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Journal of Food Engineering 60 (2003) 475–479

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Research note

Determination of some chemical and physical properties of Sakız


faba bean (Vicia faba L. Var. major)
H. Hacısefero
gulları a,*
, I_ . Gezer b, Y. Bahtiyarca c, H.O. Mengesß a

a
Department of Agricultural Machinery, Faculty of Agriculture, Selcuk University, 42031 Konya, Turkey
b
Program of Agricultural Machinery, Technician Training Center, Inonu University, 44100 Malatya, Turkey
c
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Selcuk University, 42031 Konya, Turkey
Received 8 June 2002; accepted 26 February 2003

Abstract
In this study, some chemical and physical properties of faba bean (Vicia faba L. Var. major) grown up in Antalya region have
been determined. Chemical properties such as dry matter, total energy, crude protein, crude cellulose, crude oil, mineral elements––
Ca, P, K, Na, S, Al, Ba––and physical properties such as dimensions, weight, thickness, geometric mean diameter, sphericity, bulk
density, volume, porosity, projected area, 1000 grain mass, terminal velocity and the rupture strength of grains involved in the study.
The total energy, crude protein, crude cellulose and crude oil contents (as percentage in dry matter) of faba bean are found as
18.87 MJ/kg, 29.63%, 6.39% and 1.06% respectively, and all elements determined in the research are listed in the text. The values of
length, width, thickness, weight, geometric mean diameter and sphericity of faba bean are determined as 20.39, 14.54, 7.86 mm, 1.31
g, 13.25 mm and 0.651 for 10.90% moisture content, respectively. In the some moisture content, projected area, volume, 1000 grain
mass, bulk density, kernel density, porosity and terminal velocity were measured as 2.79 cm2 , 1210 mm3 , 1349.34 g, 608.17 kg/m3 ,
1248 kg/m3 , 51.48%, 4.94 m/s respectively. In addition, the rupture strength values of faba bean grains were varied between 310.83
and 542.38 N.
Ó 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Vicia faba; Physical properties; Chemical properties

1. Introduction Although faba beans are consumed less in Western


countries, they are one of the main sources of protein
Mature faba bean grains are a good resource of and energy for much of in Africa, Asia and Latin
protein, starch, cellulose and minerals. Therefore it will America. Faba beans is a good alternative to expensive
have an increasing importance for human and animal meat and fish protein. The longevity of their storage life,
food in the future. their ease of their transportation and their low cost are
Although there are more than 80 different types of attractive points for farmers.
faba bean in the world, only eighteen of them (for ex- Faba beans are consumed as fresh faba bean, fresh
ample soybean, lima bean, kidney bean) are being cul- faba bean kernel, fresh faba bean conservative and dried
tivated widely (El-Tabey Shehata, 1992). High yield, faba bean grains. Moreover, faba beans have been used
smaller grains, less antinutritional factors, high adap- as a drug. It is used for stones kidney, liver malfunc-
tation ability to modern agriculture will make this plant tioning and eye diseases. At the same time they are used
more attractive for farmers, feed and food manufac- for animal food. Broken grains are mixed into animal
turers (Duc, 1997). diet and vegetative parts of the plant are used for the
litter in animal house (Akcßin, 1988).
In Turkey, in 1999, 21,000 ha have been planted, total
*
output was 39,000 ton and the productivity was 1856
Corresponding author. kg/ha. (SSI, 2000)
E-mail addresses: hsefer@email.alaeddin.cc.selcuk.edu.tr (H.
Hacıseferogulları), igezer@email.inonu.edu.tr (I_ . Gezer), ybahtiyarca@
The physical properties of equipment used in plan-
email.selcuk.edu.tr (Y. Bahtiyarca), hakan4683@email.yahoo.com tation, harvesting, transportation, storage and process-
(H.O. Mengesß). ing of dried faba bean must be known. Therefore, in this
0260-8774/$ - see front matter Ó 2003 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
doi:10.1016/S0260-8774(03)00075-X
476 H. Hacısefero
gulları et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 60 (2003) 475–479

