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1.

INTRODUCTION
Exponential savings in the performance of digital circuits due to parameter scaling have
disappeared. Alternative technologies, such as threshold logic gates (TLGs), among others, can
extend parallel processing capabilities. A TLG is an N-input device that calculates the weighted
sum of inputs. Current mode, mono stable–bi stable transition logic element, neuron MOS, and
single electron technology are a few examples for the design of TLGs, Some of these
methodologies are CMOS-based and the synthesis of efficient TLG-based circuits becomes
feasible
Threshold logic gates (TLG) are an attractive alternative for implementing digital
circuits. Methodologies for implementation of circuits using TLG become available and thus the
synthesis of efficient TLG based circuits becomes feasible. An existing issue is to optimize the
performance of a TLG gate by selecting appropriate transistor sizes. An alternative to time
consuming exhaustive SPICE simulations is presented and evaluated. It is based on an analytical
method capable of providing near optimum sensor sizes for the circuit implementing the TLG. It
is also capable of providing the expected gate delay without time consuming simulation steps;
thus improving the performance of TLG based synthesis methodologies. It is expected that the
exponential savings in performance of digital circuits due to parameter scaling will evaporate
soon [4-8]. Alternative technologies, such as multiple valued logic, threshold logic gates, and
others, can extend parallel processing capabilities [4-8].
Monostable–Bistable Transition Logic Element (MOBILE), neuron MOS, single electron
technology are few examples of threshold logic gate implementations [6, 9, 10, 13]. A Threshold
Logic Gate (TLG) is a N-input device which calculates the weighted sum of inputs [3]. A basic
TLG consists of N-inputs, a weight value for each input, and a threshold weight. The sum of the
input weights is compared with the threshold weight. If it is greater than the threshold weight,
then the digital output of TLG is logic high, and if it is less it will be logic zero [3]. In the
CMOS-based implementation considered in this paper, when the sum of the input weights is
equal to the threshold weight, then the gate is in undefined state. Weights are selected so that this
case is avoided.

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The equation representing output of a TLG is given as

Where wi is the weight of the ith input, xi is the input applied to the ith input, and wT is the
threshold weight for the function f of a TLG. The input weights can be either positive or negative
but the threshold weight is always positive. In this paper, an N-input function with P positive
weights is denoted as {w1, . . . , wP : wT , wP+1, . . . , wN }.

Example 1: Consider a function f = x1 + x2 + x3 with weight configuration (w1, w2, w3 : wT ),


where w1, w2, and w3 correspond to the weights of the inputs x1, x2, and x3, respectively, and wT
is the threshold weight. A possible weight configuration is {w1, w2, w3 : wT } = {4, 4, 4 : 3},
where all the input weights are positive. When applying the input pattern {x1, x2, x3} = {0, 0, 1},
the weighted sum of inputs is 4 · 0 + 4 · 0 + 4 · 1 > 3, and, according to (1), f = 1. See also
Fig.11. Function f is denoted as {4, 4, 4: 3}.

Fig 1.1 output functionality of a TLG for a given weight configuration and input pattern
This system considers implementations of threshold logic functions using current mode.
This is a popular CMOS-based approach. All current mode implementation methods considered
in this paper consist of two parts: the differential part and the sensor part. The number of
transistors in the sensor part is constant and does not depend on the implemented function. The
number of transistors in the differential part depends on the sum of input weights and the
threshold weight.

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There exist two approaches for implementing current mode TLGs: the current mode TLG
(CMTLG) [1] and the Differential current mode logic (DCML)[11].Section II reviews these two
approaches.
Section III presents a new implementation, which we call the dual clock current mode
logic (DCCML), which results in both speed and switching energy [power-delay product
(PDP)] improvements over the approaches in [1] and [11]. They consist of two parts: the
differential part and the sensor part. All the PMOS transistors in the sensor part have the same
size S, which we call the sensor size. The sensor size impacts the performance of all the three
current mode implementations for any threshold logic function. It is a very time-consuming
task to obtain the optimum sensor size through iterative SPICE simulations, one simulation for
a different sensor size.
Section IV presents the second contribution of this paper, which is an analytical
approach to determine quickly and accurately the appropriate sensor size S for a given function
under any existing current mode approach, such as those in [1] and [11] and the proposed
implementation in Section III. Section V presents simulation results that demonstrate the
accuracy of the optimum sensor identification method in Section IV. It also presents results that
show that the current mode approach in Section III consistently outperforms those in [1] and
[11] on delay as well as switching energy. Finally, Section VI concludes.

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2. LITERATURE SURVEY

Logic optimization and timing estimations are basic tasks for digital circuit designers.
The logical effort (LE) method was first presented by Sutherland, for easy and fast evaluation
and optimization of delay in CMOS logic paths. Because of its elegance, the LE method has
become a very popular tool for designing and education purposes and is adopted to be the basis
for several computer-aided-design tools. Although LE is mainly used for standard CMOS logic,
it is also shown to be useful for other logic families, such as the pass transistor logic achieve very
low power dissipation, with some degradation in performance, as compared with standard
CMOS. we proposed the novel dual mode logic (DML), which provides the designer with a very
high level of flexibility. It allows on-the-fly switching between two modes of operation: 1) static
and 2) dynamic modes. In the static mode, DML other hand, dynamic operation of DML gates
achieves very high speed at the expense of increased power dissipation. Basic DML gate is
composed of any static logic family gate, which can be a conventional CMOS gate, and an
additional transistor. DML gates have a very simple and intuitive structure, requiring
unconventional sizing methodology to achieve the desired performance. Conventional
methodology cannot be used with the DML family as it does not consider its unconventional
sizing rules and topology.

The objective of this paper is to develop a simple method for minimizing delays and
achieving an optimized number of stages in logical paths containing CMOS-based DML gates. A
unified LE method is introduced for the delay evaluation and optimization of logic paths
constructed with DML logic gates. DML-LE answers complete design problems, which can be
solved numerically, and simplifies these problems to a straightforward and easy computational
problem [approximate and semi approximate (SA) solutions] with a unified analytic model. With
this model, we can estimate the minimum to maximum error under delay approximation and the
error in the target optimum number of stages for a given logic function. The efficiency of the
developed method is shown by a comparison of the theoretical results, achieved using the
proposed method with simulation results of the Cadence Virtuoso optimizer tool using a standard
40-nm technology. Cmtl and Dcml implementations of a threshold logic function MTLG is a
CMOS based implementation of TLG shown in Figure 3.1 [1]. The CMTLG can be divided into

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two parts, the differential part and the sensor part. The differential part can be subdivided into
two parts, the threshold part and the inputs part. In the threshold part and the input part all the
transistors are connected in parallel. The transistors in the threshold part are always ON and the
total current flowing through the threshold part is represented as Threshold current IT. The
number of PMOS active (ON) in the input part depends on the input pattern applied. The total
current passing through the input side for a particular input pattern is represented as the Active
Current IA. The nodes connecting the differential part and the sensor part on the input side and
the threshold side are M1 and M2, respectively and nodes O and OB are the output nodes

The nodes connecting the differential part and the sensor part on the input side and the
threshold side are M1 and M2. The sensor part has three PMOS transistors P1, P2, P3, and four
NMOS transistors N1, N2, N3, and N4 If the size of the sensor is S, then all the PMOS
transistors in the sensor part have S μm size and all the NMOS transistors in the sensor part have
a size smaller than S μm.

