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System Administration & Network Services 1

Networking Fundamental
Part-2
Pendahuluan
• Secara harfiah, jaringan komputer merupakan kumpulan dua atau
lebih komputer yang saling terhubung satu sama lain,hal ini
disebabkan oleh adanya media transmisi kabel ataupun non kabel
maupun perangkat pendukung yang saling terhubung, sehingga
komputer bisa membentuk suatu jaringan.
• Untuk membangun sebuah jaringan komputer, tentu saja ada
banyak hal yang harus diperhatikan, salah satunya adalah faktor
hardware atau perangkat jaringan komputer termasuk server.
• Hardware atau perangkat keras merupakan elemen yang sangat
vital dalam pembentukan jaringan komputer. Apabila kekurangan
satu elemen hardware saja, maka dapat dipastikan suatu jaringan
tidak akan dapat berjalan dengan sempurna.
Jaringan Komputer??
Jaringan Komputer (1)
Jaringan Komputer (2)
Model Infrastruktur Jaringan

Infrastruktur jaringan komputer memiliki model dan


variasi yang beragam dalam hal:
• Berdasarkan cakupan luas area.
• Berdasarkan jumlah client atau host yang terhubung.
• Berdasarkan tipe dari layanan yang tersedia.
Topologi Jaringan

• Suatu cara atau konsep untuk menghubungkan


beberapa atau banyak komputer sekaligus menjadi
suatu jaringan yang saling terkoneksi.
• Setiap macam topologi jaringan komputer akan
berbeda dari segi kecepatan pengiriman data, biaya
pembuatan, serta kemudahan dalam proses
maintenance nya.
• Dari setiap jenis topologi jaringan komputer, memiliki
kelebihan serta kekurangannya masing-masing.
Model Topologi Jaringan???

Ingat Kembali Model Topologi Jaringan beserta


Keunggulan dan Kekurangannya??
Komponen Pada Sistem Jaringan
Hardware Jaringan Komputer

• Server • Medium
• Client atau Workstation • Kabel (UTP, STP,
• Hub Coaxcial, Fiber)
• Switch • Gelombang
• Bridge • Konektor
• Repeater • RJ45
• Router • RJ11
• Acces Point • BNC
• NIC • ST
• Modem • Dst..
Perangkat Mana Yang Harus Digunakan??

• Ketika akan menggunakan perangkat-perangkat jaringan


komputer baik model wire maupun wireless, harus
disesuaikan terlebih dahulu dengan model jaringan
komputer yang akan diimplementasikan, karna ada banyak
model dan jenis perangkat jaringan yang tersedia di
pasaran dan dengan model, feature dan harga yg berbeda.
• Apakah model jaringan peer to peer, LAN, MAN atau WAN.?
• Karena setiap model jaringan yang akan diimplementasikan
akan membutuhkan jenis, fungsi dan model perangkat yang
tentunya akan berbeda pula.
Contoh Kasus;

Perhatikan ilustrasi gambar


disamping, jika ingin dibuat
model jaringan komputer
pada area tersebut, model
jaringan seperti apa yang
akan dibuat dan perangkat
apa saja yang dibutuhkan,
dengan kondisi ruangan
tersebut? Butuh Server atau
Tidak?
Protokol
• Protokol Merupakan bahasa dan tata cara
bahasa yang digunakan untuk berkomunikasi
dan setiap bahasa tentunya mempunyai tata
cara yang berbeda antara yang satu dengan
yang lainnya
• Protokol Aturan agar antar host dapat saling
berkomunikasi.
OSI Aku Pengen Selingkuh Tapi
Nanti Ditinggal Pacar
• Model referensi jaringan terbuka
OSI atau OSI Reference Model for
open networking adalah sebuah
model arsitektural jaringan yang
dikembangkan oleh badan
International Organization for
Standardization (ISO) di Eropa pada
tahun 1977. OSI sendiri merupakan
singkatan dari Open System
Interconnection.
• Model ini disebut juga dengan
model "Model tujuh lapis OSI" (OSI
seven layer model).
OSI dan Perangkat
Tahapan Pengiriman Dan Penerimaan Packet Data
Proses Pengiriman Packet Data