Nomenclature

Dg geometric mean diameter (mm) p1 initial pressure (kg/cm2 )


L length of grain (mm) p2 final pressure (kg/cm2 )
M mass of faba bean (g) T thickness of grain (mm)
mc moisture content, (%) d.b. V volume of grain (mm3 )
m1000 thousand of faba bean (g) Vt terminal velocity (m/s)
A projected area (cm2 ) W width of grain (mm)
qb bulk density (kg/m3 ) Ø sphericity of grain
qk kernel density (kg/m3 ) e porosity of grain (%)

study, beside the determination of nutritional properties 2.2. Determination of physical properties
of faba bean; some of its physical properties have been
investigated. All physical properties of faba bean were determined
using 10 repetitions at the natural moisture content of
10.90% d.b.
To determine the size of the grains, 10 groups of
2. Material and methods samples consisting of 100 grains have been selected
randomly. Ten grains have been taken from each group
Faba bean, used in our research, was obtained from and their linear dimensions––length, width and thick-
the production of the year 1999 in Antalya, Turkey. ness––and projected areas have been measured. Linear
Broken pits, immature grains and foreign matters are dimensions were measured by a micrometer to an ac-
removed from approximately 10 kg products. In curacy of 0.01 mm.
all stages of trials, dry and mature grains have been Projected area of grains was determined by using a
used. digital camera (Kodak DC 240) and Sigma Scan Pro 5
program (Ayata, Yalcßın, & Kirisßßci, 1997; Trooien &
2.1. Chemical analysis Heermann, 1992).
The weight of grains and a thousand grain mass were
The samples were dried at 105 °C in preparation for measured by an electronic balance to an accuracy of
chemical analysis and were ground through a 1-mm 0.001 g. To evaluate 1000 grain mass, 100 randomly
screen with Perten laboratory mili-3100 (Perten Instru- selected grains from the bulk were averaged.
ments AB, Sweden). The bulk density (Pb ) was determined with a hecto-
The proximate composition of the faba bean was liter tester which was calibrated in kg per hectoliter
determined by the method of AOAC (1984). After the (Deshpande, Bal, & Ojha, 1993; Jain & Bal, 1997;
samples were prepared for proximate analysis, all minor Suthar & Das, 1996). The grains were dropped down
elements were determined using an ICP-AES (Vista se- into a bucket from a height of approximately 15 cm.
ries, Varian International AG, Switzerland). The pro- The excess grains were removed by sweeping the surface
perties of this Instrument are as follow outlined by of the bucket. The grains were not compressed in any
Skujins (1998). way.
The samples were analyzed for total energy with an The faba bean volume (V ) and its grain density (Pk ),
adiabatic oxygen bomb calorimeter (Parr Ins. Co, Mo- as a function of moisture content, were determined by
line). Triplicate samples were used to determine chemi- using the liquid displacement method. Toluene (C7 H8 )
cal composition. was used instead of water because it is absorbed by
grains to a lesser extent. Also, its surface tension is low,
Instrument ICP-AES (Varian-Vista) so that it fills even shallow dips in a grain and its dis-
RF power 0.7–105 kW (1.2–1.3 kW solution power is low (Mohsenin, 1970; O €
gu€t, 1998;
for axial) Sıtkei, 1976; Singh & Goswami, 1996).
Plasma gas flow rate 10.5–15 l/min (radial) 15 The terminal velocities of faba bean at different
(Ar) l/min (axial) moisture content were measured using an air column.
Auxiliary gas flow rate 1.5 l/min For each test, a sample was dropped into the air stream
(Ar) from the top of the air column, up which air was blown
Viewing height 5–12 to suspend the material in the air stream. The air velocity
Copy and reading time 1–5 s (max 60 s) near the location of the grain suspension was measured
Copy time 3 s (max 100 s) by electronic anemometer having a least count of 0.1 m/s
H. Hacısefero
gulları et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 60 (2003) 475–479 477

(Hauhouout-OÕhara, Criner, Brusewitz, & Solie, 2000;


