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“Waste Management Common Effluent Treatment Plant .”





PRN. No. 1828100561


Academic Study Center – BVIMR, New Delhi An
ISO 9001: 2008 Certified Institute
NAAC Accredited Grade “A” University

This is to certify that I have completed this project titled “Waste Management Common
Effluent Treatment Plant.” under the guidance of in the partial fulfillment for the
award of degree of Masters Of Business Administration at Bharati Vidyapeeth Deemed
University School Of Distance Education, Delhi. This is an original piece of work and I have not
submitted it earlier elsewhere.

PRN NO. 1828100561

First of all, I would like to express my thanks to (Director, BVUSDE) for giving
me such a wonderful opportunity to widen the horizons of my knowledge.
At the very outset I wish to thank , for giving me the opportunity to participate in
this interesting research project, which helped me to gain insights into the infrastructural research
on “Waste Management Common Effluent Treatment Plant.”

He has supported me with his guidance, insights, and encouragement.

I am grateful to him to have spared his time and showing the patience to answer my queries. The
Kindness shown by him in spite of being so busy with his work is highly appreciated.
I would also like to thank all my fellow colleagues who supported me all the time. ThisEnsured
the prompt of this project.

(Rishab Garg)

PRN No. - 1828100561

MBA(GEN) 1st Semester


Waste management is an important part of the urban infrastructure as it ensures the

protection of the environment and of human health. It is not only a technical
environmental issue but also a highly political one. Waste management is closely related
to a number of issues such as urban lifestyles, resource consumption patterns, jobs and
income levels, and other socio-economic and cultural factors.

Waste prevention and minimization has positive environmental, human health and safety,
and economic impacts. Implementing a "less is better" concept provides better protection
of human health and safety by reducing exposures, generating less demand for disposal
on the environment. Less Waste also lowers disposal cost.

Arising quality of life and high rates of resource consumption patterns have had a
unintended and negative impact on the urban environment - generation of wastes far
beyond the handling capacities of urban governments and agencies. Cities are now
grappling with the problems of high volumes of waste, the costs involved, the disposal
technologies and methodologies, and the impact of wastes on the local and global

But these problems have also provided a window of opportunity for cities to find
solutions - involving the community and the private sector; involving innovative
technologies and disposal methods; and involving behaviour changes and awareness
raising. These issues have been amply demonstrated by good practices from many cities
around the world.

There is a need for a complete rethinking of "waste" - to analyze if waste is indeed waste.


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Waste management is the collection, transport, processing (waste treatment), recycling or

disposal of waste materials, usually ones produced by human activity, in an effort to
reduce their effect on human health or local aesthetics or amenity. A sub focus in recent
decades has been to reduce waste materials' effect on the natural world and the
environment and to recover resources from them. Waste management can involve solid,
liquid or gaseous substances with different methods and fields of expertise for each.

Waste management practices differ for developed and developing nations, for urban and
rural areas, and for residential, industrial, and commercial producers. Waste management
for non-hazardous residential and institutional waste in metropolitan areas is usually the
responsibility of local government authorities, while management for non-hazardous
commercial and industrial waste is usually the responsibility of the generator.

The purpose of waste management is to:

1. Protect people who handle waste items from accidental injury.

2. Prevent the spread of infection to healthcare workers who handle the waste.

3. Prevent the spread of infection to the local community.

4. Safely dispose of hazardous materials

5. Open piles of waste should be avoided because they are a risk to those who scavenge
and unknowingly reuses contaminate items.

Historically, the amount of wastes generated by human population was insignificant

mainly due to the low population densities, coupled with the fact there was very little
exploitation of natural resources. Common wastes produced during the early ages were
mainly ashes and human & biodegradable wastes, and these were released back into the
ground locally, with minimal environmental impact.

Before the widespread use of metals, wood was widely used for most applications.
However, reuse of wood has been well documented Nevertheless, it is once again well
documented that reuse and recovery of such metals have been carried out by earlier humans.

With the advent of industrial revolution, waste management became a critical issue. This
was due to the increase in population and the massive migration of people to industrial
towns and cities from rural areas during the 18th century. There was a consequent increase
in industrial and domestic wastes posing threat to human health and environment.

