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# PECUTAN AKHIR FIZIK

TAHUN 2018

SMK SIMANGGANG
DISEDIAKAN OLEH: AMBROSE ANAK JEROME

## NAMA PELAJAR: ………………………………………………

KELAS: ……………………………………………………………
1. Diagram 4.1 shows four diodes connected to an alternating current supply. The
output terminals X and Y across the resistor R are connected to a cathode ray
oscilloscope (CRO). The time base of the CRO is set at 0.01 s/division.
Diagram 4.2 shows the trace obtained on the screen of the CRO.
Terminal-terminal output X dan Y merentasi perintang R disambung kepada
sebuah osiloskop sinar katod (OSK). Dasar masa OSK itu dilaras kepada
0.01 s/bahagian.
A

P B X
C
Q
R CRO
D
OSK
Y
Diagram 4.1 Diagram 4.2
Rajah 4.1 Rajah 4.2

## (a) What is the function of diode?

Apakah fungsi diod?
To allow current flow in one direction // Rectifier
…………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

## (b) Based on Diagram 4.2:

Berdasarkan Rajah 4.2:

## (i) Determine the period of the alternating current supply.

Tentukan tempoh bagi bekalan arus ulangalik itu.
0.02 s
..……………………………………………………………………………...
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(ii) Calculate the frequency of the alternating current supply.
Hitung frekuensi bagi bekalan arus ulangalik itu.
50 Hz

[2 marks]
[2 markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 1 #ambrose_jerome

(c) During the first half cycle, the current from P to Q flows through path
P→A→B→X→Y→C→D→Q
Write down the path of the current during the second half cycle from Q to P.

## Semasa separuh kitar pertama, arus dari P ke Q mengalir melalui lintasan

P→A→B→X→Y→C→D→Q
Tuliskan lintasan bagi arus semasa separuh kitar yang kedua dari Q ke P.
Q>D>B>X>Y>C>A>P
...................................................................................................................................
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

(d) On Diagram 4.3, sketch the trace that will be obtained on the screen of the CRO
when all the diodes in the circuit are reversed.
Pada Rajah 4.3, lakarkan surihan yang akan diperoleh pada skrin OSK itu
apabila semua diod dalam litar tersebut disongsangkan.

Diagram 4.3
Rajah 4.3
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

(e) Name the component that has to be connected to the circuit to smoothen the
output voltage.
Namakan komponen yang perlu disambungkan ke dalam litar itu untuk meratakan
voltan output.
capacitor
………………………………………………………………………………...........
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 2 #ambrose_jerome

2 Diagram 6.1 shows an arrangement of electronic components that are connected to a Cathode Ray
Oscilloscope (C.R.O.). A wave pattern is produced on the screen of the C.R.O.
Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan satu susunan komponen elektronik yang disambungkan kepada satu Osiloskop
Sinar Katod (O.S.K.). Satu corak gelombang telah terhasil di atas skrin O.S.K.

i g . Rajah 6.1

## (a) Name the electronic component labelled M.

Namakan komponen elektronik berlabel M.
Diode
…………………………………………………………………………………………………..
markah]

(b) Diagram 6.2 and Diagram 6.3 show the wave pattern on the C.R.O. screen when a capacitor
with capacitance of 10 F and 20 F is connected to the circuit respectively.
Rajah 6.2 dan Rajah 6.3 menunjukkan corak gelombang di atas skrin O.S.K. apabila satu
kapasitor dengan kapasitan 10 F dan 20 F disambung kepada litar masing- masing.

i g . Rajah 6.2

i g . Rajah 6.3

## Observe Diagram 6.2 and Diagram 6.3.

Perhatikan Rajah 6.2 dan Rajah 6.3.

