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APPROPIATE TECHNOLOGY

SOLAR ENERGY
BY:-
Y.MOHAN SAI (BA15ARC060)
VAMSHI KRISHNA (BA15ARC059)
SHIBADUTTA (BA15ARC049)
CONTENTS :-
1) SOLAR ENERGY
(ADVANTAGES & LIMITATIONS)
2) SOLAR COLLECTORS
3) SOLAR WATER HEATERS
4) PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS , SOLAR LANTERNS & IT’S
APPLICATIONS.
SOLAR ENERGY:-
Solar energy is the energy received by the earth from the
sun. This energy is in the form of solar radiation, which
makes the production of solar electricity possible.
TYPES OF SOLAR ENERGY :-
1) Passive Solar Energy.
2) Active Solar Energy.
3) Photovoltaic Solar Power.
4) Solar Thermal Energy.
5) Concentrated Solar Power.
PASSIVE SOLAR ENERGY:-
Passive Solar Energy is a method in which solar energy is
harnessed in its direct form without using any mechanical
devices. Drying Clothes in daylight is an example of using
solar energy passively. Passive Solar Energy has a few
applications which all of us can use (where ever there is
sunlight).
1)Daylighting.
2)Passive Solar Heating.
3)Passive Solar Cooling.
ACTIVE SOLAR ENERGY:-
The Active Solar Energy employs mechanical or electrical
equipment for functioning and increase system efficiency. As
an example water pumps are used to circulate water through
the active solar energy water heating system. Some
Applications of Active Solar Energy which can be very helpful
to all of us.
1)Active Solar Water Heating.
2)Active Solar Pool Heating.
3)Active Solar Space Heating.
SOLAR THERMAL ENERGY:-
Solar Thermal Energy is the heat energy derived from the
incident solar energy (sunlight). This is used by Solar Heating
Panels. Yes, you guessed it right. Solar Thermal Energy does
have advantages like other forms of solar energy.
1)Solar Water Heating.
2)Solar Pool Heating.
3)Solar Space Heating.

PHOTOVOLTAIC ENERGY:-
The Energy generated by incident solar energy (light) into
electricity is termed as Photovoltaic Solar Power. This is done
using Photovoltaic Solar Cells. Every one of us can get the
benefits of the applications of photovoltaic solar power.
1)Solar Electricity.
2)Photovoltaic Solar Lighting.
3)Photovoltaic Cooling.
CONCENTRATED SOLAR ENERGY:-
Concentrated Solar Power is a branch of Solar Thermal
Energy which is used to generate solar power electricity.
Electricity is produced on a large scale by using this
technology. This technology is not in either of our scope. But
we can surely get its benefits from a renewable energy
supplier or green power from the electricity supply company.

USES OF SOLAR ENERGY:-


1)SOLAR ENERGY IS USED TO CHARGE BATTERY.
2)USED TO HEAT WATER
3)SWIMMING POOL CAN BE HEATED USING SOLAR ENERGY.
4)POWER YOUR HOME WITH SOLAR ENERGY.
5)SOLAR ENERGY USED FOR COOKING.
6)USED FOR INDOOR LIGHTING.
7)USED FOR OUTDOOR LIGHTING.
CONSTRUCTION OF SOLAR PANELS:-
Solar World manufacturers solar panels entirely in the USA
from raw silicon to completed solar panels.
This process involves four main steps:-
1)Crystal growing.
2)Wafering.
3)Solar cell production.
4)Solar panel assembly.

POWER TOWER:-
WORKING OF A POWER TOWER:-

ADVANTAGES OF SOLAR ENERGY:-


1)No harmful emissions.
2)Reduce health risk.
3)Reduce dramatic changes in environment.
4)Reduces costs to stabilize the environment.
5)Long life time of solar energy systems.
6)Sustainable energy.
7)Creates new jobs (solar industry has created over 1 lakh
new domestic jobs).
DISADVANTAGES OF SOLAR ENERGY:-
1)Sun does not shine consistently.
2)Very expensive to built solar power stations.
3)Takes up a lot of space for construction.
4)Requires other supplement energy (heat , electricity).
5)Residential solar power systems cannot be removed once
the installation process is finished. Therefore if u decide to
move,the system will be embedded in the houses roof.
6)Cannot generate electricity at night times and during rainy
days.
7)Animal life damage.

SOLAR COLLECTORS:-
The energy of the solar radiation is in this case converted to
heat with the use of solar panel. Using the sun energy to heat
water is not a new idea. More than one hundred years ago
black painted water tanks were used as simple solar water
heaters in a number of countries.
Solar water heating systems can be either active or passive,
but the most common are active systems. Active systems rely
on pumps to move the liquid between the collector and the
storage tank, while passive systems rely on gravity and the
tendency for water to naturally circulate as it is heated.
CLASSIFICATION OF SOLAR COLLECTORS:-
1)Flat-plate collectors – The absorbing surface is
approximately as large as the overall collector area that
intercepts the sun rays.

2)Concentrating collectors – Large areas of mirrors or lenses


focus the sun light onto a smaller absorber.
SOLAR CONCENTRATORS:-
solar concentrator is a device that allows the collection of
sunlight from large area and focusing it on a smaller receiver.
The cost per unit area of a solar concentrator is therefore
much cheaper than the cost per unit area of a PV material. By
introducing this concentrator, not only the same amount of
energy could be collected from the sun, the total cost of the
effect of concentrator on the PV cell , solar cell could also be
reduced.

