Anda di halaman 1dari 549

'I

MULT VA tABlE
-
CAlCUlUS

C. HENRY EDWARDS
The Uni,·ersity of Georgia, AtlrellS

DAVID E. PENNEY
The Uni,·ersity of Georgia, Athens

"THIS TITLE WAS ORIGINALLY PUBLISHED


CO~TAI~Ii\" G SOFTWARE THAT IS NO LONGER
AVA! LADLE ."

I)n·nt .I!'P Prentice Hall. Upper Saddle River, New Jersey 07458

- lla ll
LI CEN SE AGREE ME NT
YOU SHOULD CAREFUU.Y RE '\0 TilE FOLLO
PACKAGE. AMOI"G OTHER ntt~GS. TillS Wli'G TE R~IS ASD CO:"DITIOI'S BEFORE BREAIW\0 THE SEAL 0:-1 TI~E
WARRA!'rTY AND LIABILln' ' 1\GR EE~IE:O.'T UCf:SSES Til E E~CLOSEDSOFTV,rARE TO YOU AI'W CO:O.'TAL'iS
AGREE I:"G TO TilE TER\IS A~~~~~~ ~rJ· !JY AREAKII"G TilE S"t\1. 0:-.1 THE P,\CKAGE. YOU ARE ACCEIYfiNG AND
61
AGREE.\I E!I.T. DO SOT BREAk TilEs' EAL l'S OF TI~IS AGREE.\tEJioT. lf YOU DO NOT AGREE TO TilE TERMS OF TillS
YOU SHOULD PROMPTLY RETURN TilE PACKAGE USOPENEO.
I.ICE~SE.

Subj«t ro rhr provisions CO<'llair.rd herr· Pr · H


object rode •en.ion olthe com • 1 f In, enttCr · all, Inc. ("PI!") her< by lf'•ntJ to )OU • no n..:xclusi•·e. non·tunsleuble hcensc to U!l<' rhe
package. pu 0150 1"' 310 pro<luct ("S()Itware") contatned tn rhe package on a •ingle computer of theryre identified on the

SCWI'\\ARF. .\~llllOCIJ~t F.:O.'TATIO~.


PH shall furnish the Soft,.·~rero you o n m d ' · h' · ·
("Documentat' n") . . . . • •• •n mac •nc·read•ble object code form and may also pro•ide rhe stnndard documentatio n
to conumtng tnstructtons lor opet.auon and use o lrhe Sotrw>rt.
I.I Ct: I"SC 'I f-:1( \1 .\~11 C'IL\IH:t:~.
The term of this !kens. commenc«
st"t forth herein . . u ron d t rll't'f)
· · 0 f t he So (lv.--arc IO you lnd 1.·1 ('C'tpctUJJ unkH CUhCr
· 1Cm1Jn31Ccj
· ·
Upon l.1d4Julr Ot 35 OlheN'J<•

'fl'l LE.
T}tlc, and o,.ntn.h~p tl~ht, ond intellcctu31 propertyrigha in and ro the So!twar< and DocumcntJ llon •h•ll rcm•m in Pll ond'or~n •urphcn to PI!
~ ~rogr:u~~.ctlnt:uncd !"the Soft .. or~. The SofttA JJ rt i' provided for your own intnnaJ UW! under chi~ liccn~c:. Tlu~ r:cen<r doc< nor rnclude rhe
n g. t 10 su lttnsc and J.S ('t'nonJito you .:\nd therefore may no t he assignt d (b)' ore ration or law o r othcr"'i~e) or tr~anderred ~ 1thout t he prior
"hnuc:n ron:>Cnl or PH. You itcknowlrd~ tlut tht Sort'tll'lrt in sour~ cod~ form rem:~ in:_' .a confidt•niJ31 rr.1dc S<Crctllf PIt JnJ-or us 'upplu:rs and
~r~~dorc: you~ agree not IO aucmpt lO deciphe~ or decompile, mod1r)·. dt<J3~~o~mb!e, rcvcn.c cng.inctr o r rr..:rJrc deu'"Jil\C: ~Aoorks or t~e Soft.,.,ar~ or
c lo p !>our..:c code for the Sort ware or knowmg.ly allow o thers to do~). Further. you may no1 copv the Dt"-'u mcnt.H ton or other v.rurcn malcnai<J
a.cxump.1n)1ng lhe S...1h\o\;ue. •
UI' I I.\Tt~ .

This hcen~ doc:s.not ~rant )·ou.an> right. hcen"C, o r interr)t 1n and 10 any impro\cmc:nts. moditicatiOM. cnhanc~:mcnt~ ur upc.Jatcs 1o rhe SoftwJtrc
and Do.:umcnt.1.tton. UpJ.Ht~ 1f lJ\'atl.lhlc, rna~· be obt:tincd by ) OU a t Pit's then currcnl standard pncing.. 1c rms. and ronda lions.
U~IIH:U \\ .\KK \:-;'1'\' A:-;lllli~CL.\1\I.:Il .
PH .warraMs tha11hc m cd1:\ contammg the Soft\lloJre. if rre'l\ided by I'll. is frtc from de(C'C'IS in m~u:n:31 and .... ort mm,hir undt"r normal U'< for a
("Cnod Of )1:\l)' (60) dli>"S fro m I he: d:He ) OU purch:l~eJ 31icenSC 10 it.
TillS IS A LI~IITF.IJ \\'ARRA:"-T Y A :"-'I) rr IS 'II IE 0:-o.'LY WARI~,\:"-'TY ~lAlli'. BY I'H . Til E SOIT\\'ARE IS I'HO \ ' IDEIJ 'AS IS' A:"o'D
Pll SI'ECIFICALI.Y OISC"LAI~I S ,\l.L W,\RRAI' ri ES OF t\ ....-\· 1< 1:-o.'ll, EIIIIER EX I'RESS OR l.\11'1 u: D I'Cl.L'IJIS G. Btn· I'OT
U~IITED TO. Til E 1~1PI .II:D \\'AHRAi'-"1 Y Of' ~lEIU'IIM' rA BILI 11' A:"ll FIT:o.; l ~<; FOil A p,\f( 11<1 ' t.A R PI ' Rf'O'i l" FlfHTI IER.
CO.\!I'ASY DOF<; :"-'OT \\,\ llRA:"o'T. ca ',\1(,\:-o.'TY O R ~1,\ KI' t\:-:Y HFPR r:~E:"o'TATIO:"o'S ll FC;ARDf'\(; Ti fF ! '~f. OR T il E
RESt.:U S OF Til F. l.'SE . OF TIIF SOFI \\'AR F IS Tl· R.\ IS 01 f'ORRI'<.T:"-'I· •iS, A<"Cl' R;\I"Y. REI lAB II 11 Y. Ct ' )(RE:"-'1 ;o.."ES. O R
0'11 I E RWI ~E AS U !JOE:~ ~OT WARRA:"o'T T il AT Till · OPE RA'riO:"o 01- ,\:-JY SOl T\\',-\RE \\ Ill. UE l :'ool:"o'T [R KUI' I I.D OR
ERRO R fR E I; CO~If'A:"o'Y EXI'I\i;SSLY IJISCLA I~IS A:-I Y \\ARRAI"TIES ;-.JOT ~ I A l'lollll EIU: I:-.. ;oo.u ORAL Ill( \\' 1{ liTE:"-'
I~FOR~l,\ no...- OR t\0\ ' ll'f C.f \ ' 1':-o.' ll Y I'll. OR A:"o'Y I'll l>E1\lf:ll. ,\ GI: ST E~ll'l OYI ·I' 0 1\ < 1 rt!Eil~ SII,\ I.L C II EA !'E. ~IOD!f'Y
OR E XTE'\0 A \\'ARR i\:"'11' OR IS ,\;-.IY W,\Y ll'o:CRE ;\ SE Till' SCOI'E 01· Tllf: I ORI'CiO ISG WARR ,\:'ooTY. i\SIJ Sr:lnlf:R
SC'OLICE~ SE E Qf.( P URC IJASl: R ~1,\ Y R ELY ON A:o-.. Y ~L'CH l:" fO I-< \IA'l H )S 01-t ;\OVI('J;. If ch ... meJt:• i.;. cuhjc c.· tr • l hl."'CCu.lenL abu~.
or 1mpropcr U)<. m 1f >"u '- •oLue I he lcTm' uf thi' A~rccmc nL rhen 1h" w:arranty ~h.1ll immcd1atrly he lt.•rrninalcc.l. llai'i warranty t.h:.ll nflt apply if
the Soh 'olio .tfc •~ u~i.J on ur tn <OnJUtH:t•on v.uh hardv.uc or prograrm o:.hcr lh.Jr. the unmod1.ricd \ Cnioo ttf h3rd".l" and program\ 14Uh -. tucb 1hc
Sohw.1 rr " 'a\ d c-~ i gnt:d 10 he UM"d :u dc~nhc:d in the Documcnt.uio n.
U \11 rAI Ill' or 1.1 \IIIII 1\.
Your wle and e .• clu'il\t.' tC"mcdtcs for any duma~e or loss in ony way connected " ith tht Sol1ware arc S<"l for th htlu,..· U SDER :"0
CIRCt:~lS'f ,\:"o'CI:S ,\~D t.:S!JIJ H NO LEGAL 1'11EOHY. TOHT. CO;-.ITI(A("T. OR OTI IEHWISE. Slft\LI. I1H llF. LIAOLE m YOU OR
A~Y OTIIf.H PER SO:" I OR ASY I:"IJIRELT. SI'ECIAL ISC'IDE:"-I AL. O il CON~ EOIJE:"o"IIAL llA \I AGES OF ,\:"'IY t 'IIARAC I"ER
JSCI.t;DISG. \\'ITI IOIJT 1.1\l iTATfO;-.J, 1),\~tAr.I'S FOR LO~S OF (;()00\\'II.L. LOSS OF f•ROI I 1'. \\'O RI: HOI 'I'r\GI ~ ('O~II 'UTER
FAILl' RE OR ~IAI.rt : sr noro;, O il ,\ :"o'Y A:"o'D o\1.1. O'I'I IF.Il CO ~IM F RClt\1 . O,\~I A<>ES O R I.OSSfS. Oi; FClR t\SY 0 Il l ER
DA~IAGES E\'E." IF PH \IIAlll fAVI; IIEES I:"J'OR~lEO OF TilE I'<>SSIIII UTY 0 1· Sl 'C'II llA ~I AGf~. OR I'OR A:"Y CLAI\l llY
A~Y O'JII ER PAR f'Y. I' H'S n IIHO l'AR f"Y PROG RA.\1 ~L' I'f'LII:HS MAl< I :"-'0 WARH,\ ' 'T'r'. A:"ll H ,\\'E ~0 I I Mill I'll'
" 'H A TSOEVER. ·r() YOU I'l l '~ ,ofc: .anJ c u :Ju' '\'C ot-hg.tluu\ ~tnJ habi!icy anJ ) "U I c~cJu,,\·c: r~mcd~ sh.dl f\c Ut''" I'll '~ c h..·'tt'"n. ( I ) thc-
rcpl.lCC'mcnl of >our ddccii'C' mcdta. or (nl 1h~ u·p .. ar "r C~uucc-uon of ynur J~fcC'II'Io'C mcd1 .1 1f I'H i' abk. "' th.llll"•ll "·,•ult•rm tu the a~l'lo·e
• ·arrant\": o r ( 1i 1) if Pll 1s un:tNC' t(' re place o r rcp~ur . ~·uu m,1\ tcrrmno:Hc thl'lo hcen\oC hy r~lummg the Soft W~> . uc Onh 1fyou mf~m1 l'll (•! ' ''ur
p-rohferri d unng the .:rpphc.ahlt .... arrrt nry pcnod 'ti\1ll PII he ohhy.at~o·d lo honur l ht'i ~·arranry You may conucr Plf " ' tnh,rm PI I nr !he r n..;hlcm ss
folio,...:
SOM E STATES OR JURI SUIC.TIO~S DO SOT AllOWTI_IE EXCLIJSIO ;-.i ~F I~!PUF.D WAHRA:O.'TIES OR LIMITATIO:" OR
EXCLUSIOS OF CO~Sf:C)UESTIA L IJAMAOES. SO l11E ABOVE l.I~IITA r!ONS O R EXCLUS I()NS MAY I'OT APPLY TO YOU
nus WARR1\:0.'lY G IVES YOU Sl'f:C IF IC LEO AI. RIG HTS AND YOU ~lAY ALSO HAVE OTIIEH lUG! ITS WIIICII VARY BY
STATE OR I URIS rJICT10S
~ ~~~ n:l.l ..·\ w .m.:s.
11 an~ pron\ tn-r1 o f rhi1 Avccm~nt l i h-e-~ robe iD<Ifccti,·c. un.e nfntceJhk, '"' ilkg,a!l under tcrui!1 circum.;:tnnc!''. frw any r~t''""· ' U4:h dec1, ,0n
shall not ::street the \!lllllJtry or enrorccabilll y (1) or \ UCh provt,uJn unt..ltr other orcum\t,1nct'\ nr (u) nf rh~ rtm.untnJ rro'lol\IUI111i hert'of ul'kkr :~If
atcu.nnunce' anc.J •uch pu.1v1\lon \hl111 he rcfurrnc..J lo ;mJ unly tn the c:11rm necn"'uy tu rn:1k~ 11 dfccttve,l"nforC't:tt'llc, a nt.J lc~al um.h:r ~tH'h
ClfCUIU\IOit"lC~'\. All hcoatfmg'\ .lit' wJcJ-.. (or COOIIoenJ.C!'KC .and \ h ,iJJ Ot)l he CHI1\1Je rcd I ll lniC f'I'ICIIIlg tht'i t\~fC.'Cml"MI. rhaS t\F:tCCmc nt )flafl t'C"
B.O'' t"mrd hy ant.J con~trved under :--.·c.,. Yurk l.t.w ~u~h •••'* 11pplu~' to a~r<>emcnh t'Ch~t:C'n. ~r:w Ym ~ t~'loulenh rntcrt"J inh• .a:td ht l"tc pcrfOfmC'd
J.'
cnurcl\' V~>,lhin l'cw Yu rk. C: '1 Ccp1 a'i requ1rcd by t J.S (,o., etnmcnc rulr\ anJ rq:ul ..111vn' luI~ l(t.n crncd h~ I r+.krall., ...
YOU AC KSOWL EOuE TIMT YOt.: II AVE REM> 1111S t\ uREEMf:!'.T.lJNilERSTANO IT. AND A(iR EI. '10 BE HOUND BY ITS
TERM S A_;,D CO:"o'[)ITIO:"-S. ym; Fl; RTJIER AGREE n!AT IT IS THE C0~1 1'LfiTr: ASD EXO.l JSI\ 'E STi\TEME:"-T O~ 111[
AGREE\.! EST BETWEES US TI!Al' St.:I'ERSEOES ANY PRO I'OSAl OR PRIOR AG REEM E:O.T. ORA l. O R WRr!IES. ASD A:"o'Y
()Til E R .CO.MMUS ICATIO"S BE~ Ef:~ US RELATING TOT! IE SUUJECf MAlTER OF THIS AGREf:ME!IoT.
L'. '\. c;on;H .'IO~tt;:-o.·r Ht:S.I KIC'TI.II IUI;!IIS.
U duphcauon o< da.clo~<Urt bv the Go•·trnment is •ul>J<CI to r<>tricrion• "'"forth 1n •ul>pongnph• (a) throug.h (d) o f tht Commercial
a:;p<Jttr·Rcstl'lcted Raglm dJusc Jt FAR 52-"21· 19 ,.hen appliable. or in wbp>ra~p/1 (<) (I )(ii) ol the R•&J>t11n TedlniCII D11> anJ
Computer Soft wore cl•u..:: ar OFI\RS 251.227-7013. and in Stmtbr clauses 1n the NASA FAR Supplt,.,nt.
61-D-F12 S20.00 IS JS.OOJ
M ulrivariablc Calculus ...
Edwards and l'cnncy
fdllor in Chirr; S.tlt~ Y.tjt.tn
;\C't,ui,iriun t -dltnr: Ci ~mp: Luhcll
\ 'in· p, ..,jd..·hiiUirt•t'lltf ur f'rudut1iun •n•l ~bnuraC'I urinr. O a\·id \ V Rtec-ardt
t-: urutht• ~h1111;tin1: I ditur: K:Hhlccn Sdu~ra rc lh
Sl"niHr \humtins: J·:ditur: I tnJrt ~1th:Hm JkhrC'n'
.-\''hh1n1 ""'"' J:int: • dh ur: H.t\ ,lnt Ml'llll••/,1 de l.cnn
l 'rudUt"liun f:ditur: k.IIUh: ,\ u(itnn
"''1-.t:mt \lun:a~int: hlhm, ~htlh ~h·cli~o~ Jlmdurtiun: Jl•hn M atthc ~o~o•s
Media l'rfHhu:-r iun 1-.dilu,...: Dtmn.t ('nil~·. Wendy f'crc1.
1\lanur:.t'lurina: Uu_
,,.,: ' ' '·'n ,.,.... ht•r
1\bnur:u:rurinse l\1nno~~l"r: ll thh l't"4'10tll
~htrLt• tinc ,\11.1tl.ll.!t' r : ,\n ~~· J,, 1 ~ .-• tlk
1\l~tl.d iuJ; A ....i~ t ;UII : U.h hd th.-:l.man
Ut'H' IHjJIIU,' III ldilur: J J \ 1111111.111
t:dirur in Chid. U r ,t·lutUHl'nl: C.nnl fruc:h('a l1
:\'i\l,lanl bhrm uf M C"tl i ~: \'u11.c 110"'('11
t" dituri o~t ,\HI .. I .. n tr' llpplr lllt'rlh f dihJr: ~1 cl. ln1C Van u~nlhtl)~"

,\ rl t Jin.·~·h,r: J,•H,,I h.tn l it•\ I.HI


J\""~"'lant tu lhl' \U llir"''1.ur: John (1ui~l.r,na
l nh•ritn I h•"'illn,•r: J).•t111,1 'hJUng
(_' uH' t lh."'ilo:nt•r: Urut·"· t\cnfo4:1.ur
r\rt t:ditur: ThfiCll.t .. flt·nf.•tt•
~bn:~.eint: Ftfil•r. ,\uditJ\'idt••• ''"'"'f't'= GD« 1-fazeldme
Crrafht• U in·t·fur. Cuc•lt• t \ :10.00
Uir«tur or t ·t('.,thc ~«'" r, in..: P.tul Bd!Jnll
Phtlln Kt""t";,t,'trr. K .t~t· n Jtu,:_h.tth'
Phufu b t itt•r.lk lh f"'~LI
Anh•rU\l MJrtlnclh Ar.:hc Ut Ll ~ r~n~. Su.n..et \"iev. -Pnis.. Arch. J. 0 . Spre('"kdstn·P. Andreu
Co• co-r J'huro:
!J.I, 1J C.rhJdu~ l)lt• AIIIIJ:hl' H!'I.Cf\ctl
DacL (.'1Hrr Jlht,fu: ( 'uy o l ;\II " nJ Sctcnt't"~ \'o~IC"nt.'IJ, [,fl.Jft.t. ll.ubara Uurg; Oh"cr Schuh/P~IIatJ.ium P1:w:uodcsian Co• G nmany.
t'> •
Art Srudju: 1'\c:l•urk Gro~phto

(£; 20Ul by l'rcnrkc·ll,oll. Int.


Urf"'r Saddle Rover. :-cw JcN!y 07~5$

All righb rc:\,CI\('d No p.u1 uf lhi) t\i~tlk rn:ay


t"'.! rcprnduc.·c:d, ln .ul) fcum or t1 y an) rntJIIl\.
""'thoul ~rii!C il rcrnll'l'iio n fWnl lhc puhh,ht"f,

Pnnh:d 111 chc Uni1cd SIJIC'~ tlf Am\!nca


10'11(7 65 ~3

ISBN 0-13-033967-9
Pcnr..o n Educatu·n r:rn .
P.:a rwn E<.lucnroon Auwaloa 1"1 Y. unurcd
Pcflf\Hn Educahon SIOg.1por~. l'tc Lad.
Pearwn E<.lucarim J'orrlo A >l• lrd.
p arwn F.ducatnJO Dna..t.1. ltd
P:anon f.,Jucacwn de ~tc.a•cu. SA. d.: C. V.
Pcanon E.Jucoroon-J>pJn
PeaNOO E4ucauo• M•l•Y"•· Pic. Ltd.
I
..........
>

MULTIVARIABLE CALCULUS
CONTENTS

ABOUT Ti l E AUTHORS xi
PREFACE
xiii

1 CHAPTER 1 FUN CTIONS, GRAPHS, AND MODELS 1


I. I l'tiii<: I HH h a nd ~la lh..: malicill\loddin t: ..,
~ PROJECT: i\ Squar..: Wadin~ l'llol II
1.'2 ( ira p i" o f Eq ua l ion' and Func lion~ 12
.() PROJECT: t\ ll r.. L..._.n T'"'" 2~
1.3 1',•1 ~ 1111n11al' a nd 1\l~eh ra ic Funclion' 24
~ PROJECT: i\ l.ea nin!-! Ladder ;\J
1.·1 Tra ll " '''lld <.' nlal h uK iion' 33
~ PROJECT: 1\ Sphc r ic:•l J\ ,t.· roid .t~
l _'i l're• ;,." . \\'ha l I• C';llcu lu, '! .t5
1•• , ~""' •• ,. REVIEW: J)l'finiliun' mul C nnl"l'p ls -'II

1 CHAPTER 2 PRELU DE TO CALCULUS 53


2. 1 Tall!!•'lll l .in..,, and Slop.: Prcdiclur:- :i.t
I •r----------, ~ PROJECT: Numcrictl Slope lnve~l igal ion~ 63
2.:! ' llte l .in111 Cunrepl fl."l
~ PROJECT: 1.111111' Slo p.:s. and l.ogarillun' 7-t
,... , ...... ,, .
)
0,.
~

.