Waste has played a tremendous role in history. The Plague, cholera and typhoid fever, to
mention a few, were diseases that altered the populations of many country. They were
perpetuated by filth that harbored rats, and contaminated water supply. It was not
uncommon for everybody to throw their waste and human wastes out of the window
which would decompose in the street.
Waste management concepts

There are a number of concepts about waste management, which vary in their usage
between countries or regions. This section presents some of the most general, widely-
used concepts.

Waste hierarchy

The waste hierarchy refers to the "3 Rs" reduce, reuse and recycle, which classify waste
management strategies according to their desirability in terms of waste minimization.
The waste hierarchy remains the cornerstone of most waste minimisation strategies. The
aim of the waste hierarchy is to extract the maximum practical benefits from products
and to generate the minimum amount of waste.
Some waste management experts have recently incorporated a 'fourth R': "Re-think",
with the implied meaning that the present system may have fundamental flaws, and that a
thoroughly effective system of waste management may need an entirely new way of
looking at waste. Some "re-think" solutions may be counter-intuitive, such as cutting
fabric patterns with slightly more "waste material" left -- the now larger scraps are then
used for cutting small parts of the pattern, resulting in a decrease in net waste. This type
of solution is by no means limited to the clothing industry.

Source reduction involves efforts to reduce hazardous waste and other materials by
modifying industrial production. Source reduction methods involve changes in
manufacturing technology, raw material inputs, and product formulation. At times, the
term "pollution prevention" may refer to source reduction.

Another method of source reduction is to increase incentives for recycling. Many

communities in the United States are implementing variable rate pricing for waste
disposal (also known as Pay As You Throw - PAYT) which has been effective in
reducing the size of the municipal waste stream.

Source reduction is typically measured by efficiencies and cutbacks in waste. Toxics use
reduction is a more controversial approach to source reduction that targets and measures
reductions in the upstream use of toxic materials. Toxics use reduction emphasizes the
more preventive aspects of source reduction but, due to its emphasis on toxic chemical
inputs, has been opposed more vigorously by chemical manufacturers. Toxics use
reduction programs have been set up by legislation in some states .

Collection methods vary widely between different countries and regions, and it would be
impossible to describe them all. Many areas, especially those in less developed countries,
do not have a formal waste-collection system in place.

For example, in Australia most urban domestic households have a 240-litre (63.4 U.S.
gallon) bin that is emptied weekly from the curb using side- or rear-loading compactor
trucks. In Europe and a few other places around the world, a few communities use a
proprietary collection system known as Envac, which conveys refuse via underground
conduits using a vacuum system. In Canadian urban centres curbside collection is the most
common method of disposal, whereby the city collects waste and/or recyclables and/or
organics on a scheduled basis. In rural areas people usually dispose of their waste by
hauling it to a transfer station. Waste collected is then transported to a regional landfill.

Disposal methods for waste products vary widely, depending on the area and type of waste
material. For example, in Australia, the most common method of disposal of solid
household waste is in landfill sites, as it is a large country with a low-density population.
By contrast, in Japan it is more common for waste to be incinerated, because the country
is smaller and land is scarce. Other waste types (such as liquid sewage) will be disposed of
in different ways in both countries.

Landfill Incineration Resource

recovery Recovery


Disposing of waste in a landfill is one of the most traditional method of waste disposal,
and it remains a common practice in most countries. Historically, landfills wereoften
established in disused quarries, mining voids or borrow pits. A properly-designed and
well-managed landfill can be a hygienic and relatively inexpensive method.
A landfill compaction vehicle in operation of disposing of waste materials in a way that
minimises their impact on the local environment. Older, poorly-designed or poorly-
managed landfills can create a number of adverse environmental impacts such as wind-
blown litter, attraction of vermin, and generation of leachate where result of rain
percolating through the waste and reacting with the products of decomposition, chemicals
and other materials in the waste to produce the leachate which can pollute groundwater and
surface water. Another byproduct of landfills is landfill gas (mostly composed of methane
and carbon dioxide), which is produced as organic waste breaks down anaerobically. This
gas can create odor problems, kill surface vegetation, and is a greenhouse gas.

