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Transient Analysis of

AC Circuits
Transients
The time-varying currents and voltages
resulting from the sudden application of
sources, usually due to switching, are
called transients.

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 2


R-L Circuit
 Current Buildup Transients
For the simple R-L circuit the voltage differential
equation at the transient period is given by:

v(t) vR(t)  vL(t)


di(t)
v(t) Ri(t) L
dt
v(t) 2 V sin(t   v )
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 3
This Equation is a first order differential equation and
has a solution given by:

i(t )  iss (t )  itr (t )

Where:
iss(t) = the steady state current.
itr (t)= the transient current which is a decaying
current with time.
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 4
To get iss(t) we solve the circuit in steady state
conditions:
V  I ( R  JX L )  I Z
Z  Impedance ( R  JX L )  Z 
XL
Z  R  XL 2 2
  tan 1

R
V v V
I ss   ( v   )
Z  Z
V
iss (t )  2 sin(t   v   )
Z
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 5
The itr(t) could be assumed in the following form:

t /
itr  A e
Where :
A is a constant
L
 is the time constant and given by :  
R
t / 
i(t )  iss (t )  Ae
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 6
To get the constant ‘A’ we use the initial conditions
Let at t = 0 the current i(t) has an initial value of Io
V
I o  2 sin( v   )  A
Z
V
A  I o  2 sin( v   )
Z
Hence:
V V
i(t )  2 sin(t   v   )  {I o  2 sin( v   )}e t /
Z Z

vR (t )  R i(t ) vL (t )  v(t )  vR (t )
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 7
If Io= 0

V
A   2 sin( v   )
Z
Hence:

V V
i(t )  2 sin(t   v   ) { 2 sin(v   )}e t /
Z Z

vR (t )  R i(t ) vL (t )  v(t )  vR (t )
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 8
If (θv-φ) = 90 and τ >> T

If (θv-φ) = 0 then itr = 0


Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 9
 De-energizing Transients
For the simple R-L circuit the voltage differential equation
at the transient period is given by:

0  VR (t )  VL (t )
di(t )
0  Ri(t )  L
dt
This Equation is a first order differential equation and
has a solution given by:
t / 
i(t )  iss (t )  Ae
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 10
iss(t) =0
t /
i(t )  Ae
To get the constant ‘A’ we use the initial conditions
Let at t = 0 the current i(t) has an initial value of Io
t /
Hence:
o I A  i(t )  I e
o
VR (t )  R i(t )  VR (t )  RIoe t / 

VL (t )   VR (t )  VL (t )   RIoe t / 

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 11


R-C Circuit
 Capacitor Charging Equations
For the simple R-C circuit the voltage differential
equation at the transient period is given by:
v(t )  vR (t )  vc (t )
v(t )  Ric (t )  vc (t )
dvc (t )
v(t )  RC  vc (t )
dt
v(t) 2 V sin(t   v )
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 12
This Equation is a first order differential equation and
has a solution given by:

vc (t )  vss (t )  vtr (t )
Where:
vss(t) = the steady state voltage.
Vtr (t)= the transient voltage which is a decaying
voltage with time.

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 13


To get vss(t) we solve the circuit in steady state
conditions:
V  I c ( R  JX C )  I c Z
Z  Impedance ( R  JX C )  Z   
XC
Z  R  XC 2 2
  tan
1

R
V v V
I css   v  
Z   Z
icss (t )  2 I sin(t  v   )
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 14
Vss   J I css X C

vss (t )  2 I X c sin(t  v    90)

VX c
vss (t )  2 sin(t  v    90)
Z

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 15


The vtr(t) could be assumed in the following form:

t / 
vtr (t )  A e
Where :
A is a constant
 is thetimeconstantand given by :   RC

t / 
vc (t )  vss (t )  Ae
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 16
To get the constant ‘A’ we use the initial conditions

Let at t = 0 the voltage vc(t) has an initial value of Vo

VX c
Vo  2 sin( v    90)  A
Z
VX c
A  Vo  2 sin( v    90)
Z

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 17


VX c
vc (t )  2 sin(t   v    90) 
Z
VX c t / 
{Vo  2 sin( v    90)}e
Z
dvc (t )
ic (t )  C
dt
vR (t )  v(t )  vC (t )  ic (t ) R
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 18
If Vo = 0

If (θv+φ) = 0 and τ >> T


Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 19
 Capacitor Discharging Equations
For the simple R-C circuit the voltage differential
equation at the transient period is given by:
0  vR (t )  vc (t )
0  Ric (t )  vc (t )
dvc (t )
0  RC  vc (t )
dt
This Equation is a first order differential equation and
has a solution given by:
t / 
vc (t )  vss (t )  Ae
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 20
vss (t )  0
t / 
vc (t )  Ae
To get the constant ‘A’ we use the initial conditions

Let at t = 0 the voltage vc(t) has an initial value of Vo

Vo  A
t / 
Hence: v (t ) V e
c o
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 21
dVc (t )
ic (t )  C
dt
 Vo t /
ic (t )  e
R
vR (t )   VC (t )  ic (t ) R

t /
vR (t )  Voe
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 22
R-L-C Circuit
For the simple R-L-C circuit the voltage differential
equation at the transient period is given by:

v(t )  vR (t )  vL (t )  vc (t )
di(t ) 1
v(t )  Ri(t )  L   i(t ) dt
dt C
v(t) 2 V sin(t   v )
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 23
di(t ) 1
v(t )  Ri(t )  L   i (t ) dt
dt C
2
di(t ) d i (t ) 1
v (t )  R
\
L 2
 i (t )
dt dt C
This Equation is a second order differential equation
and has a solution given by:

i(t )  iss (t )  itr (t )