## (i) Compare the capacitance of the capacitor.

Bandingkan nilai kapasitans bagi kapasitor.
Diagram 6.3 is higher
.......……………………………………………………………………………………………….
markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 4 #ambrose_jerome

(ii) Compare the smoothness of wave pattern on the C.R.O. screen.
Bandingkan kerataan corak gelombang di atas skrin O.S.K.
Diagram 6.3 is higher
..........……………………………………………………………………………………………...
markah]

## (iii) Compare the magnitude of peak voltage, Vp.

Bandingkan magnitud voltan puncak, Vp.
Same
..........……………………………………………………………………………………………..
markah]

(iv) Relate the capacitance of the capacitor and the smoothness of wave pattern.
Hubungkait kapasitans bagi kapasitor dengan kerataan corak gelombang.
The greater ( ), the greater ( )
..........……………………………………………………………………………………………..
markah]

## (c) Name the type of rectification occurs.

Namakan jenis rektifikasi yang berlaku.
Full wave rectification
………………………………………………………………………………………….................
markah]

## (d) Explain how the capacitor smoothen the output voltage.

Terangkan bagaimana kapasitor boleh meratakan voltan output.
Capacitor is charged when the current flow
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
Capacitor is discharged when there is no current flow
……………………………………………………………………………………………………
markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 5 #ambrose_jerome

3

Geiger-Muller tube

4 minutes

minute

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 6 #ambrose_jerome

#smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 7 #ambrose_jerome
Gamma

Long

Long lasting

Solid

Easy to handle

Indium-192

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 8 #ambrose_jerome

4 Diagram 6.1 shows the activity of a radioactive substance X and a radioactive
substance Y being measured by a Geiger-Muller tube connected to a ratemeter.

G-M tube
Tiub G-M Ratemeter

G-M tube
Tiub G-M Ratemeter

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 9 #ambrose_jerome

Diagram 6.2 shows the decay curves obtained for radioactive substance X and
Activity / Counts per minute
Aktiviti / Pembilangan per minit

800
700
600
500
400
X
300
Y
200
100

0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Time / minutes
Masa / minit
Diagram / Rajah 6.2

## (a) What is the meaning of half life?

Apakah maksud separuh hayat?
Time for the activity of the radioactive substance to become half
of the original activity // Time taken for half of the mass of
...……………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark/markah]

## (b) Based on the decay curves in Diagram 6.2,

Berdasarkan lengkungan-lengkungan pereputan dalam Rajah 6.2,

(i) State the half life of radioactive substance X and radioactive substance Y.
10 minutes
X : .................................
5 minutes
Y : .................................
[2 marks/markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 10 #ambrose_jerome

remains undecayed after 10 minutes?
belum mereput selepas 10 minit?
50 %
X : .................................
25 %
Y : .................................
[2 marks/markah]

(c) Based on the answers to 6(b)(i) and 6(b)(ii), compare the decay rates of
Hence state the relationship between decay rate and half life.
Seterusnya, nyatakan hubungan antara kadar pereputan dan separuh hayat.
Decay rate X is slower. The shorter the half-life, the higher decay rate
..……………………………………………………………………………………

…..…………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks/markah]

(d) Give a reason why the readings of the ratemeters did not drop to zero after
Beri satu sebab mengapa bacaan-bacaan meter kadar itu tidak kembali ke sifar
...……………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark/markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 11 #ambrose_jerome

5 Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2 show identical metal blocks of mass 50 g hanging on a
spring balance and immersed in water and cooking oil respectively.
Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.2 menunjukkan blok logam yang serupa berjisim 50 g digantung
pada neraca spring dan masing-masing direndam ke dalam air dan minyak masak.

0.2 N
0.3 N

ne ne
wt wt
ons ons

Air Minyak masak

## (a) State the physical quantity measured by a spring balance.

Nyatakan kuantiti fizik yang diukur oleh neraca spring itu.
Weight / Force
…………………………………………………………...........................................
[1 mark/markah]

(b) (i) Compare the pressure at point A and point B in Diagram 5.1.
Bandingkan tekanan di titik A dan titik B dalam Rajah 5.1.
A < B. The greater the depth, the greater the pressure.
………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………..
[2 marks/markah]

(ii) Explain how the difference in pressure in 5(b)(i) exerts an upthrust on the
metal block.
Terangkan bagaimana perbezaan tekanan di 5(b)(i) mengenakan satu daya
tujah ke atas pada blok logam itu.
Force acting on point B is higher
………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark/markah]

9

## (c) Based on Diagram 5.1 and Diagram 5.2:

Berdasarkan Rajah 5.1 dan Rajah 5.2:

## (i) Compare the readings of the spring balances.

Bandingkan bacaan neraca-neraca spring itu.
The reading in Diagram 5.1 is smaller than in Diagram 5.2
………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark/markah]