) .-
\
' .
I \
J
, ,
!\l u re '" " " '' Lim it' 75
~ PROJECT: Numerical Ep,ilon -Ddta Limil
l ll• e,li)!alion' X7
I ' ll1e ( 'unn ·pr ol C'un linuily XX
uL---:~~~~~~
ltO, I t ,::~ ,,~1 REVI EW: J)l'finiriun,, Cunt'l'lll,, J(t•,ul t~ JIJ
1

l CHAPTER 3 THE DERIVATIVE 101


3.1 '1h,· I kr i v~ l i\'1.' :u11l Rar e' of C'hang.: 1112
J2 11."1.: llifkr.: ll li.ll inll l( ulc' 115
J.J 'll u: Cha in H ulo.: I :!h
J..l t>.:ri\al hn of 1\lgc hraic Function' 1:\3

v
vi CONTENTS

3.5 Maxima and ~linima of Functions on Clo~.:d l ntcn·als 142


0 PROJECT: Wh.:n J;; Your Coff<:c Cup Stahl.:~!"~ ISO
3.6 ,\ppla..:d Optimi7atinn Prot>l.:ms 15:!
3.7 D.:ri,·:tll\ .:.; of Tri!!onomctric Functions I (,5
3.S Succc:"ivc.: t\ppn•.xim:lli<lll> and 1'\..:wto n's ~lt:thod 176
[j PROJECT: Jl o" Dt:<: p o~,t:~ :1 Floa t in,!! Ball S ink? I ~S
REVIEW: 1-'mmula,., Concepts. lkfiniti un ~ l li9

I CH~\PT[ R 4 ADDITIO:-.:AL APPLICATIONS OF THE DERIVATIVE 193

.t.l lmplrcll I un.:u"n' :JOJ R.:J.,t..:d Rat.:' I'M


.:.·· PROJECT: ln'r:,ti)!atin)! th ..: Fc>lrum c•f D..:~ca rtc.:' 203
IS 4.2 lnc:r..:mc: nh. J>,:fc.: rc: nti ab.. anJ Linea r 1\pprn'<imation 20-1

I .t.:l lnrr,·a,lll!! and lkcr..:a;;ing function~ .utd tit.: 1\h:an
I
J
I , .aht ,· · n~ ,·· .r,·m :! 1:!
4 ..1 ·1111.: I ir, t lkm•;Jii vc: ' li:·a and t\ pplicatio n' .,,..,
). ~ \,/
~ \.
~~ PROJEC T: 1-.l.tking ;t Candy Box \\'ith Lid 2.12

--
) ;:

l .-··/ ,tj Sim plc: Cunc.: SJ....-t.:hing 2.12

\ v ·1.6 ll i)!h..: r lkrivati'..:' and Concavity 2.12


- _,,
< 4.7 Cun..: Sl..o.:ll:hing anJ ,\,~ mpt c•t..:~ 15(•
- ' -l 1
" .{:'t PROJECT: Locating Spccial Point\ on Exotic Graphs 267
REVIEW: Ddi uit inn,, Cunn·pt'- Rl·,uJI, 267

I CHAPTER 5 THE INTEGRAL 271


:i. l Inr rud uction ~72
5.2 i\ntilkrivativo.:s and Ini tial Value Problems 272
5.:1 Ekmcnt:.ry Area Comrutation.; 2S6
SA l{i l·mann Sum~ and the lntcgral 29S
0 PROJECT: Calculatn nCo mputcr Ri.:mann Sums
55 Ev:tlu;·u ion of lntc t-:ral~ ~0~ .
5.6 llt.: Fundamental'lltcorcm of Calculus J IS
5.7 lnlcj:r:llinn l>y Suh~ritutinn 32S
5$ 1\ro.:a~ nf I'Jan,· R.:,.::illllS ~-~6
5.9 1'\unll:ri,·al lnll'<!r:ll i<m ~~6
z_, PROJECT: Tra p,·~t•ili:Jl and SimiJsort
• • •
\ JlJ'Hl.Xtlll:J
• 1 . ttOns.
359
REVIEW: Ucluutwns. Cmu:q us, ltt·~ult~ 361 ·

I CHAPTER 6
APPLICATIONS OF THE INTEGRAL
365
fd Riemann Sum Appro., imations J66
6.2 Vol umes by th..: ~1.::t hod o r Cross Sections
376
CONTENlS vii

11.3 Volume~ hy th.: l\kthod of Cylindncal Shell~ 31'17


PROJECT: n~:,ig n Yo ur Owu l{in t:! 395
6 .4 Arc l.l' llt: th and Surfac.: Area of Revolution 396
6.5 Fort·.: and Work -105
II.(• C~:ntroi J~ of l'l anc Rq:i<m' anJ Curv.:~ -I If•
REVIEW: l>clinitiun, Cn n('\' fJ"· Jt c, nlt' .l23

I
CHAPTER 7 CALCULUS OF TRANSCENDENTAL FUNCTION S -127
7.1 Expon e ntial and Logarithmic Funct i••n ~ -12X
~ PROJECT: f) i,cmcrint: t he l"umhc r ,. fur Yourself 4J I
7.2 lntlctcrnuna tc h>nlh and ! .'ll i•pital'' l{ulc -I-ll
7.:. ~h•rc l mkterminatc Form' -1 -l')
7.-l 'll1c :"a t ural Lll):.ll ll hm '" a n l nlct:ra l ..155
PROJECT: Natural Functiona l E<tua tions 461)
7.5 ln , cr'c Tri )!<HHinH: tr ic Function~ -167
7.6 I 1\ pcrlhlli ~: Fu1h:ti'm' -177
REVIEW: Furm ul n, , Cunn•p t,, J) l'finitiun' .u!S

ICHAPTER 8 TECHNIQUES OF INTEGRATION 489


S. l lnt rotluc t1nn -l'Xl
K2 lnh:!,:ral 'lahk' and Simph: Suh,titutiml" -l1Xl
l ntl')!ration hy l';•rt" -1'14
Tri)!o1hllllc t ric lnt.:!,:ra l' 5111
x.s Rational Fun ct•• •11' ;~ ntl Partia l Fra ction' 51~'\
SJ, Tri gon<Hil•' tri c Suh,tit uti on 5 I 5
8.7 lntc.cral< ln \'nhml!. Ou.1dratic p,,hnomials
. 52 1
~.s l mprop.:r l ntq:ral' 5:!o
S urnrnur~ !'.W

I CHAPTER 9 DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS 5<15


9 .1 Simpk· Equatro:1' and ~ l o.l.:l< :'i4f•
•J.:! Slop.: Fa..:ld' .uu.l Eukr'' f-kthliJ :'i5X
~ PROJEC T: I ·.. mt•ut,·r·A,,i<tnl SlllJX' Fic l<h and
Eul,·r ·, ~kt lu>d 5h7
<1..' s.·par;,hk hltt:lllllfl\ allll i\rplic:llllllh 5(~'\
').-l J.i nc ar E• l"·''"'n' a n,l ,\pplicaunn' 575
<),5 J'llp Ula t IIIII ~ It ><k l' 5X7
) 111--l----"-~" ~ PROJE C T: l' rl'da tt or·l'll·y r:,lu.lli<111' ami Yuur O"n
-I (i.tllll' l'r l''<' l\l' 5'17
IJ.o Laru.:.or !'> l'l'<>nJ·<l rdc r btu:1t1on' ~·JS
'J.7 M ..:ch.u1u:a l Vahr.llion' 1~17
REVIEW : l h ·linitiun-. Conce pt-. Kr, ull' lll8

-
,'
' viii CONTENTS

I CHAPTER 10 POLAR COORDINATES AND PARAMETRIC CURVES 623

I 0.1 Analytic Gcomt:try and the Conic Sections 624


10.2 Polar Coordinates 629
10.3 Area Computatio ns in Polar Coordinates
638
10.4 Para me tric Curves 643
O• U PROJECT: Trochoid Investigations 65 2
I"HI.u I 0.5 I ntc~ra l Compu ta tions with P:Hnme tric Cu rves 653
;I \I'~

PROJECT: ~l oo n Orbits and R ace Tracks 660


,. ., r ., I .. 2 , ,..., 0 10.6 Conic Sccti ons and Applicati o ns 661
REVIEW: Concepts and D efiniti o ns 679

ICHAPTER 11 INFINITE SERIES 681


11.1 Int roduction 6S2
11.2 Infinite Sequences 61\2
PROJECT: Ncsted Radi cals a nd Continu ed Fractio ns 691
11.3 Infinite St:rics and Convergence 69 1
PROJECT: Nume rical Su mmati o n a nd Geometric Series 70 1
11 .4 Taylor S~.:rics and Taylor Polynomials 702
G PROJECT: Calcula ting Logarithms o n a D ese rt ed
Island 715
11.5 'lltc lntegral l i:s t 715
PROJECT: Th e Numbe r :r. On e~.: and for All 722
11.6 Comparison T~.:sts for l'ositivc:Jcrm Series 722
I 1.7 Alternating Series and Absolute Convergence 728
II .R Power Serics 737
l l.lJ Power Se ries Computations 750
G PROJECT: Calculat ing Trigonome tric Func tions
on a D~.:serted Isla nd 758
11.10 Series Solut ions of Differential Equa tions 758
REVIEW: Definitions. CuncctUs. Hesults 767

I CHAPTER 12 VECTORS, CURVES, AND SURFACES IN SPACE


771
12. I Vectors in the !'lane 772
12.2 llu~.:e-Dime nsional Vec tors 778
12.3 ll1e Cross Product of Vectors
788
12.4 Lines and Planes in Space 796
12.5 Curves and Mot ion in Space 1!03
PROJECT: Docs a Pitched Oaseball R I
12.6 C urva tu re and Acceleration • ea ly Curve? 816
817 ·
12.7 Cyli nders and Quadric Surfaces
830
12.8 Cylindrical and Spherical Coord"
. m ates 838
REVIEW: Definitions, Concepts, R
· esults H4S
CONTENTS ix

r
CHAPTER 13 PARTIAL DIFFERENTIATION 849
13.1 Introduction 850
13.2 Functions of Several Variables 850
13.3 Limits and Continuity 860
13.4 Partial Deriv;Hivcs 1\61\
13.5 l'vlultivariablc Optimization Problems IPS
13.6 Incremen ts and Linear Approximation SS9
13.7 1l1c Mullivariabk Chain Rule 1\96
D.H Directional Derivatives and the Gradient Vector 907
13.9 Lagrange :'v1ultiplicrs and Constrained Optimiwtion 918
0 PROJECT: Nu111.:rkal Sulutiou of Lagrange
Multiplier Systems 927
13.10 Critical Points of Functions ofT\vo Variables 927
0 PROJECT: Critical Poir.t Investigations 935
REVIEW: Definitions, Conl·cpts, Results 936

ICHAPTER 14 MULTIPLE INTEGRALS 939


14.1 Double lntc:grals 940
0 PROJECT: Midpoint Sums Approximating Double
Integrals 947
14.2 Double Integrals over More Gcncml Regions 947
14.3 Area and Volume by Double Integration 954
14.4 Double Integrals in Polar Coordinates 961
14.5 Applications of Double Integrals 968
PROJECT: Optimal Design of Downhill Race-Car Wheels 978
14.6 Triple Integrals 979
0 PROJECT: Archimedes· Floating Paraboloid 987
14.7 Integration in Cylindrical and Spherical Coordinatc:s 988
14.8 Surface Area 996
14.9 Change of Variahlcs in Multiple lntc~mls tOOt
REVIEW: Definition~ Concepts, Results 1009

I CHAPTER 15 VECTOR CALCULUS 1013


15.1 Vector Fields 1014
curt t·
15.2 Line lntc:gral' J(JJ 9
15.3 "ll1c Fundamcntal"l11c:orcm and lndepcmt.:ncc of l'ath lll30

( 15.4 Green·~ "lhcnrcm I037


15.5 Surf:tce Intc:.:r:1h 1(~17
0 PROJECT: Surface lntc:grals nnd Rocket Nose Cones 1057
15.6 "l11c Divc:rgc nce ·n,corcm 1057
15.7 Stokes· ' lhcorcm 1065
REVIEW: Definitions. Concepts. Result5 ]072
X CONTENTS

IAPPENDICES A-1

A: Real Numbers and Inequalities A-l


6
B: The Coordinate Plane and Straight Lines A -
C: Review of Trigonometry A-13
D: Proofs of the Limit Laws A-19
E: TI1c Completenes~ of the Real Number Sys tem A-23
F: Existence of the Integral A-28
G: Approximations and Riemann Sums A-33
H: L'Hopital"s Rule and Cauchy's Mean Value 'llleorem A-36
I: Proof of Taylor's Formula A-38
J: Conic Sections as Sections of a Cone A-39
K: Proof of the Linear Approximation Theorem A-40
L: Units of ~lea~urement and Conversion Factors A-41
M: Formulns from Algebra. Geometry. and Trigonometry A-42
N: TI1e Greek Alphabet A -~

ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS A-45

REFERENCES FOR FURTHER STUDY A-68

INDEX 1-1

TABLE OF INTEGRALS TA-1

PHOTO CREDITS p. 62.\ (wp left} Stock Mon · . . .


(botto m right ) Stcph~n Gerard/Science Scrvicc/Ph~;-;:c. lncJHist oncat P1ctu rcs Collection:
IJnl\'crsity o! Cambridg~: (hottom n~tht) lma b. . Researchers, Inc. p. 681 (top left}
03 1
Black Star p. IW/ Courtesy of the I ihr 3 ~e f ~ ' d E . Penney p. ~ Robert Gaf\ey/
0
Collcction.:o;ewYork:(hottomri• ht ) J; IfG. ry o ngre's P· 939 (top le ft} ll1c Granger
tx . . • u ccn1>erg/PhotoEd it 1013 (
( Htnrn nght) Chand ra X-Ray Center/A. Hnhm P· top left) CO RBIS:

Maple is n.•cgb . .
tcrcd. tra(kmark of Waterloo •"' I ap1e Inc
I\((1/Il(lllfll/CQ IS a rCf.IStcrcd trademark o r\\' If •
;\It\TLAB is a registered trademark of Th ~~ram Research, Inc.
c. ath\Vorks. lnc.

..
ABO UT THE AUTHORS

C. llenry Edwards is emeritus profc:ssor of mathema tics at the University of


Georgia. He earned his Ph .D. at the Univcrsit,•ofTcnncssee in 1960. and rcc.cntly re-
tired after 40 years of classr<>om teaching (incl~ding calculu5 or d iffe rential equations
almost C\"Cry term) at the universities of Tennessee. Wisconsin, and Gco reia. "ith a
brief interlude at the Institute fo r Advance d Study ( Princeton) as an Alfr;d P. Sloan
Research Fellow. lie has received numerous teaching awards. including the Univer-
sity of G eorgia's lwno ratus medal in 1983 {for sustained excellence in honors teach-
ing). its Josiah Meigs award in 1991 (the inst itution 's highes t award fo r teaching). and
the 1997 s tate -wide Geo rgia Regents award for research university faculty teaching
exccllcnc.c. !lis scholarlv career has ranl!ed from research and dissertation d irection
in to pology to Ihe histtl~Y of m~th~mati~s to computing and technology in the teach·
ing and applications of mathematic,;. In addition to being author or co-author of
calculus. advanced calculus. lin,·ar algebra, and differen tial equations textbooks. he
is well-kno wn to calculus instructors as author of "!7re Historical Development of the
Calwlus (Springer· Verb g. 19i9). During 1he I 9')0s he served as a principal invcsti·
gator on three NSF-suppo rted projects: (I) A sd10ol mathematics project in.cluding
Maple fo r be ginning algebra students, (2) A Calculus-with-.\fathematica program.
and (3) A MAJ'LAB-bascd computer lnb project for numerical analysis and differ-
~ntial equations students.

o~l\·id E. ••cnncy, University or Georgia, completed h is l'h. D. at Tulane Uni-


versity in 1'.165 (under the direction of Prof. L. Bruce Treybig) while teaching at the
Uni,·crsity of New Orleans. Earlier he had worked in e xperimental biophysil-s at
Tulane University and the Veteran's Administration llospital in New Orleans under
the directio n of Hobert Dixon ~lc ,\fcc. where Dr. McAfee's research tt•:•m's primary
focus was on the active tr:•n~port of sod ium ions by biological membranes. Penney's
primary contribution here was the development of a mathematical model (using
simulwneous ordinary differential e'luations) for the metabolic phenomena re!;ulat-
ing such transport. with p•>tcntial future applications in kidney physiolo):y. n1:mage·
ment o f hypertension, and treatment of conj:cstivc he;nt failure. l ie alsu dcsiJ!ncd
and constructed scrvmncchanisms for the· accurate monitoring of i•'n tr:•n~IX>rt. a
phenom<,non invoh·ing the measurement uf p;>tcntials in micnwohs at iml'c..l:mccs
of millions of m egohm s. Penney hcgan teal'hin~ cakulus at Tul:me in I 9~7 and taught
that cour>c almo't every term with enthusiaMn and di<tinc·tinn until hi< r•·tir.·mcnt
at the end of the last millennium . Durin): hi~ tenure at the llni,·crsity of <leor!!ia
he received nurncrou• lJnivcrsit)'·willc leaching awnr<l~ :" well as llircctin~ sevc·ral
docto ral <.li~~ertatiun.~ and :.even undergmdu~tc rc>carch prnjccts. li e i• the author
of rc~earch papers in number thenry and topology and is the nuthur or co-author of
textboob on calculu~. computer programming, differential CIIUatiOn'l.lincar .ulgc bra,
and liberal art\ mathcmatil!ll.

xi
j
I
r
PREFAC E

Contemporary calculus instructors and stmk'nt s face traditional challenccs as well


as_ ne~v ones that result from changes in the role and practice of math~matics hy
sctcnttsts and cngincct·s in the world at large. As a consequence. this sixth edition of
our calculus text hook is its most cxh:nsive rcvi,ion since the first edition appeared
in 19$2.
'1\vo dtapters of the fifth edition have been combined in a single more tightly
organilcd one. An entirely new chapter now appc;u·s in the tahk of contents. and
most of the rcmainin!,t chapters have been extcnsi,·cly rcwriu en. About 125 of the
book's over 750 worked examples arc new for thi' editio n and the 1825 figures in
the text include 225 new computer-generated !!raphi<'S. About 600 of its over 7000
pro:Jicms arc new. and these arc augmented hy ~20 ne1v conceptual discussion ques-
tions that now prl'Ccdc the problem set-. Moreover. 1050 new true/false question~ arc
included in the Study Guides on the new CD-HOM that accompa nies this edition.
In summary. almost 2000 nf these S-100-pl us pmhlcm< and que~tions arc new. and
the text discussion and explanations have undergone corresponding alteration and
improvement.

IPRINCIPAL NEW FEATURES


llte current revision of the text features

• More unified trea tment of lrunsct'ndcntal functions in Chapter 7, and


• A new Chapter 9 on dilft>rential t'llll:tlions and applications.

'lhc new chapter on differentia l equation< nuw appears immcdiatdy a fter


Chapter R on technique< of integration. It includes hnth dircctiun fields and
Euler's method togethe r with the more elementary syr.tl><llic mc tht\ds (" hich c~ploit
techniques from Chapte rS) and interesting applicati,lll< uf hoth lir>t - and '"''"nd-
md-:r equation'- Ch:tptcr II (Infinite Scrks) nnw end, with a new S\'Ction e1n l'''wcr
sene~ l)rtluricHl' nf d ifferential equation,., lhu-. hnn~ing full cirdc :t unifying focu' of
sccond-scme,tcr calculus on elementary difkrc nt iul equations.

INEW LEARNING RESOURCES


Conceptual Discussion Questions ·n,c set of pr<'hkm< that cnnclmks each
sect inn;, now prcccdctl hy a hric! Crmccph: Qut-•liorl' a nd m~u"inn set C<)nsi<tin!!
;,f ,cve r:tl npcn-endcd conceptual qucsllons tha t can he u<cd for either individual
study or cla"rcwlm di,cu"ion.

The Text CO-ROM 'llle content of the new e n -ROM that !ICCtllliiWiic, this
text i~ fully integrated ,.·ith the textbook rnarcri:tl. :md i~ designed specifically for
xiii
cq
Xiv PREfACE

. stud >' 0 fthc . If. This CD-ROM features the following


usc hand-in-hand wtth d book tiSe
cht"nn·
•· ·no
resources to support 1earm <> an tea b'

• h 1 einforcc and encourage student


• lnter-Jcth·e True/fa ...•- e St ud)' Gmdes . t a r. tions for cac h scclton . care f uII}.
reading of the text. Ten au thor ·.wntten dques dents can request tn d'tvt'd ua I h'tnts
·
h the secuon an st u
guide students throug . j k for needed :nformatt·o n.
sug,.csting "'he re in the secuon
" · ~ d
10
~ d' and comput e r algebra
·c mulumc ta' •
prcsen-
• l.h·l" Examples feature ynamt . •
. d bv 'lUll to cxp1an.
ations-which enhnncc:: studen t
t<~uons-manv accompantc , ' . t 've exampks expa nd upon many
· d. n ·rnc<l' mtcrac 1 •• •
intuition a nd undcrstan •nb. .. . d . , can change mput data and
k . . 1 ·xampks stu en 1· • - .
of the text boo ··s pnnctpa " • · ·hangcs in st e p-by-step so uttons
.. d h h<erw the rcsu1ttng c • 1
cond1t1o ns an t engraphs
and accompanving o • a nd hguru;. . \V·
• a lklhruugh •·ideus demonstrat e 1tow
· • • · h these li,·c e xamples. .
students can mtcract wn ·. . . . ,f computational proble ms tn each
• lfom<•wnrk Starters fo r the pnnc~p.l t~p~~ l rcscnta tions si mila r to the live
1
text hook sect inn. featunng htlth mtcractJ:: p d :os of pencil -and-paper
examples ~nd (\\'ch·lt~k cd) volce-n~rratc vJ. \he , 1utio n o f selected
invcsti~:1tions iiJu,t ratmg typ1calm lttal ~teps m ·0

textbook problems. f h , Imost three dozen


• Cnrnputin~o: l'rnj•·•·t l!l'sourres support most o t e .I : .• k di
projects that follo w key sections in the text. f-or each such prOJc~t ~tar c ' n
I I C D 1., 0 .. 1·con more extended discuss1ons tllustratmg Maple,
t 1e text 1v a · ' "' · . . · . . ·d d
•\ fmltrmniicn MATLAB. and graphing calculator mvcsugat1ons ar~ provt ~ ·
Computer al~ehra system commands can he copied and pasted for mteracuve
execution. fT 1 k
• flyJ1crlinkcd 1\Japll' Wurkshl'el~ co~tributcd by Ha rald Plc.y m o e cmar ·
University College (Norway) constitute an tnteracuve vcrs1on of essenually
the whole textbook. Students and faculty using Maple can change ·~put data
and coOHJilions in most ot the text examples to investigate the resultmg
changes in step-by-step solutions and accompanying graphs and ligures.
• Pn"l'rPnint l'r<·~entatinns provide classroom projection versions of about 350
of the figures in the te.xt that would be least convenient to reproduce on a
I black hoard.

!
I
• Weh Site ll1c.: contents of the CD-ROM together with additional learning and
teaching resources a re maintained and updated at the textbook Web site
ww"~prcniJall.cum/edward~. which includes a Comments anti Suggestions

I
center where we invite response from both students <tnd instructors.

