. Timely revaluation of fixed assets in the
advocates for more which should be accurately institution affects quality of financial reports.
reported in order to enhance the quality of financial Effective and efficient recognition of acquired assets
reports. affects quality of financial reports. The study
5.0 Summary, Conclusion and Recommendations concluded that fixed asset reporting has a positive
and significant effect on quality of financial reports.
Summary of Findings
The study sought to determine the effect of Recommendations of the Study
enterprise resource planning on quality of financial Based on the findings, analysis, discussions and
reports of public universities in Uasin Gishu County, conclusions the study made the following
Kenya. The summary of the study findings presented recommendations for the purposes of practice and
herein followed the research objectives formulated policy formulation regarding the effect of ERP
in chapter one of the study. system on quality of financial reports.
The study noted that accurate valuation of This study also recommends that the institution have
depreciation and complete recognition of disposed more internal audit reviews to appraise and check on
assets affects quality of financial reports. It was the strength of the instituted controls within the
found out that timely revaluation of assets and system. The ERP system is prone to fraud in cases
effective methods of recognizing acquired assets where physical cash is involved, without internal
affects the quality of financial reports. The study audit reviews, there may arise cases of teaming and
established that there was a statistically significant lading which may pass unnoticed leading to
relationship between fixed assets reporting and generation of incorrect financial reports. The study
quality of financial reports and that if complete recommends that the government makes it
recognition of fixed assets is done, financial reports mandatory for all public universities to use an ERP
will be of great quality. Findings on effect of fixed system in all there operations, this will lead to
assets on quality of financial reports support fixed generation of high quality financial reports.
assets theory which advocates for accurate Financial reports of high quality are useful for better
recognition of fixed assets. planning and budgeting to the government.
The study revealed that implementation of ERP Recommendations on Theories
system has led to timely generation of financial There are a number of recommendations with
reports. It was established that the use of ERP regards to practical application of the theories that
system in the institution has enabled generation of this study was anchored on. The study also
accurate financial reports. It was also noted that the recommends that fixed assets theory principles be
adoption of ERP system has led to generation of applied as it advocates for institutions to acquire
complete financial reports and that ERP system has more assets.
enabled comparability of financial reports from
Suggestion For Further Research Studies
previous financial years. The study also revealed
The study recommends further research on a number
that ERP system has facilitated effective and
of areas;
efficient generation of financial reports. It was
The influence of ERP system on the financial
established that the measures of ERP system
performance of public universities in Kenya
investigated significantly influenced the quality of
The effect of international financial reporting
financial reports.
standards on financial statements of public
Conclusions of the Study organizations in Kenya
The study concludes that quality of financial reports
can be improved by complete recognition of fixed

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