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THERMODYNAMICS 19-Oct-18 1

PRINSIP KEKEKALAN (“KONSERVASI”)


ENERGI.
Energi tidak dapat diciptakan atau dimusnahkan, tapi hanya
dapat berubah dari bentuk yang satu ke bentuk yang lain.

HUKUM I PADA SISTEM TERTUTUP


Selama proses interaksi antara sebuah sistem dan
lingkungannya, jumlah energi yang diterima oleh sistem harus
sama dengan jumlah energi yang dilepas oleh lingkungan.

Energi yang menembus batas sistem :


1. Bentuk Kalor (Heat), Q
2. Bentuk Kerja (work), W

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KALOR (HEAT)
- Bentuk energi yang berpindah dari satu sistem ke sistem
yang lain (atau dari sistem ke lingkungannya) disebabkan
oleh adanya perbedaan temperatur, T.

HEAT OUT / REJECTION , ( - )


HOT
COLD
BODY
BODY

SYSTEM Q
HEAT, Q

HEAT IN / ADDITION , ( + )

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Proses yang tidak melibatkan perpindahan
kalor (no heat transfer), bisa terjadi bila : Adiabatic
system
1. Batas sistem terisolasi baik (terisolasi
sempurna) Q=0
2. Sistem dan lingkungannya bertemperatur
sama ( T = 0)
insulation
Satuan kalor  kJ ( Btu )

Transfer kalor persatuan massa sistem : kJ/kg Q


2
Jumlah kalor yang ditransfer persatuan waktu : kJ/s = kW

Jumlah kalor yang ditransfer selama proses dari


1
keadaan 1 ke keadaan 2 didefinisikan sebagai :
Q12 atau Q 2
Q12   Q dt
1 t1 t2 t

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KERJA (WORK), W
Interaksi energi antara sistem dan
lingkungannya yang diakibatkan bukan WORK OUT, ( + )
karena adanya perbedaan temperatur
SYSTEM WORK, W

WORK IN, ( - )

Satuan Kerja, W  kJ ( Btu )

Kerja persatuan massa sistem, w : kJ/kg 1


Kerja persatuan waktu disebut Daya (P) : kJ/s = kW

Kerja yang dilakukan selama proses dari keadaan


1 ke keadaan 2 didefinisikan sebagai : W12 atau W
2 2
W12   W
1

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F 2
W   Fds
F

1
s

1. Moving boundary work


 Associated with the expansion or
F
2
Wb   W
compression of a gas in a piston-cylinder
1
device

ds W = F ds
F = PA 2
Wb   PdV
1

W = PA ds
P
W = P dV

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P
1
Wb  PdV 2
Wb   W
P 1
2

2
V
Wb   PdV
V1 dV V2 1

Ditunjukkan oleh luasan


P
daerah 1-2-V2-V1-1

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2
Persamaan integral 
1
PdV

Untuk gas riil, hubungan P dan V dapat dinyatakan


dalam persamaan : Proses politropik
n : exponen politropik
PVn = C n = 1  proses isotermis ( T konstan)
n = 0  proses isobarik ( P konstan)
n = ∞ proses isohorik ( V konstan)

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THERMODYNAMICS 19-Oct-18 10
HUKUM TERMODINAMIKA I
Dalam sistem tertutup, jika tidak ada
interaksi kerja antara sistem dengan
Qout lingkungannya, maka perpindahan kalor
∆E = Qnet netto sama dengan perubahan energi
sistem tersebut
Qin
Q = ∆E jika W=0

THERMODYNAMICS 19-Oct-18 11
HUKUM TERMODINAMIKA I
Dalam sistem tertutup, jika proses
berlangsung adiabatik (tidak melibatkan
W perpindahan kalor antara sistem dan
lingkungannya) maka besarnya kerja

yang dilakukan sama dengan perubahan


energi sistem tersebut

insulation -W = ∆E jika Q=0

THERMODYNAMICS 19-Oct-18 12
DEFINISI UMUM HUKUM TERMODINAMIKA I

Net energy Net increase (or


transfer to (or decrease) in the
from) the system
= total energy of
WOUT as heat and work the system

Qout Q – W = ∆E
∆E

Qin Q : Perpindahan kalor netto


Q = Σ Qin + Σ Qout
Win W : Kerja netto yang dilakukan
W = Σ Win + Σ Wout

Perubahan energi total sistem : ∆E = ∆U + ∆KE + ∆PE

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The energy change of a system during a process is equal to
the net work and heat transfer between the system and its
surroundings.