PH Grade Assist (Computerized Homework Grading System)


About 2000 of the.: textbook problems are incorporated in an automatc.:tl grading
system th;tt is now available. Each problem solut ion in the system is structured algo-

I rithmically so that students can work in :t computer lab seuing to submit homework
assignments
student.) for automatic grading. (TI!Crc is a small annual fcc per participating

New Solutions. Manuals "lltc entirely new 1810-page Instructor's Solutions


Manual (ava!lahlc 111 three volumes) tncludes a detailed solutio n for every problem
in the hook
checked . lltese
inde pende solutions were wntten
ntly hy others. ~'xclusivcly
by the authors anti have been

'lhc entirely nc~·


9JO-pagc.: Student Solutinns Manuul (available in two vol-
umes) includes a dcta1lcd solutton for every odd-mnnbc.:rec problem in the text. 'llte
answers (alone) to most of these odd-numbered problems arc included in the answers
section at the back of tlus book.

New Technologr manuals Each or the following manuals is av<~ilablc


shrink·
wrapped wtth any verston
which are inexpens•ve): of the text for half the normal price of the manual (all of
-
PREFACE XV

• J~nscn, Using MATLAB in Cnlculu.r (0-13-02726/l·X)


• 1-reeseJStegcng.a. Calculus Conccpu Using Drril'l' (0-13-085152-3)
• Gresser, T/ Graphing Cnlct•lmor Approach. 2·· (0-1:1 -0'n017-7)
• Gresser. A Mnrltemarica Apprv aclt. lt• (0-l.l-092015-0)
• Gresser, A Maple Approach. 2t• (0-13-0<J2014-2)

ITHE TEXT IN MORE DETAIL . . .


In preparing this edition, we have taken ndYnntni!C o f marw valuable Cl>mmcnts and
suggestions from use rs of the first live edit ions. ll>is r.;,•isiun was so pervasive th:tt
the inJividual changes ;trc ton numnous to be detailed inn preface. butth<· fol lowing
paragraphs summarize those that may be of widc.st interest.

T New Problems Most of the 600 new problems lie in the intermed iate range of
dt fftcult y. neither highly thcoretical nor computationally routine. Ma ny of th em
have :t ne w technology thvor. suggesting (if not requirin~) the use of technology
rang ing from a graphing calculator ton computer algebra system.

T Discusdon Questions and Study Guid es We hope rh c 320 conceptual dis-


cussion questions and 1050 trudfalsc st udy·guide questions constitute a useful
3ddition to the traditional fare of student exercises and problems. lbe True/False
Study Guide for each section provides a focus on the key ideas of the section. with
the single goal of motivating guided student reading of the section.

T Examples and Explanations About one-sixth of the rook's worked examples


are either new or significantly revised. toge ther with a similar percentage of t he text
discussion and explanations. Additional computational detail ha< hecn inserted
in worked examples where students have experienced difficuhy. together with
addi tional sentences and paragraphs in similar spots in rcxt discussions.

T Project MAterial 1\·bny of the text's 33 projects nrc new for this edition. These
appear following the problem sets at the ends of key sections throughout the text.
Most ( but not all) of rhese projects employ some aspect of modern computational
technology to illustra te the p rincipal ideas of the preccdin!! section. and ma ny
contain additional problems intended :ror >olurion with the usc of a j:raphinj:
calcubtor or computer algebra system. Where appropriate, project d iscus.•ions
a re significantly expanded in the C D-R0:0.1 ve rsions of the projects.

T Historical Material llistorical nnd hiot:raphical chapter opening< offer stu·


dents a sen<c of the development of our sut>jcct t>y real human beings. Indeed.
our cllposition of calculus frequently rctlccts the hiswrical development of the
sut>ject - from ancient rimes tot he age~ of Newton and Lcibniz atul Euler to our
own era of new computational power and technology.

ITEXT ORGANIZATION
T Introductory Chapters Instead of n routine review nf prcc:tlculus topics. Chap-
ter 1 conc<'ntrat<'s spccitkally on functions and ,:raphs f"r usc in mathematical
modeli ng. It onclude~ a section cataloJ:inr. inf,>nnally the ckmcntary tr:~n<ccn­
denral funclloll < of cakulu~. "' backgruuml to their more fmmal trcatmcnl u<ing
e;;!cu lu~ tt-elf. Chitpt~r I wnchr1ks with II ~cti(ln lllldrcssint; the 1111rs1iun "What
u Cllkulu~r Chapte r 2 u n limil<I..: gins with a >c<·tinn un tangent lines ru motivate
the uf:llcial intro<luction uf hmit< in Section 1 .1. ·nt,:onumctric !units arc treated
througll"ut Chapter 2 in order to cnwu ragc a richer nnd more ''i<ual introouction
10 the limit wncepl.
f 1
XVi PREFACE

Th e seq uence Of topics. in Ch . ~pters I 3 and ti4 diffe rs 'a


T Diffe re ntiation Chapters \\' 11 •mJH to budd ~lla .:nt con 1dcncc hy
bit from the most tra d .IUO · na t order..
· r·1cu 1ty. 111c ch am
d e a f"increasi ng chf · rule
. . n ·arlv ul or cr o ~ . I . ,, f .
intro<lucmg 10p1cs more "~ ·• ' ) 311 d . . cover th e has1c Icc 1n1qucs or <hffe r.
~ppears quite ear IY (.m S.ecuon ·'-' · d' ''" ~ in!! maxima and nmuma • • •m .secllon~3.5
·
. f I 1OilS before ~~u,~ ~ . . f I .I . •
b
cntiatingalge ra1c unc . • . nificant apphcallon~ o lie uc n vallvc).
' )( r:ll • e·lrl\ <Onl<.: Sll! . 11
and3.6(inordc:rtol ust .
. ,
c: ·
I • d. lvaun:s o a SIX •
f 11 .· trigonometric functi(IIIS. 1c authors·
Sccuun .>.7 treat~ t I< cr . . , S) ,,ill be apparent.
~
fondness for. C\\ tons " . m ·thod d . _ -'· plication~ arc dcfcrrc<l to Ch aptcr 4
(SecllOII
Th . 1 • theorem an II' ap . .1.1·rr ·
e ~lea~ 'a~" . . andrclatl·dratc~inScctJOn4. l.anuul crcnt1als
(followmg 1mphc11 d1ff.:re~uat:o~on .t:!). In addition. a dominant theme of Chap-
111 1
and lmear approx1mauon Scch uct graJlhs of functions and to explain
•· h • f calculus bot to con~1r - • • .
tcrd~· 1s 1 c usc aophs that have hcen construet·d c bv. 3 calculator or computer.. l111s
1
an
thememtcrprc
is dc\'e!!r
lopcd .111 ·Scct1ons
. . ..., 4 on th." first dcrh·ative test a nd 4. 6· o n h1ghcr
dcrivath·c< and conca\'ity.

.,. Integration Chapters CJ 1 ~ pt c r 5 l>egi n~ with a sect ion on an ti d7riva tivcs-


wh1ch wultlln~1ea • lly he •mcluded ·m 11c 1 prcccd'lllf!' clnp
.' . tcr • hu1 hc.:nc
. lns
•. from
. the
us~ o r 1nh.·cra
· ,·no1a11on. 1
· · \\'11~..:·n t11e u...
· ··rinilc intc••ral
e " 1111rocl uc..:d 111 Sec11o ns 5.3
and 5.4. w~ emrhasit.e endroint ;uulmidpoint sums m~ h er tl.lan upp..:r and lo\~W
and more ge nera l Rieman n sum o;. ·n1i~ co ncre te e mph:1s1Scarne~~ hrou_gh the ch.!p·
tcr to i1s fina l Sl'C tion on numerical integra ti on. Chapter 6 bt:f!l ns wnh a t.a rgc ly
new ,cction on Riema nn sum app ro.~irnat ions. wit h new examples t·..: nt e ru~ g on
fluid llow a nd medical applications. Sectio n 6.6 is a new trea tme nt of ccn trn1ds of
plane regions and cu n ·e,._
Chaplcr S ('1\?chniqucs of Integrati on) is organ i?-ed to accommodate those
in~tructors who fc<.:ltha t mc th ods of forma l integration now rcquin.: less cmph3·
sis.. in \'iew of modern techn iques for both numerical and symbolic integration.
lnlcgralion hy pa n , (S<·c li on 8.3) r1c.:.:ue~ trigonomctn c intcgrab (Sec tion 8.4).
lllt.: method of partial fraction~ appears in Section X.5. and tri)!unometric subsll·
llllions and int.:gr<tls in\'oh ing quadratic polynomi~l~ follow in Scc1ions 1\.6 ~nd
8.7. 1mpropcr integrals appc~r in Section S.S. with Ill!\\ and suhstantial subsections
on special functions and probability and random sampling. l11i~ rcarran~ement of
Chapter 8 makes it more convenient to stop" hcrc\'er the in ·tructor de~ires.

"f' Calculus of Transcendental Functions Section 7.1 (much ~trcn~thcncd for


this edition) introduce~ the exponential and logarithmic function~ f;om a fairly
intuiti\'e.' iew"?i nt: the approach ha<cd on the na tu:al logarithm as an int.:g.ral
appt:ars m S.::ctum 7.4. Sect rons 7.2 and 7.3 intrvducc l'l lopital's rule and apply it
to round out the calcul~s of exponent ia l <~nd logarit hmic functions. Sections 7.5
a nd ~.6 cmw bot h dcr_l\·au,·cs of and integra ls involving in\'crse trigonometric
functions a nd hypcrbohc functions.

T Differential Equatio ns 111is ··· nt1'r •l , 1 · ·


. . · ~ c Y new c toptcr b.:!!IIIS With the most e lc·
mc nt:Jr\' d1 fkrcnt1al equat io ns and :t]lplicati· 111, (S · ,, ) 1·
11o n '· 1 anc1 111c: n proce<.:< '
to .mtrod· ucc bot h grapl11cal . (slope fie ld ) and • , · ..ec.· c.
1111111 11 t (r. ) 1 d · Sec
· "2
hun ~.. .su1lseq· , uc· nt seclluns
· of the ch·•ptcr 1 c· ~• •1 I ..:u I 1e r me · t 10 · ~ 111 .1 ·
. . . . . ' r ·' 1 sc p~ ra 1 e and ltnc<t r l1rst·orucr
u1ffcrcnll al c<JUalluns and (mmn rc depth lit• . · · ·
.
11ons such as populauon . "rowtl (' 1 · • 1Ill a C't)Ctlitls
.. n· U>tl.l ' ~ f'·' ")
•' ''llll ¥. 'l(l(lhC:l·
'
and motion with r.-sista ncc. ~'- lltc1 finaltw • : . . •an11prcc
mc ud111!(' . loJ.:ISilc • 1ator-p rey popu 1atu · 1n'· )
11

hn.:ar C(( Ua tron
.
~ and a rphcation
. scct1on
~ lo mc:c:h:i . . ~I of •' hChapter?
. trea• t sew
' nd -ordcr
..
still mo re: covcra"c of diff· , · 1 •• • lllca ' 1 r~ u o n~. l n~ truc to rs dcsmng
"
bundle a nd usc appropriate crcnlla
sc:ct' equations can a rr.mge . • . Wil . It lItc. pu h i'Is·I1c. r to
lions: Computing und l\Jodeling 21· (P · . ' IOns or F. dw~ nl~ 'tnd
' I'cnn~:y. ll'1ITerc n!la ' I f-'1" a •
e · rcnt1cc- I Ialt. 20()0).
T Para metric Curves a nd Po lar Coo rdi nate s • • . . . •
is the replacement of three separate • l~tc pnnc1pat change 111 C hapt er 1(1
5
ecltons tn the 5th edition on parabolas.
PREFACE XVii

ellipses. and hyperbo las with a single Section 10.6 t hat provid es a unified tre at ment
or all th e conic sectio ns.
'Yif • s.
n lnlt~ N les After the usual introductio n to conve rge nce o f in fi nite sequences
and s~ ncs Ill Se..:tio ns 11 .2 and 11 .3. a combin ed treatmen t o f Tayl or po lynomia ls
and l ay lor series appears in Section 11..1. Tnis makes it possible for the instructor
to cxpcnmc nt with a hricfcr treat ment o f infinite series, hut st ill o ffer e xposure
~o the Taylor series t hat arc so import an t for ;1pp lications. l l1 c principal chan ge
I ll C hapter 11 is t he addition of a new li na l sectio n on powe r series m ethods
nt~d their usc to intwduce new transccmlcnt al function>. thcrchy concl uding the
mtdd lc third o f the hook with a return to differential equations.

Y Multiv.ula b lc Ca lculus ·111.: treatme nt or ca lculus u ( mo re than a si nl!lc variable


is rathe r traditio nal. hegin ning wi th vectors. cu rves. a nd s urfaces in C hap ter 12.
C hapto;: r U features a strong treatmc·nt of mult iva ri ahle maximum-minimum prob-
le m s in Sl.'ctinn~ t:l .5 (initia l approach to these problem~). 13.9 ( La grange mul-
t ipliers). and 13.10 (crit ical poi nts of functions of two va ria bles). C hapte rs 13
(Partial D ifferentiation ). I-I (Multiple Integrals) , and 15 ( Vector Calculus) ha ve
bl!cn significantly rewritte n for this edition.

IOPTIONS IN TEACHING CALCULUS


The Calculus Sequence Tl11: present version o f the text is accompa nied by a
less traditiona l versio n t hat t reats t ra nscendenta l functions earlier in singlc:-va riable
ca lculus and includes ma tric~s fo r use in mu lt iva ria t>le calcu lu~ Bo th versio ns o f th~
co mple te text are also avaibt>l <! in two -volume split edit ions. By appro priate select ion
o f first and seco nd volumes. the instructor can therefore construct a co mple te text
for a ca lculus seq uence with

• E arly transccndenta ls in single-variable calculus and m:llriccs in multivarinble


ca lcul us;
• Early transccmlcnt als in single- variable calculus but traditional cow rage of
multivaria blc calc ulus;
• Tra n~cende nt al functions delayed unt il after the int~5ral in sin gle-variable:
calculus. but matrices used in multivariablc ca kulus:
• Neither ea rly t ranscendcntals in si ngle-variable calcul us nor matrices in
mult ivarinblc c:tk ulus.

Maximum-Minimum Problems ·n ,e text includes ti rs t , ,,wra!!<" of m:nimum-


m inirnum pruhlc m~ in Chapter J ( Sectio n<:1.5 a n.! :1.6) to prnvi,k •·art y mnti ,·a tinn in
the fo rm of cuncrct c applicati<lll~ of t he de rivat i' c. a mi thcnr,·turns with the first. and
sccond-d crh·ativc tests of Sect ion ~ -t-1 and ·l.h. I h m·.- vc r. some in<t ruc t o~ m:ty pn:-
fc r 10 u c at th'-·-.c appli<-·atiun~ l:ltc:r- (olluwin~ ttig''IHH11C'tric d~riv:•t i \·l--~ :md rC" b t(•d
ra t ~~. a nd a ion~ l' it h th~ hulk of th.: tt'<n<.· i:tte<lma t.: ri:tlttl C h:tpt•· r .1. Th,· modul ar
cha ract c r of the pc 1 t tn c nt s.:ctton' in t h.:sc t"" .tifk r~nt ia I,-.•k uJu, d t.ll'l crs ,..._. rm its
\ UCh d c,i rcd rc;m :tn!!,Cntc nt' o f the m.ttcri:t l " ithin th•· t ~pKa l p.t ir nf inst ru.:tinna l
umh (each likely tollowc<l hy it\ " " n hour t c~t ). h •r nh t.tn.-c. Sc.:t i' ''" J.:'i :tnd .' .6 on
rna. x- nun 111ohlclll ' can I...- dck t rcd and u~cd. h•. hq:in . th ,· ,,·coml unit on dtfk rcnti31
·.;,lcuiU'I.. aft er 01 ppc mhn.: Sc.-ct tun' -1. 1 ( lmpltctt Dtfk r,·m,at iun .md RcLttc d R:ttc\)
~ nd -1 .2 ( l ncre mcnt,_l> tlk tc ntl.tl 'l.. and Linear t\ ppr.>\ tm.tt ion) to the lirst unit. '!110~
t he rnJ teual 10 Chaptcn 3 and 4 wo uld he cnvc r.:<.l in the fullowin): ord~t.

Unit 1: Differentiation
3.1 The Deri vat ive ;~nd Ra tes o f Chnngc
J.2 Bu ic D ifferenti.:l tion Rules
rr
I
xviii PREFACE

3.3 The Chain Rule . net ions


3 4 Derivatives of Algebratc Fu. F tions (skipping Example 13 and Prob.
. . ometnc unc
3.7 Deriv:Hives of Tngon
!ems 78-86) . . d Newton's Me thod
. Approx·imauon> an
3.8 Succcsstvc
• . d RclatcJ Rates .
4.1 Im plicit Funcuons an . L' ar Approximation
4.2 Increme nts, Differentials, and me
.
Unit II : Applicattons o f the Derivative
. . .
of Funcuons on Closed Intervals
3.5 ~bxima and ~ f tmma
. . · · Problems Th
.l6 ,\ pphcd Optlmtzatton . d the Mean Value eorem
4.3 lncrea<ing and Decrcasmg · functtons . an
.
4.-S - . 1i
llte Fir~t Derivau,·e est an 'd \ pphcauons
-'-~ Simple Curve Sketching .
.S.6 llighcr Dcriva ti\'CS and Concavuy
4.7 Cu rve Sketching and Asymptotes

IACKNOWLEDGMENTS . . .
ow the v·tluc of critical revtewmg dun ng the
All experienced te~ t?ook auth ors k~ '"ork on this edi tion we have profited
preparation and rC\'ISIOn of a m~n uscn pt. 1n our t' • advice of the following very able
grea tly from the unusually detailed and construe IVc
rc,•icwcrs:

• Kenzu Abdella- Trent Uni,·ersity


• i1\lartma llodc-North" estern University
. •
• D:l\'id Caraballo-Gcorgetown Unt,·erslly
• Tom C:t<sidy-Ruckncll University
• Lucille Croom- llunter College
• Yuana n Diao-Univcrsity of North Carolina at Charlotte
• Victor [ lias-University of W.:stern Ontari o
• llai tao Fan-Georgetown University
• James J. Fa ran. V-The State Uni versity of New York at Buffalo
• K. ~. Gowrisankara n-McGill Univc rsil)'
• Oing Han - Uni,·ersity of l'otrc Dame
• Melvin 0 . l.ax- C:tlifornia Stale University. Long !leach
• Robert II. U:"is- Fordham University
• Allan 0. 1\!aclssac-Unh·ersi ty of Western Ontario
• Rudolph ~1. Najar-California Slate University, Fresno
• George Pletsch-Aibuquerque Technical nn<.l Vocational Institute
• Nancy Rnlli~- Roston College
• Robert C. Hcilly- University of Californ ia, Irvine
• Jamc~ A. Rcnckc- Clemson University
• Alexander Rctakh- Yalc Universit y
l • Cnrl Richm- Mc\1aster University

I f
• Ira Sharcnow-Univcrsity of Wisconsin, Madison
• Kay Strangman-University of Wisconsin, Madison
• Sofhic Tryph o~a~-~n! vers it y of Toronto at Scarborough
• Clifford E. Wct i- Mtchtgan State University
• Kamran Va kili-Princcton Uni,·ersitv
• Cathleen M. Zucco-Teveloff- Trini ty College

Many of the best improvements that have been made must be credited to col·
leagues and users of Ihe previous five editions throughout the United States. Cnnnda.

..
PREFACE XIX

:nd abroad. We are grateful to all t hose. especially students. who have written to us.
nd hope t hey will continue to do so. We t hank the accuracy checkers of M . and N.
Toscano. who verified the solution of every worked-out e xample and odd-numbered
answer, as well as nil of the sol utions in the Instructor"s and Student Solu tions Manu·
als. We b~lil!\'e that the :tppenrance and quality of the finished hook is clear testimony
1
~ the sktll. diligenrc. and talent of an e xceptional swff at l'rcnticc- llall. We owe spc·
cta_l th anks to George Lohcll. o ur math ema tics ed itor, wh<>~c advice and criticism
gutdcd and shaped this n:vision in many signilkant a nd tangihl<: ways, as did th e
constructive.: commen ts and suggestions of Ed Millman, our developmental editor.
W<! alsnthanlo. Gale Epps and ~telanic Van Bcnthuy~cn for their highly varied and
d~tailcd services in aid of editors and authors throughout the work of revision. The
\'ISual gra phil·, of this text have been widely prai.~cd in prc,·ious edition"- and it is
time for us tu than !.. Run Wcichart of Network Graphics, v.h o h:t~ worked with us
thro ugh the past three editions. Jeanne Audino. ou r productiOn editor. e xpertly and
smoothly manaj:cd the whole process of book product ion. Our art director. Jonathan
Boylan. supe rvised anll coordinated the attractive d esign an~ layou t of the text and
the cover fur this edition. Vince Jansen coordinated the production of the CD-ROM,
for which we thank especially Robert Cu rtis and Lee Wayand for their interactive
examples and llarald l'l eym for his Maple worksheets. l·inally, we again arc unable
to thank Alice Fit?gerald Edwards and Carol Wilso n Penney adequately for their
unrelenting a ssistance. encouragement, suppo rt , and patience extending through six
editi ons and over two decades of work on this textbook.

C. Henry Edwards David E. Penney


hedwards@math.uga.edu dpcnney@math.uga.edu

_j
.. . .. '·
. .,

. . .. •

... ·.
~ ..
'•
.. ., .·.··...
\.,.
~. .. . .

APPENDIX A: REAL NUMBERS AND INEQUALITIES


1llc r~al numbers arc already familiar to you. They arc just those numbers ordinarii~
used m most measuremen ts. The mass. velocity. te mperature. and charge ~fa. bod)
arc measured wi th real numbers. Real numbe rs can be represent ed by trrmm~ttn~ or
nont crrninatin g decimal expansions ; in fact, every rea l number has a nontennrna tm g
decimal expansion because a terminating expansi on c.1n be padde d with infinitely
many ze ros:
3
x= o.375 = 0.375000000 ....
Any rc11C111ing decimal, such as
7
22 = 0.31818 181 818 . . . .

represents a rutlnnal number. one that is the ratio of two integers. Conversely. every
ra tional number is represented by n repenting decimal lik e the t wo eli$played i'lbovc.
But the decimal e xpansion of an irrational number (a real number that is not r ational) ,
such as
J2 = 1.414213562... or ;r = 3.14159265358979 ....
is both nonterrninating and nonrcpea ting.
TI1e geometric interpre tat ion of real num bers as points on the renlline (or real
1111mber line) U should also he famil iar to you. Each real numhcr is represented by
precist:ly one point of fl. and each point of ll represents precisely one real number.
By convention, the posit ive numbers lie to the r ight of zero and the negative numbers
to the left, as in Fig. A. I.

-2 -1 0 )

FIGURE A.l The real line R.

The following propert ies of inequalities of real numbers are fundamental and
often used:
If a < band b < c, then a < c.
If a < b. then a + c < b + c.
If a < band c > 0, then ac < be. (1)

If a < band c < 0, then ac > be.

The last two statements mean that an inequality is preserved when its members
multiplied by a positive number but is reversetl when they are multiplied by a nega~~:
number.

