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DESIGN METHOD In order to resolve interaction effects or other multi-variable relationships. the data must be orthogonal" so that there cannot be any hidden correlations ‘among the independent variables being studied (Miller, 1986). To ensure this, the variable levels are first coded to convert the high-low levels to the values “1, +1. A coded value of O corresponds to the intermediate of the extremes. To illustrate, suppose feed % solids high-low values were 10% and 40%. 35 owe 1 Pctoril Denon atric ‘This would then be coded by subtracting the average, 25%, from both and then dividing the result by 15. Each variable would be coded similarly. The coded data is then combined into a table of all combinations of the variable levels. If orthogonal, then both the coded sums, and the coded product (interaction) sums willbe zero. Tables for various situations are presented in the literature (for example, Davies, 1963). The 2° case (3 variables at 2 levels, giving a first order model with linear interaction effects) is presented below for completeness. Foe 3 variables at to Levee this option that all the 36 rain effete |Z order interaction | 2 oc (Once the required number of runs are completed and the response measurec the main effect of each variable, x, is determined by: [Dlresponser at hgh x) ~ Elresponses at lw 2} Monte of Rane The variance (o? or \$*) of individual observations are determined by repeated runs of each test point. To determine if the effect is significant, an interval at the confidence level determined by t. ‘Should the range: Xinae wim * Interval; include zero, the effect of ihe variable (%) is considered insignificant. This implies that a number of test sets, each repeating all the trials, must be performed for the factorial design significance tests. To determine which interactions should be considered, these same tests are applied to the products of those variables that have significant effects. Further details and statistics of full factorial experimental design can be found 7 in the papers prepared by Box and Hunter (1961), Murphy (1977) and Mular et ‘al (1991), the latter being applied to 2 flotation system. dependence of the number of experiments on the ‘number of variables, factorial design often requires that a large number of tests be performed. In general, this should only be applied to discover more about the variables, their effects on the chosen response, and their interactions. The factorial design technique may also be used to determine the matrix for a grid search. This is suitable for gathering data with which to regress a model of the qual’ response contours (Mular & Due to the exponenti response function or to calculate plots of “ Klimpet, 1991). ‘A factorial design is not usually applied 10 generate a response function (process model). Instead, this technique is used to determine which variables are important and to assess the extent ot In a process about which little is known (Miller, 1986). PARTIAL (Fractional) FACTORIAL DESIGN In design experiments with continuous variables and a response that varies ‘smoothly, the higher order terms of multifactor interaction effects are often factorial design can be negligible. In thasa cases, the matrix of the simplified to a 2°* fractional factorial, using a smaller number of runs, that ‘exclude the possibilty of certain interactions small enough to be ignored. The ‘extreme case exists where the response gives the significance of individual variables (linear effects), while ignoring all interactions between them. These tests would thus detect the main effects (a linear response) within the chosen range. This experimental design is particularly useful if certain variables are known to exhibit no interaction, in which case there is litte point in looking at high and low values when a single point will provide the same information (Box & Hunter, 1961). Thus @ partial factorial design is a fractional 2° design reduced to.n + 1 experiments (Murphy, 1977) Pre n= mater of varlaben, and p= mer of variables not varied bt inated ues eects are ‘alelated tro combinations of interacting.