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Ismail Aydin1 and Ender Demirel2

Abstract: A computational model is developed to analyze the hydrodynamic behavior of dam reservoirs during earthquakes. The math-

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ematical model is based on the solution of two-dimensional (2D) Navier-Stokes equations in a vertical, semi-infinite domain truncated by a

far-end boundary condition. A depth integrated continuity equation is used to track the deforming free-surface and ensure global mass

conservation. A combination of Sommerfeld nonreflecting boundary and dissipation zone methods is implemented at the far end of the

reservoir to prevent any back-reflections of pressure and free-surface waves. Nondimensionalized equations are used to compare contribu-

tions of each type of force to the development of the hydrodynamic pressure field and to the maximum run-up of free-surface waves on the

dam face. Sinusoidal ground accelerations are applied to an idealized dam-reservoir system to analyze the system response. It is observed that

the acoustic wave equation solution gives satisfactory results for the pressure field unless the contributions from the free-surface waves

become significant at low reservoir depths. The surface wave run-up on the dam face is found to depend on the ground velocity, oscillation

period, and the water depth. On the basis of numerical experiments, an expression for the wave run-up to predict conditions of overtopping

from probable earthquake characteristics is proposed. DOI: 10.1061/(ASCE)EM.1943-7889.0000322. © 2012 American Society of Civil

Engineers.

CE Database subject headings: Wave runup; Hydrodynamic pressure; Earthquakes; Dam safety; Free surfaces; Reservoirs.

Author keywords: Wave run-up; Hydrodynamic pressure; Earthquakes; Dam safety; Free-surfaces; Reservoirs; Resonance.

Introduction increase in computer power in the last two decades. Hung and

Wang (1987) analyzed earthquake excited dam-reservoir systems,

Earthquakes can be an unsparing threat for man-made structures if solving dimensionless Navier-Stokes equations and the pressure

possible effects are not perceived in the analysis and design stages. equation by finite difference method using kinematic boundary

Immediate consequences of an earthquake for a dam-reservoir sys- condition to track the free-surface with a boundary mapping tech-

tem can be a significant transient change in water pressure distri- nique. The apparent conclusion was that the viscous effects are

butions attributable to hydrodynamic effects and creation of surface negligible in hydrodynamic analysis of pressure field in dam

waves that may attack reservoir boundaries including the dam face. reservoirs. Hung and Chen (1990) computed the hydrodynamic

Landslides into the reservoir may also be provoked by the com- pressures and water rise in the reservoir during the El Centro Earth-

bined action of ground accelerations and subsequent hydrodynamic quake, solving Euler equations by a finite element method. Chen

pressure shocks. (1994) investigated the hydrodynamic pressures and water rise in

Earthquake-induced hydrodynamic pressures in dam reservoirs a reservoir with a sloping bottom. Chen et al. (1999) developed a

were first analyzed by Westergaard (1933), who obtained analytical three-dimensional (3D) computational model coupling Euler equa-

formulas for hydrodynamic pressures on vertical rigid dams with tions and incompressible continuity equations to compute the

semi-infinite reservoirs subjected to harmonic motion. Hydrody- hydrodynamic pressures in a dam-reservoir system having an arbi-

namic pressure is obtained from the acoustic pressure equation trary geometry. They showed that the hydrodynamic effects are

derived by neglecting nonlinear convective and free-surface effects independent of reservoir width when the reservoir is wider than

in the reservoir assuming that displacements of the fluid particles four times the water depth.

are small. Effect of water compressibility on pressure distribution There are several methods to track the free-surface position in

is commonly investigated using such simplified models (Chopra unsteady flows. All surface tracking algorithms consider partially

1967; Fok and Chopra 1986, 1987). filled surface cells to precisely locate the free-surface. Approxima-

A second category of research including nonlinear convective tions used for flow variables in the partially filled computational

and free-surface effects became increasingly popular with the rapid cells may cause nonphysical variation of total fluid volume in time

as reported in the literature (Aulisa et al. 2003; Kleefsman et al.

1

Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Middle East Technical Univ., 2005; Yang et al. 2006; Demirel and Aydin 2007; Wang et al. 2007;

Ankara 06531, Turkey (corresponding author). E-mail: ismaydin@ Demirel 2008). Special care is required to control the total volume

metu.edu.tr changes in the computational domain. Volume sources or sinks

2

Assistant Professor, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Eskisehir Osmangazi introduced by numerical schemes are usually so small that they

Univ., Eskisehir 26480, Turkey. E-mail: edemirel@ogu.edu.tr cannot be noticed if not monitored purposely and may not affect

Note. This manuscript was submitted on May 12, 2010; approved on

August 1, 2011; published online on August 3, 2011. Discussion period

other flow parameters in short-duration simulations. If the simula-

open until July 1, 2012; separate discussions must be submitted for indi- tions are continued for sufficiently long durations, the cumulative

vidual papers. This paper is part of the Journal of Engineering Mechanics, change in total fluid volume in the computational domain can be

Vol. 138, No. 2, February 1, 2012. ©ASCE, ISSN 0733-9399/2012/2-164– significant, leading to permanent water depth variations. Detailed

174/$25.00. discussions on total volume conserving formulations are available

in Casulli (1999) and Casulli and Zanolli (2002). The depth inte-

grated continuity (DIC) equation has been shown to be successful

and efficient in free-surface flow simulations to maintain exact

conservation of total fluid volume independent of simulation

durations (Casulli 1999; Casulli and Zanolli 2002; Demirel and

Aydin 2007).