Joshi, Das, & Mukherji, 1993).
The porosity of the bulk (e) at different moisture
contents were measured using a porosity device (C ß ar-
man, 1996; Day, 1964). It consists of two identical tanks,
one containing air under pressure (p1 ) and the other one
containing the samples of seed. When the valve between
the two tanks opened, the air pressure in the two tanks
equalized to a value p2 . Porosity was calculated from the
following equation

e ¼ ðp1  p2 Þ=p2  100

The rupture strength values of faba bean were mea-


sured by forces applied through three axis (length, width
and thickness). The rupture strength of grains, were
determined with Test Instrument of Biological Materials Fig. 1. Biological material test device.
(Fig. 1) using the procedure described by O € €t and
gu
Aydın (1991). The device, has three main components
which are stable up and motion bottom of platform, a 3. Results and discussion
driving unit (AC electric motor and electronic variator)
and the data acquisition (Dynamometer, amplifier and 3.1. Chemical properties
XY recorder) system. The rupture force of grain was
measured by the data acquisition system. The grain was Chemical properties of faba bean are given in Table
placed on the moving bottom platform and was pressed 1. The crude protein content of many edible legume
with stationary platform. Experiment was conducted at seeds is usually more than 20%, and varies considerably
a loading velocity at 50 mm min1 . (Kapoor, Banerji, & Prakash, 1992). The crude protein
Geometric mean diameter (Dg ) and sphericity (Ø) contents of tebary and faba bean are reported as 27.7%
values were found using the following formula: (Jain & and 24.0% respectively (Kanamori, Ikeuchi, Ibuki,
Bal, 1997; Mohsenin, 1970) Kataru, & Kan, 1982). Duc (1997), has stated that
protein content of faba bean changes from 27% to 34%
0:333 depending on the genotype in the dry matter. Fai (1998)
Dg ¼ ðLWT Þ
has reported that for some leguminous seeds types
0:333 (Phaseolus angularis, Phaseolus calcarutas and Dolichos
Ø ¼ ðLWT Þ =L lablab) the level of crude protein in dry matter is be-
tween 24.9% and 26.5%, that of crude cellulose is be-
The statistical evaluation were done by using MINI- tween 13.5% and 19.3% and that of oil is between 0.67%
TAB package program (Minitab, 1991). and 2.59%. Moreover he has stated that they are rich

Table 1
Chemical composition of faba bean grain (% d.m.)

Dry matter (%) 89.10 B (ppm) 10.97  0.37


Total energy (MJ/kg) 18.87 Ba (ppm) 31.01  3.45
Crude protein (%) 29.63 Co (ppm) 0.66  0.002
Crude cellulose (%) 6.39 Cr (ppm) 11.25  0.04
Crude oil (%) 1.06 Cu (ppm) 18.00  0.57
Ash (%) 2.90 Fe (ppm) 89.17  0.96
N-free extract (%) 48.82 Ga (ppm) 0.33  0.27
Ca (mg/kg) 728.6  19.39 Li (ppm) 0.067  0.02
P (mg/kg) 6545.46  8.75 Mn (ppm) 15.91  0.05
K (mg/kg) 15486.05  53.74 Ni (ppm) 3.83  0.19
Mg (mg/kg) 1426.27  26.89 Pb (ppm) 1.50  0.13
Na (mg/kg) 499.70  12.95 Sr (ppm) 5.25  0.14
S (mg/kg) 497459.95  3552.47 Zn (ppm) 52.83  0.77
Al (ppm) 15.46  0.22
478 H. Hacısefero
gulları et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 60 (2003) 475–479

sources of K (1370–1630 mg/100 g), of P (260–475 mg/ 60

100 g), of Mg (147–151 mg/100 g), of Fe (9.40–13.6 mg/ 50


Mass
Length

100 g). He evaluated the level of Na, Cu and Zn as 5.81– Width


Thickness
7.59, 0.74–1.3 and 3.36–4.70 mg/100 g, respectively. 40

Number of faba bean


Besides this, Aykroyd, Doughty, and Walker (1982) and 30

El-Tabey Shehata (1992) have stated that, the oil level is


20
too low (less than 3%) in most of the legume seeds and
depending on the type of legume seeds, they may have a 10