Design characteristics of a modern landfill include methods to contain leachate, such as

clay or plastic lining material. Disposed waste is normally compacted to increase its
density and stablise the new landform, and covered to prevent attracting vermin (such as
mice or rats) and reduce the amount of wind-blown litter. Many landfills also have a
landfill gas extraction system installed after closure to extract the landfill gas generated
by the decomposing waste materials. Gas is pumped out of the landfill using perforated
pipes and flared off or burnt in a gas engine to generate electricity. Even flaring the gas is
a better environmental outcome than allowing it to escape to the atmosphere, as this
consumes the methane, which is a far more potent greenhouse gas than carbon dioxide.

Many local authorities, especially in urban areas, have found it difficult to establish new
landfills due to opposition from owners of adjacent land. Few people want a landfill in
their local neighborhood. As a result, solid waste disposal in these areas has become
more expensive as material must be transported further away for disposal (or managed by
other methods).

This fact, as well as growing concern about the impacts of excessive materials
consumption, has given rise to efforts to minimise the amount of orts include taxing or
levying waste sent to landfill, recycling the materials, converting material to energy,
designing products that use less material, and legislation mandating that manufacturers
become responsible for disposal costs of products or packaging. A related subject is that
of industrial ecology, where the material flows between industries is studied. The by-
products of one industry may be a useful commodity to another, leading to a reduced
materials waste stream.

A waste-to-energy plant in Saugus, Massachusetts, the first plant in the United States.

Incineration is a waste disposal method that involves the combustion of waste at high
temperatures. Incineration and other high temperature waste treatment systems are
described as "thermal treatment". In effect, incineration of waste materials converts the
waste into heat, gaseous emissions, and residual solid ash. Other types of thermal
treatment include pyrolysis and gasification.

A waste-to-energy plant (WtE) is a modern term for an incinerator that burns wastes in
high-efficiency furnace/boilers to produce steam and/or electricity and incorporates
modern air pollution control systems and continuous emissions monitors. This type of
incinerator is sometimes called an energy-from-waste (EfW) facility.

Incineration is popular in countries such as Japan where land is a scarce resource, as they
do not consume as much area as a landfill. Sweden has been a leader in using the energy
generated from incineration over the past 20 years. It is recognised as a practical method
of disposing of certain hazardous waste materials (such as biological medical waste),
though it remains a controversial method of waste disposal in many places due to issues
Resource recovery

A relatively recent idea in waste management has been to treat the waste material as a
resource to be exploited, instead of simply a challenge to be managed and
disposed of. There are a number of different methods by which resources may be
extracted from waste: the materials may be extracted and recycled, or the calorific
content of the waste may be converted to electricity.

The process of extracting resources or value from waste is variously referred to as

secondary resource recovery, recycling, and other terms. The practice of treating waste
materials as a resource is becoming more common, especially in metropolitan areas
where space for new landfills is becoming scarcer. There is also a growing
acknowledgement that simply disposing of waste materials is unsustainable in the long
term, as there is a finite supply of most raw materials.

There are a number of methods of recovering resources from waste materials, with new
technologies and methods being developed continuously.

In some developing nations some resource recovery already takes place by way of
manual labourers who sift through un-segregated waste to salvage material that can be
sold in the recycling market.
These unrecognized workers called waste pickers or rag pickers, are part of the informal
sector, but play a significant role in reducing the load on the Municipalities' Solid Waste
Management departments. There is an increasing trend in recognising their contribution
to the environment and there are efforts to try and integrate them into the formal waste
management systems, which is proven to be both cost effective and also appears to help
in urban poverty alleviation. However, the very high human cost of these activities
including disease, injury and reduced life expectancy through contact with toxic or
infectious materials would not be tolerated in a developed country


Recycling means to recover for other use a material that would otherwise be considered
waste. The popular meaning of ‘recycling’ in most developed countries has come to refer
to the widespread collection and reuse of various everyday waste materials. They are
collected and sorted into common groups, so that the raw materials from these items can
be used again (recycled).

In developed countries, the most common consumer items recycled include aluminium
beverage cans, steel, food and aerosol cans, HDPE and PET plastic bottles, glass bottles
and jars, paperboard cartons, newspapers, magazines, and cardboard. Other types of
plastic (PVC, LDPE, PP, and PS: see resin identification code) are also recyclable,
although not as commonly collected. These items are usually composed of a single type
of material, making them relatively easy to recycle into new products.The recycling of
obsolete computers and electronic equipment is important, but more costly
due to the separation and extraction problems. Much electronic waste is sent to Asia,
where recovery of the gold and copper can cause environmental problems (monitors
contain lead and various "heavy metals", such as selenium and cadmium; both are
commonly found in electronic items).