In numerical simulations of large fluid bodies, it is often neces-

sary to introduce artificial boundaries at distances sufficiently far

from the region of interest to reduce the size of the computational

domain and save computer memory. Appropriate boundary condi-

tions for velocity and pressure must be devised for an open

boundary at the far end of the computational domain. In acoustic

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pressure equation solutions, the pressure boundary condition at the

far end boundary was investigated by Sharan (1985, 1987), Yang

et al. (1993), Küçükarslan (2005), and Maity (2005). In free-surface Z Z

1 ∂

flows, surface waves introduce additional complexity in the far end. ðu þ ug Þd∀ þ u~V · d~

A

St ∂t

CV CS

Boundary conditions applied at the far end are required to prevent Z Z

any reflections back into the flow field to avoid nonphysical inter- 1 ∂p 1 ~ · d~

¼ 2 d∀ þ ∇u A ð1Þ

actions between the computational boundary and the internal sol- Fr CV ∂x Re CS

ution domain while allowing the surface waves to move freely out Z Z

1 ∂

of the computational domain. At the same time, nonphysical flows ðw þ wg Þd∀ þ V · d~

w~ A

through the far-end boundary in or out of the computational domain St ∂t CV CS

Z Z

should be prevented to avoid cumulative changes in total fluid vol- 1 ∂p 1

¼ 2 þ 1 d∀ þ ∇~w · d~

A ð2Þ

ume in the domain and subsequent variations of water depth. This Fr CV ∂z Re CS

latter property is more important for accurate predictions of surface

wave characteristics such as maximum wave run-up on the in which all variables are dimensionless. The space coordinates

dam face. x and z are nondimensionalized by the reservoir depth H; fluid

In the Navier-Stokes solutions of earthquake-excited dam- velocities u and w and the ground velocities ug and wg are nondi-

reservoir problems, a nonreflecting boundary condition for the mensionalized by the maximum ground velocity V m ; pressure p is

velocity components must be utilized in addition to pressure at nondimensionalized by the hydrostatic pressure on the bottom

the far end of the reservoir to prevent the water surface and pressure ρgH; and time t is nondimensionalized by the oscillation period

waves reflecting from the boundary into the computational domain. T of the ground motion. Subscript CV = control volume; CS =

control surfaces; d~

A = area element normal to the control surface

Demirel and Aydin (2010) applied the combination of Sommerfeld

pointing out of the control volume; and ∇ = del operator. The

boundary and dissipation zone at the far end of the reservoir

dimensionless numbers appearing in the equations are the Strouhal

and showed that the combination of Sommerfeld boundary and

number St , the Froude number Fr and the Reynolds number Re

dissipation zone can effectively prevent reflections and eliminate defined as

cumulative changes in total fluid volume in the domain.

In the present study, a finite volume method is applied to a V mT Vm ρV m H

St ¼ ; Fr ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ﬃ; Re ¼ ð3Þ

dam-reservoir system to compute the velocity field, pressure field, H gH μ

and water surface waves. Earthquake-excited nonlinear hydrody-

namic pressures and the maximum rise of water surface near in which g = gravitational acceleration; μ = dynamic viscosity; and

the dam face are the major parameters of interest in the analysis. ρ = fluid density. Ground velocities are included in the momentum

A computer code named NASSLARD (Navier-Stokes Solver for equations to represent earthquake excitations in dam-reservoir

Large Domains) developed by Demirel and Aydin (2010) for analysis. The computational domain and the grid system are as-

unsteady free-surface flows in large spatial domains is used to sumed to move with the ground. The velocity vector ~ V is defined

relative to the moving ground. The compressibility terms in the

obtain the numerical solutions. A search for appropriate domain

momentum equations are not included in the analysis because they

length and grid resolution is conducted after preliminary investiga-

are found, in the preliminary studies, to be at least six orders of

tions on relative significances of each term in the governing equa-

magnitude smaller than the other terms in the equations.

tions over space and time domains. A survey of relevant The continuity equation is simplified for weakly compressible

dimensionless numbers that can help presentation and formulation fluid by dropping the spatial variations of density because they are

of the reservoir response is also presented. For the sake of com- negligible in dam-reservoir hydrodynamics. An equation of state is

pleteness, the mathematical model and the numerical solution pro- applied to represent the density variations with pressure through the

cedures are also described. definition of acoustic velocity. The time variation of density is

linked to pressure variations, and the continuity is recast to be

solved for the pressure field:

Governing Equations and Nondimensionalization Z Z

1 ∂

pd∀ ¼ V · d~

~ A ð4Þ

The Navier-Stokes equations are nondimensionalized by the St F2a ∂t CV CS

commonly used scale parameters to identify the well known

dimensionless numbers in fluid flow. The momentum equations and

as

for 2D flows in a vertical plane (Fig. 1) integrated over a control Fa ¼ pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