(ii) Relate the reading of the spring balance to the upthrust on the metal block.
logam itu.
The higher the reading of the spring balance, the lower the
………………………………………………………………………………..
upthrust

………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark/markah]

## (iii) Compare the density of water to the density of cooking oil.

Bandingkan ketumpatan air dengan ketumpatan minyak masak.
Density of water is higher
………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark/markah]

(iv) State the relationship between the density of a liquid and the upthrust
exerted by the liquid.
Nyatakan hubungan antara ketumpatan suatu cecair dengan daya tujah ke
atas yang dikenakan oleh cecair itu.
The higher the density, the higher the buoyant force/upthrust
………………………………………………………………………………..

………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark/markah]

6

Parallel

R = 0.67 Ohm

r = 0.83 Ohm

Decreases

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 15 #ambrose_jerome

7. Diagram 4 shows an electrical circuit. The bulbs P, Q , R and S are identical and the
filament of each bulb has resistance of 4 .
Rajah 4 menunjukkan suatu litar elektrik. Mentol-mentol P, Q, R dan S adalah serupa
dan filamen setiap mentol itu mempunyai rintangan 4 .

Diagram 4 / Rajah 4

## (a) What is the meaning of electric current?

Apakah yang dimaksudkan arus elektrik?
Rate of flow of electric charge // Charge/ time
__________________________________________________________________
[1 mark /1 markah]

## (b) When the switch is on,

Apabila suis di hidupkan,

## (i) which two bulbs light up brighter ?

dua mentol yang manakah akan menyala dengan lebih terang?
P and Q
______________________________________________________________
[1 mark /1 markah]
(ii) give one reason for the answer in 4b(i).
beri satu sebab bagi jawapan dalam 4b(i).
Voltage across P and Q is higher// current that flow through P and Q is higher
_____________________________________________________________
[1 mark / 1 markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 16 #ambrose_jerome

(c) (i) Calculate the reading of ammeter when the switch is closed.
Hitungkan bacaan ammeter apabila suis ditutup.

I = 3.75 A

[2 marks /2 markah]
(ii) Calculate the power dissipated by bulb P when the switch is closed.
Hitungkan kuasa dilesapkan oleh mentol P apabila suis di tutup.

P=9W

[2 marks / 2 markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 17 #ambrose_jerome

8 Diagram 6.1 shows a circuit containing a bulb connected in series to six identical dry ells
with each e.m.f. 1.5 V.
Diagram 6.2 shows the same bulb connected to a dry cell of electromotive force, e.m.f.
9V.
Rajah 6.1 menunjukkan sebiji mentol disambung kepada enam sel kering dengan daya
gerak elektrik, d.g.e. 1.5 V setiap satu.
dengan daya gerak elektrik, d.g.e. 9.0 V.

## Diagram 6.1 Diagram 6.2

Rajah 6.1 Rajah 6.2
(a) What is the meaning of electromotive force, e.m.f.?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan daya gerak elektrik, d.g.e?
Energy supplied to drive an open in a complete circuit // Potential difference across the dry cell
when there is no current flow
………………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(b) Observe on Diagram 6.1 and Diagram 6.2.
Perhatikan Rajah 6.1 dan Rajah 6.2.

## (i) Compare the brightness of bulb.

Bandingkan kecerahan mentol.
Diagram 6.2 > Diagram 6.1
…………………………………………………………………………………
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(ii) Compare the total of e.m.f. for the dry cells connected in the circuit
Bandingkan jumlah d.g.e. bagi sel kering yang disambung dalam litar itu
Same // Sama
…………………………………………………………………………………..
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 18 #ambrose_jerome

(iii) Compare the total internal resistance of the dry cells.
Bandingkan jumlah rintangan dalam bagi sel kering.
Diagram 6.1 > Diagram 6.2
…………………………………………………………………………………..
Rajah 6.1 > Rajah 6.2
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(c) Based on the answer in 6 (b), relate the total internal resistance with :
Berdasarkan jawapan dalam 6 (b), hubungkaitkan jumlah rintangan dalam dengan :
(i) the brightness of bulb
kecerahan mentol
Total internal resistance decrease, brightness increase
………………………………………………………………………………….....
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(ii) current flow
arus yang mengalir
Internal resistance increase, current decrease
………………………………………………………………………………….....
[1 mark]
[1 markah]
(d) Diagram 6.3 shows a 12 V accumulator with internal resistance, r = 0.01 . The
accumulator is used to switch on the engine of a car.
Rajah 6.3 menunjukkan 12 V akumulator dengan rintangan dalam, r = 0.01 .
Akumulator itu digunakan untuk menghidupkan enjin sebuah kereta.

