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The beginning

1.000.000 B.C.

Grate combustion technology


AUE 4. November 2013

Jørgen Hansen

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The developement The developement


15.000 B.C. 1500 A.D.
Year 0

1700 A.D

Controlled combustion
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The developement The fuels – very different properties


1870
B&W Water tube boilers

One fireman
max 1.5 tons coal pr. hour
Approx 12 MW

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Extreme fuel - house hold waste Extreme fuel – Fresh Eucalyptus

Using this as a
fuel would make
any Koala bear
cry
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What is our task?  Solid fuels – relevant parameters

 Hot flue gas

Heat Chemical properties Physical properties

Calorific value Density


Proximate analyses Size distribution
Ultimate analyses Particle shape
Ash analyses Humidity
Ash melting behavior Foreign matters
C-H-O + O2 → CO2 + H2O

Fuel Oxygen (air)


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Chemical properties  Combustion

1
Gas phase: CO + O2 → CO2
2

 − EA 
k p (T ) = A exp  
Reaction rate:  Ru T 

d [CO2 ]
Concentration CO and O2: = k p [CO ][O2 ]
dt

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 The TTT rule – gas phase combustion  The fixed carbon combustion

Temperature

Time

Turbulens

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 The combustion proces on the grate  The plant design challenges

The processes in a burning solid


fuel bed include:
 Drying
 Ignition
 Pyrolysis
 Gasification
 Solid-phase combustion
 Gas-phase combustion
The process is mainly controlled by
mass and heat transfer
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 The Vølund Component Palette  The grate

Grates: Stokers and misc. firing equip.:

Air cooled waste grate type Vølund Hydraulic pusher

Water cooled waste grate type Vølund Feeding grate type Vølund

Air cooled waste grate type DynaGrate Hydraulic biomass feeder type HF
Air cooled step grate type ASG Pneumatic biomass spreader type ASA
Water cooled vibration grate type HVB and
Mechanical coal spreader type SF
HVBD
Traveling grate type L Big bale burner type SBH

Traveling grate type WR Biomass rake type RBR

Spreader stoker grate type SL Biomass screw stoker

Chain grate type CR Charging chute for bulk material

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3
 What does the grate do  Traditional step grate

Support the fuel – mechanical strength

Allow primary air access to the fuel - penetrated

Move the fuel with controllable velocity – proportional control

Tumble the fuel – if necessary – special surface movements

Move the ash against the slag chute

Withstand the high temperature – cooled or high alloy bars

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 Traditional travelling  Waste combustion grates


Traditional waste grate type ”Vølund”

Modern waste grate


design type DynaGrate®

Travelling grate type L and SL


Originally developped for hard
coal. Today an excellent choise
for retrofit coal boilers with
combined firing coal/peat/bio.

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 The unique DynaGrate® movements DynaGrate® – Air cooled and water cooled

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Some DynaGrate® data Water cooled vibration grate

West Palm Beach Hjørring


Grate area 133 m² Grate area 14,4 m²
37,8 t/h waste 3,8 t/h waste

Vibrationgrate type HVB


Erected and mechanical tested i
the workshop ready for shipment

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Vibration grate, standard surface and air sealing Water cooled vibration grate
Stoker Surface
Furnace
Customized hole pattern
Vibrating Wall
in
Grate panel Tubes
Furnace Membrane
Wall

Connecting
Rod
T-block
Gravity Seal Features:
•Hole diameter: 4-8mm
•Air velocity: 20 - 40 m/s
•Air temperature: 0 – 300ºC
•Part of evaporator
•Naturally circulating
•Can operate without ash cover Motor
2 x 3 Hopper Compartments
(e.g. oil or gas burner above)
•Inclined 6º

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Water cooled vibration grate Water cooled vibration grate


Furnace
Front
Wall
Stoker Springs
Grate Linkage Motor
and Vibrating
Mechanism Vibrating drive
Ash beams
Discharge
Hopper

Stoker Supports Connecting Rod


with cover

Undergrate Air Air Compartments


Plenum Siftings Hoppers

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Water cooled vibration grate Water cooled vibration grate
Electric Motor

Vibrating
Mechanism
Electric Motor
Vibrating
Mechanism

Vibrating Drive Beam


(not shown)