ﬃ ð5Þ

volume are written as gH

in which as (¼ 1;438 m=s) = acoustic velocity in water. The dimen- in which n = time level; Δt = time step; Δx and Δz = mesh

sionless number, Fa , is the ratio of the propagation speed of the sizes; Dif and Con = diffusive and convective fluxes; and

pressure waves to the free-surface waves in the form of Froude ax = dimensionless horizontal ground acceleration obtained by dif-

number. ferentiating Eq. (7) with respect to time. For the sake of simplicity

Computational domain is simplified as a 2D rectangular plane in coding, the expressions evaluated at the nth time level are col-

with the dam body represented by a vertical solid boundary on the lected in F and G terms. Appropriate control volumes are selected

left face, horizontal reservoir bottom and a vertical far-end boun- for each dependent variable to utilize the advantage of a staggered

dary on the right face (Fig. 1). The dam surface and the reservoir grid system (Fig. 2). Second-order approximations are used for

bottom are assumed to move as a rigid body during the earthquake spatial discretization of convective and diffusive terms. Discretized

excitations. The water surface at the top is free to form surface form of the Poisson equation for pressure is obtained by substitut-

waves attributable to earthquake accelerations, and therefore loca- ing Eqs. (8) and (9) into Eq. (12):

tion of the free-surface is to be traced as function of time by a

i;j piþ1;j

pnþ1 i1;j pi;j i;j pi;jþ1

nþ1

pnþ1 nþ1

pnþ1 nþ1

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þ

depth-integrated continuity (DIC) assuming that the water depth Δxi Δxiþ1=2 Δxi Δxi1=2 Δzj Δzjþ1=2

h is a single valued function of horizontal coordinates. The DIC

i;j1 pi;j

pnþ1 nþ1

pnþ1

i;j

for global volume conservation in the computational domain is þ 2

written as Δzj Δzj1=2 φ

Z

1 ∂h ∂ h ¼ RHSi;j ð13Þ

þ udz ¼ 0 ð6Þ

St ∂t ∂x 0

in which

Eqs. (1), (2), (4), and (6) provide a mathematical model for inves- F2 r F ni;j F ni1;j Gni;j Gni;j1 pni;j

tigation of dam-reservoir response during earthquakes. RHSi;j ¼ þ 2 ð14Þ

St Δt Δxi Δzj φ

Recorded earthquake excitations exhibit oscillatory character

and can be expressed as superposition of sinusoidal waves at dif- and

ferent frequencies. Spectral analysis can be used to describe the

St Fa Δt

highest energy containing oscillation components and their charac- φ¼ ð15Þ

teristics. Sinusoidal ground oscillations are considered in the Fr

present study to perform a systematic analysis of dam-reservoir Discretized momentum Eqs. (8) and (9) and the pressure

hydrodynamics and a parametric study of the system response. Poisson Eq. (13) are solved sequentially by marching in time. The

Horizontal ground velocity is defined as sine function of time discretized form of Eq. (6) for a control volume defined as a vertical

ug ðtÞ ¼ sinð2πtÞ ð7Þ water column extending from the bottom to the free-surface can be

written as

in which ug and t are dimensionless as described before. Although

it is included in the formulation, the vertical ground velocity com- hnþ1

i ¼ hni St Δt½ðqnþ1

iþ1=2 qi1=2 Þ=Δxi

nþ1

ð16Þ

ponent wg is set to zero in the present study because it has no

contribution to formation of surface waves. in which q = volume fluxes on vertical faces of the water column

that are evaluated directly by integrating velocities on the cell faces.

In the numerical solution, location of the free-surface must be

Numerical Solution followed by an appropriate algorithm classifying the computational

cells as fluid-filled cells, empty cells, and partially filled (free-

The numerical model is based on the finite volume method applied surface) cells. When applying any numerical procedure on a com-

to the governing equations [Eqs. (1), (2), (4), and (6)]. Discretiza- putational cell, four neighbors, namely, left, right, up, and down,

tion and pressure formulation follows the procedure described by contiguous cells must be identified. Extrapolation techniques are

Griebel et al. (1998)

nþ1 nþ1

St Δt pi;j piþ1;j

unþ1 ¼ F n

þ ð8Þ

i;j i;j

F2r Δxiþ1=2

nþ1 nþ1

St Δt pi;j pi;jþ1

i;j ¼ Gi;j þ

wnþ1 ð9Þ

n

F2r Δzjþ1=2

,

1

F ni;j ¼ uni;j þ Δt St ðDifuÞni;j ðConuÞni;j ðΔxiþ1=2 Δzj Þ ax

Re

ð10Þ

,

1 St

Gi;j ¼ wi;j þ Δt St

n n ðDifwÞi;j ðConwÞi;j ðΔxi Δzjþ1=2 Þ 2

n n

Re Fr

ð11Þ

1 pi;j pni;j

nþ1

ðΔxi Δzj Þ ¼ ðunþ1

i;j ui1;j ÞΔzj

nþ1

St F2a Δt

þ ðwnþ1

i;j wi;j1 ÞΔxi

nþ1

ð12Þ Fig. 2. Computational grid structure and control volumes

applied for the velocity components on the surface cells when by the surface waves attributable to vertical displacement of the

momentum solution is not possible. free-surface and approximated as suggested by Demirel and

In some cases, sharp deformations on the free-surface may oc- Aydin (2010):

cur, and this may lead to stability problems. Present code uses the

flux corrected transport (FCT) method (Borris and Book 1973) to pm ¼ St C d ws λ=Ld ð21Þ

relax stability restrictions. To ensure computational stability of the in which C d = dissipation coefficient; ws = dimensionless instan-

numerical algorithm, a combined stability condition is imposed on taneous vertical velocity component on the surface; and λ =

the time step on the basis of the convection and diffusion processes wavelength of the surface waves. The pressure magnitude may