Recycled or used materials have to compete in the marketplace with new (virgin)
materials. The cost of collecting and sorting the materials often means that they are
equally or more expensive than virgin materials. This is most often the case in developed
countries where industries producing the raw materials are well-established. Practices
such as trash picking can reduce this value further, as choice items are removed (such as
aluminium cans). In some countries, recycling programs are subsidised by deposits paid
on beverage containers (see container deposit legislation).

The economics of recycling junked automobiles also depends on the scrap metal market
except where recycling is mandated by legislation (as in Germany).

However, most economic systems do not account for the benefits to the environment of
recycling these materials, compared with extracting virgin materials. It usually requires
significantly less energy, water and other resources to recycle materials than to produce
new materials.

For example,
recycling 1000 kg of aluminum cans saves approximately 5000 kg of bauxite ore being
mined (source: ALCOA Australia) and prevents the generation of 15.17 tonnes CO2
greenhouse gases; recycling steel saves about 95% of the energy used to refine virgin ore
(source: U.S. Bureau of Mines).
Types of waste
Generally, waste could be liquid or solid waste. Both of them could be hazardous. Liquid and
solid waste types can also be grouped into organic, re-usable and recyclable waste.
Let us see some details below:

 Liquid type:
Waste can come in non-solid form. Some solid waste can also be converted to a liquid
waste form for disposal. It includes point source and non-point source discharges such as
storm water and wastewater. Examples of liquid waste include wash water from homes,
liquids used for cleaning in industries and waste detergents.

 Solid type:
Solid waste predominantly, is any garbage, refuse or rubbish that we make in our homes
and other places. These include old car tires, old newspapers, broken furniture and even
food waste. They may include any waste that is non-liquid.

 Hazardous type:
Hazardous or harmful waste are those that potentially threaten public health or the
environment. Such waste could be inflammable (can easily catch fire), reactive (can
easily explode), corrosive (can easily eat through metal) or toxic (poisonous to human
and animals). In many countries, it is required by law to involve the appropriate authority
to supervise the disposal of such hazardous waste. Examples include fire extinguishers,
old propane tanks, pesticides, mercury-containing equipment (e.g, thermostats) and lamps
(e.g. fluorescent bulbs) and batteries.

Organic type:

Organic waste comes from plants

or animals sources. Commonly,
they include food waste, fruit and
vegetable peels, flower trimmings
and even dog poop can be
classified as organic waste. They are biodegradable (this means they are easily broken
down by other organisms over time and turned into manure). Many people turn their
organic waste into compost and use them in their gardens

Recyclable type:

Recycling is processing used materials (waste) into new, useful products. This is done to
reduce the use of raw materials that would have been used. Waste that can be potentially
recycled is termed "Recyclable waste". Aluminum products (like soda, milk and tomato
cans), Plastics (grocery shopping bags, plastic bottles), Glass products (like wine and
beer bottles, broken glass), Paper products (used envelopes, newspapers and magazines,
cardboard boxes) can be recycled and fall into this category.

There is no Indian policy document, which examines waste as part of a cycle of

production-consumption-recovery or perceives the issue of waste through a prism of
overall sustainability. In fact, interventions have been fragmented and are often
contradictory. The new Municipal Solid Waste Management Rules 2000, which came
into effect from January 2004, fails even to manage waste in a cyclic process. Waste
management still is a linear system of collection and disposal, creating health and
environmental hazards.

Urban India is likely to face a massive waste disposal problem in the coming years. Till
now, the problem of waste has been seen as one of cleaning and disposing as rubbish. But
a closer look at the current and future scenario reveals that waste needs to be treated
holistically, recognizing its natural resource roots as well as health impacts. Waste can be
wealth; which has tremendous potential not only for generating livelihoods for the urban
poor but can also enrich the earth through composting and recycling rather than spreading
pollution as has been the case. Increasing urban migration and a high density of
population will make waste management a difficult issue to handle in the near future, if a
new paradigm for approaching it is not created.