The operation of the CMTLG is divided into two phases [1]: the equalization phase and
the evaluation phase. These phases are explained with the help of Figs. 2 and 3. When the
applied clock (clk) to the CMTLG is high, then the circuit is in the equalization phase. When clk
is low, then the circuit is in the evaluation phase [1]. In the equalization phase, transistors N1 and
N2 are ON, nodes M1 and M2 have the same voltage because of transistor N1, and nodes O and
OB have the same voltage because of transistor N2. In the evaluation phase, transistors N1 and
N2 are OFF, and if the threshold current is less than the active current, then the voltage at node O
rises faster than that at node OB [1]. If during the evaluation phase the threshold current exceeds
the active current, then the voltage at node OB rises faster than that at node O [1].

This system derives an analytical formula for optimum sensor size which is used to
obtain the minimum delay for a given threshold and number of inputs. Then using the optimum
sensor sizing, the CMTLG is designed. The value of fan-in can go up to 150 (only by using the
appropriate sensor sizing) considering all the fan-in have minimum weights.

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1. IN “S. Bobba and I. N. Hajj, “Current-mode threshold logic gates,” in Proc.
IEEE ICCD, Sep. 2000, pp. 235–240”
In this paper, we present low-power and high-performance logic gates called the current-
mode threshold logic (CMTL) gates. Low-power dissipation is achieved by limiting the voltage
swing on the interconnects and the internal nodes of the CMTL gates. High-performance is
achieved by the use of transistor configurations that sense a small difference in current and set
the differential outputs to the correct values. The realization of NAND, NOR, AND, OR logic
gates and other logic functions using the CMTL gates is presented. We also present several
implementations of CMTL gates and describe the relative advantages and limitations of these
implementations. SPICE simulation, results for a 1.5 V 0.18 u CMOS technology are also
presented for the different circuit configurations described in the paper.
The design of circuits using different logic families results in circuits with different
performance and power dissipation. A description of the different logic families and their
strengths/ weaknesses can be found in [l]. The functionality of a logic gate in the non-clocked
logic families such as static CMOS, differential cascade voltage switch logic (DCVS) [2], pass-
gate logic, and clocked logic families such as single-rail domino, dual-rail domino, latched
domino structures [3-51 and clocked pass-gate logic is based on the the use of transistor as an
ON/ OFF switch. For certain input assignment, some transistors turn ON (or OFF) and it
connects (or disconnects) the output node of the logic gate to one of the supply rails (Vdd/ Gnd)
through the 0N (or OFF) transistors. In order to completely turn ON or turn OFF a transistor, the
voltage swing at the gate input of the transistor has to be from Gnd to Vdd or from Vdd to Gnd.
Since the input to some logic gate is also the output of some other logic gate, it implies that the
output nodes of logic gates must also make full voltage swings. The power dissipated by a circuit
is proportional to the square of the supply voltage. In order to the reduce the power dissipation,
the supply voltage can be reduced which results in a lower voltage swing. Lower supply voltage
also results in reduced drive strength and performance degradation for the logic gates. An
alternate approach is the design of logic gates in which the transistors are not required to
completely turn-ON/ OFF. In [6], the logic gates are operated in the sub-threshold region and the
transistors are not completely turned ON. But the slow operating speed of these logic gates limits
their application to low speed circuits. In this paper, we use low swing input voltages and impose
the design constraint that a transistor cannot be turned OFF.

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The functional dependence of the ON-transistor properties (transconductance) on the
input voltage needs to be used in the design of these logic gates. This requires a high-gain stage
that can sense the difference in the transconductance or the current driven through the transistors
to set the output to the correct values. This can be obtained by using the latched domino
structure. The latched domino structures [3-51 can provide high-performance by using the latch
structure as a senseamplifier. The differences between the existing work and the proposed work
are one or more of the following: Most latched domino circuits are used with differential NMOS
tree where only one of output nodes is pulled down through the differential NMOS tree. In the
proposed work, the logic circuitry is not differential and both sets of transistors are always ON.
In latched domino circuits, the NMOS logic circuit and the latch are connected to the output
nodes in parallel. This implies that there are multiple paths to charge or discharge the output
nodes. In our proposed work, the logic network appears on the path from Vdd to the output node.
By modulating the current that charges the output node, we set the output to the correct value.
This increases the sensitivity of the logic gate and provides it with the capability to sense small
difference in currents. In latched domino circuits, the logic network consists of NMOS
transistors with full input swings. In the proposed work, we use PMOS transistors in the logic
network with small voltage swings.

Fig 2.1 Circuit with CMTL gates

2. In “T. Ogawa, T. Hirose, T.Asai, and Y. Amemiya, “Threshold-logic devices


consisting of sub threshold CMOS circuits,” IEICE Trans. Fundam.
Electron., Commun. Comput. Sci., vol. E92-A, no. 2, pp. 436–442, 2009.”
A threshold-logic gate device consisting of sub-threshold MOSFET circuits is proposed.
The gate device performs threshold-logic operation, using the technique of current-mode

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addition and subtraction. Sample digital subsystems, i.e adders and morphological operation cells
based on threshold logic, are designed using the gate devices, and their operations are confirmed
by computer simulation. The device has a simple structure and operates at low power dissipation,
so it is suitable for constructing cell-based, parallel processing LSIs such as cellular-automaton
and neural-network LSIs.
3. IN “W. Prost et al., “Manufacturability and robust design of nanoelectronic
logic circuits based on resonant tunnelling diodes,” Int. J. Circuit Theory
Appl., vol. 28, no. 6, pp. 537–552, Nov./Dec. 2000.”
The manufacturability of logic circuits based on quantum tunneling devices, namely
double‐barrier resonant tunneling diodes (RTD), is studied in detail. The homogeneity and
reproducibility of III/V mesa technology‐based devices is experimentally evaluated and
interpreted using multiple I–V characteristic simulations. The experimental sensitivity of the
RTD I–V parameters on well and barrier thickness is compared with multiple I–V simulations.
With shrinking minimum feature size the fluctuations in the peak current can be directly
attributed to an RTD area variation caused by the increasing impact of lithography and etching
on lateral dimensions. These results prove that the III/V technology fulfils the requirements for a
large scale integration of RTD devices. A nano electronic circuit architecture based on an
improved MOBILE threshold logic gate is presented. Detailed SPICE simulations using the
experimental data show that clock and supply voltage fluctuations are tolerated up to ± 0.1 V at a
supply voltage of 0.7V. Very strong local peak voltage variations of 15 per cent in opposite
directions would be necessary to have a critical impact on to the circuit functionality. Smaller
deviations only affect the timing without degrading the reliability of the circuit. Consequently,
the design of a stable power supply and clocking scheme is more important for the overall circuit
performance than the small relative deviations of the RTD peak voltage.
4. In “S. Muroga, Threshold Logic and Its Applications. New York, NY, USA:
Wiley, 1971”
As an approach to clarifying the basic properties of threshold logic, the completely
monotonic function is investigated. Its testing procedure, functional form, etc., are discussed by
using a new concept, mutual monotonicity.