Stoker Support Vibrating


Structure Mechanism
Support

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Water cooled vibration grate Water cooled vibration grate


Two panels for less than 6,4 m boiler width Four panels for more than 6,4 m boiler width

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Water cooled vibration grate Vibration grate, air sealing


HVBD for better char burn out
Uncooled for standing Cooled for hanging boilers
boilers

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Vibration grate – hanging boiler Water cooled vibration grate
Equipped with cast blocks for difficult fuel

HVB 11259 for Händelö P11


Design data:
Thermal load 97 MW
Wall panels 115 Bar 320 Co
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Vølund capacities B&W Vølund experience

Boiler size 20 – 200 MW th

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Steam data 16 Bar saturated

140 Bar 540 oC Hay and straw from wheat, Excellent Limited co-combustion No experience
rape, barley etc. Good
(330 Bar 580 oC)
Chips or pellets from Good Excellent Good
wood, bark, forest residue,
palm oil waste etc.
Fuels Biomass
Crushed fibrous biomass No experience Bad Excellent
like eucalyptus
Waste (Household and industry)

Hard coal and brown coal RDF, paper reject, RT wood Good Good Good
chips. If BVW size distribution
curve is observed
(Oil and Gas)

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Fuel feeding systems for grate firing Straw combustion


All baled fuel types, such as corn
stalks, thisels and switchgrass
 Baled material combustion :
 Straw bales from wheat, barley, hey, rice, etc.
 Stalk bales from rape, thistles, etc.

 Bulk material suspension combustion :


 Chipped wood, bark etc. acc. to BWV standard sieve analyses
 Crushed prunings, residue, peat, etc.
 Pilletised fuels.
 Particle shaped fuels like saw dust, baggase, husk etc.

 Bulk material grate combustion :


 All above bio fuels not full filling the standard sieve analyses

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Straw combustion Straw combustion
Bale logistic

Bale feeding system, bale rake, stoker


screw and grate layout

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Straw combustion Straw combustion

Test rig at workshop before String cutter


installing on test facility Bale stroke tipper

Test rig at work shop


Capacity 35 – 50 MW

Dosing drum Raking drum:


Engage each stroke and Higher tangential
One slice is loosened. Strings
drag it against the raking speed than the
get through the system without
drum dosing drum
creating problems.

Low density straw: ~20 kg/m3


Large visible surface

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Straw combustion Straw combustion


Rotary biomass rake type RBR 1300
opens and loosen any baled biomass
type.

Can be adopted to any big bale size


on the marked.

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Straw combustion Straw combustion

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AVV2 Straw combustion Bulk fuel combustion


 Advanced Steam Data
583C, 310 bara
End superheater
 Loosened straw for grate firing
 Slag tap super heater

Slag tap superheater

Straw rotary rake

Stoker screw

Water cooled vibration grate

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Suspension firing bulk fuels Suspension firing bulk fuels


Small particles are carried over Large particles fall
and burnout in 1st pass. onto grate
100
%

General size limits for


suspension firing with
air spouts on an water
cooled vibrating grate
10

1
0,1 1 10 100 1000
Particle size: D = 0,25 mm Particle size: D = 10 mm
mm

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Furnace and grate layout Furnace and grate layout

Air spouts

Grate heat release: Tertiary air


1.4 – 2.5 MW/m2

Sec.air front

Air spouts
Sec.back

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Spout feeding system design Day silo and fuel feeding

Two different “day” silos

Coarse and wet particles with Small, dry particles or fuels with a
limited content of fines high content of fines and dust

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Day silo and fuel feeding Day silo and fuel feeding

Vibrating
Sizing Screen
100
%

10

1
0,1 1 10 100 1000
mm

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Day silo and fuel feeding Day silo and fuel feeding

System set up for best


Day Silo boiler control

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Day silo and fuel feeding Day silo and fuel feeding

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Day silo and fuel feeding Day silo and fuel feeding

Cold feeding test to observe distribution on grate Perfect distribution and even heat release

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Grate firing very coarse bulk fuels Grate firing very coarse bulk fuels

Strängnäs:
Crane feeding and hydraulic
pusher to fire coarse wood and
waste fuels

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Grate firing very coarse bulk fuels Landskrona Multifuel Fired plant, 2012

Damper
SA-front Volumix
Burners

SA back

Feed arch

Pusher

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Grate firing very fine bulk fuels Biowanze bran firing


Biowanze: Biowanze:

100 m3 ”day” silo and water 100 m3 ”day” silo and 6 water
cooled screw stokers for cooled screw stokers for
maximum capacity control maximum capacity control

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Biowanze bran firing Alternative combustion system - BFB
850-900C
Front wall penetrations

Alkali and phosphor content in


fuel calls for a furnace with no or
litle use of refractory.