A-1
A-2 APPEN DlClS

IABSOLUTE VALUE
The ( nonncga ti,·c ) d is tance alo ng the real line b<:t"cen ~cro and t he real number a
is the ah~o lute >'lllue of a. writt.:n Ja j. Equi,·alenlly.

a if a ~ 0:
raJ= { -a if a < 0. (2)

The nota tion a ;::: 0 means tha t o is eithl'r crea te·r than zero or equal to ze ro. Equa-
l ion (2) imp lies ~ha t a' ? 0 fo r c,·cry real numlxr a and that lal =ll if :l nd o nly if
a =0.

EXAMPLE 1 As Fig. ,\ .::! sho" s.


,..1:.-·....;JI_•_J,..__.:.I'.:.I_
= 4_ --i
- L l -1__!_I_L....LJ_J_J_j_
-J fJ •
H' = J anJ 1-Jd = J.

fiG URE A.2 The abwlutc value o f Mnreo• cr, (0 1 = 0 and t./i- :!I = :; - ,/2_ the latter bcin!! tr ue b~-cau,;e 2 > ./2. Titus
a real number Is simply its d1starn: e ./2 -
2 -: 0, and he:: nee-
from zero ([xamplc 1).
1-'2-21=- -(../2 - 2) = 2 -../2.

'lltc follow in!~ propcrt1c~ of a~olute \'Jluc~ arc freque ntly used:

(Ill= (- 171 = ,;;;: -.. 0.


jab!= lnllbl.
(3)
-lnl ;;: a 2 1al.
lb- nl o' la- llj and jaj < h if and on ly if - b < a < h.

a h ln ~ di,t:mc~ bet ween the real numbe rs a and II is defined to be Jll - bt (or
II• - aj: th ere's no difference). lltis di, tancc is simply the length of the line segment
FIGURE A.3 The distance of the real lin~: ll with e ndpoin ts a and h (Fig, i\.3).
between a and b.
·n,~ prup~rties or incqu:IIitic:s and of absolute values in Eqs. ( I) through (3)
imply the following important theorem.

THEOREM 1 Triangle Inequality


fur all real numbers a and b.
la + bJ~Ja l +lbJ . (4)

l'llOOI-' lltcre are several cases to consider. dependi ng upon whether the two
numbers a and ba re positive or negative :md whic h has the larger absolute value. If
both arc posi tive. then so is a + b: in this c.asc,

Ia + bl = a+ b = jaj + lbl. (5)


If a > 0 but b < 0 a nd Jbl < ja j, then

so
1--lb f - lbl--1
I I I I JCI + !Jj = a + b < II = ja j < Jaj + JbJ, (6)

FIGURE A.4 The triangle as illustrated in Fig. A.4. lltc other cases arc simi lar. In particular we sec that the
inequality with a > 0, b < 0, and triangle inequality is actually an equa lity (as in Eq. (5)] unlcss 11 and'h have different
lbi < ID!. signs. in which case it is a strict inequality (as in Eq. (6)(. ~
APPENDIX A A-3

~~VA~L~S-------------------------------------­
shuppose that Sis a set (collection) of real numbers. It is common to describe S by
t e notatiOn

S = (x: condition},
whe~e the "condition" is true for those numbers x inS and false for those numbers x
not tn S. The most important sets of real numbers in calculus are intervals. If a < b.
then the open intern! (a, b) is defined to be the set

(a. b)= (x: a < x <b)

of real numbers, and the closed intenal [a. h) i~


(a. bJ = {x: a ~ x ~ b).
Thus a cl osed interval conta ins its endpoints, whereas an open interval does not. We
also use the half·open intervals
[a. b) = (x: a ~ x < bl and (a, bJ = (x: a < :c ~b).
( (1,3) )
Thus the open interval (1. 3) is the set of those real numbersx suc h that! < x < 3, thc
1-1. l ) closed interval [- 1. 2] is the set of those real numbe rs x such that - 1 ~ x ~ 2, a nd
the half-open interval ( -1. 2) is the set of those real numbers x such that -1 < x ~ 2.
(0. Jj)
In Fig. A.5 we show examples of such intervals as well as some unbounded intervals,
(H. I ) 1 which have forms such as
[a. +oo) = fx: x e; a),
(-oo.a ) = (x: x :;; a}.
(-•. 2)
(a , + oo) = (x : x > a),
fiGURE A.~ Some examples of
i:nerva!s of real numbers. and (-oo, a) = fx: x <a).
The symbols + co and - oo, denoting "plus infinity'" and "minus infinity,"' arc merely
notational conveniences and do not represent real numbers-the real line ll docs
not have "endpoints at inlini ty." The usc of these symbols is motivated by the brief
and natural descriptions [rr. +oo) and (-oo. 2) for the sets
(x : x E: rr I and {x : x < 2)
of all real numbers x such that x E: tr ;tnd x < 2, respectively.

~INEQUALITIES
1lte se t o f solutions of an inequality involving a variable x is often an interval or a
union of intervals, as in the next examples. 11tc solution set of such an inequality is
simply the set of all those rea l numbers .r that satisfy the inequality.

EXAMPLE 2 Solve the inequality 2.t - I < 4.r + 5.


Solution Using the properties of inequalities listed in (1). we proceed much as if we
were solving an equation for x: We isolate x on one side of the ir.equality. He re we
begin with
2x -1 < 4.r +5
and it follows that
-1 < 2x + 5;
-6 < 2x;
-3 < .t.

Hence the solution set is the unbounded interval ( -3, +oo).



A-4 AP?ENDICf..S

EXAMPLE 3 Solve the ineq113lity -13 < I - -tr ~ 7.


Solution We simplify th e given incqu:!lHy as follows:
-13< 1 - .!r ~ i;

- 1 ~ ..!.r - I < 13;


.I
-6 ;:1 .!.r < 1-1:
- ~$.r<;.
Th u\ the solution ~et of the gh en i~e~u:!lit~: is the half-open intcr,-al I-~ · ~ ). •
EXAMPLE 4 Sohc tht inequalily .J- 5r < 2.
Solution From the founh pro;-e rt~ of at-<olut~ ,·:wlu,·< in (3). \\ <! ~ee that the given
inequali ty i~ equivalent t o
- : < 3 - 5r < 2.
We nows1mphf) '"in the pre\ in::• t-..o c , .1mrl::~:
-5 < -5 r <. - 1:
l cr ~ I

'lllll' the solu tion se t i\ th e npcn m tcf\ JI n. 1). •


EXAMPLE 5 Solve the incqunhty
~
-,....--,.. < 1.
12r - 31
Solutio n It i> usually best to begin by c l iminaton ~ a den omi nator containing the
unknown . I!ere we mult iply ~:lch term by the posw•·r quantlly 12..r - 31to obt:1in the
eq uivalent inequa lity
12..r - Jl > 5.
It follows from the la't property in {3) th:lt thi> is so 1f and only if ei ther
2x- 3 < -5 or 2..r - J > 5.
1l1e solut ions of these two inequalities are the open intervals ( - :>O. - I ) and (4. +oo).
rc:spcctiwly. li enee the solution se t of the original inequality consists of nil tho~c
numbers .r that lie in either of these two ope n intavals.. +
1l1e union of the two sets S :md T i\ the set S U T given by
S u T= l.r: either .r e S or x e T or both}.
llllls the solution set in Example 5 can be " Ti tt.:n in the form (-co. -I ) u (4. +co).

EXAMPLE 6 In accord with Boyle's law. th e pressure p(in pounds per square inch)
and volume V (in cubic inches) of a certain gas salisfr the condition pl' 100.=
Suppose that 50 ;;; V ~ 150 . Wha t is the ra nge of possible valu.:s of the pressure p?

Solution If we substitute l' = 100/ f' in the given inequality 50 ~ V ~ 150, we get
100
50 $ $ 150.
- f' -
It follows that both
100 100
50 $ and $ 150:
- p p -

that is. that both
p ~ 2 and p?, ~.
Thus the pressure p must lie in the closed interval I ~ . 2].

APPENDIX A A-5

The intersec
· t •tun of the two sets Sand Tis the set S n T del'ined as foll ows:

S n T={x:both xe S and xeT).

· Example 6 is the set {-oo. 2] n [ ~ . +OC) =


llJUs the solut"JOn se t In n.2].

38. The relationship hcrween rh e Fahren he it tempe rature F


and the Celsius temperature C is £iven hy F = 3:! + C. If J
the remperature o n a certain da y rang~d from a lo w of 70~F
ro a h1~h of90' F. " hJ t was the ran£e of rhe temperatu re'"
degree< Celsiu<~
1- 61 39. A n ckwica l circuit con rains a hatter)' supp lying F. volts in
6.
141+ 1- 21 series with a resistance of R ohms. a< shown in Fig. A.6.
l11en the current of I ampe res that now~ in the circu it sa tis·
1. J(-3) 1
1 K. 13- J3i fies O hm·s law. F.= /R. f( F., 100 and 25 < R <50. " hat
10. -17 - 4) is the range of possible ' 'a lues o f I?
9. l:r -¥I
11. It - 31. given X < 3
t!. 1.r- 51+ l.r - 101. given l.r- 71 < I Current: I amre-ft'(

Solvr the inequnlitie.< in l'robl.:m s /3 through 3 1. Write ..ach


RC\I)I.ancc ~
lh ttcry:
solution set in intervol notation. R ohms
£votu
l.l. 2r - 7 < -3 14. I - .J.r > 2

IS. 3.t - ~ ;; 17 16. 2x + 5 ::) 9


11. 2- 3x < 7 U!. o- 5.r > -9
20. 4 ;;! 3.r - 5 ~ I 0 FIGURE A.6 A simple ele<:ttic circuit.
19. -3 < 2x + 5 < 7
11. - 6;; 5 - 2r < 2 22. 3 < I- 5x < 7 40. The period T( in seconds) ofa ~c pendul um of length L
23. 13 - 2xl < 5 24. 15.r + 3 1:£ 4 v
(in feet) is given by T = 2:r L/ 32. If 3 < L < 4. when is
the rnngc of pos<iblc val ues ofT?
~. II- 3xl > 2 26. I < 17.r - I I < 3
.n. Use the properti<-s of inequalit ies in (I) to show that the
I sum of two positive numbe rs is po sitive.
27. 2;; I~ - 5x l :£ 4 21!. - - > 3
2.r + 1 .IZ. Usc the propert ie s of ineq ua lit ies in (I) to show tha t the
2 2 product of two p~ir ivc numbers is posit ive.
29. - -5-5 30. < I
7- 3x - 13x- 41 .13. l'mve that the producl of two negative numbers is positive
I I ami tha t rhe prod uct of a positive number and a negative
3l - >- - number is negative.
II - 5xl : 3
.$.1. Suppose that a < I> a nd that a and b arc either both positive
32. Soh·e the inequality x 2 - x - 6 > 0. [Suggestion: Co nclude
or hoth negarive. !'rove thtlll /a > 1/ b.
from the facto rization x' - x - 6 = (.r - 3)(.r + 2) tha t the
quantities x - 3 and .r + 2 arc eith er both positive o r borh .15. Apply the triangle inequality twice to show that
negative. Consider the two cases separately to deduce that
fa + b + cJ~(ti l + lbl +lei
the solution set is ( - x . -2) U (3. oo).J
Ulc rht method of Problem 32 10 SiJive rite inequalities in l'mb · for arbitrary real numbers a. b, and c.

kms 33 through 36. 46. Write a= (n- b) + b to deduce from the tria ngle inequality
that
l3. x' - 2x _ 8 > 0 ).S. x' - 3x + 2 < 0
.]6. 2.r ~ 15 - .r
2 I" I - Jbl ~ Ia - bJ
for arbitrary real numbe rs a and b.
37· In accord with Bovle's law. the pressu re P (in pounds r:r
square inch) and ~·olumc v (in cubic inches) of a ccrtalfl 47. Deduce from the definition in (2) that Jal < b if and only if
v

-
gas satisfy the condition p == SOO. What is the ra1 nge of -b < a< b.
~·bl · 100 < v < 200
·==•~e~v=a~lu~e~s~o~f~t:h:e~p~r~e:~~u:r:c~.g~•:":e~n~~-~~-~~·-------------------------------------------------------
A-6 AP?ENDICES

APPENDIX 8: THE COORDINATE PLANE AND STRAIGHT LINES


Im agine the na t. featu r eless. two-dimensio nal pbne of Eucl id"s g.:o rnc_try. Install a
cop\' of the real number line R. w11h th~ line ho ri1ontal a nd the pos1tJ\"C n umbe rs

:t

to the right. Add ano ther copv o f R perpendicula r to the first .. with th e two lines
cros~in2 whe re the numher uro j; loca ted on .:ach. The \c:rtic:JIImc sho uld ha\'e the
po<>i ti..; numbers abo\'; the hori7ontal line. a; in Fie. 8. 1; the nc:gatin: numbers thus
will be below it. Th e horizon tal line is cJ!kd the .r·;t i< a nd the \'Crtical line is called
the 1"-:ni'-
II-
. With these added fe:!ltlres. " e call the plane the co<l rdin9te plane, because it's
now ~s1bie to locat<! any po!n t there by a pai r o f numbers. ca lled the coordinates
I I I I I
-3 -2 - I 2 ) •
-I 1- of the po:nt. Here·• hn" : If Pis a point in the pl:tne. d raw perpe ndiculars fr~m I' to
the coord1nate a'cs. as <ho"'n in Fi2. B. 2. One pc rp<·ndicul ar meets the .r-ax.ts at the
- 2 1-
.r ·cnHrdin:~le (or ah<ci«a ) of P. b~kd ' • in Fig. ll~. Th<: o ther meet s the y<txis in
-) 1- I he y· coo rdinalt· (N orolin~lc ) .': of l'. TI1e p:~ir or numbers l r, . ytl. in I hal o:der. is
call ed the cunrd i nal~ pair for 1'. o r simply t he coo rdinull'< of 1'. To he conc1se. we
5pea k ol .. lhc p<)IOI l'(.t:. 1·1 J."
FIGURE 8.1 The coord.nate plane. 'll11s coordrnare ,,-,rem i< called the rectan~:ul:tr coordinate system. or the Carte-
, ;an cnnrdina ll· ·~''~IT; (1--ccamc 11< u<c wa< popul:~ ri1cd. beginning in the 1630s. by
I he Fr~nd1 111 .11 hrrnalKr.m .1ntl philo<nphcr Rene D csca n cs ( 1596- 1650 J). Th <: pbnc.
tbu~ coor.l inalrtcJ. I ' denoted by J( because ' " o <·opics of U nn.: used: il is known
also a> I he Cartc;bn plan e.
Rcelan!!ul .H coordinalcs arc ca~y to u~e. hcca u ~c l'l.t1. y 1) amJ Q (xl. >'2 ) denote
I he ~:Jmc poin t 1( and o n ly if .r1 = .t2 and y 1 = .1':· ' ll1 u' wh en yo u know that P and
Q arc 1wo dilk rc nl poi nl s. you may conclude 1hJ1 I' and Q have diffcrenl abscissas.
diffcrcm ord in;llcs. or h01h.
., The point of symm elry lO. 0) where lh<: coord in:llc: axes mee t is cal.lcd the
uriJ,:in. All points on I hex-axis have coordin ates of the form (x . 0) . Althou gh the rt•a/
twmii<'T x is no I the , ;unr: as the ~eornctric JXllll t (.c. 0). I here ar.: situations in which
it is usefu l to lhink of the t\\O as the sam.:. Similar remark> apply to points (0 . y) o n
FIGURE 8 .2 The point P has the y-axis.
rectangul<~r coordinates y,). <••· Titc concept of dis wnce in th e coordinate plane i ~ ha~cd on the l'yrha ~:urc;m
thl'<lrl"lll: If i1fiC is :1 right triangle wi lh ils right angle at I he poi nt C. wi lh hypotenuse
of length c and I he olhcr 1wo sides of lengths a and b (as in Fig. 13.3). th.:n

r :
(1)

·~H~ conver~e of the Py1hagorcan thc?re r~ is also true: If the three sides of ::1 given
tnanglc satJsfy the Pythagorean rclauon m Eq. (I ). then the angle opposite side c
must he a right angle.
A C(nght 1l1~ tlistallct· d( 1'1. /~) ~~t~~·ccn th e points P1 and I~ is. by definition. the le ngth
b .1n;lr)
of the str:uglll -hnc scgm.:nt JOrn rng li and h l l1c following formula gives d( !'1. {'2 )
FIGURE 8 .3 The Pythagorean
10 terms of the coord111 atcs or the two points.
theorem .
Distt~nce Formula

'Ill~ di, tum·e I'C twccnthc twn point~ l'J(.t· 1. y 1 1


. :md / ':_(.r: ..I~ ) is

(21

PROOF If .r, f. .tz and )'J f. yz. th en Eq. (2) foll ows from the Pvthaco rean theo-
rem. Use the right triangle with vertices P 1• /'2 , and [~(.r2 , y 1) shO\~'n in-Fig. ll.4.
If x, = xz, then P, a nd P2 lie in a \'C rticalline. In this case
ti ( P~o fz) = IYt- )'11 =V(J•- >~) 2 •
This agrees with Eq. (2) because x 1 = x 2• lbe remaining case (y1 = n) is similar. ~
APPENDIX 8 A-7

f iGU RE 8.4 Use this triang'e to f iGURE 8 .5 II this a right triangle


deduce the diuance formula. (EJ<ampl~ 1}?

EX AMPLE 1 Show t hai the trb nc.Ie PQR with vertices P ( l. 0) . Q(5 . .t) , a nd
R(-2. J) is a right triangle (Fig. B.S).-

Sol utio n lltc dis tance fo rmula gives

r, a
2
= (d(l'. Qll1 = (5- 1): +(.I - 0): = 3.2.
b = [cl(l'. Rlj: = ( -2- 1)1 .._ (3 - 0): = 18.
1
and
c 2 = [cf(Q. R)j' = (-2 - 5): ~ (3 - .1)
2 =50.
Because a1 + o1 ~ r,
the COfll 'rT.SC of the 1')1hlgorca n theorem im plies t na t RPQ
is a righ t angle. (lltc right angle is at I' because pis the vert e x opposite the longest
side. Q R. ) +
Another applic:uion of the distance form ula is an cxpres~ion for the coord inates
oft hc midpoint ,\ f of the line segme nt !'1 /~ wi th endpoints P1 :!nd 1'2 (Fig. l3.6). Recall
from g.cometry that M is the one (and on ly) point of the line segm ent P1 1~ that is
fiCURE8.6 Th~ midpoint AI. equally distant from 1'1 and /~. 'The following formula tells us th at t he coord ina tes
of Marc the m ·erag(S of the corresponding coordina tes o f 1'1 and P: .

M id point Formulil
llll' tttiii1J(Iint o f the linl' Sl'gmcnl wit h cndpninl' f',(.r 1 • y 1 ) a nd P: lx :. _1': ) i ~ the
puint .\II x. )' I with cnnrdin:llc'
:1 = ~(x, + x: l and y = ~(Yt + )':). ( 3)

PllOOF If you subst itute the coo rdinates o f P~o Ill. and ~ in the distance formula.
you fi nd that d ( 1'1• M ) = d(l~ . M ) . All that remains is to sho w that M lies on the line
segment P1 Pz. We ask you to do this. and thus complete the proof, in Problem 31 . ~

~TRAIGHT LINES AND SLOPE


'
We want to defi ne the slope of a stra i ~ht line. a measure of its rate o f rise or fa ll
(rom left to right. Given a nom·at ical straight line L in the C()Ordinate plane, choose
two po ints 1'1 (.r1 , _l't) and /~(.r1 . _1~) on L Conside r the increm ents Ax and C.y ( read
"delta .x '' and "delta y" ) in the x· and y-coordtn ates from /'1 t o f>z. lltcse are defined
as follo ws:
C.x =xz- .r, and C.y = )'2 - Yl· (4)
Engineers (and o thers) call C.x the run from ~'1 to 1~ and C.y the rise from f't t o Pz.
as in Fig. n.7. lltc slope m of the non vertical hneL IS then defin ed to b e the ratio of
the rise to the run:
!lcu~E 8 . Ay )~- Yt
~-.:~ht 1,~~- The slope of a Ill = - = --
c.x xz- Xt
.
(5)
A-8 APPENDICES

FIGURE B.S The result of the slope


mmpuLlt>on does not de"pend on
"hich two points of l are used.

This is also the defini ti::ln of a line's slo pe in civil en!!inc:ering (and elsewhe re). In a
surveying text you are li kely to find the memory :l i U
nsc ..
"siClpc = - .
run
Rccll l t h:ll corrc spnnd1·ng sH.lcs
· · ·1.H ( I11:1t 1·"-· cq u~l-~' n glcd)
of Slllll . triangles
f L. h have
equ al ratios. lienee. 1f I ;(X) . ,1')) anu ' ' .r,. ' •1
· , · ' n ( }' l · rc two othe r po mts o I en llC
1
si milari ty of th e t riangle~ in Fig. B.!\ imphc< tha t
y, - ) ':1 -~~ - Yt
=
X-'- X J X~ - X1

lllereforc. the slope 111 35 defined in Eq. (5) docs nor de pend o nlhe panicular choice
of P1 and P2. . ( ) · 0 If L
If the line Lis horizontal. then Ay =
0. In this case Eq. 5 gtvcs m = ..
is ven ical, then A.r = 0. so the slope o f Lis nor di!fined. Thus we have I he followmg
stalem enls:
• Hnri7nn l~llin e; have slope ze r o.
• Vert ical lines have no defin ed slope.

EXAMPLE 2

(a) The slope of the line lhrough Ihe points (3. -2) and (-I , 4) is
4- ( - 2) 6 3
1n= =- = - -.
( -1 ) -3 -4 2
(b) The points (3. - 2) and (7. -2) have the sam e y-coordinale. 1l1ereforc, lhc
line through them is horizontal and thus has slope zero.
(c) llte points (3. - 2) and (3, 4) have the same x~oordinate. Thus the line
through them is vertical , and so ils slope is undefined. +

IEQUATIONS OF STRAIGHT LINES

flJ:; - ;
Y- Yo
x - xo
ArrENDtX s A-9
that is.

) ' - )\> = m(x - .r0 ). (til

Because .• EcJ.( 6 ). as docs cvay o ther r<>inwf Land ~t·c:~mc


no o th the .point (·ru. )IJ) saushcs
tine 1 er
ltl pomts
. of the pia· nc. canto •
1 so. Eq. (li) i< indeed an equati o n f,>r the ):tn'n
~ sununarv· · " c h ale
. • t11c f ollowm!!
. rc~u lt.