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5. In “S. Leshner, K. Berezowski, X. Yao, G. Chalivendra, S. Patel, and S.
Vrudhula, “A low power, high performance threshold logic-based standard
cell multiplier in 65 nm CMOS,” in Proc. IEEE Comput. Soc. Annu. Symp.
VLSI, Lixouri, Greece, Jul. 2010, pp. 210–215”
In this paper we describe the design, simulation, fabrication, and test of a 32-bit 2's
complement integer multiplier constructed from a combination of CMOS standard cells and
threshold logic elements in a 65 nm low power process. As compared to a multiplier designed
solely using CMOS standard cells, the threshold logic based multiplier is 1.23x smaller and
consumes 1.41x less dynamic power and 2.5x less leakage power at the same process corner.
Increasing demand for greater functionality, faster response and longer battery life in embedded
mobile applications continues to aggressively push for higher performance and lower power.
Meanwhile, the competitive marketplace is forcing greater flexibility, reduced costs, and faster
time-to-market, making a broad use of standard cell-based design automation inevitable. As
such, automated design tools have become extremely sophisticated, capable of addressing low
power design in a variety of ways.
Consequently, continuing to push the boundaries of power efficiency in semi-custom ICs
requires a lateral shift in the value delivered by underlying standard cells. In this work, we
address this challenge through a design technique that utilizes a clocked logic style that
implements threshold logic [5]. Threshold logic enables the compression of complex
computations into fewer transistors, providing improvements in area, speed, and/or power
consumption. Additionally, threshold logic gates can be constructed to be consistently reliable
under noisy and inconsistent operating conditions, and as such retain compatibility with standard
cell design flows. The prototypical circuit described in this work capitalizes on merging the
advantages of traditional static CMOS logic and the clocked threshold logic, yielding substantial
reductions in power consumption for high performance embedded applications.

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Fig 2.2 absorption of the function a(b(c+d+e) + c(d+e) + de) + bcde into
a single threshold gate with inputs {a, b, c, d, e}, weights {2, 1, 1, 1, 1}, and threshold 4

6. In “M.Sharad, D.Fan, and K.Roy. (2013). “Ultra-low energy, high


performance dynamic resistive threshold logic.”
We propose dynamic resistive threshold-logic (DRTL) design based on non-volatile
resistive memory. A threshold logic gate (TLG) performs summation of multiple inputs
multiplied by a fixed set of weights and compares the sum with a threshold. DRTL employs
resistive memory elements to implement the weights and the thresholds, while a compact
dynamic CMOS latch is used for the comparison operation. The resulting DRTL gate acts as a
low-power, configurable dynamic logic unit and can be used to build fully pipelined, high-
performance programmable computing blocks. Multiple stages in such a DRTL design can be
connected using energy-efficient low swing programmable interconnect networks based on
resistive switches. Owing to memory-based compact logic and interconnect design and high
speed dynamic-pipelined operation, DRTL can achieve more than two orders of magnitude
improvement in energy-delay product as compared to look-up table based CMOS FPGA.
In recent years several computing schemes have been explored based on nano-scale
programmable resistive elements, generally categorized under the term ‘memristor’ [1-3]. Of
special interest are those which are amenable to integration with state of the art CMOS
technology, like memristors based on Ag-Si filaments [2, 3] or spintronic memristors based on
domain-wall magnets and magnetic tunnel junctions [9, 10]. Such devices can be integrated into
metallic crossbars to obtain high density crossbar memory arrays. Some of these devices can
facilitate the design of multi-level, non-volatile memory [3, 4].

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The device-technologies for non-volatile resistive memory have led to possibilities of
implementing programmable computing hardware that combine logic with memory. One such
scheme is threshold logic [5-8]. It constitutes of summation of weighted inputs, followed by a
threshold operation , as given in eq.1 : Y=sign (∑Ini Wi +bi ) (1) Here, Ini , Wi and bi are the
inputs, weights and the thresholds respectively. While a memristor-array can be employed to
perform current-mode analog summation of input signals, the thresholding operation requires the
application of a comparator circuit. In recent proposal [5-7], such circuits have been designed
using analog CMOS units that can be complex in terms of area and in-efficient in terms of power
consumption. Such circuits based on analog amplifiers and current mirrors may suffer from
stringent mismatch constraints and hence may not be scalable. Recently, design of resistive
threshold logic gates (RTLG) based on Ag-Si memristor was demonstrated [8], where authors
employed a simple CMOS flip-flop as a comparator. However, such a scheme would require
application of large voltage and static current across the memristors in order to achieve enough
sensing margin, leading to large power consumption. In this work we propose the design of
dynamic resistive threshold logic using programmable resistive elements. Noting that threshold
logic synthesis with small fan-in TLGs require lower comparator resolution, we employ
compact, low-power and high speed dynamic CMOS latch for thresholding operation. Such
hybrid dynamic RTLGs can be pipelined to achieve high performance, thereby leading to
energy-efficient computation
Design of Dynamic Resistive Threshold logic Gate :
For the design of DRTL-gate (DRTLG) we exploit the fact that, threshold logic synthesis
using TLGs with small fan-in (2 to 3) need fewer levels in input weights as well as reduced
comparator resolution (minimum % difference between threshold and input-summation to be
detected) [11]. The set of weight levels needed for different fan-in restriction is depicted in fig.
1b, which shows that for a fan-in restriction of 2, only two weight-levels are required. The
number of levels in the threshold was found to be 4 in this case. Lower number of weight-levels
implies higher variation tolerance for weights and relaxed resolution constraint for the
comparison operation. For instance for ideal 2-level weights, a 2-input TLG requires a
comparator of only 25% resolution. The figure also shows that the increase in number of nodes
while reducing the fan-in restriction from 4 to 2 is only marginal. Hence, owing to the

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aforementioned advantages offered by lower fan-in restrictions, in this work we limit our
discussion on 2-input DRTLG.

Fig 2.3 (a) A threshold logic gate, (b) Change in number of TLG
required for a given logic block for different TLG restrictions

7. In “P. Celinski, J. F. López, S. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “Low power, high


speed, charge recycling CMOS threshold logic gate,” Electron. Lett., vol. 37,
no. 17, pp. 1067–1069, Aug. 2001.”
A new implementation of a threshold gate based on a capacitive input, charge recycling
differential sense amplifier latch is presented. Simulation results indicate that the proposed
structure has very low power dissipation and high operating speed, as well as robustness under
process, temperature and supply voltage variations, and is therefore highly suitable as an element
in digital integrated circuit design As the demand for higher performance, very large scale
integration processors with increased sophistication grows, continuing research is focused on
improving the performance, area efficiency, and functionality of the arithmetic and other units
contained therein. Low power dissipation has become a major issue demanded by the high
performance processor market to meet the high density requirements of advanced VLSI
processors. The import“ of low power is also evident in portable and aerospace applications, and
is related to issues of reliability, packaging, cooling and cost. Threshold logic (TL) was

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introduced over four decades ago, and over the years has promised much in terms of reduced
logic depth and gate count compared to traditional AND-OR-NOT (AON) logic-gate based
design. However, lack of efficient physical realizations has meant that TL has, until recently, had
little impact on VLSI. Efficient TL gate realizations have recently become available, and a
number of applications based on TL gates have demonstrated its ability to achieve high operating
speed and significantly reduced area [l]. Both static and dynamic TL gate implementations have
been devised. Purely static gates such as neuron-MOS suffer from limited Fan in [l], typically
less than 12 inputs. ln addition, some of the existing dynamic gates have relatively high static
power dissipation, and some require multiple clock phases [I, 21, introducing the drawbacks
associated with clock signal routing cost, clock skew and clock power dissipation. Although the
dynamic approach proposed in [3] dissipates no static power, it will be shown that its dynamic
power dissipation is comparable to the total power dissipation of other existing approaches. In
this Letter we propose a new realization for CMOS threshold gates which operates on a single
phase clock, is capable of high- speed operation, is suitable for high fan-in gate implementation
and has a very low overall power dissipation. Threshold logic: A threshold logic gate is
functionally similar to a hard limiting neuron. The gate takes n binary inputs XI, X,, ..., X, and
produces a single binary output Y. The weighted sum of the binary inputs is computed followed
by a thresholding operation. The Boolean function computed by such a gate is called a threshold
function and it is specified by the gate threshold T and the weights w,, w2, ..., where y is the
weight corresponding to the ith input variable 4. [4]. Any threshold function may be computed
with positive integral weights and a positive real threshold, and all Boolean functions can be
realised by a threshold gate network of depth at most two [4]. A TL gate can be programmed to
realise many distinct Boolean functions by adjusting the threshold T. For example, an n-input TL
gate with T = n will realise an n-input AND gate and by setting T = ni2, the gate computes a
majority function.