Developing countries, such as India, are undergoing a massive migration of their population
from rural to urban centres. New consumption patterns and social linkages are emerging.
India, will have more than 40 per cent, i.e. over 400 million people clustered in cities over
the next thirty years (UN,1995.) Modern urban living brings on the problem of waste, which
increases in quantity, and changes in composition with each passing day. There is, however,
an inadequate understanding of the problem, both of infrastructure requirements as well as its
social dimensions. Urban planners, municipal agencies, environmental regulators, labour
groups, citizens’ groups and non-governmental organizations need to develop a variety of
responses which are rooted in local dynamics, rather than borrow non-contextual solutions
from elsewhere.

 To understand the efficiency and effectiveness of disposing the waste in


 To know the public opinion with regard to waste management .

 To know the satisfaction of public with regard to recycling of products .

 To identify the factors which affects improvement and development in waste management .


 The study will help the society to know their efficiency and effectiveness towards waste


 Waste Management study can find out the impact of waste on human health .

 The study will help the society to work towards the depletion of waste from the environment.

 The study covers the public of India .


1.The process is not always cost-effective:

Yes, though it may pay cash to the contributors, the truth is this process needs a lot of money, time
and land to set up a plant and run. As the amount of waste that is being contributed to the waste
product unit increases, so are the number of plants that process these resources.

Setting up a huge factory obviously needs a lot of money, and this management will start fetching
yields only in the long run. Hence, this is not seen as a short-term lucrative investment. While
dumping more and more garbages in the landfills cause only $50 per ton, recycling them in the
proper manner will cause $150 per ton, which is exactly triple the cost and thus many of the
companies tend to switch over to the landfill method itself.

2. The resultant product has a short life:

This is also true since the resulting recycled product cannot be expected to have a durable quality.
As the product itself has its origin from the remains of the other trashed waste products and heaps of
partially used ones. The recycled product, though, is eco-friendly is expected to have a shorter life
span than the intended original one.

3. The sites are often dangerous:

As the waste management sites include the landfills to recycling units under its aegis, these sites are
highly susceptible to fungal and bacterial growth thereby leading to various diseases.

Even the debris formation will be accelerated by such bacterial growth, which makes it totally
unsafe for the workers who work there. It also causes a widespread pollution and releases harmful
chemicals. These chemicals, when mixed with drinking water or any other consumable item pose a
high amount of danger to the human health.

4. The practices are not done uniformly:

Still, a large scale of these waste management practices are done only as a small scale process and is
mostly confined to residential homes, schools and colleges and is not practiced in a uniform manner
in large industries and conglomerates. It is not even practiced globally, as the global level consists of
curbing oil spills, ocean disposals and decreasing the tree felling.

5. Waste management can cause more problems:

Though waste management creates employment, it only has the ability to produce low quality jobs.
These jobs include right from sorting the garbage collected to the intensive and laborious jobs that
are needed in the factories and outlets.

Daily basis collection of garbages will make the streets look unpleasant and unhygienic leaving
excess debris on the streets to rot up. Even after the successful completion of the final stage, many
chemical stews will be left behind which needs to be properly and completely disposed, otherwise
they will also pose a threat to the environment which makes the ultimate purpose of waste
management go redundant.

Also, in the areas where these management units are present, it is noticed that the groundwater gets
affected. So, it too causes a considerable extent of water pollution and land pollution.

Thus, considering the pros and cons of waste management, we can only realize that the ultimate goal
of waste management relies in waste minimization and curbing only. However, the aspects of
recycling and processing wastes cannot be omitted since they attribute an environmental flavor to
our area of study. It also makes the whole process to be economically viable and increase the
sustenance of the process thereby making it less susceptible to the legal frameworks and
conventions of each country. The energy flow from the producers to the consumers must be retained
as it is in the original ecosystems and the recycling should work in tandem with the generalities of

Thus, not even a single aspect can be deleted from the whole process. At the same time, the process
too cannot be stopped by considering the demerits alone. It should be implemented step by step and
should move from a small scale industry to a larger one, thereby eliminating the problems which
arise in the midway by finding suitable strategies and solutions for the problems.

The government too should support the practices by easing the rules and encouraging all its citizens
to practice the same in their households and can also provide a reward for those who practice these
measures in an effective manner.

Methods like vermicomposting, generating energy from solar cells and e-wastes, using the recycled
water for household practices can be easily preached to the commoners in a simple way to follow.