Diagram 6.3
Rajah 6.3
Explain why the car engine cannot be switched on when the accumulator is
replaced with eight dry cells of 1.5 V with internal resistance, r = 0.5  each.
Terangkan mengapa enjin kereta itu tidak dapat dihidupkan apabila akumulator
digantikan dengan lapan sel kering 1.5 V dengan rintangan dalam, r = 0.5 
setiap satunya.
(Effective) internal resistance increase
………………………………………………………………………………………
Current not enough / too low
………………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]
[2 markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 19 #ambrose_jerome

9 (a) Diagram 4.1 shows a light ray passed through a simple prism periscope.
Rajah 4.1 menunjukkan sinar cahaya melalui sebuah periskop prisma ringkas.

## Box for the prisms

Light ray
Kotak untuk prisma
Sinar cahaya

## Diagram / Rajah 4.1

(i) Draw the arrangement of the prisms of the periscope in the box in Diagram 4.1.
Lukiskan susunan prisma-prisma periskop di dalam kotak dalam Rajah 4.1.
[1 mark / markah]
(ii) What is the wave phenomenon which occur in the periscope?
Apakah fenomena gelombang yang berlaku di dalam periskop?
Total internal reflection
.......................................................................................................................................
[1 mark / markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 20 #ambrose_jerome

7

(b) Diagram 4.2 shows a right angle isosceles prism with refractive index of 1.5.
Rajah 4.2 menunjukkan sebuah prisma kaki sama bersudut tegak dengan indeks
biasan 1.5.

45o
Object
Objek

45o

## (i) What is the meaning of critical angle?

Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan sudut genting?
The angle of incidence in the denser medium when the angle of reflection is 90o
.......................................................................................................................................
[1 mark / markah]
(ii) Calculate the critical angle of the prism.
Hitung sudut genting prisma itu.

c = 41.81

[2 marks / markah]

(iii) Complete the light ray that pass through the prism to form an image in Diagram 4.2.
Label “I” on the image.
Lengkapkan sinar cahaya yang melalui prisma untuk membentuk imej dalam Rajah
4.2. Labelkan “I” pada imej itu.
[2 marks / markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 21 #ambrose_jerome

10

The angle of incidence in the denser medium when the angle of reflection is 90o

Same

i <r

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 22 #ambrose_jerome

Total internal reflection

Refraction

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 23 #ambrose_jerome

11 Diagram 7.1 shows an optical fingerprint scanner used in verification of a person.
Rajah 7.1 menunjukkan pengimbas cap jari optik digunakan dalam pengesahan
seseorang.
Diagram 7.2 shows the light shines the fingerprint for an optical sensor to read. The
critical angle of the prism is 42o.
Rajah 7.2 menunjukkan cahaya menyinari cap jari bagi pengesan optik untuk
membacanya. Sudut genting prisma yang digunakan adalah 42o.

## Diagram 7.1 Diagram 7.2

Rajah 7.1 Rajah 7.2
(a) What is the meaning of critical angle?
Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan sudut genting?
Critical angle is the incident angle when the refracted angle is 90o
………………………………………………………………………………………....
[1 mark]
[1 markah]

## (b) Calculate the refractive index of a prism.

Hitung indeks biasan bagi prisma.

n = 1.5
[2 marks]
[2 markah]

## (c) The image sensored cannot be identified very well.

Imej cap jari tidak dapat dikesan dengan baik.