(Chan and Street 1970). change direction depending on local vertical velocity of the free-

1 Δxiþ1=2 1 Δzjþ1=2 Re Δx2i Δz2j surface cell, so that surface pressure always acts to suppress the

Δt ¼ CFL min ; ; ; wave motion. The surface wavelength to dissipation zone length

St jui;j j St jwi;j j 2 ðΔx2i þ Δz2j Þ

ratio (λ=Ld ) is used to adjust the amount of surface damping for

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1 2Δxi Δzj different choices of Ld . The dissipation zone length must be greater

ð17Þ

St cðΔxi þ Δzj Þ than the possible wavelength for a gradual but effective damping.

For the above-mentioned definition of maximum surface pressure,

in which CFL = Courant-Friedrichs-Lewy number, which is fixed C d ¼ 0:2 produces negligible reflection provided that Ld ≥ λ.

as 0.5 throughout this study; and c = surface wave celerity. In the present study, Ld was fixed as 2λ.

The computer code NASSLARD was developed and tested

for various free-surface flow cases. Accuracy of the free-surface

Boundary Conditions tracking algorithm and performance of the far-end boundary con-

dition in relation to total volume conserving property of the code

At the dam face and reservoir bottom, normal velocities are set to has been reported in Demirel and Aydin (2010).

zero, and no-slip boundary conditions are used for the tangential

velocities. At the free-surface, an extrapolation procedure proposed

by Miyata (1986) is used for velocities. Free-surface velocities are Solution Domain and Input Parameters for the Test

extrapolated from the neighboring momentum velocities in this Cases

method. Pressure on the free-surface is computed from the free-

surface stress conditions given by Griebel et al. (1998). A nonzero Input parameters for earthquake-excited dam-reservoir problem are

pressure just on the free-surface is evaluated from the initial water depth in the reservoir, H, oscillation period of

earthquake excitation, T and the amplitude of ground velocity, V m .

2F2r ∂u ∂u ∂w ∂w

pf s ¼ nn þ nx nz þ þ nz nz ð18Þ The period of surface waves formed by ground motion is identical

Re x x ∂x ∂z ∂x ∂z to the ground oscillation period that has been verified by numerical

experiments. Therefore, wave celerity and wavelength are com-

in which pf s = pressure on the free-surface; ~n ¼ ðnx ; nz Þ = local

puted from the ground oscillation period directly by using the wave

outward unit normal vector to the free-surface. The pressure at

dispersion relations for regular sinusoidal waves in deep water:

the nodal point at the center of the surface cell is calculated by

c ¼ gT=2π, λ ¼ gT 2 =2π (Rahman 1995). Determination of com-

linear interpolation from the free-surface value and the fluid cell

putational domain length L is based on water depth H and wave

below the free-surface cell.

length λ, which will be discussed subsequently after analysis of

At the far end of the reservoir, a combination of Sommerfeld

force fields.

nonreflecting boundary condition with a surface wave dissipation

Certain test cases are described to evaluate the behavior of the

zone is applied to minimize the wave reflection. The velocity com-

mathematical model and to test the capabilities and shortcomings

ponents along the far-end boundary are computed from a modified

of the computational algorithms. Ranges of oscillation period and

version of the Sommerfeld boundary condition to include ground

ground velocity are obtained from available earthquake records and

accelerations (Demirel and Aydin 2010):

related references (PEER 2002) as

1 ∂ϕ ∂ϕ 0:1 ≤ T ≤ 3:0 s 0:1 ≤ V m ≤ 3:0 m=s

aϕ þ þc ¼0 ð19Þ

St ∂t ∂x

The minimum and maximum reservoir depths are selected as 10

in which ϕ = velocity components u and w; and a = ground accel- and 600 m, respectively. All combinations of the limit values of the

erations in the velocity directions. A small region of the computa- input parameters are considered to obtain a set of test cases such

tional domain prior to the far-end boundary (Fig. 1) is allocated for that the extreme values of each dimensionless parameter appear at

suppression of surface waves by numerical treatments, which is least once in the set, which yielded eight test cases. The resonance

generally named as dissipation zone. In this zone, artificially cre- case for the pressure field described by as T=H ¼ 4 is included

ated nonatmospheric pressures are applied on the free-surface to as Test Case 9. Finally, the input parameters for Test Case 10 are

damp and dissipate the outgoing surface waves. From the start selected to produce the steepest surface waves to form a critical test

of this zone (s ¼ 0 in Fig. 1) a quasi-linear surface pressure is as- case for validating grid resolution and numerical stability of the

sumed to produce a gradual damping on the waves over the length solution algorithms. The input parameters and the corresponding

of the dissipation zone: dimensionless numbers for all test cases are given in Table 1.

pd ¼ pm s=Ld ð20Þ

in which pd = pressure applied at a surface cell as boundary con- Computational Grid

dition; pm = magnitude of surface pressure; s = horizontal distance

from the beginning of the dissipation zone; and Ld = length of the Schematic view of the computational grid distribution is shown in

dissipation zone. The magnitude of surface pressure is defined Fig. 3. There are two zones in the computational domain where fine

as the local change in hydrostatic pressure that would be created grid is required: near the solid boundaries and around the mean