Th t! Point-Slo pe EquJtion
• 1 (~oint·r/'tt
'Ill.; . ''"~"-' "' th rou••h the thnii'Oin i LJ,•. 11J) ..
. · ·t' l lin· · nn thc ,.'"'' 1\lth tl
, < till 1•I J th Clltl•Ji
111
· 11 .1I . . . f .
• t ' ' at'' ) th,· •·qu.ttu>n
:-

. Ettna tion (li) is• c•llcd


.. · tlte poonl->
· • of I~ partlv h•c:nt<C t Iw co ·
1ope equattnn
ordma• tes of the po'nt
1 (x,,. )nl an d the sh,pc m <•f L m:w t>e read ·d .tn·ctl v from th .t$
equatton. · ·

EXAMPLE 3 Write an <'<JUatiom fo r the straigh t line Lthmu)!h th<'J'Oint$ / '1 ( I . - I)


and 1 ~(3 . 5).

Solution lhe slope m of L may be ot>t;~in 1·d fro m the two ~,:il·c n points:
5-(-1)
m = 3- I =3.
Eith~:r P, or P: will do for the lixcd point. \\'c usc /'1( 1. - 1). 'lhen. with the aid of
Eq. (6). the point ·slo pc equation of Lis

y+I = 3(x - 1).

If simplification is appropriate. we mav. write 3x - .I' =.t or .1· = 3.r - 4. •


Equation (6) can be wri tten in the form
y=mr+ b (7)

where IJ =
) It - tnro is a constant. Because y = b when .r = 0. the y- intN~JII of L
fiGURE8.9 The ~traight line with is the point (0. b) shown in Fig. 13.9. Equations (6) :md (7) are different fom1 ~ of th~
~uat1oo y = mx + b ha~ a ~lope m
t'ld y-interce-pt b. equation of n straight line.

The Slope-I ntercep t Equ:~ tion


'lltc point rc\,
y) li~s l\11 th<' hn·· \\ith sh>p•: Ill :lltd y-illt<'f<"Cpt, if and (111)\' if tht'
l'uordinato:s of/' satisfy till' <'<(U:ttion ·
,1' =//IX+ h. (7)

Perhaps you noticed that both Eq. (6) and Eq. (7) C'an be written in the form
of the gcncrnllincar cqu:ttion
tlr + By= C. (8)
where ;\, B. and C (Ire constants. Conversely. if 8 -F 0. then Eq. (S) can be written
in the form of Eq . (7) if we d!vidc each tc_r~l by fl. ll1ereforc Eq. (S) represe nts a
straight line with its slope bemg the cocfltctcnt of .r afta s~lution of the cqu:ttion
for v. If B = 0. then Eq. (8) reduces ~o the equatton .o r a vcrttcaliinc: x K (where =
j;
K a constant). If A ,. 0 and ~ 'f 0. then Eq. (S) reduces to the equation of l1
horizontal line: y == 11 (where /Its n constant). lhus "''-'see that Eq . (8) is always an
equ.. . -
=
.,·,on of a straight line unless A II = 0. Con,·ersely. e v..,ry strai~:ht line in the
. one- has an equa ,.ton o f t he form .-
lane-even a vcrucal 111 (S)
coor d 111:11c p • ·
A-1 0 APPENDICES

PARALLEL LINES AND PERPENDICULAR LINES . . .


I .
Then it s angle of anchnahon
If t he line L is nothorizontal.thenitmust.cross t he~·axas. ' ti"c: .r·axis to LIt follows
1 L is the angle o measured_ countercloc~"15e from~ e ~~.IO makes it clear that this
1: . ,,
Sio:'< "' • 'ij"=T,
:n
that 0 < o < 180' if¢ IS measured degrees. lgluJtcd tw t he equation
angle o and the slope m of a no:l\·erucal hnc ;ue re ·

\ \'
(9)
m = - · = tan¢.
t>x
. . . le then tan¢ is t he ratio of
Th is is true because if o is an acute 31lgle 10 a n ght tnang ·
the leg opposite o to the leg adjacent!~ 0 · h . rncs arc paralle l if and only if
You r intuition correct!~· assur~s ~ ou t. af~:~~~"s from Eq. (9) th:H two paralle l
1

they ha\'c the same an~le of anchn:lllon . So
11
wo lines with the same slope must be
nonvenical li nes ha"e the same slope and that t
parall el. This comple tes the proof of Theorem I.
FIGURE 8. 10 How is the angle
of ln,linatlon ¢ related to the
slope m? THEOR EM 1 Slopes of Parallel Lin es . •
Two non\'ertical lines arc pa ral lel if and only if they hn\'e th e sa me s 1ope:.

. owithout the usc of th e tangent function.1ltc two


lhcorcm I t:an a Iso be pro'c · · 1 • • n ' lar
. 1 · I'
IInC~ S Jt)Wll Ill rig. '·
r::: 11 arc p·
•1 rallel 1 raght tn ang es nrc su I ,
if and o nly .if the I wo
which i~ ~:qui valent to the slopes of th e lines be1ng c qua ·

EXAMPLE 4 Write an equation of the line /. th3t p:tsscs through the point P(3. -2)
and is parallel to the lir.e L' with the equ:uion x + 2y 6. =
Solution When we soh·e the equat ion of I.: for y, we ge t y i .r + 3. So L' has=-
slop~ 111 = -l·
Because L has the same slope. its poin t-s lope equation is then

y+2 = -l<x-3):

if you prefer, x + 2y =-I.



FIGURE 8.11 Two parallel lanes.
TH EOREM 2 Slopes of Perpendicular Lines
Two lines L 1 and L1 with slopes m1 and mz. respective ly, arc perpendicular if 31ld
o nly if

( 10)
lltat is.. the slope of each is the negative reciprocal of the slope of th e o ther.

l'UOOF lf the two lines L, and L2 are perpendicular and the slope or each exists,
th en nei ther is horizontal or vertical. Thus the situation resembles the on e shown in
Fig. 8.1 2, in which the two lines meet at the point (.to. Yo). it is easy to sec that the two
right triangles of the figure arc similar, so equality of ratios or corresponding sides
yields

)'2 - ) I> Xo - .Tt x, - .ro l


mz=
x2 - xo
= Yt - .Yo
=-
Yt - ) \1
= - -.
m,
FIGURE 8.12 Illustration of the
proof of Theorem 2.
lltus Eq. (10) holds if the two lines are perpcndicular.lllis argument can be reversed
to prove the converse-that the lines are perpendicular if m m -I. ~
1 2
=
EXAMPLE 5 Write an equation of the line L through the point 1'(3. -2) that is
perpendicular to the Line I.: ~ith equation x + 2y = 6.
APPENDIX B A-11

~I CURt 8.13 Posiw e and neg,ttive slope; effect on¢.

Solution As we saw in Example -1, the slope of t.: is n ( = -!.


E3y Th eorem 2. the
=
slope o f Lis m = -I f m' 2. 'Thus L has the point·slopc equatio n
y + 2 = 2(x - J):
equivalently. 2x - y = 8. •
You will find it helpful to remember that the si~n of the slope 111 of the line
L indicates whether /. runs upward or downward a~ your e yes move from left to
right. If m > 0, then the angle of inclination(> of I. must be an acute angle:. because
m = tan o. In th is case. L "runs upward " to the right. If m < 0. then t!J is obtuse. so
l. "runs downward." Figure 11.13 shows the geometry be hind the se obse rvati ons.

!GRAPHICAL INVESTIGATION
Many mathematical problems require the simult:mcous solution or a pa ir of linear
equations of the form
DtX+bt)'=Ct.
( IJ)
02X + lj~y = C2 .

l11c g.raph of these two equ:llions cunsists or a pair of straight lines in the xy·pl:mc.
If these two lines arc not parallel, then they must intersect at a single point whose
coordinates ( ,t 0 . ) It) constitute the so lution of ( II ). That is.. x = x 0 andy = ) \J arc the
(only) values or .randy for \\hiclt hoth equations in (II) arc true.
In ckmcntary a lgebra you studied variou~ climin:llion and substi tution meth ·
FlGURE 8. I 4 A calculator ods for snlving linear ~ystcms such as tho: one in ( II ). Ex;unp lc 6 illustra tes an alter·
P'!pared to graph the lines In native gmplricnl llll'tfw rl that is some times useful wh.:n a graphing utility-a g.r aphics
lq. (12) (Example 6).
calculator or a computer with a graphin~ program-is available.

EXAMPLE 6 We want to investigate the simultaneous solution o f the linear cqua·


tions
lOx- 8y = 17,
15x + ISy = 67. (12)

With many graphics calculators.. it is necessary first to solve each equatio n for y:
y = (17 - IOx)/ (-8),
y = (67- 15x)/ IS. (13)

Figure E3.14 shows a calculator prepared to grap~ the two lines repre se nted by the
equations in ( 12). and Fig. 8.15 shows the result Ill the viewing window _ 5 :;i :c ~ 5 •
-5~y ~ 5. . .
Before proceeding. note that 111 Fig.~ B. I S the two lmcs c1p{uar 10 be perpcn.
dicular. But their slopes.. (-10)/ (-B) = i and (-IS)/ 18 = - ~ ·are not negative
A-12 APPENDIC ES

l lJr-----------------~ 1..19

U!!·

I.!•S·
) y
1.!~·

us: ·
J.ll
:s

FIGURE 8.16 2 ' 1 ' 3. F IGU R ~ 8. 17 2 75 ~ ' ~ 2 8 5, FIGURE 8.1 8 2.80<' x ;S 2 81,
I~ y;:: 2 ( l~4'Tip'~ 6) I 3S ~ t:: I .:5 (bJ-.,'e 6). 1. 38 :S y::
1 39 (Example 6).

r<'Clr:<~-~·, <'f nn;: ~r:o:her. 11 follows from l11c:orem 2 th:t t the t\\ O li n ear nrc nor
p..-rrcnJrcular
ri,·ur~' II If•. n 1- .•lr.J R!S <h(1\\ <UCCC<<ii'C m ~g n ific:lli o n~ produced by
" tuo:nm~ In·· nn the rumr ,,r 1nrcrsc.:tion o( th<· t\\O line" l11c dashed- line box
rn c~.:lr tr~urc ,, tlr.: \1::\\JilC "ind<m for thc nc\1 li~1m:. looking a t fi g. 1!.18, we sec
th .tt the r~l~f'<'Cir<m f'<llnt '' gt\'l'O by the apprn~ im;ll i<ln<
\ ~ ~.807. y ::::: US.l. ( 1-'l
rtlU ildl'<f tll lhiCl' liClllll.rl pl.,_.,,
Il l<' rc,ult rn ( l.!J r.ml-c .:hcd:cd hy cy uatin;: t he righ t -hand ~id es in ( 13) nnd
,nh·in~ fur 1 . 'f1u, !!"''' 1 = .!~I 15')"":! ~()(>7. Sul"ri r111in!! the cxnct va lue of x into
cilhcr •·qual IIlii 111 ( 1.>1 rh•· n "'·ld< ,. = iG; Nl ::- I JKU.
llt<' )!r.q,hrcal m.:r hod iiJu,trarctl hy E ~:l mplc 6r) pica lly prod uc.:s approximate
"1lutinn< th .ol .or,· <ufli.:i,·llrl~ :occur:llc for prac1ical purpo~c-.. l1u1 tlw metho d is
csrcci.llly mcful fur mmlm···" cqua tro ns. tur " h ich exac t alge braic techniques of
,ulu tiun ma~ no t be a' ;ulahlc. +

APP END IX B PROBLEMS


Tllft'«'ll"illt\ A. II.,,,/ C IU' 011 fl \IIH:/c• )/fOIJ.,'htlm~ dmttl tml\· if In l'ro!JI~m< f.J rhrough .?1, k•rirc an <'tflllllion of the straight
r/u• sltlp~of A ff '"'<lrtnl '"'II~ <lnr•·of /JC. In l'mhlml< I tlrn•u~;h line' L drKriht'd.
.J. plot tlrt• rhrc·,. ~"'"" f'tlU:/{ nntl thc·n tlc•te'rmir:t' wh,·tlrrr or n~t
1-1. I. is ,·.:rtical and has .r· inte rcept 7.
thry li~ (liJ tr ·' m;;:/t• '""'·
1 ~. I. is horizonta l 3nd plsses through (3, - .S).
I . A! - I. -=>· llr1. I I . cc ~ . J>
/11: . .~ I. Cell. 01 16. L has .<·intercept 2 and y·int~ rcc pr - 3.
~- tl ! -2. 5).
J. A (- 1,(>1 , Rt i.:J. C (J . -21 17. I. passes thr(>ugh (2. -3) and (.S. 3).
A c- 3. : 1.
"· 8 ( 1./\) ,

In Proh/,·m< 5 and 6, "-''',,,..COliC


C(~. 1-IJ
<'!'' nf sl<'l'•' tn tlw"' thnt ''"
IIi. I . passes 1hroug h (-I. - 4) and has slope j.
19. L passes through (4. 2) a nd has angle of inclination IJ.S•.
f our pailll< ;:i•'<'ll tll't' ''"' •wrirr< u ( a part11/do0 rmll.
211. L has slope 6 ~nd y· intere<pt 7 .
S. A <-1. 3). /1(5. 01 . C (7. ~ l. D(l. 7>
21. ~ p:1sses through (I. 5 ) lnd is parallel to th e line with cq ua·
1>. ,1(7.-ll. R\-2. 21. C( l.~ l. 0 (10. 1) liOn 2x + y = 10.
/ 11 /'m b/<'IIIS 7 und S. ' "''"' that tlu· thre,· gi•·m points tlfl' the 22. Lpasses through ( - 2, ~) a nd is perpendicular ro the li ne
t'erticc.'·'· of a ri);lrttritmglt·. wuh equa tion x + 2y = 17.
7. ,1(-1. - l l. 11(2. 7r. ({-1 , - ~)
23. Lis the perpendicular bi~ccror o f the line segmen t that bas
II. A ell. - 11. 8(2. 31. C( - .l. -2 ) endpoints (-1 . 2) a nd (3. 10)
I n J>m!Jiml.f () thrtlltJill / .1, .'i11d t/11• .<lnpl' m 11111/ y ·illtl'TC<'pt!J of Z-1. Find t?c pc rpc ndicullr distance from the point (2. 1) to the
tht•linc " ith rhr ~;i•·m rqrta:inn. Tl1r11 skrtch rht! l11w. hnc wuh equation y = x + 1.
9. ::!.1 = 3y 10. X .._ y = I 2S. Find the pcrpendicullr diunncc between the parallel lines
Y = 5x- I and y = .S.r + 9.
11. 2-• - y +3= 0
26. ~e points 11(- 1. 6), li(O.O).and C(3, I) a re three conscc·
IJ. 2.r = J- .Sy utl\·e ' 'Crtoces of a parallelogram. Whal are the coordinltes
AFPENDIX C A-13
, urth ,·ertex? (What ha ppens if the word C'OnJtcutiv c
oflhC,o
.11 omiucd 7)
l'rO'·e th atthc d i,gonals of the parallelo gram of Problem 26
tf. . ct•ach other.
btf>! '
ho"' that the p~ints A(- 1,2), 8 (3. - 1), C(6. 3). and
~ 5 7 61nrc the verttccs o f n rhom.~ us-a parallelogram with
Dt-· r sides having the sa me length. 1l1c n pro\'c that the
all 1ou . I t .
di~n
als of th iS r 10 m 1us nrc perpendtcular to each ot her .
The points 11(2. 1). 8 (3. 5). an.d CO. 3) arc the vertices of l
zg. atnl. n•lc
~ · Pro\'e tll3 t the lt ne JOtntng the mid points of AB

ar. d BC is pa rallel to A C. FIGURE 8.19 Tht lines of


Pro!:llem 36.
A mtdian of n trinn[:lc i• a line joining a ,·enex to the mid.
· 1 of the opposite side.
l\ potn . Prm·~ that t he medians of the
uillllttk of Problem 29 mt crsect in a single point. Are these two lines parallel? If not. lind their point of.in·
te rscctioo. If yo u ba'e a graphing utility. lind the solutton
lL Complete the proo f nf the mtdpoint fo~mula in Eq. (3). It by graphieal appro<timation as well as by exact nlgcbra tc
• •the pomt M ltcs o n the segment
· .IS neccssar)' to sho w that me thods.
p,f':. One way to do tim " to show that the slope o f ,\f p
1
iseq~al to the store of M 1} . In Problems 37 through -16. uu n graphics cnlcrd ator o r cr~m·
l!. Let ?(xo. ,111) ben pnint of the circle with cente r C(O. 0) and (111/t'r to nppruximntr Jlraphictrlly ( h'rth tlrrrr• tligi rs tn tire rrg lrt
udiu~ r . l~ccall that the line tange nt 10 the circle nt the of t!tr tlecrm al correct or w rrrcth• rou~tdt'd) tla· solutio11 of tltt!
gi•·mlmenr rq11ntio11. Thert cha k ) OIIr appro.rim att' solmion by
point I' is pcrpe nlliculllr W t!le radius C P. l'ro,·c tha t the
equation of thiS ll nj!en t hnc ts .r..t + )hY = r l. w iving tl~r sy1trm by nil r.rnct olgclm11c method.

l-\ The Fahrenheit tcmper:u urc F :tnd the absolute tcmr>e r· 37. 2x + 3y = S 3S. 6.r + ~y= 5
arurc K s:~tisfy ~ linear equatio n. Mo reove r. K = 273.16 2x + 5y 12= R.r- 6y = 13
• ben F = 32. 3nd K = 373. 16 when F = 212. Express K 39. 3.r + Jy = 17
io temu of F. \\'hat is the ''nlue or F when K = 0? =
40. 2x - 3y 17
3x +5y =l6 2x +5y = 20
}1. The length /. (tn ce nt imete rs) of a copper rod is a hncnr
function of iu Ccl•iu< te rnpcr" lurc C. IC L = 124.9-12 when .U.4 t + 3y -17 4!. .;, + 31 = IS
C : : Oand L a 125.134 \\hcn C = li O.exprcss L intcm1s 5x+5y =21 5r+Sy =29
of C.
4J. Sx + 6y =
16 4-1. S.r + Ily = 21
).~ The owner o f a grocery store finds th nt she cnn sell 980 gnl 7x +JOy = 29 4.r + l Oy= 19
of milk each •wek nt $1.69/ gal and 1220 gal o f milk each
•·eek at $1.49/ gnl. Assume a li near relationship between 45. 6x + 6y = 31 ~ 7.t + 6y = 31
price and sales. I low nllny gallons would she then expect 9.r + l l y = 37 ll x+ ll y= 47
to ~ell each " eek at Sl.56f gal?
l6. Figure 8.19 shows the graphs o f the equatio ns 47. Justify the phrase "no o the r poin t o r the pla ne can d o so"
that follow$ the fi rst appearance o f Eq. (6).
17.r- t Oy = 57, 48. The discussionoflhclincarcquation , t t + By = C inEq. (8)
does not indude a dcscrtptton of the graph of this equat ion
25.r- l Sy = 17. if A= B = 0. \\'1131 is the graph in this case?

APPENDIX C: REVIEW OF TRIGONOMETRY


In elementary trigono metry. the six basi.c trigonometric fttn~tions of 311 acute
an lc 0 in a right triangle arc defined as ~altos between patrs of s1de; of the triangle.
Asgin Fig. C. I. where ":ldJ...· St!ln d s f or ·ad
• Jacent ·" "opp" fo r "opposite,
· " and "hyp" for
"hypotenuse,"
adj . opp opp
cosO=- . stn O = h}'P, tan O = -
hyp adj •
(1)
hyp
sec 9 = -d.
cscO = opp
hyp. cot O = adj.
ll!j
3 J 0 PP
llc11RE C.t
rJ 1 '13ht '"· Tht
sidts a nd angle 9 r c these definitions to direcr~d angles of arbitra ry size in the followin
...ngle. We gsenera
way. uppose IZ that the initinl side of the angle 9 is the positive x-axis. so its vertex _g
1s
A· 14 APPENDICES

at t he o rigin. lne ang le is directed if a directi on o f r otation from its initia l side to its
ter minal side is specified. We call r a pusiti> e angle if this rotati on is counterclockwise
and a ncgat i• e nnJ:Ir if it is clock"i se.
• ~ t P (.r. y ) be the point a t which the te rm inal sideof O intersects the unit circle
.r• +r = I. lll en "e define
)"
cosO = .r, sin O = y. tan O = - .
X
(2)
1 1 .r
sec O = -.
X
csc B = -.
...
cot l' = - . ,.
We assume that x = 0 in the cas<! of tnn 9 and secO a nd tha t y?O in the case of
co t nand ~9. If the anfle f) is positive and acu te. the n it is cle ar from Fif!. C.2 that
FIGURE C.2 Using the un t circle the definitions in (2) ~£ '""wi th the rig.ht tri:tnglc:' cl dimti ons in ( I ) in terms of the
to d efine the trigonometric
coordinates of!'. A dance a t the til! urt: also sho ws which of the functio ns a rc positive
functions.
fo r an gles meach of the fo:.:r qu3d-r:w ts. Fifur<: C 3 s umma ri7cS th is informatio n.
Here "'c di<cu~~ primarily the t\\ O mo" basic tr igonorm :tri..: functions. the si ne
and the Co\inc. From (2) \\C sec imm.·diatcly t hat the o the r fou r t rigo nometric func-
t ions arc defined in terms of sin tl and ws by e
sin P I
ta n O = - - .
cosO
sccO = cosO
--.
r (3)
Sin<
Co~«nnt I AU
cos O
co t O = - -
sin 0 ·
cscr = ~.
Slrl
I
0
To~ncc nl Cn~ome Next. ''c compare the angles 0 and -0 in Fig. CA . \Vc sec that
Cot ;an ~C'n t Xc.·:ant
cos( - 0) = co~O and sin(-0) =-sin O. (4)
Positive in qu3dr:ant~ shown 13cca u.~c x = cos 0 and y = sin 0 in (2) . the eq uation x 2 + y 1 = 1 of the unit circle
transbtcs immcdi:ll cly int o the fu ndamcntul identity or trigonometry,
FIGURE C.3 ThP <igm o f the
trigonometric function s. cos= 0 + sin 2 0 = I. (5)
Dividing each term of this fundamen tal ide ntity by cos2 0 gives the identity
1 + tan 2 0 = scc1 0 . (5')
y
Similarly, dividing each term in Eq. (5) by sin 2 0 yields the identi ty
I + cot 2 0 = csc2 0. (S")
(Sec r•ro blcm 9 of this appendix.)
In Problems 41 and 42 we outline derivations of the ncldition formulas
si n(a + /3) = sinacos fl +cosasinfl, (6)
cos(a + {J) =cos a cos/3 - sin a si n tJ. (7)
With a= 0 = fl in Eqs. (6) and (7). w e get the clouble·anglc formulas
sin 20 = 2sinOcosB, (8)
FIGURE C.4 I he effect of
replacing 0 with - 0 in the sine cos 28 = cos2 0
- sin 2 o (9)
and cosine functions. = 2cos2 0 - 1 (9a)
=l-2sin2 0, ( 9 b)
where Eqs. (9a) and (9h) are obtained from Eq. (9) bv usc of th f d ·d ·
in Eq. (5). • e un a menta11 entity
If we solve Eq. (9a) for cos2 0 and Eq. (9b) for sinl w ,
formulas
h h If 1
, e get t c u ·ang c
o
2
cos 0 =!(I +cos20), (10)
• 2 0 = 2(1
sm I
- cos28). (11)
Equations (10) and (II) are especially important in integral calculus.
r--__
RAD~IA~N~M~EA~S~U_R~E---::::::-------------------------------
In elementary mathc .
APPENDIX C A-15

one com 1 matt~. angles frequ 1 . . · ' £" ' ·


meas P etc rcvofuti o n. 1n calculus 't en t ·' arc mea<ured m dr~rt·rs. ••llh ·'""
. m
urc anglc5 in radio Th . 1 IS more com cment- JnJ <>ftcn c~~cnllJI-ICI
subtcn ds in (thatt' s th~ nt c t'lldlart mt>a<ure of an anck 1 ~ the kncth of the .trc it
. . -arcucurs 0 1 r • •
ts at the center or the et rcl• ( ~ o.) the unit cucle "' hen th: •.:rtc~ t>f the :10!!lc
Recall that the area ;, ;g. C:::>).
th e formulas nd Ctrcum(erence C of a circle of r~rfiu~ r nr.: ri ven by