large variation in their crude cellulose contents (ranged


0
from 2.1% to 25.6%).
El-Tabey Shehata (1992) and Mohan and Janardha- 0 1 2 3 Mass (M), g
nan (1993) stated that faba beans are good sources of 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 Lenght (L), mm
macro and micro-elements and added that the level of 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 Width (W), mm
K, Ca, Mg and P ranged from 1087 to 1830, 52.5 to 222,
5 6 7 8 9 10 11 Thickness (T), mm
72.2 to 310 and 129 to 710 mg/100 g, respectively.
Abreu and Bruno-Soares (1998) stated that total Fig. 2. Frequency distribution curves of weight, length, width and
energy values of some faba beans type are between 18 thickness measuring of faba beans at the moisture content of 10.90%.
and 20.1 MJ/kg DM.
The nutritional values of faba bean determined from
this study are similar to those of literature.
Table 3
The correlation coefficient of faba beans
3.2. Physical properties Particulars Ratio Degrees of Correlation
freedom coefficient
Dimensional properties, sphericity and the values of Faba beans
geometric mean diameter of faba bean are given in L=W 1.40 98 0.6602a
Table 2. The frequency distributions of the dimensional L=T 2.60 98 0.3633a
properties are given in Fig. 2. Ninety-four percentage of L=M 15.60 98 0.0408
a
faba bean is between 1 and 2 g in terms of moisture P < 0:01.
content of 10.90% in weight, 87% of them is between
18 and 22 mm in length, 88% of them is between 13 and
16 mm in width, and 88% is between 13 and 16 mm
in thickness. Table 4
For a comparison between length, width, thickness Some physical properties of faba beans at 10.90% m.c.d.b
and weight, the relationships between has been estab- Projected area (cm2 ) 2.79  0.02
lished. This relationship was found to be as the follows: Volume (mm3 ) 1210  16.65
Thousand of faba bean (g) 1349.34  20.05
L ¼ 1:40  W ¼ 2:60  T ¼ 15:60  M Bulk density (kg/m3 ) 608.17  4.44
Kernel density (kg/m3 ) 1248  4.61
Correlation coefficients for these relations are given Table Porosity (%) 51.48  1.05
3. The relationships between L=W and L=T have been Terminal velocity (m/s) 4.94  0.14
found to be statistically significant. Similar results were Rupture strength, applied force (N)
reported by Demir, Do € zcan, and Hacıseferogulları
gan, O Through length 465.07  26.71
(2002), Gezer, Hacısefero gulları, and Demir (2002), Width thickness 542.38  46.58
C
ß arman (1996) and Joshi et al. (1993). Trough width 310.83  13. 30
Some physical properties of faba beans obtained in
the research are shown in Table 4. Similar investigations have been made to evoulate the project area, volume,
1000 grain mass, bulk density, kernel density and ter-
minal velocity by Deshpande et al. (1993) for soybean;
Table 2 C
ß arman (1996) for lentil; O€ gu
€t (1998) for lupin; Dutta,
Dimensional properties of faba beans at 10.90% m.c.d.b Nema, and Bhardwaj (1998) for gram and Demir and
€ zcan (2001) for rose fruits. In addition, rupture
O
Length (mm) 20.39  0.02
Width (mm) 14.54  0.12 strength of faba bean seeds were measured applying the
Thickness (mm) 7.86  0.06 force by different positions. The highest strength value
Weight (g) 1.31  0.02 were found to be on by force applied thickness axis. The
Geometric mean diameter (mm) 13.25  0.09 reason for this, the surface area of faba beans seeds were
Sphericity 0.651  0.003
wider than those two positions.
H. Hacısefero
gulları et al. / Journal of Food Engineering 60 (2003) 475–479 479

4. Conclusions Fai, C. C. (1998). Nutritional values of three leguminous seeds and


functional properties of their protein and fiber fractions. PhD.
thesis, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
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potential source of nutrients including protein, energy, properties of Hacıhaliloglu Apricot pit and its kernel. Journal
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