Suggest a modification that can be done to produce clearer fingerprint image based
on these aspects :
Cadangkan pengubahsuaian yang boleh dilakukan untuk menghasilkan imej cap jari
yang lebih jelas berdasarkan kepada aspek-aspek berikut:

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 24 #ambrose_jerome

(i) Angle of the prism
Sudut prisma
45o - 90o - 45o
…………………………………………………………………………………
Reason
Sebab
angle of incident greater than the critical angle // total internal reflection can be occured
…………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(ii) Intensity of the light
Keamatan cahaya

## High intensity of light

…………………………………………………………………………………
Reason
Sebab
Brighter image produced
…………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]
[2 markah]
(iii) Power of the lens
Kuasa kanta
High power of lens
…………………………………………………………………………………
Reason
Sebab
image easily detected /more focused
…………………………………………………………………………………
[2 marks]
[2 markah]

(d) The prism is then changed with different optical density material, how does density
affect the effectiveness of the finger print scanner?
Prisma kemudian diganti dengan bahan yang berlainan ketumpatan optik,
bagaimanakah ketumpatan prisma mempengaruhi keberkesanan alat pengesan cap
jari tersebut?
Denser material prism has higher refractive index / Smaller critical angle
More chances of total internal reflection can occur / more sensitive
………………………………………………………………………………………....

………………………………………………………………………………………....
[2 marks]
[2 markah]

12

Diffraction

## Size of gap: 10.1 > 10.2

Angel of spreading: 10.1 < 10.2
Amplitude: 10.1 > 10.2
#smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 26 #ambrose_jerome
The smaller the size of gap, the greater the angle.
The greater the angle, the smaller the amplitude.

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 27 #ambrose_jerome

Rough//Uneven surface - wave reflected in many direction.
Small gaps - small wave amplitude
Many gaps - Many vessels can pass through at the same time
High retaining wall -Does not submerged during the tide
Convex shape - Withstand high pressure
Narrow at top but wide at bottom-withstand high pressure at sea bed

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 28 #ambrose_jerome

13 Diagram 12. 1 shows a ship using ultrasonic wave to detect the depth of the sea bed.
Rajah 12.1 menunjukkan sebuah kapal menggunakan gelombang ultrasonik untuk mengesan
kedalaman dasar laut.

i g . Rajah 12.1

## (a) What is meant by longitudinal waves?

Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan gelombang membujur?
Vibration of particle is parallel to direction of waves markah]

(b) Explain how the ship can measure the depth of the sea bed.
Terangkan bagaimana kapal dapat mengukur kedalaman dasar laut.
markah]
· the ship measure the depth of the sea bed by using ultrasonic waves / high frequency sound
(c) wave ( Reject
Ultrasonic sound
waves arewave )
transmitted from a ship to the sea-bed to determine the
depth
ultrasonic
of thehas
sea.high
The frequency\\
frequency ofenergy can penetrated
the ultrasonic deeper \\ can
waves transmitted bekHz.
is 25 focused
It
travels
It detects the distance by listening
-1 to the echoes\reflection that reaches
at speed of 1 500 m s in sea water. The detector on the ship receives the it.
echoes
The period
of theofultrasonic
time betweenwaves the sending
0.12 s afterand
the receiving
waves areoftransmitted.
the ultrasonic wave is noted.
 The distance can be estimated\ predicted by computer
Gelombang
The longerultrasonik
the time, the deeper thedari
dipancarkan seasebuah
bed kapal ke dasar laut untuk
menentukan kedalaman laut. Frekuensi gelombang ultrasonik yang dipancarkan
adalah 25 kHz. Ia merambat dengan kelajuan 1500 m sˉ1 dalam air laut. Alat
pengesan pada kapal menerima gema gelombang ultrasonik 0.12 s selepas ianya
dipancarkan.

Calculate:
Hitung:
(i) the depth of the sea.
kedalaman laut.
s = 90 m [3 markah]

## (ii) the wavelength of the ultrasonic waves in sea water.

panjang gelombang bagi gelombang ultrasonik dalam air laut.
0.06 m [2 markah]

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 29 #ambrose_jerome

(d) Diagram 12.2 shows a radar system at an airport. Signals are transmitted from the radar system
to determine the position of an aero plane.
Rajah 12.2 menunjukkan satu sistem radar di lapangan terbang. Isyarat dipancarkan dari
sistem radar untuk menentukan kedudukan sebuah kapal terbang.