A= .~,~ and C = 1-~r.


fiGURE (.5 The rad1an me.11ure where the irrational num~ . .
ch nl ng'c. of th e unit eire!~ ·5 2.- .':: 15 appro~tmatel~ .\IJ159. ne.·au$<! the circumfcn.· nre
·I • and ItS central angle IS .'ffi'. it f<>llo" s that

. 2:r rad = .360: l&r = ::raJ::: .'. IJI 5Q raJ. (12)


Radian< Ocgrccs Usmg Eq. ( 12) -...c ca I
n eas1 ~convert l-ark anJ forth 1-ct\\c.-en r:tdi:ms :tnd tl.:grces:
0 0
ISO
rr/6 311 I rad = - :., 57 1; · .w.~... ( l l:t)
,Tj 4 115 :r
(,()
1 ~ rJJ "= OOI7J5 raJ
::/3
11/2 I)() 1' :: ( I Zb)
l T{J 120 Figure C.6 show~ radian ·' ·
• -uqrrce con,erston< for some common ancle'-
J.T/4 135 Nowco 'd 1 •
n~t c r :In ang c of fl rad1ans at the cen ter of J ~m:lc: of racliu~ r ( f·i!!. C.7).
5tr/6 150 Deno te.hy .! the length of th e nrc suhtcnllcd hy 11: denote hy t1 the area of the ~ector
:: lRO of the Circle ho unded by this angle. 'fhcnthe rrnpor! ion<
J.T/2 270
2.'1 360 s A ll
-= - ,=-
.!:r 720 2:rr ~r · 2:r
give the fo rmulas
FIGURE ( .6 Some radian-dcgrec
<cm~rs;ons.
s = r (} (0 in rad bns) ( 13)
and
(9 in radians). ( 14)
The definitions in (2) refer to trigonometric functions of anglt•s rather than
trigonometric functions of numbers. Suppose that/ is a real number. ·n lCn the num-
ber sin I is, bv definition. the sine of an angle of t radians-recall that a pmitive angle
is directed ~ounterdock nise from th.: posit1vc x-a ~ is.. -. hercas a negative angle is
direc ted clockwise. Briefly. sin tis the sine of an angle of 1 rndinns. The other trigono-
me tric functions of the number t have simila r definitions. Jiencc, when we write sin 1•
0 . 1 and so on. with t a real number. it is always in reference to an angle to t radians.
c s 'When we need to refer to the sine o~ a~ angh: o~ t d~~rees. we will .henceforth
wnte· sm · r•. The point is that sin 1 and sm r are qwte dtfferent funct1ons of the
van a. ble 1· "'
r •or example• •vou would -eet
sin 1• :::: 0.0175 and sin30' = 0.5

FICUR£ C.7 The ~re~ of n sector on a calcu Iator seI ·n


t
degree mode. Uut in radian mode, a calcula tor would give
1'11 l 't length of a circufar arc. sin 1 :::: 0.8-U5 and sin 30::::: - 0.9880.
. . b .. en the functions sin t and sin t , is
111e rclauonslup ct~<c
t
si nr• '"' sin ( ;~~) · (IS)

• . ds e 1·en to programming languages. In FORTRAI\', the


The distincuon ext~n ·ne function and you must write sin t • in the form
· 1 radtnn st •
f unction SIN IS tt e ·t write SIN(P i •T/180) to get the correct value of
In llASIC you mus
SIND< T) · of degrees.
the sine of nn angle 1
A-16 APPENDICES

f iGURE C.8 Periocfd:y c! the sine and cosine functions.

An angle of 2:r rad co:-responds to one revo lut ion around _the unit circle. This
implies t hat the sine and cosine funct ions hJvc peri od 2:r. meamng th at
sin(l ... 2-r ) =sin I .
(16)
cos( 1 + 2:t ) = cos 1.

II follows from Ihe c4ul1ions in ( 16) 1hat


~in(l _.. 2wr I= sin 1 and cos(!+ 2n:r) =COS / (17)

fm ~very int eger 11. 'llti' per iodicity nf the sine ~nd co,ine funcl ions i<evide nt in the ir
grJph' ( Fig. C.S). From the c4ua1ions in (J).Ihc olhcr four lrigonomc lric fu nctio ns
(0) also must \Jc periodic. as their graphs in Figs. C.9 and C.IO show.

UJU
"n
2 ~"
T

(b) I>) lb)


FIGURE C.9 The graphs of (a) the FI GU~E C.l O The graphs of (a) the secant function and (b) the cosecan t
tangen t function and (b) the functron.
cotangent function.
We see from the equat ions in (2) th at
. ;r
sin O= 0. sm-
2 = 1. sin rr = 0,

Tl ( 18)
cosO= 1. cos 2 = 0, cos rr = - 1.

~I Tile lrigonometric functions of rr f6 ;r /4 and ;r / 3 (the rad' ·


~
1
and 60., respectively) are easy to ;ead from the well-kn~~~ eq~tva Ients of 30' ' 45• ,
For instance n tnang es of Fig. C.ll.
{j '
. :r 1 ~
sm - = cos -:r3 = -2-2.
-_
12/11 6

k_j sin :!:. = cos:::_ =


4 4
2. -
..ti -
.j'i.
T · and (19)
1

FIGURE C.ll Familiar right . :r :r .,fj


triangles. sm-3
=cos-=-
6 2 .
A!'P:NO!X c A-1 7
To find the val
1h . . ues or trigono, . .
et r penodicitv and th~ .d ~e_tnt: funcuons of angles J.uger tbn :: {2. we can use
• ~ I entJttes

sin(:: ::!: li) ==~ sin 11.


cos!:: ::!: 11) == -c~9 nnd (20)
tan(;: ::!: e ) == -"- tan~
(Proble ms 38. 39. and 40 . . . - . . .
cotangent func tions. ) as "' ell as stmtlar tden tuies for the coscc:tnt. secant. and

EXAMPLE 1

. -5:: = sin ( -
sm
·
... .. - ..-.:- ) =-sm-
· :: ' 11•
.: = --·2.

~-
cos-
3 -COS ..
( _ ..- )
- 3
:r
== -C013 =- 2I :

2::-
tan-::=tnn ( :r-i- ) ==-tani=-1:
-

, 7;r . ( :r ) :r 1
sm 6 = sm :r + 6 - sin~ = - 1:

cos 3 5:r =cos (2JT - :r ) :r)


== co~ ( - ~ =cos 3'- = 2I :
3
. 17.-r . (
san ( ) -= sm 2:r + i5-r ) = sin 5:r
6
= Stn· (:r - :: ) =<In(;'
(i . :r ~
I
2' •
EX AMPLE 2 Find the solutions (if any) of the equ ation
sin~ .r - 3 cos2 x + 2 =0
that lie in the int erva l (0, IT).
Solu t ion Using th e fumlamc:ntal identi ty in Eq . (5) . we substitu tc cos2 x = 1- sin2.r
into th e given equati on to obta in
sin1 x - 3(1 - sin 2 x ) + 2 = 0:
4 sin2 x - I = 0;
Stn .r =_,
. .._t
_
Bccnusc sin x i: 0 for x in (0. :r ). sin x = - ~ is im~ssible. But sin x = ! for x = :rc / 6
and for x = :r _ :r /6 = S:r f6. 1l1ese are the solutions of the given equation that lie
in (0. :r ). +

1L1J!ENDJX C PROBLEMS
UprtJs in radian mea.wre the anglts in Prob lttru /through S. 8. 3:r 9-~
4
L t:y. z. -270'
23.-r
l liS• 10. 60
"· 210'
!. - 150'
1 In Probltms I I through /-1, tval!latt tht six trigonomttric fimc-
• Profitt17ts 6th rough 10, exp ress in degrus I he angItS givt n in
':4' r/oru of :x: at th~ gi•·tn va/u~s.
lot f>lt iiJUrt.
3:r
6..::.. 2:~
12. :x: - -
4
10 7. 5
A· 18 APPENDICES

7;r 41. The poinu Alcml'.- sinO). Bil. OJ. C(ros¢. ~i~.¢). and
13. z .. 6 1~ . .c = 5:r D ms(ll- c J. sintfl ~ell nrc <hc"'n In Fi!'· C. I •. all ~re
3
roint\ on the unit circle. D<"dUCC from rhc !.let that the hne
Fmd nil :.nlutions .t of 'aclt rqunrinn in Prob1~11U /5 rhmu~h 23. secmenu AC 3 nd 80 h;l\c the s:tmc kngth (~cause they
3 r~ subt~nJed l'ly the ~me ccntrJl un~k • - ¢) tha t
1
1 ~. ~ in r : 0 16. sin.r =I
17. <in.r=-l Ill. cou =0 C(X(.l _ c l = cos t> ro< ¢ - •n tl sin¢.
19. CCIH = I Ul. cos.r =-I
21. t:tn.c =O ll.tan .c= l .•
2J. tan .1 =- I
2-l. Sup~e that tnn.c =
land th at son .r ~ 0. FinJ the '~lues
of the other fi ve tn gun<>mc tric functions o f .t.
2.~. Suppo~ that= .c = -; and that c<" .r > 0. finJ the' alu~
of the othe r five trigon rmctr1C furK!Inn< <•f t

Dt•tluet th' it!~nllli'J in f>mbl~mJ }()and !7 fmm rl:' f:m.1.;"''"'


tal rdrnriry

nml from tlw d rjinition f of tht' othrr four l rtJ:t momrtrlr frm rtu m t

2(,, I + ta n1 (I "' •eel I! 21. l +cor' tJ = C\c'"


211. Octlucc from the :ltl<l• tinn f<Hmula- for the""~ anti C<,..lll<
the addition formula for the tonj:<Ot rtCURE C t 2 Ocriv'ng thc cosine Jddition
formut 1 (Prob'cm 41)
1:\n t + t3n '
t3n( r -f 1') = · .
· I -tan .I tan I'
-1!. (3) Usc the lrt.\n~!cs sho"n '" fi~ C.IJ tu deduce that
In l'mltlmu 29 rhrortl'h .111. rtH rhr mrrlw.J af £.ramp!< /w find
'"' int!icarr·d l'lllrt<s. sin(r • ~)=en, (I and co<(()+~ ) =-sin O.
. 5n 7.7
29. Sltl "(, JO. cos"(,
(b) Usc the results of l'robkm -II and p..rt (a) to derive the
. ll rr l'l,T :~ddition form ub for the s• nc function.
31. Sin 6 J!. cos 6
. 2.T -I.T
3.\ , Sin T ~ COST

. 5:r IO:r
3~. Sltl T .'6. cos 3

37. ,\pply the addition formuln for the sine. cosine. and tan·
sent functions (the latter from Problem 28) to show tlu t if
0 < 0 < rr/ 2. then

(n) cos( i -0) =sin 0;


X

(b) sinG - 0) = cos9;


(c) cot ( I - 9) = tan9.
Tile prcfi~ co· is an abbre,iation for the adjccti,·e comple·
m ;•nfllr)'. which describes two a ngles whose sum i~ :r /2. For
FIGURE C.13 Deriving the identities of
example. :r/ 6 and :r / 3 are comple mentary angles. so (n) Problem 42 .
=
implies th at cos .T/6 sin :r /3.

Suppou that 0 < IJ < :r / 2. Dnive tht ider:tirieJ in Problmu 38 In Problmu -1) tltmrrgh -1,~. find a/! solutions of the gin~n ~qua­
rltrouqh -10. rion that lie in tlr~ illltfl'lll [0. :r ).

311. sin (:r ± 0) = :;: sin IJ 43. 3 sinl .t - co<: x =2 -14. sin 2 x ,. cos1 x
39. co~(rr ± 8) = -cosO ~5. 2cosl x + 3sin: .r = 3
40. tan(rr ± 0) = ±tan 0 47. 8sin1 x cos1 .c =1 41!. cos2{1- .lcosO = -2
AJ>PENDIX D A-19

APPENDIX D: PROOFS OF THE LIMIT LAWS


Recall t he definition of the limit:

lim F (.r) = L
·-·
provided that, gi"en c > 0, t here exists a number 6 > 0 such that

0 < l.r - a! < o implies thlt IF (.r) - L l < t. ( I)

Note t hat the number c comes first. Then a value of 6 > 0 must be found so that the
implication in (I) holds. To prove that F(.r) _ Las x _ a. you must. in e ffect. be
able 10 stop the ne xt person you see and ask him or her to pick a positi' e number .l
at random. Then )'Oto must o/wa." be read~· to respvnd " ith a positive numt>cr S. Thts
number 6 ~ust have t he property that the implication in (I) holds for your numbe r
o and th e g~vcn number f. The only restriction on xis th at

0 < l.r- a! < 6.


as given in (I).
To do all this. you will ordinarily need to give an e.~pl ici t m et hod-a recipe o r
fo rmula- fo r producing a value of o that work s for each value of e. 1\ s examples I
t hrough 3 show, the method will depend on th e particular function F under study as
well as the values of a and L

EXAMPLE 1 Prove that Jim {2.t- I) = 5.


•- l
Solution Gi,•en c > 0. we mu.st find 6 > 0 such that

IC2.t - I ) - 5)1 < l if 0 < l.r- 31 < o.


Now

1<2.t- I ) - 51 = J2.t- 61= 21.r- 3J.


so

0 < l.r - 31 < ; implies tha t 1<2.t - I) - 51 < 2 · i= f.

lienee. given£ > 0, it suffices to choose 6 = c /2. This illustrates the observatio n that
the required number ois generally a function of the given number£. +
EXA MPLE 2 Prove that lim {3.r~ + 5)
•- l
= 17.
Solution Given £ > 0. we must find o > 0 such that

0 < l.r - 21 < o implies that 1{3x 2 + S) - 171 < c.


Now
1 (3x~ +5) -171 = J3x~ -121 = 3- l:c + 2i·l.r -21.

Our problem. therefore, is to ~how that l.t + 21. ·l.t -:- 21 can be m ade as small ns we
please by choosing x- 2 sufficscntly s~all. 1l1c sdca ss that l.r + 21cannot be 100 la rge
if l.r _ 21 is fairly small. For example. sf lx - 21 < I. th en

l.r + 21= l{.r- 2) +-I I ~ lx - 21 + 4 < 5.

Therefo re,
2
0 < l.r _ 21 < 1 implies th:ll 1(3.r + 5)- 171 < 15 . l.r _ 2 1.
A-20 APPENOIClS

Con•cquen t l~. let U\ choose 1J to be the minimum of thr t\\ O numN:rs I a nd f/ 15.
lnen
(

O< l.r-2 <c! L"D?!i~that ox= -51-l i l < l5 · 15 =c.