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Fig 2.4 Proposed CRTL gate structure

Charge recycling threshold logic (CRTL) Fig 2.4 shows the proposed circuit structure for
implementing a threshold gate with positive weights and threshold. It is based on the charge
recycling asynchronous sense differential logic (ASDL) developed by BaiSun. The main
element is the sense amplifier (cross-coupled transistors MlLM4) which generates output Y and
its complement K. Pre-charge and evaluate is specified by the dual enable clock signals E and its
complement E;. The inputs 4 are capacitively coupled onto the floating gate 9 of M5, and the
threshold is set by the gate voltage T of M6.. Weight values are thus realised by setting
capacitors C, to appropriate values. Typically, these capacitors are implemented between the
poly silicon 1 and pu1ysil:icon 2 layers, although alternatives, such as trench capacitors available
in DRAM processes, may obviously also be used. The ASDL comparator architecture from
which the proposed CRTL gate is derived implements high performance, energy efficient
operation by recycling charge which has already been drawn from the supply. The enable signal
E controls the pre-charge and activation of the sense circuit. Transistors M8 and M9 equalize the
outputs. The logic gate has two phases of operation, The evaluate phase and the equalize phase.
When E, is high the output voltages are equalized. When E is high, the outputs are disconnected
and the differential circuit (MSSM7) draws different current from equalized nodes Y and K.
The sense amplifier is activated after the delay of the enable inverters and amplifies the
difference in potential now present between Y and y, accelerating the transition. In this way the

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circuit structure evaluates it' the weighted sum of the inputs, $, is greater or less than the
threshold T, and a TL gate is realized. To ensure reliable operation, the gate layout must be
symmetrical to minimize the transistor mismatches and interconnects must be of similar length
and width to eliminate interconnect-related mismatch. The delay of the enable inverter needs to
be sufficiently large so that the output nodes have sufficient voltage difference at the start of
sensing.

Fig 2.5 Power dissipation against frequency


To evaluate and compare the performance of the proposed CRTL gate against other
CMOS TL gate implementations, a 20- input majority gate (T = 10, achieved by setting voltage
T = kbd/ 2), was designed in a 0.25 pm process. The 20-input majority function was also
implemented using clocked-neuron-MOS [l], CMOS capacitor coupling logic (CCCL) [2] and
the TL structure reported in [3] (LPTL). The unit capacitance value used in each implementation
was 5fF. To compare the power dissipation, each of the gates was designed to have similar delay,
output rise and fall times, a$ was loaded by equally sized inverters. All transistors were of
minimum length for each implementation and transistor widths were selected to achieve the
above timing requirements. AU inputs to each gate were switched such that during each

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evaluation cycle the minimum majority or minority was achieved (1 1 out of 20 inputs were high
or low, respectively). Also, the power dissipated in the inverters driving the clock and data inputs
was included in the total power dissipation measured for each gate. CRTL improves power
dissipation by between 15 and 30% over the other CMOS threshold gate implementations.

Fig 2.6 Input , enable and output simulation results


To ensure correct behavior under process and operating point variations, the proposed
gate was tested at 45 corners (V,, at 2, 2.5 and 3 V, process Slow-Slow, Slow-Fast, Fast-Slow,
Fast-Fast and Typical-Typical, and temperature at -25, 75 and 125°C). Fig. 3 shows the transient
waveform results from the HSPICE simulation for the 2V-typical-75"C corner at 300 MHz.
Simulation results of the 20-input majority gate also indicate that the CRTL gate can operate
even at frequencies over 400MHz with low power dissipation under worst case conditions.
8. IN “THRESHOLD LOGIC ELEMENT HAVING LOW LEAKAGE
POWER AND HIGH PERFORMANCE”
Embodiments of a threshold logic element are provided. Preferably, embodiments of the
threshold logic element discussed herein have low leakage power and high performance
characteristics. In the preferred embodiment, the threshold logic element is a threshold logic
latch (TLL). The TLL is a dynamically operated current-mode threshold logic cell that provides
fast and efficient implementation of digital logic functions. The TLL can be operated
synchronously or asynchronously and is fully compatible with standard Complementary Metal-
Oxide-Semiconductor (CMOS) technology.

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3. EXISTING SYSTEM
3.1 CMTLG AND DCML IMPLEMENTATIONS OF A THRESHOLD
LOGIC FUNCTION
CMTLG is a CMOS based implementation of TLG shown in Figure 3.1 [1]. The CMTLG
can be divided into two parts, the differential part and the sensor part. The differential part can be
subdivided into two parts, the threshold part and the inputs part. In the threshold part and the
input part all the transistors are connected in parallel. The transistors in the threshold part are
always ON and the total current flowing through the threshold part is represented as Threshold
current IT. The number of PMOS active (ON) in the input part depends on the input pattern
applied. The total current passing through the input side for a particular input pattern is
represented as the Active Current IA. The nodes connecting the differential part and the sensor
part on the input side and the threshold side are M1 and M2, respectively and nodes O and OB are
the output nodes and are shown in Fig 3.1.
The nodes connecting the differential part and the sensor part on the input side and the
threshold side are M1 and M2, Fig 3.1. Output voltages and their difference in the two clock
phases for CMTLG respectively. The sensor part has three pMOS transistors P1, P2, P3, and four
nMOS transistors N1, N2, N3, and N4 as shown in Fig3.1. If the size of the sensor is S, then all
the pMOS transistors in the sensor part have S μm size and all the nMOS transistors in the sensor
part have a size smaller than S μm.
The operation of the CMTLG is divided into two phases [1] the equalization phase and
the evaluation phase. These phases are explained with the help of fig3.1 and fig 3.2. When the
applied clock (clk) to the CMTLG is high, then the circuit is in the equalization phase. When clk
is low, then the circuit is in the evaluation phase [1]. In the equalization phase, transistors N1 and
N2 are ON, nodes M1 and M2 have the same voltage because of transistor N1, and nodes O and
OB have the same voltage because of transistor N2 . In the evaluation phase, transistors N1 and
N2 are OFF, and if the threshold current is less than the active current, then the voltage at node O
rises faster than that at node OB [1]. If during the evaluation phase the threshold current exceeds
the active current, then the voltage at node OB rises faster than that at node O [1].This system
derives an analytical formula for optimum sensor size which is used to obtain the minimum
delay for a given threshold and number of inputs.

17
Then using the optimum sensor sizing, the CMTLG is designed. The value of fan-in can
go up to 150 (only by using the appropriate sensor sizing) considering all the fan-in have
minimum weights.