1. Enkapsulasi  From Layer 7 to Layer 1


2. Dekapsulasi  From Layer 1 to Layer 7
Protokol TCP/IP
Perbandingan Model OSI dan TCP/IP
Pengalamatan IP

• Addressing is a key function of Network layer protocols


that enables data communication between hosts on the
same network or on different networks.
• Designing, implementing and managing an effective
IPv4 addressing plan ensures that our networks can
operate effectively and efficiently.
• IPv4
• IPv6
Pengalmatan IP…Lanjt,

• Alamat IP versi 4 (sering disebut dengan Alamat IPv4) adalah


sebuah jenis pengalamatan jaringan yang digunakan di dalam
protokol jaringan TCP/IP yang menggunakan protokol IP versi 4.
• Panjang totalnya adalah 32-bit, dan secara teoritis dapat
mengalamati hingga 4 miliar host komputer atau lebih tepatnya
4.294.967.296 host di seluruh dunia, jumlah host tersebut
didapatkan dari 256 (didapatkan dari 8 bit) dipangkat 4(karena
terdapat 4 oktet) sehingga nilai maksimal dari alamt IP versi 4
tersebut adalah 255.255.255.255 dimana nilai dihitung dari nol
sehingga nilai nilai host yang dapat ditampung adalah
256x256x256x256=4.294.967.296 host, bila host yang ada di
seluruh dunia melebihi kuota tersebut maka dibuatlah IP versi 6
atau IPv6. Contoh alamat IP versi 4 adalah 192.168.0.3.
Anatomi IPv4

1. Dotted Decimal Addres


2. 32-Bit Address
3. Octet
4. Network Portion
5. Host Portion
Dotted Decimal Addres

32 Bit Addres

Octet

Network Portion

Host Portion
Sekilas IPv6

• Alamat IP versi 6 (sering disebut sebagai alamat IPv6)


adalah sebuah jenis pengalamatan jaringan yang
digunakan di dalam protokol jaringan TCP/IP yang
menggunakan protokol Internet versi 6.
• Panjang totalnya adalah 128-bit, dan secara teoritis dapat
mengalamati hingga 2128=3,4 x 1038 host komputer di
seluruh dunia. Contoh alamat IPv6 adalah
21da:00d3:0000:2f3b:02aa:00ff:fe28:9c5a.
Format Alamat IPv6
How does the Internet Look Like?

28
How does the Internet Look Like?
Perencanaan Sistem Jaringan

• Identify the basic network media required to make a LAN


connection.
• Identify the types of connections for intermediate and end device
connections in a LAN.
• Identify the pinout configurations for straight-through and
crossover cables.
• Identify the different cabling types, standards, and ports used for
WAN connections.
• Define the role of device management connections when using
equipment.
• Design an addressing scheme for an internetwork and assign
ranges for hosts, network devices, and the router interface.
Tips; Device Selection Factor

• To meet user requirements, a LAN needs


to be planned and designed. Planning
ensures that all requirements, cost
factors and deployment options are
given due consideration.
• When selecting a device for a particular
LAN, there are a number of factors that
need to be considered. These factors
include, but are not limited to:
– Cost
– Speed and Types of Ports/Interfaces
– Expandability
– Manageability
– Additional Features and Services
Factors to Consider in Choosing a Router

• When selecting a router, we


need to match the
characteristics of the router to
its purpose. Similar to the
switch, cost and interface types
and speeds must be
considered as well. Additional
factors for choosing a router
include:
– Expandability
– Media
– Operating System Features
LAN and WAN-Getting Connected
• When planning the
installation of LAN cabling,
there are four physical areas
to consider:
– Work area
– Telecommunications room,
also known as the distribution
facility
– Backbone cabling, also known
as vertical cabling
– Distribution cabling, also
known as horizontal cabling
Types of Media