a\ demed. •
EXAMPLE 3 Pro'e th.lt

. I I
~~~ - = - i! ,, = 0.
,_. r ~

Soluti on Fo r s1xpJ:cit~." e "'111 con<i.:!u c>nl~ th.: ca e in " hich a > 0 (the case a < 0
I\\lmilar) .
~upp<l<c tha t, > 0 " f-i' en. We mu~t find :1 numh: r .I <uc-h th:u

0 < t - " < J 1m ph.:' thJt ~


,t
- ~,
,,
... L

'J11c idcn i\ that 1/l t l cannot be too l.ucc 1f 1t - nf iS L1irly small. f'or c~:11nplc. if
l.t - n l < aj2, thcn nn_ < X < ]a / 2. Therefor~.
n
lrl > 2· "0 -
l.r l
.,; -
,,
In thi< c:1sc it would follow that
I II 2
I- - - I
x n
< ---.: . If - a l
tz·

if 1r- a l < n/ 2. llJUs. if we choose c! to be the minimum of th e two numb..:r> n/2 and
n:c /2. then

'
0 < lx- a l < lJ implies that ~-~ ~ < 2,.a=f =f.
x a n· 2
'lnerdorc
. I I
Ilnl- = - if a f 0.
~ -" x a
as desired.

W..: ar..: now n:ady to give proofs of the limit laws stmed in Section 2.2.

Constilnl L.1w
If ft.r) = C. a Clll~>t ant . th en
lim f(x) = lim C =C.
, _,, .t-u

PROOF Because IC - Cl = 0. we merely choose .S = 1. regardless of the previously


given value off > 0. lnen, if 0 < lx - a J < o, it i~ automatic that IC- Cl < c. -c

Addition Law
If lim f (.rl
·-J = Land lirn G Lrl = M. then
J-J

!~!F(x) + G(x)) = L + .H.

-
APPENDIX 0 A-21

a numbc •Let< > 0 beg·I\'en. Beca use


PROOF .
LIS tbe limit of F(x) as .r _. a. there .
CXISIS
r 0 1 > 0 such that

0 < lx- a] < .S1 implies that Jf(x)- Ll < ~·


Because M is the lim·11 0 f G(.r) as x -+ a, there exists 11 number .S~- > 0 such that

0 < lx- a) < 61 implies that IG(x)- M l < i·


Let l> = rnin(.S I· 62I· Then 0 < lx- al < .S implies that

I( F(x) + G(.r))- CL + .If) I ;£ iF(x ) - LI "- IGCx) - M l < ; "'; =f.

Therefore
lim [F(x) + G(.r)) = L + .\f.

11s desired.
·-·
Product Law
lim F(.r) = I. nnd ,_,
If ,_, lim G(.rJ = M. thc:n
lim! f(.r:J · Gt.r ll = L ·.I/ .
• -•tl

PROOF Gi\·en f > 0. we must find a numbe r .5 > 0 such thJt


0 < lx- al < S implies that 1F(x) · G(.r) - L · Ml < c.
But first. the triangle inequality gi,·es the result
!F(x) · G(.r)- L· M l = JF(.r) · G(.r) - L · G(x ) + L· G(x ) - L· M l
~ IG(x)l·ff(x)- Ll + ILI·JG(x)- M I. (2)

Because lim f(x) = L there exists .S1 > 0 such that


..--· 0 < J.r - ~ f l) .
al <.5 1 implies that JF(x) - Ll < 2 (1./J+ (3)

And because lim G(.r) = M, there exists 61 > 0 such that


·-·
0 < l.r- a( < .52 implies that IG(x) - Ml < 2(I ~ +I) . (4)

MoreO\'CT, there is a tlrird number OJ> 0 such that


0 < J.r- al <OJ implies that JG(x) - Ml < l.

which in aurn implies that


(G(x)J < JMi + I. (S)

We now choose .s = min(6 1• 82• ~3 }. ·~1en we substitute (3). (4). and (5) into (2) and.
•t < r _ ai < .S 1m plies that
tina II y. see lh u 0 1• ( f
lf (.r). GC.rl- L. Ml < (I M I + 1). 2(1MI + 1) + ILl· 2(1LI + 1)
f f
<2+2=(,
. Th of tMl + 1 and ILl+ 1 in the denominators avoids the technical
as des1red . e use . . h Lor M be zero ~
difficulty t hat arises should elt er . .
A-22 APPENDICES

Substitution law
tr hm J:l.t) = /. and lim ft r1 = /t /.I. th.:n
,..... '-I
lim /tt:H P = /tLI.
·-·
PROOF Let ( > 0 be gi ven. W e mus t find a numl'<: r .S > 0 such tha t
0 < !.t- a! < <I implks that l f!_~; (.r ll- f(Ll l < (.
13ccau~ f (y) - f< Ll as~· - [_there c~ists .1: > 0 $UCh 1hat
0 < 1.\· - U, < c; implie~ th3 t l[(yl- f< L)! < t. (6)
Also. because t;(x) Las x - a . .,.e C~n lind ~
- > n ~uch th3t
0 < l.t- a! < S implic< th:lt (g(.r)- l..l < cS, :
that i\. such th at
1.\ - [~ < .s,.
where y = g(x ). From (I\) we <cc that 0 < 1r- il( < .S implic:s that
l /Cg(.r))- /C Lll = I /(1)- f(l.)i < C

as desired.

Rcciproc.11 L1w
If lim ~1 1 l = I . .tn d I i thc·n
,_, . · 11.
I I
hm - = -•.
I•J gLt) 1

/'UOOP Let f ( x ) = l f x. l11en. ns we S.'l\'1 in Examp le 3.

lim ~ = -l = /(/.).
1
lim /(.tl
•-a
= .1-" X ~

Hence the substitution law gives the result


.
I1m - I= 11m . f Cg (.t )) = / ( L) = -LI .
• -• g (.r) •- •
as desired.

Quotient Law
tr lim F(.r)
,\ - J
= L a nd ,_.,
lim G(.t) = ,\1 :f. n. thl'n
. 1-'l.r) L
I llll - - = -
·-· G<.rl ,\ (

I'IWOF It follows immediately from the product and reciprocal laws that
. -G
hm F ((.r) 1.m1 F(
= •-• · .r) · -
1 = ( hm
. F (.r) )( lim -1- ) = L. _1 = _L
•-• .r) 01(x) •-• • -· • G(x) M ,\>!'

as desired.

Sq ueeze Lnw
Suppo~c that [t.r) ~ g(.r) :;? h(.n in so m.: dl'ktl'd n.:ighborhood of <I and th at

,_uf(:r ) = I.= lim/z(.rl.


lim l - ·•U

Then
lim g(x) = L
·-·
APPENDIX E A-23

PIWOF Given E > 0 we ch


· oose 01 > 0 a nd 62 > 0 such that
0 < lx - nl < 81 impl1·es that If (x ) - Ll < f

and

. 0 < lx- aJ < 0~


r 1mphes
· . that Jlz (x ) - LJ < E.

L = mm
ct 6arc
lz(x) poinf6t; ~f~th
o}"Th en 8. > 0. ~lorc:ovcr. if 0 < IX - nJ < 8. then both [(x) and
e open mtcrval ( L _E . L + E). So
L-E < f(x)~g(x )~ lz (x) < L +E.
ln us
0 < lx- nl < 8 implies th at lg(x) - LJ <E .

as d esired.

~~AP~P~EN~D~I~X~D~P~R~O~B~L~E~M~S~---------------------------------------
1" /'robkms
. I. tlr rouglr .10. apply tire tlefirritimr 11 f tit ~ 1·mut· to 13. Suppose Ihat L"'
0 and thai f(.r) - Las .r - a. Usc the
method of E.•amplc 3 and I he de finilion of 1hc limit 10 show
rJublt~ll tlrr ~:n·m equafrty.
dircclly 1ha1
1. lim
,_.
x =a Z. lim
J-2
3.t = 6 . I I
Irm - - - -
~. lim (2.r + I) = -5 ·-· /(.r) - L'
.J. lim (.r +3) = 5 J- - l
·- l
1~. Usc I he algebraic idcntily
,_, 6. limx2 =a 2
x•- a" == (x - a )(x"'- 1+ :c"- 2" + .r"-.la !+ . . . + .ta~~-: + a"- 1)
$. liml = I

u
·-·
. I I lo <hnwdircctly from the definition oflhc timitth~tl i m .r" =
7. lim (2.r2 -I)= I
·-· 1
n. 1un 2 = -
J- 12 x al alf if n is a positi\•c integer. ~-•
1
.
9. Il-,
I
rm-- = -
I Jl). lim ~ = -- if a > 0 IS. Apply 1hc idenlily
~~ + 1 •-• vx ..fii
aZ+ l
j.fi - Jal "' l.r - • I
.fi+../ii
IL Suppose that to show directly from 1hc: defini1ion of the limit that
lim /(.r) =L and lim f(.r) = M. lim JX = Jii if a > 0.
~-~ ·-~
Apply Ihe dcfini1ion of 1he limil to prove 1hat L = M.lllU<
1he limil of 1hc function fat .r = a is unique if il cxim.
·-·
16. Suppose
. that
. { (.t)- {(a)> 0 ns .r -a. Pro,•c that th c~
extsts :t nc•ghborhood of a on which f (x) > 0; that is. prove
1!. Suppose that Cis a constan t and 1hat f(.r) __. Las x--> a.
lhatlhere exists ii > 0 such thai
Apply the defi nilion of the limi t 10 prove that
l.r - 111 < ~ implies that f(x) > 0.
lim C · f (x ) = C · L.
·-·
APPENDIX E: THE COMPLETENESS OF THE REAL NUMBER SYSTEM
Here we present a self-contained treatment of those ~onsequences of the comple te ·
ness of the real number system that arc relevant to tins text. Our principal objective
is to prove the intermcdra le val ue lhcorcm and the maximum value theorem. We
begin with the least upper bound property of the real numbers. which we take to

be an axiom.
DEFINITION Upper Bound and Lower Bound
s
11 e se t of real numbers is said to be bounded above if there is a numbe r b such
1 x ~ b for every number .r inS. and the number IJ is then called an upper bound
that
for s. Similarly. if there is a numbe r n ~uch that .t ;: : n for every number x ins, then
sis said to be bounded below, and a tS called a lower bound for S.
A-24 APPEND!CE.S

DEFI N ITION Least Upper Bound and Greatest Lower Bound


The numhcr ). i~ said to be a Je:J~t upper bound for the se t S of real numbers
pro,idcd tha t

I . i. i~ an upper bound fo r S. and


2. I! b is an upper bound fo r S. then). ~ b.
Similarly. the number i' i.s said to be a ~rt~a test lo,. c r bound fo r S if Y is n lower
bound fo r Sand i' ~ a fo r e,·er:- lower bound a u( S.

EXERCISE Pro'c that if the ~ct 5 h.1< a ka~t upper bMtn d )., then it is un ique. That
~ pro'c that if i. and 11 arc least upper bound' for S. then i. Jt. =
It i< ca<\ to <ho"' that the ~:r~a:<:stlo"er bc:>und i' <1f a <<.:t S. if any. i< also unique.
At thi< poi nt·, ou <hould con< tr"uct c,;ampk s to illu<tratt• that a set with a ka-r upper
hound i rna~· o r rna~ not con t3in i . •1nd that :1 <irnilar st:llcrncn t i< true o f th e se t's
grcatc<t lo"cr bound.
We no" \ tate the complct<:nrss a.ciom of the n:al numb.:r sys tem.

Le.Ht Upper 13ound A)tiorn


If th<.: lhH1Cll11't\' ' Ct S of r.·al nurnl'<:l\ h." :u1 upper ''"und. tht•n it has a lca~t
upper hounJ .

Bv " orkinc \lith the set T con~is t ine of t he numbers -.c. where xi< inS, it is
no t ditricult to show the followin g conse<luc ncc o ! the least upper hou nd ax io m: If
t he nonempty se t S o f real num be r$ is bounded below. then S has a grea test lower
bound. Occause of thi~ symmetry. we need only one a ~ iom. no1 1wo: rcsul1s for leas t
uppe r bound< a l<n hold for grcatc:st IO\\c:r bound<. provided tha t some atte ntio n is
paid to the direc tion s of the inequa li ties.
TI1e r~st riction that S be noncmpty is annoyi ng but necessary. If Sis the "em pt y"
set of real numbers. then 15 is an upper bound for S. but S has no least uppe r bound
beca use 1-1. 13. 12 .. . . . 0. -I. -2 .. . . are also uppe r bound.s !or S .

DEFINITION Increasing, Decrea sing, and M onotonic Sequences


l l1c infi nite sequence x , . x:. X J •. ..• x, .. .. is sa id to be nnndccrea~ing if x. ~ Xn+l
for e very n ~ I. l11 is seq uence is said to be nonincrca~in:: if x" ~ Xn+ t fo r e ve ry
n £; I . If the sequence lx. J is either nonincrca si ng or nondecreasing. th en it is sa id
to be rnonotonk.

l11eorern I gives the bounded monotonic sequence property o f th e set of r eal


numbers. (Recall that a set S o f real numbers is said to be bounded if it is conta ined
in :111 int erval of the form [a. b).)

THEOREM 1 Bounded Monotonic Sequences


Every bounded monotonic sequence of real numbers converges.

PROOF Suppose that th e sequence

S= (xnl = (x, .xz,XJ .... ,xk, ... j


is bounded and nondecreasing. By the least upper bound axiom, S has a least upper
hound i .. We claim that i. is the limit of the sequence {x, }. Consider an open interval
centered at A-that is. an interval of the form 1 =< (). - f . ). +f ), where f > o. Some
terms of the sequence must lie within 1, else ). - f would be an upper bound for
APPENO!ll E A-25

S that
. is less · 1east upper bound J Out · f r·· · , · 1 then- because we MC•
. tha n 1ts 1 . ,. 1' 111 ·
d ca1ngw 1th 1 . ·· . ·
for all k > N ~ :ondecr~asmg sequcnce-.r,v :£ .rl :£ >. for a ll k ?; N. ·n 1a t is. .rt. ~~ Ill I
I
h r . = · ccausc f IS an arbnrary positive number ; is- 'llnlllSI hy dc fin•tJn n-
1 e lOI II of the sequence (.r.} . ' lllU s we ha,·c shown 11; 3; ; h~undcd nonincrca~ing
sequcnc~ conve rges. A similar proof can be constructed for noni ncrca~i ng seq u ence~
by workmg with the grea test lower hound . ~

lllc rcfo rc. the least upper bou nd axio m implies the hounded monoton ic sc·
qucnce p ro~c rty of the real numbers. With just a liulc effo rt. vou can prove that the
two me logtc:tlly equivalent. Tha t is. if vou take the hounded nwnownic sequence
property as an axiom. then the least upper bound property follows as n theorem.
11Jc n ested llltcrva/ property of Theorem 2 is also cqu ivalcn t to t he least upper hound
prop ert y. but we shall prove only that it follows from t he least upper bound proper!)'.
because we have chosen the la tte r as the fundamenta l comple teness axiom fo r the
real nu mber system.

THEOREM 2 Nested Interval Property of the Real Numbers


Suppose that !1. [z . lJ. ... . r•. .. .
is~ sequence of closed interv~ls (so r. is of the
form [lin. IJ. ] for each posi tive integer n) such th:l!

1. 1. contains 1.. 1 for each n ;:: I. and


2. lim (b. - a.) = 0.
n-o.:
The n there exists exactly one real number c such that c belongs tor. for all n.1bus
(c} = It n h n lJ n · · · .

/'ROOF It is clear from hypothesis (2) of Theorem 2 that th ere is nt most one such
number c. l11e sequence (a. } of the left-hand endpoints of I he inte rvals is a hounded
(by b 1) nondccrcasing sequence nnd thus h a< a limit a by the bo un ded mo notonic
sequence propert y. Similarly, the sequence (b.} has a limit b. Because 11. ~ b. for all
11, it follows casilv that a ~ b. lt. is clear that lin ;::; " ;::; h :£ b.., for ali " ?; I , so " and b
belo ng to every ir;tcrval /,, . But then hypothesis (2) of llteorc m 2 implies that a = !J,
and clearly this common value~all it c- is the number sa.tisfying the conclusion of
Theorem 2. ~
We can now usc these results to prove several impon a nt theorems used in the
text.

THEOREM 3 lntermedic1te Value Property


of Continuous Functions
H the function f is continuous on the interval [a. bJ and {(a)< K <{(b), then
K:,;, f(c) for some number c in (a. b).
/'ROOf' Let r 1 = [a. b]. Suppose th~t I. has _been ~elincd for n f: 1. We describe
(inductively) how to define !HI • and tl~1~ shows m parllc~l:l.T ho w to define [z, r.1• and
be the ldt·hand cndpomt of f•• b. be liS n ght-hand endpoint and 111
so fo r th . Let ll• . · •
be its midpoint. ·n1cre arc now three cases to cons1der: f (nr.) > K , f <m.) < K, and
. > K. then J(a.) < K < f (m.),. .111 th'ts case, let a. +1
[ (m. )H= fK(m.) = a., bn+t = m.,,
and l = [an+I· b• • d.
'j( 1J (m.) < K , thenleto~+l = m•. bn+t =b•• and ln+t ~ [a•• 1.b•• t).
If / (nr. ) = K. then we stmply Jet c = m" and the proof 1s ~omplcte. Otherwise,
at each stage we bisect !• and let /..-1 be the half of 1. on which f takes on values
both above and below K.
A-26 APP£NDIC£5

It i~ ea.sy to show Lh3t the sequence {1.1 of inrer.,.nls satisfies th.e hypot heses of
Th eorem 2. Let c be the (unique) real number common to nil th e m ter.,.als ln. We
will sho.,.,· that f ie) = 1\. and th is will conclude the proof.
The sequence (b.} has limit c. so by the continuity of f. th e sequence ( /(bn) J
ha~ litnit /(c). But / lb.) > 1\ fo r all n. so the limit of {/(b.) ] c:m he no less thanK;
that is. flc) !! /\. By considerine the sequence (a.] . it follows that f(c) ~ K as well .
-
The refore. / (c) = K .
- ~

LE MMA 1
Iff is conti nuous on th e cl~ed interval [a. b). then f is bounded the re.

I'UOO F Suppose by "'JY of con1rad1ct ion th:H f i$ not l'ooundcd on l 1 = (a. bJ.
Bi\ect 11 and let f, be cnh;:r half of / 1 on "'h:ch f is unbounded . ( If f is unbou nded
on t>oth hal\·cs, l~t f., = / 1 .) In .cener:1l. let 1•• 1 h: a half of 1. on whic h f is un·
ho un ded.
A gam it i~ ca'y to •ho"' th~t the ~cquencc 11.1 of clo,cd int erva ls ~atisfies
the h) ptllhc'c' of Theorem ~. Let c he the numhcr Cc)nl llllJO to th em all. Beca use
r
I is continuous. the re cxi\tS ll numt-cr ( > 0 such rh:ll is bou ndt•tl on th e interva l
(c- f. c- r J, ll ur fnr ,ufficicnt ly l.u!!e ,·aluc' of"· 1. i> a sub~e t of(<' - ( . c + !). ll1is
~
contradic.-ti nn ~how\ that f mu•t he bounded on (a . !>J.

THEOREM 4 Maximum Value Property o f Continuo us Functions


((the function/is continuous on the cl~cd and bounded intcrvn l (n . l>j. th e n there
exists a number c in (a. bJ such that f(x) ~ /(c) fo r a ll.r in (a. bJ.

l'llUUF Consider thc se t S = l[(x) 1n ;;i x ~ b}. By Lemma I , t his sc r is bounded,


anti it is certainly noncmpty. Let). be the least upper bound of S. O ur goa l is t o show
that A is a value /(.r ) off
With / 1 = (a. hj. bisect h as before. Note that A is the least upper hound of th e
values off on at least one of t he two ha lves of / 1; le t / l be that half. H avi ng d e lined
I•• le t ln+l be the half of t. on which i. is the leas t upper hound of the va lues tlf f Let
c be the number common to all these intcn·als. It then follows from thc co ntinuity
=
of f . much as in the proof of 1lH:orcm J. that /(c) A. And it is clear that [(.r) ~ A
fo r a ll.r in (a. b). ~

1l1e technique we arc using in these proof is called the methOfl of bisection.
We now usc it once again to establish the Bo/zano-\Veierstrass property of the r eal
number system.

DEFINITION limit Point


Let S be a set of real numbers. 1l1e number p is said to be a limit point of S if
every open interval containing p also contains points of S other than p.

BOLZANO- WEIERSTRASS THEOREM


Every bounded infinite set of real numbers has a limit point.

PROOF Let lo be a closed interval containing the bounded infinite set s of real
numbers. Bisect lo. Let /r be one o f the resulting closed half-intervals of lo that
contains infinitely many points of S. If 1. has been chosen. let ln+t be one of the
closed half-intervals of 1. containing infinitely m any points o f S. An application of
Theorem 2 yields a number p common to all the imervals 1• . If J is an open interval
APPENDI X E A-27

~ont~ining f', thcn 1 cont ains 1. :for some sufficiently b rgc v3luc of II and thus con tJi':'
mfimte ly many points of S. Therefo re pis a limit point o f S.

Our ~nal goal is in sight: We can now prove that a sequence of rc:tl numbers
converges tf •a nd on 1y 1'f ·11 ·IS a Cauchy sequence.

DEFINITION Cauchy Sequence .


llu:: sequence Ia. I~ is sa id to be a Caucll\' sN1ucnre if. for eve ry f > 0. there cxtsts
an antegcr N such tha t ·

for all m. 11 ;:: N.

LEMMA 2 Convergent Subsequences


Every bounded sequence of rea l numbers h3~ a con\'crgcnt s ubscquen<X'.

I'ROOF If Ia, I ha~ on ly a finite numhcr of \'a lues. then tht: conclusio n of Lc mrn:l 2
follows easily. We therefore focu• our nrt.:ntion on the case in whic h Ia. ) i' an infinit e
set. It is easy to show thatthi~ set i ~ :~ lso bounded. a nd th us we may apply the n o iMtno-
Wc ierstra~s theore m to obtain a limit poin t p o f Ia,.).
for each intege r k ;;; l. let , ,.,. , be a term of the seque nce Ia. l such that

1. 11(k + I)
> n (k) for all k ~ I , and
I
2. lan<kl - PI< i; ·

It is 1hen easy to show lhatla.. c<,) is n convergent (top) subsequence of fa,. ).

THEOREM 6 Convergence of Cauchy Sequence s


A sC:<]Uence of real numbers converges if a11d only if it is a Cauchy sequence.

/'ROOF It follows immediately from the triangle inequaluty that every convergent
seque nce is a Cauchy sequence. TilliS suppose that the sequence Ia. ) is a Cauchy
sequ e nce.
C hoose N such that

if m. n ~ N. It follows that if n ~ N. tl~en " • lies in the closed inte rval (aN - 1. aN+ 1).
Titis implies tha t the sequence la .J IS bounded. and thus by Lemma 2 it has a con-
vergent subsequence la.rtd· Let p be the hmll of tlus subs~quencc.
we claim that fa. } ttscl f converges lop. Gt\'Cn l > 0. choose M such that
(
(a.., -a.l < 2:
'f > •,f Nevt choose K such that n(K )?: M and
1 111, " =" . ·' . -

Titen if" ~ M.
ian- pi~ (a,. - "•<Kli + lan(KI - PI < f.

1ltereforc. (a.} co m•crges top by definition.


A-28 APPENDICES

APPENDIX F: EXISTENCE OF THE INTEGRAL


\\'hen the basic computational alswrithms of the calculus were d iscove red by :--:ewto n
and Leibniz in the latter half of~he seventeenth.centur:. the~l~~cal rigor t h~~'had
been a feature of the Gree k method of cxhau<t1on was la r!!- 1' uba ndoned. .hen
computin2 the a rea A under the cur.·c y = [!xl. fnr o:1mplc. :"ewton tOO k It as
in tuit ive!\~ obvious that the area function exist td. and h( proceeded to compu te ll
as th!: aniidemati 'e of the hei£:ht fun~tion [!.r ). Lei bniz rc:g:1rdcd A :ts :tn mfin.ue
sum o f infinitesimal area ekm;r.ts. e:1ch of the form ciA= f<x) dx. but in pr3ctt ce
computed the area
(
A= J. f(.t ) dx

by antidiffcrc:ltiation just as ;-.;e,qon d1d-th:1t is. by compu ting

A= [D- 1
/(.r{.
'11tc question of the rmrrnuof the arc~ function-one of t he conditions tha t a
functionfmu't <Jti\fy in order for it< intcgr:tl tn c~i<t -did not :tt fi rs t se em to be o f
much im pmt:~ncc. Ei)!htccnth ·ccntur~ m:~thcm:t t ici.ln< "ere mainly occupied (and
M li,ficd) \\ith the imprn\lvc :tpplic:ltlom of calculus to the solu tion o f rca l·world
problem~ :ond d1J ntH conccntrJtc un the l<>fiC.JI found.tlions of the s uhjcct.
ll1e nr~t a1tc mpt at a precise dchmtion of the integral and a proof o f its exis·
tcncc for continu ous functions wa< that of the french mn thcmntician Augustin Louis
Cauchy (17$'1-li\57). Curiously enough. Cnuchy wa< trai ne d a< nn enginee r, and
much of hi< rcsc:trch in mathemat iC'> wa~ in field< that "C today r<.: ga rd a' a pplicatio ns·
o rie nted: hydrodyn:un ics. wan:s in cl~~tic media . vibrations o f <.:lastic me mbranes.
po lariz:ttion of lig ht. a nd the like. Dut he \\ 3S a prolific researcher. and his writ·
ings covc r the ent ire spec tru m of ma the ma tics. wi th occasiona l e ssays into al most
unre lated field-.
Around 1824. C:tuchv defined the integral of a continuo us function in a wav
that is familiar to us. n< a li~1it of lcft·endpoi~t ap proxima tion s: ·
~ n
r
J(J
f( x ) d.r = .).a·-
lim '
o~
f(.r;_t) t:.x.
••I

llt is is a much more complic::t tcd sort of lim it than the ones we discussed in C h:tpter 2.
C:wchy was not e nt irely clear about the nature of th e limit process invo lved in th is
equation. nor was he clear about the precise role th at the hypothesis of th~.: continuity
off played in proving th at the limit exists.
A complete definition of the integral , as we gave in Section 5.4. was lina llv
produced in th c 1850s by th e G erman mathem a tician Georg Bernhard Ri eman~.
Hie ma nn was a student of G auss; he met Gauss upon his arrival at Gottinl!en.
Germany. for the purpose o~ studying theol o~y, when he was about 20 years-old
and G:tuss was about 70. R1emann soon dec1ded to studv mathematics and be·
carne known as one of the truly great ma thema t icians of ihe ninete enth century.
Like Cauchy, he was particularly in terested in appl ications of mathe matics to th.e
real world; his research emphasized electricity. heat. light. acoustics. fluid dynamics.
a~d-as ~ou migh~ infer from tl~c fact.that Wilh elm Weber was a maj or inll~ence on
Rtemann s educatton-magncllsm . R1emann also made significant contributions to
mathematics itself, particularly in the field of complex analysis. A major conjecture
of his, involving the zeta function

(1)

remains unsolved to this day. This conjecture has important consequences in the
.-
APPENDIX F A-29

theory of the distribution of prime numbers bcc.:wse

~(k) = n ,- )-!
(
I
pl

n
whe re the product is taken over all primes p. (lne ZC:t3 function is det.iocJ in E~j( tl~
fo r complex numbe rs s to the ri£ht of the ,·crticalline :tt x = I :tnd IS .cxtcndc . d
othe r complex numbers by the requirement that it be d ifferentiabk.) Rlem:mn die
of tuberculosis shortly before his fo~tiet h bi rt hda,·. .
.~ere we gi:e a proof of the existence of th; intc!:ral oi a wn~inuo~s ft~n~uon:
\\ e " 111 follow R1emann's approach. Specifically. suppose thlt the tuncll<' 11 J 1' c~n.
1

llnuous on the closed and bou nded intervll (a. b). \\'c will pro n : thlt the dctimtc
Integral

J.' /(x) tix

exists. That is. we will demonstrate the existen•e of a numbe r I thai s:t ti<tk s the
fo llowing condition: For ever\' l > 0 th ere exis ls $ > 0 such that. for n ·rry Riemann
sum R associa ted with any pa.rtit ion P with 1Pi < cl.

I I - Rl < (.
(Recallth:~tthe norm( f'l of the partition pi s the length of the longest subi nter,·:~l in
the partilio n.) ln o ther wo rds. cvcrv Riemann sum associated with every suflicicntly
"fine" plrtition is close to the number / . If this happens. then the definite int<:gr:~ t

!.&/(.t) d.t
is said to ui•t. and I is its ,·alue.
No w we begin the proof. Suppose througho ut th at / is a function cont inuo us o n
the closed interval [a. b]. Given ( > 0. we need to show the existence of :1 number
6 > 0 such that

,1- tf<x;) ~x,, <l (.Z)


••I
for every Riemann sum associ:! ted with any parti tion P of (a. bJ with 11'1< 8.
Given a partitio n /'of (a. b] into 11 su bintcr•·als that arc n otii<'C<'S.wrily vf ,·qu al
length. lett'• be a point in the subinterval [x,_ 1. .r,] at whichfanains its minimum
value f (p, ). Similarly. let / ('I•l l;le its maximum 1·alue there. TI1ese numb~rs exist for
;= I. 2. 3. ... • 11 because of the muimum value pro perty of con tinuous functions
(Theorem~ of Appendix E).
In what fo llo ws we will denote the resulting lower and upper Riemann sums
associated with I' by
L(P) = L" f (p, ) M , (3a)
1· 1

and
U(PI = L" / (q, ) A .r1 •
(3b)
Ia I

respectively. Then Lemma 1 is obvious.

LEMMA 1
For any partition P of [a. b). L(P) ~ U(P).

Now we need a defi~!tion. ll_le pa.rtition P' is ~ailed n refinement of the partition
P i! each subinterval of P 1scontamed m some submterval of P. That is. P' isobta' d
from p by adding more pomts · o f su bd'IVJSIOn
· · to p . me
A· 30 APPE.NOIC[S

LEMMA 2
Sup~ tha t P' u a refiner.1ent of P. Then
U.P> ~ U. P'>~ U( P ) ~ U( PJ. (4)

PROOF The ir.equalit~ U P') ~ U( P') i~ a con~cquence of Lemm a I· We will show


tha t lJ PJ ~ U r 1: the r : oof th3t C.:( P' I ~ U< p , i~ similar. . .
l he retir.~r.~ent r i~ ot-t~ir.~J f:om p b~ JJJmg on~ or more po mts o f sutxll·
'i\lon to P. s., a ll v.e need <how j, th~t the Ri.:mann <um /,( f'l c:tn no t b<: ~~crca!e~
br add me 3 ~lnde ~"'''"'of <uNi,i<IOn. Thus \\C \\ill surr·)~C th:ll the p:trtll.IOII I IS
obtained frc•m f' (-.\ dl\11.!tn1: the .!.th sut-intc f' ;ll (.r , . 1 • r,j nf f' intO tWO SllhllltCrvals
(Xt - 1 . : j and (:.x,fh~ m~a;s of the nc" sut><.livision l"'int : . .
l be onl) re~ul t ing effect on th:: correspond'"!! Riem:tnn s um tS to replace the
term

in U./'J v. ith the t\\ O·term su m


+ /(I' ) · (XI - : ).
fl u ) · (: - Xt -tl
whe re f(u) i' the minimum o f f on [ r,_ 1. :I :1nd /( t•) i< the minimum off on (<. Xt)·
B ut
f <pd ::i f lu ) and /(pd S / (t•).

Hen ce
f (u) · (:- Xt-1 ) + /(t•) · (Xt- : ) ~ /(f't) ·(:- XI · ) + / ( Jit) · (X~t- Z)
= f<Pl ) · <: - _..,_. + .t1 - :)
= f<pd . (XI - .... . ,).

So the replacement of / (p 1 ) • (.rt- X t-tl cannot d ecrca\c the sum L( f') in question.
:~ndtherefo re L( P ) ~ L( P'). Because th is is all we needed to show. we ha,·e completed
the proo f of Lemma 2. -c

To pro,·e that a li the Ri emann sums for sufficiently fine partitions arc close to
some number/, we must fLrSt give a construction of / . Th.is is accomplished through
Lemma3.

LEMMA 3
Let P. denote the regular partition of (a. b] into 2" subintervals of equal le ngth.
Then the (sequential) limit

(5)
e:~:ists.

/'ROOF We begin with the observation that each partition P•+t is a refinement of
r•. so (by Lemma 2)
L(P,) ~ L(P2> ~ · .. ~ L( P.) ~ .. ·.

Therefore ( L( P.>l is a nondecreasiog sequence of real numbers. Moreover,


2" .,~

UP.)= L f ( p,)Ax, ~ Mt 6x, = M(b - a),


;.t i-t

where M is the maximum value of Jon (a. b].


APPENDIX f A-31

'lheorem I of Appendix E guarantees that a bounded monotonic sequ ence of


real numbers must converge. TI:us tbe number

exists. lhis establishes Eq. (5), and the proof of Lemma 3 is complete.

It is proved in advanced calculus that iff is cont inuous on [a. b]. then-for
eve ry number f > ~the re exists a number 6 > 0 such that

1/(u) - / { v)l < f


for every two points 11 and v of [a. b] such that

lu - vi < h.
Th is properly of a function is called uniform continuity off on the in tcrvJI [a. bJ.
Thus the theorem from advanced calculus th at we need to usc states that every
continuous function on a closed and bounded interval is uniformly continuous there.

Note lhe fact that f is continuous on [a. b) means that for each number u in the
interval and each f > 0. there exists 6 > 0 such that if 1• is a number in the interval
with lu - vi< h. then 1/ {u)- / {v) l <(.But unifo rm continuity is a more st ringe nt
condition. It means that given f > 0. you can find not only a value o1 that "works" for
a value 82 that works for "l· and so on , but mo re: You can find a universal val ue of
II J ,
h > 0 that wnrk< for n/1 \'a lues of u in the interval. This shou ld not be obvious when

you not. icc the possibi lit y that 81 = I. 62 = j. h3 = and so on. In any case. it is clear
that umform continuity off on an interval implies its continuity there.

R cmcrnher that throughout we have a con tinuous function f defined on the


closed interval [a. b).

LEMMA 4
Suppose that< > 0 is given. l11en there exists a number o > 0 such that if Pis a
partit ion of [a. b) with 1? I < oand P' is a refinement of P. then

IR(/'J - R(P')I < i (6)

for any two Riemann sums R(P) associated with P and R( P') associated with P'.

PROOf-' Because/must be uniformly cont inuous on {a. b), there exists a numbe r
o> 0 such that if
(
lu- vi < 8. then 1/(u) - /{v)l < .
3(b- a)
Suppose now that I' is a pa rtition o f( a . b) with !PI < 3. TI1en
n n
IV(/') - L(P)I =L 1/(q,)- /{p;)llix; <
3
(b ~ L lix1 = ~.
••I
0
) l~t 3
This is valid because lp; - q, l < 8. for both p, and q, belong to the same subint erval
[x1_ 1 , .r;) of P. and !PI < 6. '
X ow. as shown 10 Fig. F. I, we know that L(P) and V ( P ) differ by less than ~ _
We know also that
13
L(P) ~ R(P) ~ U(P)
IIClJRE
oiL F.l Part of the proof for every Riemann sum R( P) a;sociatcd with P. But
~rnrna 4.

L(/') ~ L(P') ~ U{P') ~ U{l')


A·32 APPENDICES

by Lemma 2. because P" is a refinement of P; n1orreover.


lJ. !") ~ R(P') ~ U(l")
for C\'ery R iemann sum R( P") associa ted with P'. P') lie in the interval
As Fig. F.! shows. both the num be rs R( P) ttnd ~( ~ the roof of
[U F). U ( P)J of length Je.s.s than ! /3. so Eq. (6) follows. Tins con,ludes P .c;
Le mma ~ .

TH EOREM 1 Existence of t he Int egral .


. . d d · ~ . 1[ 1 b) then the mtecr:~ 1
If f•scont:nuous on the closed and boun ~ tnkf\ 3 ' · · -

f.: [(:r) dx

exists.

/'R OOF Supro~e th 3 t t > 0 is gi' en. We mu<~ show the c., is tc ncc of a number
o > 0 such that. for e' Cr)' p~rt11ton /' or [•'· />] " ith I /'J < J, we h:wc
If- R!)'ll < (,
wh ere 1 is the numt>cr f:ivc n in Lemm~ J and R( f'J is an arritr:11')' Rieman n su m for
f a\sociatc<.l " ith
/'.
We choo'c the: num be r 6 prn"i<.lc<.l by Lc mm;o .t such tha t

If<! f') - /?(f,..ll < "3


if I Pi < J and P' is a refi nement of f'.
By Lemma 3. we c::~n choose an integ~ r N so l Mgc that
(
I PNJ < 6 and JL(f'N )- 11 < ) ' (7)
o.
Given an arbitrary parti tion P such that 1f l < le t P' he a common refi ne m ent of
both P and P,, .. You can obtai n such a pa rtitio n P'. fo r example. by using a ll the points
of subd ivision of both P and f',, . to form the subintervals of [a. b) t ha t const it ute P'.
Beca use P' is a refi nement of both P and P.v a.nd both the la tter pa rtit ions have
mesh less than 8, Lemma ~ impl ies that

I R(l')- R( P')J < ~ and IL(P,v)- R(P')I < ~. (8)


~ 3
Here R( P) and R(P') are (arbitrary) R ie mann sums associa ted with p and P' , rc-
specti\'ely.
Given an arbitrary Riema nn sum R( P ) associated with the partition p with
mesh less than .S, we see that

II- R( P)I = II - IJ.Ps) + L(l>,") - R( P') + R(P') - R( P)I


~I I- L(/\·)1+ IL(P,..,) - R(P')I + IR(P') - R( Pl l.
~n the last sum. bo th of the last two terms are less than£ /3 by virtue of the inequalities
m (8). We also know, by (7), that the first term IS less than £/ 3. Consequently,
II- R( P)I < £.

This establishes Theorem 1.

We dose with an example that shows that some hypothesis of continuity is


required for integrability.

EXAMPLE 1 Suppose that /is defined for 0 :£ :r :£ 1 as follows:

/(x) = {I if xis irrational;


0 if x is rational.
APPENDIX G A-33