Fig 3.1 Current Mode Threshold Logic Gate

Figure 3.2 shows the two phases of the clock, the voltage at output nodes O and OB and
the voltage difference between nodes O and OB (dV). The delay of a CMTLG can be divided
into two phases, the activation time and the boosting time. The first phase is the time taken by
CMTLG to develop a small voltage difference (200μV) across the output nodes O and OB In this
phase, the difference between IA and IT leads to gradually increasing voltage difference
between the nodes M1 and M2 also increases. The time taken by the CMTLG to develop initial
voltage difference is represented as the activation time TA. The second phase is the time taken by
the sensor (the back to back connected inverters) to boost the initial voltage difference to a logic
state at the output nodes. This time is referred as the boosting time (TB).
The activation time depends mainly on the differential part. The second phase is the time
taken by the sensor part (the back-to-back connected inverters) to boost the initial voltage
difference to a logic state at the output nodes. This time is referred to as the boosting time TB.
The boosting time depends mainly on the sensor part.

18
Fig 3.2 Output voltages and their difference in the two clock phases for CMTLG.

An alternative differential clock threshold logic implementation is presented in [11], and


it is referred to as the differential current mode logic (DCML) approach. Its block diagram is
shown in Fig3.3. It is also divided into the differential part and the sensor part. The currents
through the threshold part and the inputs part are also denoted by IT and IA, respectively. The
sensor part consists of four pMOS transistors, labeled P1–P4, and six nMOS transistors, labeled
N1–N6. The load capacitance CL is applied to both the output nodes O and OB.

19
Fig 3.3 Block diagram of differential current mode logic.

The applied clock is divided into two phases: when the clock is high the TLG is in the
equalization phase and when it is low it operates on the evaluation phase. In the equalization
phase, NMOS transistors N1, N2, N3, and N6 are active. Transistor N1 equalizes the voltage at
nodes M1 and M2. Similarly, transistor N2 equalizes the voltage at nodes M3 and M4. In the
equalization phase, transistors N6 and N3 are active and there exists a discharge path for nodes O
and OB of Fig 3.3. If there is a voltage difference at nodes O and OB, during the evaluation
phase, then the sensor part will identify the voltage difference and it will boost the voltage at the
output nodes O and OB to a desired voltage. When the active current IA is greater than the
threshold current IT , then the voltage at the output node O rises faster than the voltage at node
OB. As a result, high voltage is obtained at node O and low voltage is obtained at node OB.

20
When IT is greater than IA, then the voltage at OB rises faster than the voltage at O and low
voltage results at OB.

Fig 3.4 Output voltages and their difference in the two clock phases for DCML

Fig 3.4 shows the two phases of the clock, the voltage at nodes O and OB, and the voltage
difference between O and O B (dV). The delay of DCML is divided into the activation time T A
and the boosting time TB.
A method to obtain optimum sensor sizes:
The CMTLG of [1] assumes that all inputs have minimum weights. If a TLG requires
weight wi > 1 (greater than minimum weight) for some input i, then as an alternative we can
implement the function with wi minimum weight inputs for CMTLG of Fig 3.1.
We consider an N-input CMTLG of [1] that can be used to implement different TLG functions
for a given value of N and T. This section shows how to identify optimum sensor size for the N-
input CMTLG of [1], so that the delay of any TLG implemented by the N-input CMTLG is
minimized.

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4. PROPOSED SYSTEM
4.1 Design Considerations in Integrated Circuits
After guaranteeing correct digital functionality, the primary consideration for system
designers has always been speed. A circuit is specified to operate at a particular delay, otherwise
the entire system may not work; further reduction is beneficial but not strictly necessary. Other
factors may have equal or greater importance than power dissipation; area of implementation and
reliability issues are subjects which designer must take into account. It’s worth to note that power
reduction techniques are not necessarily negatively correlated to delay reduction. For example,
one method to reduce delay in a circuit’s critical path is to upsize the driving strength of gates,
which results in increased power reduction. However, reducing interconnect capacitance, which
is another way to lower delay, reduces both power and delay. Generally, great power savings can
be achieved if delay is not an issue, but optimizing power without delay consideration is
insignificant.
4.2 Why Low Power?
Power dissipation limitations come in two ways. The first is related to cooling
considerations when implementing high performance systems. High-speed circuits dissipate
large amounts of energy in a short amount of time, generating a great deal of heat. This heat
needs to be removed by the package on which integrated circuits are mounted. Heat removal may
become a limiting factor if the package cannot sufficiently dissipate this heat or if the required
thermal components are too expensive for the application. The second failure of high-power
circuits relates to the increasing popularity of portable electronic devices. Laptop computers,
portable video players and cellular phones all use batteries as a power source. These devices
provide a limited time of operation before they require recharging. To extend the battery life, low
power operation is desirable in integrated circuits.

4.3 Circuit Design


Circuit design plays an important role in the design of digital circuits like multiplier.
First, to guarantee the multiplier to work at the desired clock rate, the designer has to know the
delay of the critical path and the required time of inserting a pipeline stage. Second, to reduce the
area of the multiplier, several architectures of adders are investigated. Circuit analysis helps the
designer verify the functions and performances of the adders. The architecture of the adder has to

22
be determined first. Then the number of the pipeline stages can be decided by the speed of the
adder. The size of the multiplier should be as small as possible if all the requirements can be met.
Fast arithmetic requires fast circuits. Fast circuits require small size, to minimize the delay
effects of wires. Small size implies a single chip implementation, to minimize wire delays, and to
make it possible to implement these fast circuits as part of a larger single chip system to
minimize input/output delays. The increasing demand for low-power VLSI asks, among others,
for power efficient logic styles. Performance criteria for logic styles are circuit speed, circuit
size, power dissipation, and wiring complexity as well as ease-of-use and generality of gates in
cell-based design techniques. Dynamic logic styles are often a good choice for high-speed, but
not for low-power circuit implementations due to the high node activity and large clock loads .
This chapter focuses review of various logic styles suitable for low power.
4.4 CMOS Logic Structure
Today CMOS (Complementary Metal Oxide Semiconductor) is the primary technology
in the Semiconductor industry. Most high speed microprocessors are implemented using CMOS.
Contemporary CMOS technology is characterized by:
 Small minimum sized transistors, allowing for dense layouts, although the interconnect
limits the density. Low Quiescent Power - The power consumption of conventional
CMOS circuits is largely determined by the AC power caused by the charge and
discharge of capacitances.
4.4.1 Low Power And High-Speed Dual-Clock-Based Current Mode Tlg Implementation

A new TLG implementation is proposed. It is called DCCML. As the name indicates, two
clocks are used to achieve low power consumption and high speed.
The approach consists of two steps. First, the set of functions that can be implemented using
CMTLG for a given input configuration (number of inputs N and threshold T) are grouped in to
equivalent classes. We show that when T+1 inputs are active on the input side then the TLG
exhibits its worst delay.
The block diagram DCCML is shown in Fig 4.1 As in previous approaches, the DCCML
is divided into two basic blocks: the differential block and the sensor block. The differential
block is further divided into four blocks: the positive threshold, the negative inputs, the negative
threshold, and the positive inputs. All the transistors in the differential block are equal-sized
PMOS transistors and are connected in parallel, as shown in Fig 4.1 The sensor block consists of