Solid waste management has become one of a major concern in environmental issues

(Mazzanti & Zoboli, 2008). This is particularly true to urban areas where population is

rapidly growing and amount of waste generated is increasing like never before

(Kathiravale & Mohd Yunus, 2008). Current earth’s population is 6.8 billion and it is

estimated that almost half of this population lives in urban areas (Population Division of

the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, 2009).

Waste generation increase proportionally to this population number and income, creating

the needs of effective management (Mazzanti & Zoboli, 2008). Urbanization and

industrialization leads to new lifestyles and behavior which also affects waste composition

from mainly organic to synthetic material that last longer such as plastics and other

packaging material (Idris et al., 2004). E-waste that barely existed before was generated as

much as 20-50 metric tons a year (UNEP, 2006).

The management of waste become complex and the facilities provided cannot cope with

the increasing demand and needs. Therefore, best approach need to be implemented

immediately while considering environmental, social and economic aspects (Aye &

Widjaya, 2006). The drivers of sustainable waste management were clarified by Agamuthu

et al. (2009), which include human, economic, institutional and environment aspect. The

study suggests that each driving group should be considered in local context as managing

solid waste for a particular society may differ from the others.
For example, waste managers in Africa need to tackle some issues including, lack of data,

insignificant financial resources, vast different of amount and waste types between

and rural area, lack of technical and human resources, low level of awareness and cultural

aversion towards waste (Couth & Trois, 2010). On the other hand, problems faced among

Asian countries differ with two distinct groups; developed and developing countries. While

some of the countries are having specific national policy on solid waste management, some

others experience problems such as increasing urban population, scarcity of land, services

coverage area, inadequate resources and technology, and so on (Shekdar, 2009).

The differences in managing solid waste not only vary between countries but also among

areas in the same country. For instance, while Istanbul are having big improvement in their

solid waste management with the establishment of transfer stations, sanitary landfills and

methane recovery system, it does not reduce the problem in the Black Sea coast in Turkey.

This is caused by the complex topography, weak administrativestructures and the low

local’s income (Berkun et al., 2005).

Integrated Sustainable Waste Management (ISWM) system was then introduced in 1995 to

improve earlier system that neglect unique characteristics of a given society, economy and

environment (van de Klundert, 1999). For example, European countries had applied

various system assessment tools and engineering models to create sustainable

communities, manage resources efficiently, tapping innovation potential of the economy,

ensuring prosperity, environmental protection and social cohesion in their SWM system

(Pires et al., 2011). Asian countries had also given attention in building the national legal
frameworks, managing institutional, technology, operational and financial aspects, and

creating public awareness and participation (Shekdar, 2009).

The waste management system should be dynamic and continuous based on new insights

and experiences (van de Klundert, 1999). For example, continuous assessment of current

policy and regulatory framework of New Zealand indicated the lack of policies

coordination, hazardous waste management, consistency, incentives and markets for

recycled material, and cleaner production effort (Boyle, 2000). Thus, the improvement in

policy is needed while it will also benefit the country. As an example, based from EU25

group, it was found that the generation of waste is increasing and is expected to continue

for many years ahead. After the implementation of the new EU’s policy in waste recovery

and incineration, the amount of waste landfilled has been decreasing slowly (Mazzanti &

Zoboli, 2008).

However, based from the data from developed countries, the actual amount of waste been

landfilled is actually decreasing as more waste are incinerated, composted or recycled.

Looking at the positive angle, Lomborg (1998) believed that area needed is sufficient to

cater the total amount of waste generated by the world, but the problem is the location

since nobody wants to stay near landfills. He also reported that air from incinerators and

groundwater near landfills today are cleaner and safer. Therefore, solid waste generation

can be considered more of a political or social issue than others (Lomborg, 1998).

A lot of literature has discussed current practices, challenges and future solutions on waste

management such as those for India (Hazra & Goel, 2009), Portugal (Magrinho et al.,
2006), Canada (Wagner & Arnold, 2008) and Malaysia (Agamuthu et al., 2009). These

studies allow comparison to adopt the best practice wherever applicable

Waste Generation

Waste generation is the most important aspect to look at in order to have effective solid

waste management system. The generation of waste varies considerably between countries

based on the culture, public awareness and management (Hazra & Goel, 2009; Wagner &

Arnold, 2008; Magrinho et al., 2006).