i g . Rajah 12.2

## Type Diameter of Type of wave Distance of the signal Height of the

of the parabolic transmitted receiver from the parabolic dish
radar dish / m Jenis parabolic dish Ketinggian
system Diameter gelombang Jarak penerima isyarat piring parabola
Jenis piring yang dipancar dari piring parabola
sistem parabola / m
Focal length Low
P 10 Gelombang
Panjang fokus Rendah
Less than the focal
Microwave High
length
Q 3 Gelombang Tinggi
Mikro
panjang fokus
Microwave
Focal length High
R 9 Gelombang
Panjang fokus Tinggi
Mikro
More than the focal
length Low
S 5 Gelombang
fokus

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 30 #ambrose_jerome

Study the specifications of all the four radar systems based on the following aspects and choose
Kaji spesifikasi untuk keempat-empat sistem radar berdasarkan aspek yang berikut dan pilih

## • The diameter of the parabolic dish.

Diameter piring parabola
• The di t nce of the ign l eceive f o the p bolic di h.
Jarak penerima isyarat dari piring parabola.
• The type of the w ve t n itted.
Jenis gelombang yang dipancar.
• The height of the parabolic dish from the ground.
Ketinggian piring parabola dari tanah.

## Give reasons for your choice.

Berikan sebab untuk pilihan anda.
[10 ma ks markah]

## Large diameter - receive more signals

Microwave - high frequency
At focal length - Strong signals, signals are focused at the receiver
High height - Signal not blocked
Chose R.

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 31 #ambrose_jerome

14 (a) Diagram 12 shows a cross-section of a radiation badge worn by a worker in a nuclear
power station.
Rajah 12 menunjukkan keratan rentas lencana sinaran yang dipakai oleh pekerja di stesen
janakuasa nuklear.
Photographic film in light-proof jacket
Filem fotografi di dalam jaket kalis cahaya

P
Sinaran dari persekitaran
Q

Aluminium Plumbum

Diagram / Rajah 12

## (i) What is meant by beta particle?

Apakah yang dimaksudkan dengan zarah beta?
High speed electron emitted from radioactive decay [1 mark / markah]
(ii) Which part of the photographic film, P, Q or R, becomes dark when the worker has
been exposed to a large dose of beta particle?
Bahagian manakah pada filem fotograf, P, Q atau R, yang menjadi gelap apabila
pekerja itu terdedah kepada dos zarah beta yang tinggi?
P [1 mark / markah]
(iii) Explain the answer in 12(a)(ii).
Terangkan jawapan di 12(a)(ii).
Beta particle penetrate into region P [3 marks / markah]
Beta particle can be blocked by aluminium and lead
of specific organs, or to treat diseases.
Perubatan nuklear menggunakan sinaran radioisotop untuk memberikan maklumat
berkaitan fungsi organ-organ tertentu, atau untuk merawat penyakit.
You are assigned to study the characteristics of some radioisotopes that are suitable and
safe for use in imaging the organs, to reveal the disorders in their functions.
digunakan dalam pengimejan organ, untuk mengenalpasti kegagalan fungsi organ tersebut.

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 32 #ambrose_jerome

Gamma - Can be detected outside the body
Liquid - Easy and fast absorption to blood stream
Short half-life - Not stay too longer in the body / Not harmful to the body
GM-tube - better detector
Chose L
Table 12 shows the characteristics of four different radioisotopes.

Radioisotope State of matter Type of detector
type Separuh
Jenis sinaran hayat
Alpha Solid 13 hours G-M tube
K
Alfa Pepejal 13 jam Tiub G-M
Gamma Liquid 15 hours G-M tube
L
Gama Cecair 15 jam Tiub G-M
Alpha Liquid 14 days Spark counter
M
Alfa Cecair 14 hari Pembilang bunga api
Gamma Solid 30 days Spark counter
N
Gama Pepejal 30 hari Pembilang bunga api

Explain the suitability of the characteristics of the radioisotopes to be used in the imaging
of the organs.
Determine the most suitable radioisotope to be used and give the reasons to your choice.
Terangkan kesesuaian ciri-ciri radioisotop untuk digunakan dalam pengimejan organ.
Tentukan radioisotop yang paling sesuai digunakan dan nyatakan sebab-sebab pilihan
anda.
[10 marks / markah]
(c) The following equation shows a decay process of uranium-234 to radium-226 by emittin
α-particles.
The total mass defect for the whole process is 0.005229 u.
dengan memancarkan zarah-α.
Jumlah cacat jisim bagi keseluruhan proses ialah 0.005229 u.
234
92 U  230
90 Th 
226
88 Ra