Table 1. Test Cases for Dam-Reservoir Problem

Case Vm

number (m=s) T (s) H (m) Fa Fr St Re

1 0.10 0.100 10.0 145.19 0.0101 0.001000 1:00 × 106

2 0.10 0.100 600.0 18.74 0.0013 0.000017 6:00 × 107

3 0.10 3.000 10.0 145.19 0.0101 0.030000 1:00 × 106

4 0.10 3.000 600.0 18.74 0.0013 0.000500 6:00 × 107

5 3.00 0.100 10.0 145.19 0.3029 0.030000 3:00 × 107

6 3.00 0.100 600.0 18.74 0.0391 0.000500 1:80 × 109

7 3.00 3.000 10.0 145.19 0.3029 0.900000 3:00 × 107

8 3.00 3.000 600.0 18.74 0.0391 0.015000 1:80 × 109

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10 0.28 2.000 100.0 45.91 0.0089 0.005600 2:80 × 107

Fig. 4. Hydrodynamic pressure at the dam toe for different grid reso-

lutions (Test Case 9)

with the ground motion with constantly increasing amplitude.

Oscillating pressure amplitude in the third oscillation period is

more than twice the amplitude of the first period. If the resonance

conditions are maintained for several oscillation periods, the result-

ing hydrodynamic pressure can be several times larger than the

hydrostatic pressure, which may cause structural failure of the dam

or initiate landslides on the surrounding boundaries of the dam-

reservoir.

Next, the free-surface is left free to deform, and the maximum

wave run-up, ηmax , on the dam face is recorded from the solutions

with different numbers of grid elements. Determination of grid dis-

tribution in vertical direction requires at least two runs of the code

because ηmax is unknown. An estimate of ηmax obtained from the

first run is used to distribute the fine grid in between the maximum

and minimum water levels for the next run. The fine grid is ex-

Fig. 3. Computational grid distribution tended to 3ηmax distance (Fig. 3) around the mean free-surface

to be on the safe side and avoid repeated runs.

The minimum number of grids in horizontal and vertical direc-

free-surface including the highest possible wave crest and trough.

tions sufficient to describe a single surface wave is investigated for

High resolution in the vicinity of dam face is required for accurate

the Test Case 10. The input parameters are (H ¼ 100 m, T ¼ 2 s,

reproduction of surface deformations to determine the maximum

V m ¼ 0:28 m=s) selected to produce deep water waves with maxi-

wave run-up. Grid sensitivity analysis has been done for the hydro-

mum wave steepness as a critical test case for the surface tracking

dynamic pressure at the dam toe and the maximum wave run-up at

algorithm. The maximum wave run-ups on the dam face evaluated

the dam face. A variety of grid clustering rates have been tested and

from different grid resolutions are shown in Fig. 5. N x = number of

it is found that sufficiently fine uniform grid in regions of high sen-

sitivity and stretching in other regions of the domain up to a maxi-

mum allowable mesh size produces grid independent results with

computational economy. Maximum mesh sizes in the x-direction

and z-direction were limited to 3Δxmin and 5Δzmin , respectively.

For the hydrodynamic pressure at the dam toe, resonance case

(Case 9) is considered as the most critical test case to find out the

adequate grid resolution. The far-end boundary condition does not

work well in the resonance case, which was also observed by

Sharan (1987). Therefore, the reservoir length is taken as L ¼

7;000 m (for the resonant case only) to avoid any back-reflections

from the far-end boundary. Different grid resolutions are used, and

the hydrodynamic pressure at the dam toe (pt ¼ px¼0;z¼0 1) is

plotted as function of time in Fig. 4. Chopra’s (1967) analytical

solution based on the acoustic pressure equation is also shown

in the same figure for comparison. Free-surface was fixed in both

the numerical and analytical solutions. It is seen from Fig. 4 that

pressure solutions obtained using different number of grid elements

are almost identical, which is considered as an indication of grid

independence for the range of number of grid elements used in

Fig. 5. Grid convergence tests for ηmax (Test Case 10)

the present computations.

grid elements per wave length; N z = number of grid elements per and achieve full periodicity in all flow variables. Time and space

wave height. The difference in computed ηmax values is less than averages are evaluated from the 30th cycle solution.

0.2% when N x is greater than 40. Computed ηmax is almost inde- Time histories of each Q term for the first fluid-filled cell below

pendent of N z when N x is greater than 40. As a result of grid tests, the partially filled surface cell and the fluid cell on the bed are

N x ¼ 40 and N z ¼ 20 are used in the computations hereafter. shown in Figs. 6(a) and 6(b), respectively. Vertical axis represents

the percentage of each type of force in the summation of absolute

value of forces contributing to the momentum equations. Summa-

Temporal and Spatial Distributions of Forces in the tion of all contributing forces for a given instant of time should

Governing Equations

make a hundred. The hydrodynamic pressure (Q3 ) and unsteady

The dam-reservoir problem has a mixed nature involving different forces (Q1 ) on the surface cell are dominant and exchange weights

types of forces that dominate different regions of the flow field. during the flow reversals. Ground acceleration forces (Q5 ) rank

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Relative magnitudes of forces acting on the fluid elements and con- third with nearly constant weight, except for a sharp decrease

tributing to the development of flow are different near the bed and during flow reversals in which convective forces (Q2 ) get larger.