Generally, developed countries generate more waste than developing countries

(Kathiravale & Mohd Yunus, 2008). Countries in Asian and African region produce waste

in the range of 0.21-0.37 tons/ capita/ year, while European countries generate higher

amount of waste with 0.38-0.64 tons/ capita/ year (Intergovernmental Panel on Climate

Change [IPCC], 2006).

The generation of waste is also reported to be associated with the economic status of a

country. In Asia, countries with higher GDP, namely Hong Kong and Japan were reported

to generate more waste compared to developing countries such as India, Vietnam and

Nepal (Table 2.1) (Shekdar, 2009). Waste composition from these countries also differs

where rural areas often produce more organic waste and fewer recyclable items (Idris et al.,

Table 1.1 Gross domestic index (GDP) and waste generation on selected Asian countries
Country GDP (PPP) per capita Waste generation
estimated for 2007(USD) (kg/capita/day)
Hong Kong 37 385 2.25
Japan 33 010 1.1
Singapore 31 165 1.1
Taiwan 31 040 0.667
South Korea 23 331 1.0
Malaysia 12 702 0.5-0.8
Thailand 9426 1.1
China 8854 0.8
Philippines 5409 0.3-0.7
Indonesia 5096 0.8-1.0
Sri Lanka 5047 0.2-0.9
India 3794 0.3-0.6
Vietnam 3502 0.55
Lao PDR 2260 0.7
Nepal 1760 0.2-0.5
Source: Shekdar, 2009

Developed countries are experiencing high waste generation while developing countries
always have problems with the implementation of the management system (Hazra & Goel,
2009; Bai & Sutanto, 2002). This includes weak enforcement, lack of technology and
ineffective policy implementation (Agamuthu et al., 2009). In detail, these countries
experience low and irregular collection of waste, uncontrolled of air and water pollution in
open dumping area, the breeding of flies and vermin, and the mismanagement of
scavenging activities (Latifah et al., 2009).

Looking at the waste generation trend of developed country, it is believed that other
transition and developing countries will experienced the same. Until recently, the
generation of waste is increasing and it is believed to continue rising. This is an issue of
concern for authorities all over the world. It is believed that the amount of waste
will continue to pile up the landfill and someday the land will not be able to receive
anymore waste .

Research Methodology
1. To study the new strategies for the reduction of waste from environment.
2. To study the advertising effectiveness towards Waste Management.
3. To analyze the awareness of society regarding Waste Management.
4. To help the society by giving them healthy environment by reduction of waste .

Research design
The Research available is descriptive so as to describe how waste is harmful for the environment.

Sources of Data collection

To do a research always we use sources of data collection. But according to the project I have used
both Primary and Secondary data.

Data source Primary (field survey)


Area of research India

Research Approach Survey Method

Research Instrument Questionnaire

Sample Unit All existing and potential customers

Random sampling
Sampling Method

60 units
Sample Size

Charts & percentage

Data Analysis:


Q 1. What type of service do you use for waste management in your organization?

Service Frequency Percent

Contractual 25 25
Self-Owned 35 35
Total 60 60

The same information is presented in the form of diagrammatically as follows:








Contractual Self-Owned

The information presented in table 1.2 reveals that:

 25 % of the customer use contractual services for waste management within the
organization and 35 % of the customer use Self-Owned service for waste
management within the organization.
Q 2. Does the waste management staff have job descriptions detailing their tasks ?

Staff Frequency Percentage

Yes 40 40
No 20 20
The same information is presented in the form of diagrammatically as follows:








Yes No

The information presented in table 1.3 reveals that:

 40% of the staff have job description regarding waste management and 20% of
the staff don’t have job description regarding waste management.
Q 3. What do you feel about waste reduction programs ?

Programs Frequency Percentage

Valuable 15 15
Waste Of Time 20 20
Unsure 25 25
Total 60 60

The same information is presented in the form of diagrammatically as follows:


Waste Of Time

The information presented in table 1.4 reveals that:

 15% of the customer think waste reduction programs are valuable , 20% of the
customer think waste reduction programs are waste of time , 25% of the
customer are unsure about waste reduction programs .
Q 4 . Would you be willing to purchase less throwaway products (such as, plastic bottles) to
reduce the amount of garbage you get rid of, if an alternative product of the same cost
was provided ?