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Q – W = ∆U + ∆KE + ∆PE
Untuk sistem tertutup yang diam
( Stationary closed system), Q – W = ∆U
perubahan energi kinetik dan
energi potensial diabaikan

∆U dapat dihitung dengan


menggunakan tabel, bila keadaan
awal dan akhir proses diketahui

P Untuk proses melingkar,


keadaan awal dan akhir proses
sama, maka ∆E = 0, sehingga

Q–W =0
V Perpindahan kalor netto = kerja
netto yang dilakukan selama proses

THERMODYNAMICS 19-Oct-18 15
A rigid tank contains a hot fluid that is
cooled while being stirred by a
paddle wheel. Initially, the internal
energy of the fluid is 800 kJ. During
the cooling process, the fluid loses
500 kJ of heat, and the paddle wheel
does 100 kJ of work on the fluid.
Determine the final internal energy of
the fluid.
Neglect the energy stored in the
paddle wheel.

Assumptions 1 The tank is stationary and thus the kinetic and


potential energy changes are zero, KE PE 0. Therefore, E U
and internal energy is the only form of the system’s energy that
may change during this process. 2 Energy stored in the paddle
wheel is negligible.

THERMODYNAMICS 19-Oct-18 16
The specific heat is defined as the energy required to raise the
temperature of a unit mass of a substance by one degree

In general, this energy depends on how the process is executed.


two kinds of specific heats: specific heat at constant volume cv
and specific heat at constant pressure cp.

Q
c Q  cmT 
mT
c = Q bila m = 1 kg dan ∆T = 1 oC

Kalor jenis pada volume konstan, cv


Kalor jenis pada tekanan konstan, cp cp > c v

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insulation T
Heat, Q
added
m m

Heat is added to a substance of mass m in a fixed volume


enclosure, which causes a change in internal energy, U.
Thus,
Q = U2 - U1 = U = m cv T

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Specific heat at constant pressure cp
can be viewed as the energy required to raise the temperature
of the unit mass of a substance by one degree as the pressure
is maintained constant.
x
T
Heat, Q
m added
m

Heat is added to a substance of mass m held at a fixed


pressure (P), which causes a change in internal energy, U,
AND some work, where: W = P ∆V

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Q = ∆U + P ∆V = m cp ∆ T

Note:
H, enthalpy. is defined as U + PV,
so dH = d(U+PV) = dU + VdP + PdV
At constant pressure, dP = 0, so dH= dU + PdV
For large changes at constant pressure
∆H = ∆U + P ∆V

Q = ∆H = m cp ∆ T

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The specific heat at constant pressure cp is always greater than cv
because at constant pressure the system is allowed to expand and the
energy for this expansion work must also be supplied to the system.

c p > cv

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the change in internal energy with temperature at
constant volume

 u 
cv    kJ/kg.K
 T  v

the change in enthalpy with temperature at constant


pressure

 h 
cp    kJ/kg.K
 T  P

THERMODYNAMICS 19-Oct-18 22
Pv  RT
(Joule, 1843) that for an ideal gas the internal energy is a
function of the temperature only,

u  u (T )

Since R is constant and u u(T), it follows that the enthalpy of an


ideal gas is also a function of temperature only:
h  h(T )
THERMODYNAMICS 19-Oct-18 23
For ideal gases, u, h, cv, and cp vary with temperature only.

the differential changes in the internal energy and enthalpy of an


ideal gas can be expressed as

The change in internal energy or enthalpy for an ideal gas during


a process from state 1 to state 2

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Specific heat ratio k,

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A substance whose specific volume (or density) is constant is called
an incompressible substance. The specific volumes of solids and
liquids essentially remain constant during a process

Liquids and solids can be approximated as incompressible substances

the constant-volume and


constant- pressure specific
heats are identical for
incompressible substances

Internal Energy Changes

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Using the definition of enthalpy h = u Pv and noting that v constant,
the differential form of the enthalpy change of incompressible substances

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