Stoker screw penetrations


designed in accordance with this.

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Product gas

Alternative combustion system - CFB Gasification

Up-draft technology originally


acquired from Dr. Gatzke
Drying • A B&W Vølund research area
since 1988
Pyrolysis Fuel
• Licensed to:
Reduction
• JFE Engineering Corp. -
Oxidation Japan

Ash Steam/Air
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Gasification Gasification
Full developed
Harboøre Plant

Combined cycle plant


Developed and ready for sale

Combined Cycle Gasifier - Process

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Capacity diagram Heat and Mass balance
Lambda versus T-prim og brændselsfugt

1,60

1,55

1,50
0C
1,45 100 C
1,40 200 C

Lambda
300 C
1,35

1,30

1,25

1,20

1,15

1,10
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60
Fugtighed %

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Basic combustion design Boiler design


Strängnäs 40 MW th Landskrona 33 MW th

Furnace volume load 252 kW/m3 190 kW/m3

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CFD Secondary air system design CFD Secondary air system design
TA nozzles
TA-principle

Secondary Air Refractory for high radiation


intensity to increase particle
In the furnace: OFA 3.1 temperature and increase
OFA 3.2 particle combustion rate
Front
OFA 2.1
Back OFA 2.2
OFA 1.1 Uniform flow increase real
In the boiler first pass: OFA 1.2 particle residence time

Over Fire Air (OFA) Front Tangential flow increase


particle separation due to
wall collision
Back

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CFD Secondary air system design Process & Instrumentation diagrams
Volumix® OFA 1.2 OFA 1.1

OFA 1.1

OFA 1.2

OFA 1.1

OFA 1.2 OFA 1.1

Plane 4,5m above OFA1 Air injection from OFA nozzles


A100
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CFD Flus gas distribution CFD Particle tracks

Char combustion

Pyrolysis

Boiling

Drying

Heating/cooling
A100 C100 A100 C100

Symmetry plane Symmetry plane


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CFD Temperature distribution CFD Temperature distribution - SNCR


1.pass 2.pass A 100

1600
Average Temperature 1.pass °C
Minimum Temperature 1.pass °C
1400 Max imum Temperature 1.pass °C
Average Temperature 2.pass °C
Minimum Temperature 2.pass °C
1200
+8 m Max imum Temperature 2.pass °C

1000
Temperature [°C]

800

+6 m
600

400
+4m
200

+2 m 0 1 2 3 4 5 6
Vertical position above furnace outlet [m]
7 8 9 10

Furnace
T2s>850°C
C 35

T2s>850°C outlet 1600


Average Temperature 1.pass °C
Minimum Temperature 1.pass °C

1400 Max imum Temperature 1.pass °C


Average Temperature 2.pass °C
Minimum Temperature 2.pass °C
1200 Max imum Temperature 2.pass °C

1000
Temperature [°C]

800

600

400

A100 C100 200

0
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Symmetry plane Vertical position above furnace outlet [m]

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CFD CO distribution Flue gas emission

Necessary conditions for obtaining low


emission values

Continous fuel feed


Even fuel distribution
Stabil fuel quality
Calorific value according to boiler design
Even and adequate air distribution
Sufficient turbulence and recidence time
Stabil control circuites (feed water etc.)

A100 C100

Symmetry plane
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Flue gas emission Flue gas emission


Typical wood firing
Typical wood firing Typical straw firing

Typical straw firing

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Flue gas emission

NOx emission

500
N O x m g /N m 3 @ 6 % d ry O 2

400

300
0,5
200 1
1,5
100
2
0 2,5
Thank’s for listening
3,5 4,5 5,5 6,5 7,5 Dry O2 8,5

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