Where:
iss(t) = the steady state current.
itr (t)= the transient current which is a decaying
current with time.
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 24
To get iss(t) we solve the circuit in steady state
conditions:
V  IR  J I X L  J I XC
V  I ( R  JX L  JX C )  I Z
Z  R  J ( X L  X C )  Z 
X L  XC
Z  R  (X L  XC )2 2
  tan
1

R
Vv V
I  v  
Z  Z
V
iss (t )  2 sin(t  v   )
R  (X L  XC )
2 2
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 25
• To get itr(t) we solve the homogeneous
differential equation.
• The homogeneous differential equation is
obtained by setting the forcing function to zero.
2
ditr (t ) d itr (t ) 1
0 R L 2
 itr (t )
dt dt C
d 2itr (t ) R ditr (t ) 1
2
  itr (t )  0
dt L dt LC
This equation has a general solution with the form:

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 26


• K1, K2 are constants determined by initial conditions
(capacitor voltage and inductor current).
• S1 and S2 are the roots of the characteristic equation:
R 1
S  S
2
0
L LC
S  2n S    0
2 2
n

1
n   naturalfrequency
LC
R C
   dampingratio
2 L
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 27
 2 n  4   4 2 2 2

S1, 2  n n

S1   n  n   1 2

S 2   n  n   1 2

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 28


1. Overdamped case

If ζ > 1, the roots of the characteristic equation


are real and distinct. Then the solution is

itr t   K1e  K2e s1t s2t

In this case, we say that the circuit is


overdamped.

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 29


2. Critically damped case

If ζ = 1, the roots of the characteristic equation


are real and equal. Then the solution is

itr t   K1e  K2te s1t s1t

In this case, we say that the circuit is


critically damped.

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 30


3. Underdamped case

if ζ < 1, the roots of the characteristic


equation are complex. In other words, the
roots are of the form

S1   n  Jd
S2   n  Jd
d  n 1   2

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 31


For complex roots, the solution is of the form:

itr t   K1e nt


cosd t   K2e nt
sind t 

In this case, we say that the circuit is


underdamped.

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 32


4. Undamped case

if ζ = 0 (R=0), the roots of the characteristic


equation are imaginary. In other words, the
roots are of the form

S1  Jn
S 2   Jn

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 33


For imaginary roots, the solution is of the form:

itr t   K1 cosnt   K2 sinnt 

In this case, we say that the circuit is undamped


or oscillatory.

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 34


Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 35
R-L-C Circuit
For the simple R-L-C circuit the voltage differential
equation at the transient period is given by:

dvc (t )
i (t )  c
dt

v(t )  vR (t )  vL (t )  vc (t )
2
dvc (t ) d vc (t )
v(t )  RC  LC  vc (t )
dt dt
v(t) 2 V sin(t   v )
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 36
2
dvc (t ) d vc (t )
v(t )  RC  LC  vc (t )
dt dt

This Equation is a second order differential equation


and has a solution given by:

vc (t )  vss (t )  vtr (t )
Where:
vss(t) = the steady state voltage.
vtr (t)= the transient voltage which is a decaying
voltage with time.
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 37
To get vss(t) we solve the circuit in steady state
conditions:
V  IR  J I X L  J I XC
V  I ( R  JX L  JX C )  I Z
Z  R  J ( X L  X C )  Z 
X L  XC
Z  R  (X L  XC )2 2
  tan
1

R
Vv V
I  v  
Z  Z
V
iss (t )  2 sin(t  v   )
R  (X L  XC )
2 2
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 38
Vss   J I ss X C

vss (t )  2 I X c sin(t  v    90)

VX c
vss (t )  2 sin(t  v    90)
Z

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 39


• To get vtr(t) we solve the homogeneous
differential equation.
• The homogeneous differential equation is
obtained by setting the forcing function to zero.
2
dvtr (t ) d vtr (t )
0  RC  LC  vtr (t )
dt dt
2
d vtr (t ) R dvtr (t ) 1
  vtr (t )  0
dt L dt LC
This equation has a general solution with the form:

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 40


• K1, K2 are constants determined by initial conditions
(capacitor voltage and inductor current).
• S1 and S2 are the roots of the characteristic equation:
R 1
S  S
2
0
L LC
S  2n S    0
2 2
n

1
n   naturalfrequency
LC
R C
   dampingratio
2 L
Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 41
 2 n  4   4 2 2 2

S1, 2  n n

S1   n  n   1 2

S 2   n  n   1 2

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 42


1. Overdamped case

If ζ > 1, the roots of the characteristic equation


are real and distinct. Then the solution is

vtr t   K1e  K2e s1t s2t

In this case, we say that the circuit is


overdamped.

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 43


2. Critically damped case

If ζ = 1, the roots of the characteristic equation


are real and equal. Then the solution is

vtr t   K1e  K2te s1t s1t

In this case, we say that the circuit is


critically damped.

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 44


3. Underdamped case

if ζ < 1, the roots of the characteristic


equation are complex. In other words, the
roots are of the form

S1   n  Jd
S2   n  Jd
d  n 1   2

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 45


For complex roots, the solution is of the form:

vtr t   K1e nt


cosd t   K2e nt
sind t 

In this case, we say that the circuit is


underdamped.

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 46


4. Undamped case

if ζ = 0 (R=0), the roots of the characteristic


equation are imaginary. In other words, the
roots are of the form

S1  Jn
S 2   Jn

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 47


For imaginary roots, the solution is of the form:

vtr t   K1 cosnt   K2 sinnt 

In this case, we say that the circuit is undamped


or oscillatory.

Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 48


Transient of AC Circuits Dr. H.H. Hanafy 49