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# A.

## Magnesium with Hydrochloric acid

1. 1.0-1.1g of magnesium powder was weighed. The exact weight used was recorded.
2. 50cm3 of 2M HCl was drained from a burette into the calorimeter. The cover and
thermometer was replaced. The temperature of the HCl was recorded every minutes
for four minutes. The magnesium powder was poured immediately into the HCl at
the fifth minute. The lid was replaced and the contents in the calorimeter was
carefully stirred with the thermometer. The temperature was recorded for the next
three minutes at 15 seconds interval.

## B. Reaction 3: Magnesium Oxide with Hydrochloric acid

1. Between 1.6-1.8g of magnesium oxide was weighed. The exact weight used was
recorded.
2. Step 2 in B were repeated.

## C. Reaction 4: Hydrogen gas with Oxygen gas

1. For safety reasons, this value will not be experimentally determined in the
laboratory. It has been professionally determined and verified and the value is listed
in standard reference sources. The value in kilojoules per mole (kJ/mol) has been
found.

Questions

## 1. A) Which of the two calorimeters has a higher heat capacity?

- Coffee cup calorimeter has the higher heat capacity compared to copper
calorimeter.

B) What conclusion can you make regarding the relationship of heat capacity of
calorimeter with temperature change of the reaction?
- The higher the heat capacity the less the temperature of the solution fluctuate.

2. For the following problems assume that the volume of the final solution is 200cm3
the density of the solution is 1.00 mL-1 and the specific heat capacity of the solution
is the same as water (4.184 Jg-1°C).

## a) When 0.800 g of Ca metal is added to 200cm of 0.500 M HCl (aq) accordine to

the method in procedure B, a temperature increase 13°C is observed. What is ∆Hrxn
at room temperature for reaction of Ca (s) + 2H+ (aq)?

qrxn = -qsol
= -CM∆T
= -(4.184 Jg-1°C)(0.28)(13)
= -15.22 kJ
Find limiting reactant
0.54
HCl = × 0.2L = 0.1 mol
1L
0.800
Ca =
40.078
= 0.01 mol
∆H = -qrxn
−15.22 kJ
=
0.01 mol
= 1522 kJ
b) When 1.12g of CaO is added to 200cm3 of 0.500 M HCl (aq) according to the
method described in procedure B, a temperature increase of 4.62°C is observed.
What is ∆Hrxn at room temperature for the reaction of CaO (s) + 2H+ ?
qrxn = -(4.184 Jg-1°C)(0.201)(4.62)
= -3.896 kJ
Find limiting reactant
0.5
HCl = × 0.2L = 0.1 mol
1L
1.12g
CaO =
56.0774 g/mol
= 0.02 mol
∆H = -qrxn
−3.896 kJ
=
0.02 mol
= 0.194 x 10-3 kJ/mol

3. A student carelessly inserts the thermometer while assembling the coffee cup
calorimeter and a large hole is torn in the plastic lid. How will this affect his
experimental results?
- The coffee cup ability to retain heat will be compromise,hence heat will escape
from the cup and will affect the reading.

## Results and discussion

3. Calculate the heat capacity of both calorimeter. Compare the values and explain whether you
would expect to get the same or different temperature change (∆T).

## qhot = Mn C (Tn – Tf) qhot = Mn C (Tn – Tf)

= (50)(4.18J)(77-49°C) = (50)(4.18J)(62-42.5°C)

= 5852 J = 4075.5 J

## qcold = Mn C (Tn – Tf) qcold = Mn C (Tf – Tc)

= (50)(4.18J)(49-30°C) = (50)(4.18J)(42.5-28°C)

= 3971 J = 3030.5 J

## = 5852 J – 3971 J = 4075.5 J – 3030.5 J

= 1881 J = 1045 J

## 1045 J / 14.5 °C = Ccal

73.07 J = Ccal

4. Calculate the heats of reaction for reaction 2 and 3 in kJmol-1 . you will nead to find out the
moles of reactants involved in the reactions.

Mg & HCl

qrxn = qsol

= cM∆T

## = (4.184 J g-1 c-1)(61.09g)(19°c)

= 4856.41 J @ 4.856 kJ

Mg + 2HCl MgCl2 + H2
2mol
Moles of Mg = × 0.05L
1L
= 0.1 mol
1.0900g
Moles of HCl =
36.46g/mol

= 0.03 mol

## The limiting reactant is HCl.

∆Hrxn = -qrxn
−4.856 kJ
=
0.03 mol

= -161.84 kJ mol-1

5. Show how chemical equation 2, 3 and 4 can be added to produce chemical equation 1 (refer
to equations under introduction on page 2)

## Mg (s) + ½ O2 (g) MgO (s)

6. Show how the heat of reaction (kJmol-1) for reactions 2, 3, and 4 can be yield the heat of
reaction for reaction 1

Copper calorimeter:

## Mg (s) + 2HCl (aq) MgCl2 (aq) + H2 (g) ∆H =-657.9 kJmol-1

MgCl2 (aq) + H2O (aq) MgO (s) + 2HCl (l) ∆H =+174.075 kJmol-1

## 7. Expected result = -601.7 kJmol-1

Obtained result = -174.075 kJmol-1
= -427.625 kJmol-1
−427.625 kJmol−1
Percentage of error = × 100%
−601.7 kJmol−1
= 71%
This error is maybe due to human error and the calorimeter should minimize the rate of heat
loses to the surrounding.