23
six PMOS transistorsP1···P6 and three NMOS transistors N1, N2, and N3. The gates of transistors
P1 and N1 are connected to Clk1 and the gates of transistors P2, P5, and P6 are connected to Clk2.
Transistor N1 acts as an equalizing transistor and it equalizes the voltage at nodes OP and OPB.
Transistors P5 and P6 isolate the differential block from the sensor block.
The transistors in the positive threshold and negative threshold are always active.
Transistors in the positive and negative inputs blocks are active depending upon the input pattern
applied. The input pattern applied for the positive inputs block is denoted by {x 1, x2, . . . , xI }.
Let N denote the number of inputs, and I denote the number of positive inputs. Then the number
of negative inputs is N–I. The input pattern applied for the negative inputs block is denoted by
{xI+1, xI+2, …. xN} .Consider a function f, with a possible weight configuration {w1, w2 : wT , w3,
w4}={2, 2:3, −1, −1}. In the given weight configuration, we have two positive weights w1 and w2
and two negative weights w3 and w4. Weights w1 and w2 are implemented in the positive inputs
section and weights w3 and w4 are implemented in the negative inputs section. The threshold
weight wT is implemented in the positive threshold section.
The current through the four blocks (positive threshold, negative inputs, negative
threshold, and positive inputs) are denoted by IPT , INI , INT , and IPI , respectively. The currents
through transistors P5 and P6 are denoted by IP5 and IP6 . Here, IP5 = IPT + INI and IP6 = INT + IPI .
Nodes OP and OPB are the output nodes. The load capacitance is denoted by CL. The
operation is divided into three phases: the equalization phase, the pre-evaluation phase, and the
final-evaluation phase. When clocks Clk1 and Clk2 are high, then the circuit is in the
equalization phase. When clocks Clk1 and Clk2 are low, then the circuit is in the pre-evaluation
phase. When Clk1 is low and Clk2 is high, then the circuit is in the final-evaluation phase. See
also Fig 4.2
It is noted that when the two clocks are not completely aligned the operation of the gate
is not affected. The possible cases of misalignment are: 1) the falling edge of Clk2 comes
before the falling edge of Clk1 and 2) the falling edge of Clk2 comes after the falling edge of
Clk1.

24
Fig 4.1 Block diagram of DCCML TLG

Fig 4.2 Clocks in DCCML

25
In the first case, the current from the differential part is equalized because of transistor N1 and
the evaluation phase starts after the falling edge of Clk1. In the second case, there will be no
current from the differential part as Clk2 is not active yet. Hence, the pre-evaluation phase starts
after the falling edge of Clk2. The implementation avoids a very early arrival of Clk1. In that
case, An unstable signal might result in erroneous output.
If the current IP6 through the PMOS transistor P6 is greater than the current IP5 through
the PMOS transistor P5, then the voltage at the output node OP rises faster than the output node
OPB. As a result, high voltage is obtained at output node OP and low voltage occurs at output
node OPB. Otherwise, the voltage at the output node OPB rises faster than the output node OP.
As a result, high voltage is obtained at the output node OPB and low voltage is obtained at node
OP.
In DCCML, the PMOS transistors P1, P2, P5, P6 and the PMOS transistors in the
differential block are used to provide the initial voltage at the output nodes OP and OPB. Using
Clk2, we restrict the current flow from the differential block to the sensor block, once initial
voltage difference is established at the nodes OP and OPB; in this way we stop the current
flowing from the differential block to the sensor block. Using Clk2, we are able to minimize
power consumption in the circuit. Transistors P5 and P6 are also used to isolate high capacitance
circuit block (the differential block) at the output nodes. Hence, in the final evaluation phase the
sensor block drives the load capacitance as well as the capacitance from a single transistor P 5 or
P6. Delay is reduced because the duration of the final evaluation phase is small. The voltage at
the output nodes OP and OPB and the voltage difference (dV) at the output nodes OP and OPB
are shown in Fig 4.3 for the three clock phases.

26
Fig 4.3 Voltage at output nodes OP and OPB and dV during the three clock phases

In particular, the delay of the DCCML is divided into two time phases: the activation
time and the boosting time. The activation time is the time taken by the circuit to develop an
initial voltage difference at the output nodes OP and OPB. The boosting time is the time taken by
the DCCML to bring the initial voltage to the correct voltage at the output nodes OP and OPB.
In the pre-evaluation phase, both the differential part and the sensor part are active, and
therefore the activation time is not affected. In the final evaluation phase, the differential part is
kept inactive using Clk2. Therefore, the effect of internal capacitance due to the differential part
is isolated. Hence, it takes very little time to boost the outputs to the final value. The power is
also reduced due to the isolation of the differential part.

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4.5 DELAY MINIMIZATION BY AN APPROPRIATE SENSOR SIZE
SELECTION
This section presents an analytical formula to compute the sensor size that minimizes the
gate delay. Let N denote the number of inputs, N the sum of all positive input weights, and T the
sum of the threshold weight and negative input weights Our analysis assumes that all the input
weights are connected in parallel, and that each weight wi can be implemented by wi unit width
PMOS transistors connected in parallel. This is an accurate assumption. We have implemented
TLG weights using a smaller number of wider PMOS transistors connected in parallel and
SPICE simulations showed no difference in the performance of the TLG. This is further
explained in the example below.
Example 2: Consider a threshold function where N, the sum of positive input weights, is 11. Let
also T , the sum of the threshold weight and negative input weights, be 4. In this function, we
have (N, T) = (11, 4). Gates {11:4}, {6, 5: 4}, {5, 5, 1: 4}, {5, 4, 1, 1: 4}, {4, 4, 1, 1, 1: 4}, and
{1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1, 1: 4} were implemented in the 45-nm technology. SPICE simulation
shows an identical delay of 297 ps.
In the following, it is not differentiated among functions for which the sum of all positive
input weights is N, and the sum of the negative input weight and threshold weight is T. Since all
these threshold functions exhibit the same delay, these functions will be denoted by the pair (N,
T). The remaining focus is on how to determine the optimum sensor that minimizes the delay of
any (N, T) function.
The work considers that the TLG operates under an input pattern that exhibits the worst
case propagation delay, and then focuses on deriving an analytical model that expresses TLG
delay in terms of the sensor size S in that setting. In a first step, we identify the pattern that gives
the highest delay for the function. In a second step, we consider this worst case scenario, and the
delay will be expressed as a function of the sensor size S. Then, we operate on that function in
order to optimize the sensor size S. In the first step, it is shown that when T +1 inputs are active
then the TLG exhibits its worst delay. Let NA = ∑i wi , such that xi = 1. Such inputs are called
active, and the respective PMOS transistors are also called active. Assume that the initial current
flowing through an active minimum-sized PMOS is Ip. Then the current flowing through the
threshold side of the TLG is T · I p, and the current flowing through the input side for NA inputs
being active is NA · Ip.

28
To obtain the worst case delay for logic 1 at the output node O, the current difference
IA− IT should be minimum. For logic 0, this current difference should also be minimum. Since
transistors on the threshold side are always ON, the maximum delay for a rising transition of the
output is obtained when we have T + 1 active transistors. Likewise, T − 1 active transistors tend
to obtain the worst case delay for a falling transition at the output. However, it is known that the
worst case delay occurs for rising output transition [1]. Hence, a worst case delay pattern is one
that gives the least current difference at nodes M1 and M2. The following is an example where
SPICE simulations confirm this analysis.
Example 3: Consider a CMTLG implementation of a function with T = 4, N = 11, and sensor
size S = 10. The input pattern that has T + 1 number of active inputs gives the worst delay.
Hence, the highest delay encountered is NA = 5. Fig.4.4 shows the delay of the TLG using
SPICE in 45-nm technology. When NA varies in range [5], [11], the output transition is rising,
and the highest rising delay occurs when NA = 5. When NA is in the range (0, 5) the transition at
the output is falling and in that case the delay is less.