near the free-surface. There are rapid changes in composition of Viscous forces (Q4 ) are always negligible in magnitude everywhere

forces as the dam face or the free-surface is approached. A survey in the flow domain. There are small sudden jumps in force curves

of relative magnitudes of contributing forces in the momentum for the cell near the free-surface. This is attributable changing of the

equation had to be done to locate the far-end boundary at an observed cell as the free-surface moves up and down in time.

adequately far distance and fix the computational domain size to Ground acceleration (Q5 ) and pressure (Q3 ) are the two dominant

a minimum without introducing any restrictions on the free devel- forces constantly acting on the cell at the reservoir bottom, in which

opment of the flow in the region of interest. Each term in the gov- unsteady forces (Q1 ) have nearly 1% contribution in the force

erning equations are named and recorded to observe their temporal

budget. Convective forces (Q2 ) are generally negligible, except for

and spatial evolution (Demirel 2008):

Z Z

1 ∂ ~

Vd∀ þ ~

Vð~ V · d~ AÞ

St ∂t CV

|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ} |ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}

CS

Q1 Q2

Z Z Z

1 ~ þ~ 1 ~~ 1 ∂

¼ 2 ∇ðp kÞd∀ þ ∇ V · d~ A ~

V d∀

Fr CV Re CS St ∂t CV g

|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ} |ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ} |ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}

Q3 Q4 Q5

ð22Þ

Z Z

1 ∂

pd∀ ¼ V ·d~

~ A ð23Þ

St F 2a ∂t CV

|ﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ{zﬄﬄﬄﬄﬄ}

CS

Q6

force vectors attributable unsteadiness, convection, dynamic pres-

sure, viscosity, and ground acceleration, respectively. The last

parameter, Q6 , = dimensionless volume changes attributable to

compressibility forces. The observed quantities are also averaged

over time for one period of oscillation to visualize the spatial dis-

tributions. The time average is defined as:

X

tþ1

jQni;j j

ðQTÞi;j ¼ ∀total Δt n ð24Þ

t

∀i;j

The integrated quantity is divided by the computational cell volume

∀i;j to eliminate the numerical distortion attributable to variable cell

size used in the solution. The observed quantities are also averaged

over both time and space to observe their relation with dimension-

less numbers. Time and space average of any quantity is defined as:

tþ1

X

1 iX max jX

jQni;j j

max

QTS ¼ ∀total Δtn ð25Þ

t

imax jmax i¼1 j¼1 ∀i;j

directions, respectively. Numerical solution is started from the ini-

tially hydrostatic case. Therefore, computations are carried on for

Fig. 6. Time histories of forces acting on fluid elements (Test Case 5)

30 oscillation periods to eliminate the effect of initial conditions

the sudden rise up to 1% around the flow reversals. Viscous forces On the other hand, the computational domain length should be

(Q4 ) are always negligible as in the surface cell. large enough to allow free evolution of surface waves between the

Spatial distributions of time-integrated forces normalized with dam face and beginning of the dissipation zone. Numerical tests

their maximum values are shown in Fig. 7. Forces attributable local have shown that L ¼ 10λ and Ld ¼ 2λ enable free development

(QT 1 ) and convective (QT 2 ) accelerations have the maximum of surface deformations in the computational domain and hence

values near the free-surface and close to dam face, associated with produce solutions unaffected from the dissipation zone and the

the run-up of surface waves in this zone. Hydrodynamic pressure location of the far-end boundary. Combining the two restrictions,

forces (QT 3 ) have their maximum values over the dam face. the computational domain length is fixed as L ¼ maxð4H; 10λÞ

Viscous forces (QT 4 ) are also concentrated very close to the dam henceforward.

face and near the free-surface, although they are negligible every-

where. Compressibility term (QT 6 ) of the pressure equation has its

Hydrodynamic Pressure

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maximum near the dam toe. Rapid variations of all forces in the

governing equations occur very close to the dam surface. This Computation of hydrodynamic pressure and evaluation of extreme

behavior is a justification for the limitation of the computational pressure loadings on the dam face is a vital issue in the earthquake

domain to a reasonable size by imposing the far-end boundary con- resistant design of a dam body. A simple approach is to obtain pres-

ditions. The length of the computational domain can be limited up sure solution from the acoustic pressure equation without solution

to x ¼ 4 (or 4H) without any loss of generality in the solution. for the velocity field and the free-surface as suggested in the pio-

neering work of Chopra (1967). Pressure variations at the dam toe

for Test Cases 7 and 8 obtained from NASSLARD solution and that

of Chopra are shown in Fig. 8. Pressure solutions are almost iden-

tical for Test Case 8, in which water depth is 600 m. Pressure is in

general independent of surface deformations, except for shallow

reservoirs such as in Test Case 7 in which surface wave heights

can be comparable to the reservoir depth of 10 m.