• Choosing the cables necessary to


make a successful LAN or WAN
connection requires consideration
of the different media types. As you
recall, there are many different
Physical layer implementations that
support multiple media types:
– UTP (Category 5, 5e, 6, and 7)
– Fiber-optics
– Wireless
Cable Length
• The total length of cable required to
connect a device includes all cables from
the end devices in the work area to the
intermediary device in the
telecommunication room (usually a
switch).
• Attenuation is reduction of the strength of
a signal as it moves down a media. The
longer the media, the more attenuation
will affect the signal. At some point, the
signal will not be detectable.
• For example, when using UTP cabling for
Ethernet, the horizontal (or fixed) cabling
length needs to stay within the
recommended maximum distance of 90
meters to avoid attenuation of the signal.
Fiber-optic cables may provide a greater
cabling distance-up to 500 meters to a
few kilometers depending on the
technology.
Ease of Installation
• The ease of cable installation varies
according to cable types and building
architecture. Access to floor or roof spaces,
and the physical size and properties of the
cable influence how easily a cable can be
installed in various buildings.
• UTP cable is relatively lightweight and
flexible and has a small diameter, which
allows it to fit into small spaces. The
connectors, RJ-45 plugs, are relatively easy
to install and are a standard for all Ethernet
devices.
• Many fiber-optic cables contain a thin glass
fiber. This creates issues for the bend
radius of the cable. Crimps or sharp bends
can break the fiber. The termination of the
cable connectors (ST, SC, MT-RJ) are
significantly more difficult to install and
require special equipment.
Making LAN Connection
• UTP cabling connections are
specified by the Electronics
Industry
Alliance/Telecommunications
Industry Association (EIA/TIA).
• The RJ-45 connector is the male
component crimped on the end of
the cable. When viewed from the
front, the pins are numbered from 8
to 1.
• When viewed from above with the
opening gate facing you, the pins
are numbered 1 through 8, from left
to right. This orientation is important
to remember when identifying a
cable.
Making LAN & WAN Connection
• By definition, WAN links can
span extremely long distances.
These distances can range
across the globe as they
provide the communication
links that we use to manage e-
mail accounts, view web pages,
or conduct a teleconference
session with a client.
– Wide area connections between
networks take a number of forms,
including:
– Telephone line RJ11 connectors
for dialup or Digital Subscriber
Line (DSL) connections
– 60 pin Serial connections
How Many Host in The Network
• To develop an addressing scheme for a
network, start with determining the total number
of hosts. Consider every device that will require
an IP address, now and in the future.
• The end devices requiring an IP address
include:
– User computers
– Administrator computers
– Servers
– Other end devices such as printers, IP phones, and IP
cameras
• Network devices requiring an IP address
include:
– Router LAN interfaces
– Router WAN (serial) interfaces
• Network devices requiring an IP address for
management include:
– Switches
– Wireless Access Points
How Many Network?
• There are many reasons to divide a network into
subnets:
– Manage Broadcast Traffic - Broadcasts can be
controlled because one large broadcast
domain is divided into a number of smaller
domains.
– Different Network Requirements - If different
groups of users require specific network or
computing facilities, it is easier to manage these
requirements if those users who share
requirements are all together on one subnet.
– Security - Different levels of network security
can be implemented based on network
addresses.

• Counting the Subnets


– Each subnet, as a physical network segment,
requires a router interface as the gateway for
that subnet.
– In addition, each connection between routers is
a separate subnet.
Study Case;

Terdiri dari;
• 9 buah PC Client
(dosen),
• 14 buah lab Komputer
• 1 buah Server (Server
Jurusan),
• printer, dan
• modem
Rancang dan Desain
Skema Jaringan berikut
secara logik dan secara
Fisik, sesuai dengan
kondisi dan
kebutuhannya termasuk
SERVER yang akan
digunakan??
Kesimpulan: Why SERVER??

We Need System Administration &


Network Service to Serve and
Secure Service!!!