## (i) How many α-particles are emitted?

Berapakah bilangan zarah-α dipancarkan?
2 [1 mark / markah]
(ii) What is the energy released?
[1 u = 1.66 x 10 - 27 kg, c = 3.00 x 10 8 m s -1]
Calculate the mass defect correctly [4 marks / markah]
Mass defect = 0.005229 x 1.66 x 10 - 27 kg
= 8.68014 x 10-30 kg
Calculate the energy released correclty
Energy = 8.68014 x 10-30 x (3 x 10 8)2
= 7.8121 x 10-13 J

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 33 #ambrose_jerome

15 Diagram 12.1 shows structure of a Geiger-Muller tube.
Rajah 12.1 menunjukkan struktur sebuah tiub Geiger-Muller.

Diagram 12.1
Rajah 12.1

## (a) Name the part label Q.

Namakan bahagian berlabel Q.
Thin mica window [1 mark]
[1 markah]

(b) Explain how the Geiger-Muller tube used to detect the radioactive radiation.
Huraikan bagaimana tiub Geiger-Muller digunakan untuk mengesan sinaran
M1 Radiation enters the GM tube through the mica window
M2 the radiation ionizes the argon gas. [4 marks]
M3 negative ion is attracted to tungsten wire/anode and positive ion is attracted to metal
[4 markah]
case/cathode
M4 A pulse of current is produced and is counted by a counter / ratemeter
(c) Food irradiation is a food preservation process using a controlled radioactive
radiation emit by radioisotope to destroy insects, bacteria, parasites or to maintain
food freshness.
Radiasi makanan ialah suatu proses pengawetan makanan dengan menggunakan
membunuh serangga, bakteria, parasit atau untuk mengekalkan kesegaran
makanan.

Diagram 12.2
Rajah 12.2

## You are required to investigate the characteristics of radioisotope as shown in Table 12

Anda dikehendaki untuk menyiasat ciri-ciri radioisotop seperti ditunjukkan dalam

## Liquid Beta 14 days Medium

Posphorus-32
Cecair Beta 14 hari Sederhana

## Solid Beta 5 days Medium

Xenon-133
Pepejal Beta 5 hari Sederhana

## Liquid Gamma 6 hours Low

Technetium-99
Cecair Gama 6 jam Rendah

## Solid Gamma 5 years Low

Cobalt-60
Pepejal Gama 5 tahun Rendah

## Solid Alpha 140 days High

Polonium-210
Pepejal Alfa 140 hari Tinggi

Table 12

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 35 #ambrose_jerome

Explain the suitability of each characteristics of the radioisotope to be used in the food
so that the food is safe for consumer.
Beri sebab untuk pilihan anda. Solid - easy to handle
Gamma - High penetrating power // High energy
Long - long lasting [10 marks]
Low ionising power - No change in nutrition food
[10 markah]
Cobalt-60
Cesium-137 decay is represented by the following equation:

𝐶𝑠 → 𝐵𝑎 𝛽 𝛾 𝑒𝑛𝑒𝑟𝑔𝑦

Reputan Cesium-137 diwakili oleh persamaan berikut:

𝐶𝑠 → 𝐵𝑎 𝛽 𝛾 𝑡𝑒𝑛𝑎𝑔𝑎

Table 12.2 shows the value of atomic mass unit (u) of the elements.

## Element Atomic mass unit (u)

Unsur Unit jisim atom (u)
Cesium 𝐶𝑠 136.907089

Barium 𝐵𝑎 136.905827
Beta particle
𝛽 0.000549
Zarah beta

Maklumat tambahan :

## 1 u = 1.66 x 10-27 kg Speed of light, c = 3 x 108 ms-1

Halaju cahaya, c = 3 x 108 ms-1

## #smk_simanggang2018 #pecutan_akhir_fizik_spm 36 #ambrose_jerome

(i) Determine the mass defect in kg.
Tentukan cacat jisim dalam kg.
M1 mass defect = 136.907089 - 136.905827 - 0.000549 = 0.000713 [3 marks]
M2 = 0.000713 x 1.66 x 10-27 kg
M3 = 1.18358 x 10-30 kg [3 markah]