It is shown in Fig. 4 that resonance case would create pressure

oscillations with continually increasing amplitudes. This should

occur because of in-phase interaction of ground excitation and

response of the fluid volume with compressibility forces, as a

consequence of volumetric deformations. It should therefore be

tional domain (Test Case 1) Fig. 8. Hydrodynamic pressure variation at the dam toe

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Chwang (1992)

QTS6 surface deformations successfully. Time evolution of free-surface

deformations near the maximum run-up are shown in Fig. 11 for

Test Case 1. In most cases, the maximum wave run-up occurs in the

expected that maximum volumetric deformations occur at the first oscillation cycle.

resonance case. To observe this, time-integrated and space- The computer code NASSLARD has been run for various

integrated value of instantaneous volumetric deformation QTS6 is combinations of reservoir depth, ground velocity, and oscillation

plotted as function of as T=H and presented in Fig. 9. As shown in period, and the maximum wave run-up height, ηmax , has been

the figure, computations with different ground velocity amplitudes recorded. It was not possible to set up a unique functional repre-

yielded the same results. Hence, compressibility effects are inde- sentation of dimensionless run-up height in terms of other dimen-

pendent of ground velocity. The volumetric deformation increases sionless numbers appearing in the governing equations. However,

up to as T=H ¼ 4, shows a peak value there, and then rapidly de- in the search for a dimensionless representation, it is found that the

creases. Occurrence of resonance for the pressure field for a given run-up height is a linear function of the ground velocity V m. The

water depth is only a function of the oscillation period. Resonance linear relationship between ηmax and the dimensionless group

condition can be sustained if there are ground oscillations persisting V m =gT for a given value of T was very useful to develop a formu-

at the required period of oscillation that is at the natural frequency lation for the run-up height. The ratio V m =T is a measure of

of the reservoir. Resonance would be observed at different oscilla- amplitude of ground accelerations, and thus the group V m =gT is a

tion periods in different zones of a large reservoir with variable measure of the ratio of the ground acceleration to that of gravity.

water depth attributable to variable bed topography. It is possi- This dimensionless group will be represented by Ar and named

ble to consider resonance occurring at different frequencies over as acceleration ratio. The maximum acceleration created in an

the body of a large reservoir at the same time, in case of ground oscillation cycle is equal to 2πV m =T.

motions containing energy with a wide spectrum of oscillation

frequencies enclosing the natural frequencies corresponding to

the reservoir depth range. For the resonance conditions, the pres-

sure changes are so large that the numerical treatments at the far-

end boundary fail to prevent back-reflections. Therefore, in the

numerical solution of resonating cases, the far-end boundary

was moved farther away so that the simulations are ended before

any surface waves reach to that boundary.

an earthquake is important for the designers to determine the height

of the free board and to know the conditions of overtopping.

Capability of NASSLARD to simulate surface waves created

by various excitation mechanisms was presented and discussed

in Demirel and Aydin (2010). The wave run-up predictions com-

pared with experimental data by Yang and Chwang (1992) are

shown in Fig. 10. Experimental data was obtained 0.17 s after

Fig. 11. Water surface profiles at different phases of ground motion

suddenly accelerating a vertical boundary plate horizontally.

(Test Case 1)

NASSLARD is able to produce time-dependent development of

period for the same range of reservoir depths. The asymptotic

approach to a constant slope with increasing reservoir depth is

confirmed. The best fit curves for the slopes of a given reservoir

depth can be described by an empirical equation written as

S ¼ Cη T α ð26Þ

of H only. This form of best fit function has a practical advantage

for determination of best fit parameters. The coefficient C η can be

evaluated from the data of Fig. 12 for T ¼ 1 s as shown in Fig. 14.

Some extra test data are added in Fig. 14 at high reservoir depths to

better represent the asymptotic approach to a constant value. Once

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can be developed using the data obtained from numerical experi-

ments presented in Fig. 13:

α ¼ 1:2 þ 0:21 log10 ðHÞ ð27Þ

the best fit curve given by Eq. (27) are shown in Fig. 15.

The maximum run-up on the dam face can now be evaluated

Fig. 12. Wave run-up for T ¼ 1 s from

ηmax ¼ SAr ð28Þ

The computed maximum run-up heights for T ¼ 1 s are shown for a given set of parameters H, T, and V m . Eq. (28) can be put into

as function of acceleration ratio in Fig. 12 for reservoir depths rang- a more useful form for the investigation of wave overtopping for

ing from 10 to 600 m. Straight lines fitted to the data set for each variable oscillation period and ground velocity when the reservoir

reservoir depth are also shown. It is observed from the figure that depth is fixed:

the slope of the best fitting lines is increasing with the reservoir

Cη

depth up to a maximum value at approximately H ¼ 600 m and ηmax ¼ V T α1 ð29Þ

becomes independent of reservoir depth for larger water depths. g m

Similar plots were constructed for different oscillation periods, in which ηmax is in meters when V m is in m/s and T is in s. Com-

and slopes of best fit lines describing ηmax as function of acceler- parison of data from numerical experiments and curves produced

ation ratio were obtained. Behavior is the same for the larger os- by Eq. (28) are shown in Fig. 16 for reservoir depths H ¼ 10;100

cillation periods; the water surface waves and the wave run-up on and 600 m, respectively. Increasing oscillation periods produces

dam face become independent of water depth for water depths larger wave run-up, which may go up to 10 m high for an extreme

larger than a limiting value. The slopes obtained from the best case of H ¼ 600 m, V m ¼ 3 m=s, and T ¼ 3 s. The range of Ar

fit lines to the numerical experiments for 1 ≤ T ≤ 3 s, similar to covered in the numerical study is well above the recorded earth-

that shown in Fig. 12 are shown in Fig. 13 as function of oscillation quake acceleration, which is around 0:2 g. The ratio of maximum

Fig. 13. Slope of wave run-up curves Fig. 14. Coefficient Cη of wave run-up

acceleration to gravity achieved in a sinusoidal ground oscillation

described by Eq. (7) is equal to 2π Ar .