Fig 4.4 CMTLG delay with N = 11 and T = 4 as NA varies

29
Similar behavior has been observed for different values of T and N. Furthermore,
extensive SPICE simulations have confirmed that the worst case delay of DCML gates is
obtained when NA = T + 1 and also occurs when the output is rising. In the second step of the
proposed method, it is shown how to obtain an analytical expression that approximates the time
delay TD as a function of the sensor size S, given N and T . The delay time TD is divided into two
phases: the activation time TA and the boosting time TB. The tradeoff among the two phases is
analyzed by varying the sensor size S and keeping all the other parameters N, T , and NA
constant.
During the activation time, the major current component is the current from the
differential part. From the schematics in Fig 3.1and 4.1, due to the voltage difference at nodes O
and OB, we conclude that |IA − IT | is proportional to |NA − T|. The time requirement for the
activation time will be inversely proportional to the current. The time will be proportional to a
charge that depends on two components: the voltage difference that is required at the end of the
activation phase and the capacitance that the differential part is driving. This capacitance is the
difference in the differential capacitance N · Ci’ − T · CT’ , where Ci’ and CT’ are the unit
capacitances of the input part and the threshold part, the sensor capacitance, which is S · C’s
where C’s is unit capacitances of the sensor part, and the output capacitance. The overall time
required for activation will be proportional to (N · Ci’ − T · CT’ + S · C’s + CL/|NA − T|). Term (N ·
Ci’ − T · CT’ + CL/|NA − T|) is invariant to the sensor size and term (S · C’s /|NA − T|) is
proportional to S.
During the boosting time, the delay depends on the current provided by the sensor. This
current will be proportional to the sensor size. The capacitance to be charged will be the same as
in the activation time. (The voltage will be different, which does not depend on the sensor size
S.) Hence, the boosting time will be proportional to (N · Ci’ − T · CT’ + S · C’s + CL/S). The
numerator is an approximation to the overall capacitance connected to the outputs O and OB.
The boosting time consists of (S · C’s /S) = C’s , which is invariable to the size of the sensor and
(N · Ci’ − T · CT’ + CL/S), which is inversely proportional to the sensor size.
We conclude that the gate delay consists of three components T0, T1, and T2 defined
below. Component T0 is invariant to S and that is the sum of the invariant components of the
activation time and the invariable components of the boosting time, i.e., T0 = C’s + (N · Ci’ − T ·
CT’ + CL/|NA − T|).

30
Component T1 is proportional to the sensor size S and occurs during the activation time,
i.e., T1 = C’s · |(1/NA − T )|. Finally, component T2, which is inversely proportional to the
sensor size, occurs during the boosting time and is equal to N · Ci’− T · CT’ + CL. Concluding,
the overall time TD is estimated as

By applying regression analysis on SPICE simulations, TD is rewritten as are constants


and their values are a = 1e − 9, b = 1 for CMTLG, DCML and b = 0.1 for DCCML, c = 1e − 11,
and d = 3.86e − 2. Equation (3) gives the gate delay for different sensor sizes for fixed values of
N, T , NA, and CL.

The final step of the proposed method operates on (3) in order to derive sensor size Sopt,
which gives the minimum gate delay. Sensor size Sopt is derived by applying the first derivative
on (3) and equating it to zero in order to find the minimum value of TD.

The remainder of this section presents the corollaries obtained by (3).


Corollary 1: The delay TD decreases with an increase in S, reaches an optimum value for some
consecutive values of S, and then increases as S increases. The actual values of minimum S
depend on N and T.
Corollary 2: For a sensor size that is smaller than the optimum sensor size Sopt, the activation
time TA is low and the boosting time TB is high.

31
The activation time is less because it has less capacitance and the output can drive this
small capacitance faster to develop an initial voltage difference. In order to boost the initial
voltage difference, the back-to-back connected inverters must be small. Hence, the boosting time
is high.
Corollary 3: For a sensor size that is larger than the optimum sensor size Sopt, the activation time
TA is high and the boosting time TB is low. The activation time is high because it may have a
large capacitance and the output is slow to develop an initial voltage difference. Large back-to-
back connected inverters will boost the initial voltage difference quickly.
Corollary 4: TD decreases as S approaches Sopt and then increases as S grows larger than Sopt.
The corollary is justified because the total delay TD of TLG is the sum of TA and TB.
4.6 Microwind
The Micro wind program allows the student to design and simulate an integrated circuit.
The package itself contains a library of common logic and analog ICs to view and simulate.
MICROWIND includes all the commands for a mask editor as well as new original tools never
gathered before in a single module. Microwind can gain access to circuit simulation by pressing
one single key. The electric extraction of your circuit is automatically performed and the analog
simulator produces voltage and current curves immediately.
A specific command displays the characteristics of PMOS and NMOS, where the size of
the device and the process parameters can be very easily changed. Altering the MOS model
parameters and, then, seeing the effects on the Vds and Ids curves constitutes a good interactive
tutorial on devices.
The Process Simulator shows the layout in a vertical perspective, as when fabrication has
been completed. This feature is a significant aid to supplement the descriptions of fabrication
found in most textbooks.
The Logic Cell Compiler is a particularly sophisticated tool enabling the automatic
design of a CMOS circuit corresponding to your logic description in VERILOG. The DSCH
software, which is a user-friendly schematic editor and a logic simulator presented in a
companion manual, is used to generate this Verilog description. The cell is created in compliance
with the environment, design rules and fabrication specifications.
A set of CMOS processes ranging from 1.2µm down to state-of-the-art 0.25µm are
proposed.The chapters of this manual have been summarized below.

32
A Quick reference sheet, the complete list of files and the instructor guide are reported at
the end of the present manual.The major updates of MICROWIND compared to the DOS version
concern the support of advanced technologies, improvements in editing commands, the
possibility to handle very complex designs and the VERILOG compilation from high-level
description into layout. The new software, DSCH, concerning logic editing and simulation is
now part of the package.
4.6 License

The MICROWIND is a licensed software, that has been licensed in France by Language
Informatique Inc, Toulouse, and by INSA in all other countries. The single license authorizes to
use one copy of the software and includes one copy of the documentation. The site license
authorizes to use ten copies of the software and includes one copy of the documentation. An
authorized copy of the program is required for each one of the computer operating the program
simultaneously. we may not transfer, sell, or distribute the software.
MICROWIND is recommended by EURO-PRACTICE, the American Society for
Engineering Education (ASEE), and supported by the National Comity for Micro-Electronics
Education (CNFM).
The MICROWIND display window is shown in Fig4.5. It includes four main windows:
the main menu, the layout display window, the icon menu and the layer palette. The cursor
appears in the middle of the layout window and is controlled by using the mouse. The layout
window features a grid that represents the current scale of the drawing, scaled in lambda ()
units and in micron. The lambda unit is fixed to half of the minimum available lithography of the
technology. The default technology is a 0.8 µm technology, consequently lambda is 0.4 µm.