BENEFITS:-
1)Reduce the dependency on silicon cell and increase the
intensity of solar.
2)Irradiance, hence increase the cell efficiency.
3)Reduce the total cost of the whole system.
DRAWBACKS:-
1)Degrade the PV cell lifespan.
2)Need to cool down the PV to ensure the performance of
the PV is optimum.
3)Mechanical tracking system may required.

DESIGN OF SOLAR CONCENTRATORS:-


Water Heating with solar energy:-
A surface faces the sun’s rays and absorbs them, converting
the radiation into warmth. The temperature of this surface,
the so-called absorber, therefore rises.
Every object placed in the sun exhibits this effect to a greater
or lesser degree.
A black surface shows the greatest rise in temperature, it
absorbs about 90% of the sun’s incident radiation and
reflects very little.
STORAGE:-
The second important component in a solar energy water
warming installation is the storage. The purpose of this is to
bridge the intervals between the collector’s supply and the
user’s demand for warm water. If the warmed water is held
in an insulated tank, then in principle it is made available in
the evening and the following morning. In the following
applications we shall encounter heat-storage in various
forms.
APPLICATIONS:-
1)WATER DISTILLATION.
2)SOLAR BOILERS.
3)PARABOLIC SOLAR COOKER.

WATER DISTILLATION:-
The solar distiller purifies water by first evaporating and then
condensing it. Distilled water contains no salts, minerals or
organic impurities. It is not, however, aseptic, as is sterilized
water; of which more lately.
Distilled water can be used for: drinking water, applications
in hospitals, battery water, and so on.
Such an installation is suited to areas where water is ample
but polluted, salty or brackish; naturally, there must be
abundant sun.
Finally, glass or UV-resistant transport foil – the most
important materials in the constructions – must be available
and affordable.
A reasonably functional solar distiller is able to produce an
average of four liters of distilled water per day per square
meter of working surface.

SOLAR BOILERS:-
A solar boiler with a collector surface of 3 to 4 m2and a
storage capacity of 200 liters can provide 300 to 400 liters
per day of water between 400c and 600c in temperature. The
yield is naturally dependent on the amount of sun and on a
judicious of the installation.
PARABOLIC SOLAR COOKERS:-
The parabolic or concentrating solar cooker reflects the sun’s
rays in such a way that these are converged onto a small
area, in this area a dark metal cooking pot is fixed. Because of
the small size of the area of convergence there is room for
only one pot. It can be warmed up between 150 and 3500c,
enough to fry.

SOLAR WATER HEATERS:-


A Solar Water Heater is a device which provides hot water for
bathing, washing, cleaning, etc. using solar energy.
It is generally installed at the terrace or where sunlight is
available and heats water during day time which is stored in
an insulated storage tank for use when required including
mornings.
WORKING:-
1)A Solar Water Heater comprises of an array of solar
collectors to collect solar energy and an insulated tank to
store hot water.
2) Both are connected to each other.
3)During the day time, water in solar collectors gets heated
which is either pumped or flown automatically on thermo
syphon principle to the storage tank.
4)Hot water then stored in the tank can be used for various
applications.
DIFFERENT TYPES OF WATER HEATERS:-
1)FPC (FLATE PLATE COLLECTORS)
2)ETC (EVACUATED TUBE COLLECTORS)
Evacuated Tube Collector is made of double layer borosilicate
glass tubes evacuated for providing insulation.
The outer wall of the inner tube is coated with selective
absorbing material.

ADVANTAGES:-
1)Simple to construct and install.
2)No or negligible running cost.
3)Almost maintenance free.
4)Cost is low and economically competitive with electric
water heating system.
5)It saves time and high grade form of electric energy.
6)Required low temperature up to 100o C can be achieved by
simple flat plate collector.
DISADVANTAGES:-
1)Freezing problem.
2)No big problems related to this.

PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS:-
1)Photovoltaic (PV) systems convert sunlight directly into
electricity, and are potentially one of the most useful of the
renewable energy technologies.
2)Efficiencies from a few percent up to 20-30%
3)No moving parts
4)No noise
5)Lifetimes of 20-30 years or more.
FUNCTIONALITY:-
 PN diode
 No illumination
 Diode behavior
 e, h separated
 Illumination
 Incident photons create e-h pairs.
 E field ---> e-h pairs separate.

WORKING:-
MATERIALS REQUIRED FOR THE CONSTRUCTION OF
PHOTOVOLTAIC CELL:-

SOLAR LANTERNS:-
A solar lamp also known as solar light or solar lantern, is a
lighting system composed of an LED lamp, solar
panels, battery, charge controller and there may also be
an inverter.
The lamp operates on electricity from batteries, charged
through the use of solar photovoltaic panel.
Solar-powered household lighting can replace other light
sources like candles or kerosene lamp. Solar lamps have a
lower operating kerosene lamps because renewable energy
from the sun is free, unlike fuel.
In addition, solar lamps produce no indoor air pollution
unlike kerosene lamps. However, solar lamps generally have
a higher initial cost, and are weather dependent.
COMPONENTS OF SOLAR LANTERNS:-
1)SOLAR PANEL
2)BATTERY
3)CHARGE CONTROLLER
APPLICATIONS OF SOLAR LANTERNS:-
1)They are used to provide street lighting in rural areas.
2)In industrial countries solar lanterns are usually used
outdoors to provide lighting in the garden.
3)Used for driveway.
4)Marine applications.
5)Camping applications.
6)Landscaping.
7)Parking areas.