Nondimensionalization Revisited

surface wave run-up attributable to sinusoidal ground accelerations.

It was not possible to form a dimensionless representation for the

wave run-up in terms of the ground motion and reservoir param-

eters because of the highly nonlinear nature of various phenomena

involved in the formation of surface deformations. However, it is

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to better discuss the characteristics of the dam-reservoir problem.

One such dimensionless parameter, Ar , was already introduced in

the wave run-up discussions to represent the acceleration ratio. The

nondimensionalized equations given by Eqs. (1) and (2) are revised

by multiplying with F2r to identify the new dimensionless groups.

The new set of dimensionless momentum equations are written as

Z Z

∂

Ar ðu þ ug Þd∀ þ F2r V · d~

u~ A

∂t CV CS

Fig. 15. Exponent α of wave run-up Z Z

∂p ~ · d~

¼ d∀ þ Ar Δμ ∇u A ð30Þ

CV ∂x CS

Z Z

∂

Ar ðw þ wg Þd∀ þ F2r V · d~

w~ A

∂t

CV CS

Z Z

∂p ~ · d~

¼ þ 1 d∀ þ Ar Δμ ∇w A ð31Þ

CV ∂z CS

Z Z

1 ∂

pd∀ ¼ V · d~

~ A ð32Þ

Ar Δ2a ∂t CV CS

pﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃﬃ

Vm μT=ρ aT

Ar ¼ Δμ ¼ Δa ¼ s ð33Þ

gT H H

The first group is a measure of acceleration ratio and the second

group represented by Δμ is a measure of viscous boundary layer

development during an oscillation period relative to water depth

that could affect the wave run-up only for long period oscillations

in shallow reservoirs. The third group, Δa , was already introduced

to represent the resonance case for the pressure field. It is the ratio

of distance traveled by the acoustic pressure waves to the water

depth. As illustrated in various figures, viscous forces are negligible

in magnitude when compared with other forces in the equations.

However, it is beneficial to keep them in the numerical solution

to be consistent with the no-slip boundary conditions applied at the

solid boundaries and to damp out the nonphysical oscillations in the

numerical solution.

Conclusions

Dam-reservoir response in terms of hydrodynamic pressure and

the wave run-up on dam face is investigated using a numerical

model based on full Navier-Stokes equations with compressibility

effects imbedded into the pressure equation. Free-surface deforma-

tions are traced by employing depth-integrated continuity, which

also enforced the global mass conservation in the computational

Fig. 16. Comparison of predicted wave run-up and numerical

domain. Sinusoidal ground accelerations are used in excitation of

experiments

an idealized, rectangular domain with rigid dam body and bottom

boundary. It has been shown that the acoustic pressure equation Demirel, E., and Aydin, I. (2010). “Global volume conservation in unsteady

solution obtained by neglecting the velocity field produces the free-surface flows with energy absorbing far-end boundaries.” Int. J.

same pressure field that could be obtained from a full Navier- Numer. Methods Fluids, 64(6), 689–708.

Stokes solution, except in shallow reservoirs in which contribution Fok., K. L., and Chopra, A. K. (1986). “Earthquake analysis of arch

of surface waves may be relatively significant. dams including dam-water interaction, reservoir boundary absorption

and foundation flexibility.” Earthquake Eng. Struct. Dyn., 14(2),

Wave run-up on the dam face is a function of water depth,

155–184.

ground velocity, and oscillation period. Run-up height is indepen-

Fok, K. L., and Chopra, A. K. (1987). “Water compressibility in earthquake

dent of water depth when the reservoir depth is greater than 600 m response of arch dams.” J. Struct. Eng., 113(5), 958–975.

for oscillation periods of 1 s. The limiting value of the reservoir Griebel, M., Dornseifer, T., and Neunhoeffer, T. (1998). Numerical simu-

depth gets larger with increasing oscillation periods. An empirical lation in fluid dynamics: A practical introduction, SIAM, Philadelphia.

expression [Eq. (29)] for the run-up height is proposed on the basis Hung, T. K., and Chen, B. F. (1990). “Nonlinear hydrodynamic pressure on

of the numerical experiments conducted using the NASSLARD dams.” J. Eng. Mech., 116(6), 1372–1391.

Downloaded from ascelibrary.org by Qld Univ of Techonology Lendin on 08/21/18. Copyright ASCE. For personal use only; all rights reserved.

code. The expression of wave run-up can be used to predict con- Hung, T. K., and Wang, M. H. (1987). “Nonlinear hydrodynamic pressure

ditions of overtopping attributable to earthquake-generated surface on rigid dam motion.” J. Eng. Mech., 113(4), 482–499.

waves based on probabilistic values of ground velocity and oscil- Kleefsman, K. M. T., Fekken, G., Veldman, A. E. P., Iwanowski, B., and

lation period. Buchner, B. (2005). “A volume-of-fluid based simulation method for

wave impact problems.” J. Comput. Phys., 206(1), 363–393.

Küçükarslan, S. (2005). “An exact truncation boundary condition for

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