33
Fig 4.5 The MICROWIND window as it appears at the initialization stage

4.6 The MOS device

The MOS symbols are reported in fig 4.6.. The n-channel MOS is built using polysilicon

as the gate material and N+ diffusion to build the source and drain. The p-channel MOS is built

using polysilicon as the gate material and P+ diffusion to build the source and drain.

nMOS pMOS

Fig 4.6 pmos and nmos

34
4.7 Manual Design

By using the following procedure, you can create a manual design of the n-channel MOS.
The default icon is the drawing icon shown above. It permits box editing. The display window is
empty. The palette is located in the lower right corner of the screen. A red color indicates the
current layer. Initially the selected layer in the palette is polysilicon. The two first steps are
illustrated in Fig 4.7.
1. Fix the first corner of the box with the mouse
2. While keeping the mouse button pressed, move the mouse to the
Opposite corner of the box.
3. Release the button. This creates a box in polysilicon layer as shown in Fig 4.8
The box width should not be inferior to 2, which is the minimum width of the
polysilicon box.

Fig 4.7 Creating a polysilicon box

Change the current layer into N+ diffusion by a click on the palette of the Diffusion N+
button. Make sure that the red layer is now the N+ Diffusion. Draw a n-diffusion box at the
bottom of the drawing as in Figure 3. N-diffusion boxes are represented in green. The
intersection between diffusion and polysilicon creates the channel of the nMOS device.

35
Fig 4.8 Creating the N-channel MOS transistor

4.8 Process Simulation

Click on this icon to access process simulation. The cross-section is given by a click of the
mouse at the first point and the release of the mouse at the second point. In the example below
(Figure 4.9), three nodes appear in the cross-section of the n-channel MOS device: the gate (red),
the left diffusion called source (green) and the right diffusion called drain(green), over a
substrate (gray). The gate is isolated by a thin oxide called the gate oxide. Various steps of
oxidation have lead to a thick oxide on the top of the gate.

36
Fig 4.9 The cross-section of the nMOS devices

The physical properties of the source and of the drain are exactly the same. Theoretically,
the source is the origin of channel impurities. In the case of this nMOS device, the channel
impurities are the electrons. Therefore, the source is the diffusion area with the lowest voltage.
The polysilicon gate floats over the channel, and splits the diffusion into 2 zones, the
source and the drain. The gate controls the current flow from the drain to the source, both ways.
A high voltage on the gate attracts electrons below the gate, creates an electron channel and
enables current to flow. A low voltage disables the channel.
4.10 MOS Characteristics

Click on the MOS characteristics icon. The screen shown in Fig 4.10 appears. It represents
the Id/Vd simulation of the nMOS device.

37
Fig 4.10 5N-Channel MOS characteristics

The MOS size (width and length of the channel situated at the intersection of the
polysilicon gate and the diffusion) has a strong influence on the value of the current. In Fig4.10,
the MOS width is 12.8µm and the length is 1.2µm. Click on OK to return to the editor. A high
gate voltage (Vg =5.0) corresponds to the highest Id/Vd curve. For Vg=0, no current flows. The
maximum current is obtained for Vg=5.0V, Vd=5.0V, with Vs=0.0.
The MOS parameters correspond to SPICE Level 3, can alter the value of the parameters,
or even access to Level 1,may also skip to PMOS, as well add some measurements to fit the
simulation. Finally, the we get the system simulate devices with other sizes in the proposed list.
4.11 Add Properties for Simulation

Properties must be added to the layout to activate the MOS device. The most convenient

way to operate the MOS is to apply a clock to the gate, another to the source and to observe the

drain. The summary of available properties is reported below.

38
VDD property

VSS property Node visible

Pulse property
Clock property

1. Apply a clock to the drain. Click on the Clock icon, click on the left diffusion. The Clock
menu appears as fig 4.11 . Change the name into « drain » and click on OK. A default clock with
3 ns period is generated. The Clock property is sent to the node and appears at the right hand side
of the desired location with the name « drain ».

Fig 4.11 The clock menu

2. Apply a clock to the gate. Click on the Clock icon and then, click on the polysilicon gate. The
clock menu appears again. Change the name into « gate» and click on OK to apply a clock with 6
ns period.
3. Watch the output: Click on the Visible icon and then, click on the right diffusion. The window
below appears. Click OK. The Visible property is then sent to the node. The associated text
« s1 » is in italic. The wave form of this node will appear at the next simulation.

39
Fig 4.12 The visible node menu

4.12 Save before Simulation

Click on File in the main menu. Move the cursor to Save as ... and click on it. A new
window appears, into which you enter the design name. Type, for example, myMos. Use the
keyboard for this and press . Then click on OK. After a confirmation question, the design is
saved under that filename.

IMPORTANT : Always save BEFORE any simulation !

4.13.1Analog Simulation

Click on Simulate on the main menu. The timing diagrams of the inverter appear, as

shown in Fig 4.13.

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Fig 4.13 Analog simulation of the MOS device

When the gate is at zero, no channel exists so the node s1 is disconnected from the drain.
When the gate is on, the source copies the drain. It can be observed that the nMOS device drives
well at zero but at the high voltage. The final value is 4.2V, that is VDD minus the threshold
voltage. Click on More in order to perform more simulations. Click on Stop to return to the
editor.

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5. ADVANTAGES&APPLICATIONS

5.1 ADVANTAGES
 Delay is low.
 Energy consumption is low.
5.2 APPLICATIONS
 Electronic system in cars.
 Digital electronics control VCRs.
 Transaction processing system, ATM.
 Personal computers and Workstations.
 Medical electronic systems.

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6. SIMULATION RESULTS
6.1 CMPTL

Fig 6.1CMTL

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7.2 Layout

Fig 6.2 Lay Out

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6.3 Simulation Wave Form

Fig 6.3 Simulation Wave Form

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7.4 DCCML

Fig 6.4 DCCML

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7.5 Layout

Fig 6.5 Layout

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7.6 Simulation Wave Form

Fig 7.6 Simulation Wave Form

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7s. CONCLUSION
`An analytical method has been proposed to identify quickly the transistor size in the
sensor component of a current mode implementation that ensures very low gate delay (very close
to the minimum), independent of the current mode method used to implement the threshold logic
function. A new current mode implementation method was also proposed that outperforms
existing implementations both in gate delay as well as energy.

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9. FUTURE SCOPE
A new utilization of a sill get entry to in response to a capacitive testimony,
charge recycling prong judgment loudspeaker close is proficient. Simulation
consequences factor out in order that the taken into consideration device has virtually low
proper drunkenness and massive performing expedite, similarly clout below pro ceeding,
incalescence and provide electricity variations, and is therefore pretty sufficient as a
factor in mainframe microelectronics layout.

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8. REFERENCES
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[3] S. Muroga, Threshold Logic and Its Applications. New York, NY, USA: Wiley, 1971.
[4] W. Prost et al., “Manufacturability and robust design of nanoelectronic logic circuits based
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[7] P. Celinski, J. F. López, S. Al-Sarawi, and D. Abbott, “Low power, high speed, charge
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[13] C. B. Dara, T. Haniotakis, and S. Tragoudas, “Delay analysis for an N-input current mode
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[14] A. K. Palaniswamy, T. Haniotakis, and S. Tragoudas, “ATPG for delay defects in current
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[15] A. Neutzling, J. M. Matos, A. Mishchenko, R. Ribas, and A. I. Reis, “Threshold logic
synthesis based on cut pruning,” in Proc. ICCAD, Nov. 2015, pp. 494–499.

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