The same information is presented in the form of diagrammatically as follows:

Products Frequency Percentage

Yes 35 35
No 20 20
Unsure 5 5
Total 60 60

20 Percentage

The information presented in table 1.5 reveals that:

 35 % of the people are ready for the non usage of plastic bags , 20% of the
people are not ready on the reduction of plastic bags and 5% of the people are
not sure .
Q 5. If you were paid for every plastic bottle that you returned to an organization, would
Participate in a program to return the plastic bottles ?

Paid Frequency Percentage

YES 45 45
NO 10 10
TOTAL 60 60

The same information is presented in the form of diagrammatically as follows:





0 10 20 30 40 50

The information presented in table 1.6 reveals that:

 45% of the people are ready to return the plastic bottles if they are getting paid
, 10% of the people said no as they are not interested in returning the bottles,
5% of the people think it is not possible.

Earth is the only planet in our solar system which can support life so it is very important
to save it from various waste hazards.

Thus, Waste management is of great concern to mankind as it affects the entire planet and
all its living creatures. Increasing amounts of wastes generated everyday is becoming a
major problem particularly in urban cities around the globe.

With the rapid growth of population, there has been a substantial increase in the
generation of solid waste resulting into the contamination of air , land and water

Human activities create waste, and it is the way these wastes are handled, stored, collected
and disposed of that pose risks to the environment and to public health.

Increasing of waste not only polluting the environment but also effects the human health which
Will cause skin disease, parasitic infections, lung infections and so on that’s why reduction of
Waste is important not only for environment but also for the human health.


 First , recommendation is that the people should be aware about their environment
As environment is providing us air if environment is polluted than it can effects the
Human health .

 Second , recommendations is that people should try to clean the waste from the
environment So that they can remain fit and free from the health issues caused by waste
created in the form Of solid, liquid and gas etc.

 Third , recommendations is Freeing Up Space by Bio-Mining: The city should recover

space from the dumping grounds by using Bio-remediation process.

 Fourth , recommendation is Development of Recycling Zone as reduction of waste is

Important for the environment .

 Fifth , recommendation is Waste-pickers: While the concept of dry-waste sorting centre

finds its mention in the rules. Local waste-pickers can benefit out of it as it can give
access to storage space and thus access to markets higher up the supply chain.

 Sixth , recommendation is Adherence to source segregation and processing of wet waste

at source: The draft DCR rules guides us to NATIONAL BUILDING CODE OF INDIA
which mentions at source processing of wet waste and the importance of source
segregation. Though this rule has been around for some time, we hardly see compliance
to it. The MCGM needs to detail the plans further to ensure that it surely happens. The
need for incentivizing (property tax reduction being one suggestion) and fining for non-
compliances need to be put in place.



Not single work is exception to the limitations every work has got its own limitations, so due to

time constraint, my study confines only to India and it is not possible to make extensive study. It

is assumed that the sample selected represents entire population.

a. Because of time constraint, my study confines only to India and it is not possible to
make extensive study.

b. By busy schedule of the individuals it is difficult to extract more information from


c. Unwillingness of Public has left us to make random conclusions.



1. WASTE MANAGEMENT Subhash Anand , Mittal Publications

2. E - Waste Rakesh Johri , TERI Press New Delhi (2008)


 Ministry of Environment, Forest Climate Change, Government of India


Dear Sir/Madam,

Please provide the below mentioned information:

Name: _______________________________________________________

Address: _______________________________________________________

Gender: Male [ ] Female [ ]

Question 1.) What type of service do you use for waste management in your organization?
Answer 1.)
 Contractual
 Self-owned

Question 2.) Does the waste management staff have job descriptions detailing their tasks?
Answer 2.)
 Yes
 No

Question 3.) What do you feel about waste reduction programs ?

Answer 3.)

 Important/Valuable
 Waste of time
 Unsure
Question 4.) Would you be willing to purchaselessthrowaway products (such as, plastic bottles)
to help reduce the amount of garbage you get rid of, if an alternative product of the same cost
was provided?
Answer 8.)
 Yes
 No
 Unsure

Question 5.) If you were paid for every plastic bottle that you returned to an organization, would
you participate in a program to return the plastic bottles?
Answer 9.)
 Yes
 No
 Not Poosible