~~~! ;s n~t continuous anywhere. (\\'hv?) Given a partition P of (0. 1). let P• be n
As b ra P<>• nt and q, an irrational point of the ith subinterval of P Cor each i .I ~ i ~ n.
e ore 1attains ·It · · 1 ch
q,. Also · s IIllnunum value 0 at each p, and its maximum value at e3

L(P) =L" f( p,)tu, = 0. whereas U( P) = L" f(q,)A:r, = 1.

lllUs if we choose ( = ~ . then ·-·


there is no number 1 that can lie within l of both L( P)
i;.dl J~(P). no matter how small the mesh of P. It follows that fis not integrable o;

REM~RK This i~ not the end of the story or the integral. Integrals of highly dis·
con~m~ous funcuons arc iopnn3nJ in many appli<-:ation' or ph~ •ics. :md nc:1r the
h<:gmnmg of the twentieth centurv a number of mathematician<;.. most notably llcnri
~cbcs~uc ( 1R75-19~1 ). deve loped more powe rful integrals. 1hc Lebesgue integral.
10
parucular. always exists when the Rieman n integral docs. nnd gives I he sa me value;
but the Le besgue integral is sufficiently po"'crful to integralc even functions th:ll are
contmuous no"' here. It reports that

1 1
f<x)tlx = I

for the function f of Example I. Ot her mathematicians have developed integr:tls with
dornains far more general than se ts of real numbers or subsets of the pbnc or space.

APPENDIX G: APPROXIMATIONS AND RIEMANN SUMS


Several times in Chapter 6 nur attempt to compulc some quantity Q led to the
follo"ing si tuation. Reginning "'ith a regular partition of an appropriate interval
[n. b) imo n subintcr"als. each of length 6:r. "'e found an appro~imation A. to Q oC
the form

A.= I : s<u, )h(v,) 6x . (I)
•••
where u, and v1 are two (generally diffe rent) points of the ith subinterval [.r, . 1• :r, ).
For example. in our discussion of surface arc~ of revolution that precedes F.q. (8) o f
Section 6.4, we found the approximation

t 2:Tf(11,)J1 + [f'(t•,) Jl 6x (2)


·-·
to the a rea of the surface generated by revolving the curve y = f(:r), n ~ :r ~ b.
aro und the .r·axis. (In Section 6A we wrote .r;· for u, and x; Cor v, .) Note that the
expression in 2 is the same as the right-hand side in Eq. (I): tnke g(.r ) = 2;r /(x)
and lz (x) = I +I f'< x>Jl.
In such a situation we observe that if u, and v, were the same point x; oflx1• 1 • :r, 1
Cor each i (i = 1. 2. 3..... n). then the appr?xim:uion in Eq. ( 1) would be a Riemann
sum Cor the function g(x)h(x) on [n. b). llus lead~ us to suspect that

lim L S(II,)h(vi)A.t =1b g(x)h(x)tl.r .
(3)
A• -0 "
•••
In Section 6.4, we a.ssumed the validity of E~. (3) and concluded from the ~pproxi·
· ·111 (')
mauon - that
• the surface area of revolution ought to be defined to be

A= lim t2;rf(u,}Jl + (f' (v,))ZAx =1b2;rf(.r)Jt + (f'(x))2d.r.


A.1-0 / •I "

Theorem I g Uarantees that Eq. (3) holds unde r mild restrictions on the functions g
and Jr.
A· 34 APPENOJCLS

THEOREM 1 A Generali~ation or Riemann Sums


Sup~ that hand g' arc continuous on fa. b). Then

. •.
1!~, 2: g<u,)nc >.~~ox= • s<x>h<x>rlx.
•=l
1' (3)

.
"'here u, and 1 arc arbitrary pomts . h su b'anten..3 1of ·3 rccul:~
of the 11 • r pJ rt ition o r
[a. b) into n $ubintcf\ah.. cJch of length ~.r.

1'/WO/' Let .If: and .11; de not~ the mJ.\.irnum \ Jiues on [a. b) of lg·(.rll ;~nd ill (.r )l.
respecta,cl~·- ~ole that

L" Jll ll, ll.lt, l t u = R. - S... " h..-re R. = L" g( l·, )h( l·, ) .ll..r
lei jal

i' a Htcmann sum appro.a:hmg 1: K(.t)llt.rl,J.r as ~x - n. and



s. = L
,_, [~ 111, I- ,t:(t·, 1)/t(t·, I ~.r.
Tu ptc l\c Eq. (~) tl i\•uflicicntto shClw th.tt s. -· Cl a~ ~\.r - · 0. ·nte nt~nn value
theorem gtvc~
),ll( tt, ) -,c:(t•,) l = IJ;'Ci',ll·lu, - t•,l [ •, in ( 11, . 1·,})
;:: .\IJ .ll..r.

heca usc both u, and 1•, arc points of the interval f.r, - I • x, I of leng th Ax. '11tc n

IS. I ~
" .
L lg(u,)- g(l',)l - 1/t (I', Jl.ll..r ~ L eM, Ax). ( Ml C..r)
n
= ( i\11 Mz A.r) L A.r = .11 .\ f:(b - a) A.r,
1
•=1
from which it follows tha t s. - 0 as A.r - 0. as desi red.

As an applicatio n of Theorem I. let us give a rigorous dcriv:uion of cq. (2) of


Section 6.3.

v = J.b2:r .rf(.r) c/.r, (4)


for the volume of the so lid gene rated by re vo lvi ng around the y·nxis the region be·
tween the gra ph of y = /(.r ) and the .r -axis for a ~ .r ~ b. Deginning with the usual
r~gular partition of [a. b].lct f(.r7>and / (.r;) denote th.: minimum and maximum
values nf f o n the: i th subintc:rval [x,_,, x, J. Denote by .r; the midpo int of this subin -
terval. from fig. G.J, we see that the part of the solid genera ted by revolving the
region bdow y = f(x). x,_, ;; x ~ x;, contains a cylindrical shell with :we rage r:ulius
x;. thicknc:ss 6x. and height f <x: ) and is contained in ano ther cylindrical she ll with
the ~amc average radius and thickness but with height f(.rf). H cnc~ the volume A V;
of this part of the solid satisfies the inequalities

2;rx;" f(.r;) A.r;; A V, ;; 2n.r; f(x;) A.r .


We add these inequalities fori = I. 2, 3, ... , 11 and find that
• •
I>ui f(.r:J Ax ::; v ;; L, 2n.r,' f(.rl) A.t.
i• l
APPENDIX G A· 35

••
.
FICURE C. l A careful estim.lte of th~ volume of a
solid of revolution around the y-a• is.

Because Theorem I implies that both of the last two sums approach J:2:r
f (x )clx,
the squeeze la w of limits now implies Eq . (4).
We will occasionally need a gene ralization of l11corcm I thai involves the
notion of a conlin uous function F(x. y) of two variables. We say I ha l F is colllinuo us
at the point (xo. )u} provided 1ha1 the value F(x . y) can be made arbitrari ly close to
F (xo. )IJ) mere ly by choosing the point (x. y) sufficiently close to (.to . )Ill· We discuss
continuity of functions of two variables in Chapte r 13. Here it will suffice to accept
the following facts: If g(x) and h (y) arc continu()US functions of the single variables
x andy, respectively, then simple combinations such as
g(x) ± lt(y). g(r.)h(y). and J [g(x) )2 + [lr(y>JZ
arc continuous: functions of the two variables x andy.
Now consider a regular partition of (a. b] into n subintervals. each of length llx,
and let rr; and u; denote arbitrary points of the ith subinterval (:r, • 1• x, ].l11corcm 2 -
we omit I he proof-tells us how to find the limit as 6x - 0 of a sum such as

L F(u,, v;) 6x.


1:1

THEOREM 2 A Further Generalization


Let F (x. y) be continuous for x and y both in the interval(a. b]. l11en . in the
notation of the preceding paragraph.
n b
lim L F(rr,,l'; )6x=1 F (x,x)dx . (5)
dJ-0 4J
iaJ

Theorem I is the special case F(x, y) = g(x)lt(y) of Theorem 2. Moreover,the


integrand F (x. x) on the right in Eq ..(5) is merely an or~inary function of the single
variable x. As a formal matter, the mtegral corrcspondmg to the sum in Eq. (5) i.~
obtained by rc·placing the s~nunation symbo_l with an integral sign. changing bo th 11,
and 11, to x. replacing 6.r w1th tlx. and mscrtmg the correct limits of integration. For
example. if the: interval[a. b] is (0. 4], then

lim
A_.-o
t
i~ J
9rr; + 11: 6x
4
=Jo{0 ../9x2 + x4tlx
A-36 APPEN DICE.S

APPENDIX G PROBLEMS
In /'rohlr.m.1 I rhmuKh 7, " • and ,., orr orbitrar;· po inu of rJ:<
irlr .wl>inrrrvol nf n rrgularportitirm of[a. b] into r. .1ubir.urvaiJ, ~- lim ~ sin u, cos r, .ell'; a = 0. b =:r12
.)..1- oL-
rach of lr.ngth t:u . Ezprt.ll the gi ,,., limit 0 .1 o.n in:rgra! f ro"' a
to 1>, rhrn compllt< th< valut of rhiJ ir:trgraL '"'
• •
I. lim ~ 11, v, Az; a = 0. b = I 6. h:n ~ )sin: u, +cos=r, Ax : a= 0. b = ''
.!.• - 0 ....._.
t..•-oL- •• •
••1
• .
2. A•- ~ (3u1 + 5v1 ) At;
limfl L-
1• 1
A
a = - I , b =3
..,
7. h:n ~ / u! -'-
.!...t_, L-
ri ~.r: u = 0. b = 2

3. lim ~ u,~ Az; a =IJ, b = 2 8. Ex;:l.1in hl>>< Theorem I ~pplics to sho" that Eq. ( S) of Sec-
,_,
!;. •-"'- lion ~.-1 follows fro m th~ discussit>n that precedes tl m that
~cti on.
a= 0. b =3
9. t.:~c Theore m I tO dcri\ c Eq. (Ill) uf Section 6.-1.

APPENDIX H: L'HOPITM 'S RULE AND CAUCHY'S MEAN VAL UE THEOREM


Here we give a pm of of I'JI (lpital's ruk.
. /(t) ,. J'(x)
I un - - = 1m - - (I)
•- • g f.r ) •-• ,1/'(X ) '
under the hypotheses of TI1corem I in S.:ct ion 7.2. ·n,c proof is based on a gen·
craliza tion of the mean value theorem d ue to the French mathematician Aug ustin
Louis Ca uchy. Cauchy used this generaliza tion in the ea rly ninet ee nth cen tury lo
give rigorous proofs of several calculus results no t previo usly established firmly.

CAUCHY' S MEAN VALUE THEOREM


Suppose th3t the func1ions f 3nd .r; nrc co ntinuous o n the dosed and bounded
interval (a . b] and differentiable on (a . b). Then there exists a number c in (a, b)
such that
(!(b) - [(a)Jg'(c) = [g (b) - g(a) ] J'(c). (2)

REMARK 1 To see that this theo rem is indeed a gene ralization of the (ordinary)
mean value theorem, we take g(x) = x . Then g'(x)
reduces 10 the fact that
I, and the conclusion in Eq. (2) =
[(b) - [(a)= (b- a)['(c)
for some number c in (a. b).

REMARK 2 Equation (2) has a geometric interpreta tion like that of the ordinarv
mean value theorem. L,et us think _of lhe equations x = g (: ). y [(I ) as describing =
lhe motton of a poml f (x. Y} movmg along a curve C in the xy-plane as increases
from a to b (Fig. 1-1.1). Thalt~ !'(x. y)
1
=
P (g(r ) . [ (1)) is lhe location of the point P
atume 1. Under the assumpltOn that g (b) .,.: g(a), the slope of the line L connecting
the endpoints of the curve Cis

m = .:..f..:.,( --...!f....:.<c....:.l)
b..:...>
g (b) - g(a) · (3)
But if g' (c).,.: 0, then the chain rule gives

dy dyjdt ['(c)
dx = dxfdt = g'(c) (4)
APPEND IX H A-37

---- ---

---

FIGURE H. I The idea of Cauthy's mean value theorem .

for the slope o f the line tangent to the curve C at the poin t (g(c). [(c) ). Out if
g (b} -:;!; gCa) and g'(c) f. 0. the n !Eq. (2) may be written in t!he form
/ (b) - /(a ) /'(c) (5)
= - -
g(l>) - g (a ) /((c)
so the two slopes in Eqs. (3) and (4 ) arc equal. Thu~ Cauch y's mea n value theorem
implies tha t (unde r ou r assumption~) there is a po int on the curve C whe re t he t angent
li ne is parallel to the line joining the endpoin ts of C. ·n tis is exactly wh:lt t he (ord ina ry )
mean value theorem says for an expl ici tly de fined curve y =
f( x ). lltis gco nu:tric
inte rpretation motivates the followi ng proof of Cauchy 's m ean value t heore m .

PROOF 'Ilte line L through t he endpoints in Fig. H .l has point-slope e qua tion
/ (b) - f( a )
y - /(a ) = g(b) _ g(a ) (x - g(a)),

whic'h cnn be rewritten in the fo rm Ax + By + C = 0 with


A = g(b) - [(a ). 8 = - [g(b) - g (n) ]. a nd
C = f( n) (g(b) - g(t! ) J - g(a ) [ f (b)- [ (a) ]. (6)
Acco rding to Miscellaneous Proble m 93 of Chapter 3. the (perpendicular) distance
from the point ( xo. yn) to the line Lis
IAro + Byo + C i
d = .
J Al + Bl
Figure 1-1.1 suggests that the point (g(c). / (c)) will maximize this distanced for points
on the curve C.
We ;~remotivated. therefore, to define the auxilia ry Junction
¢ (1 ) = A g (t ) + llf( t ) + C. (7)
with the constants A. 8, and C as defined in (6). lltus 1/l(t ) is essentially a constant
multiple of the distance from (g (t ). /(t )) to the. line Lin Fig. H. I.
Now q,(a ) = 0 =
¢ (/)) (why?). so Rolle s theorem (Section 4.3) implie s the
existence of a number c in (a . b) such that
¢'(c ) = i\g'(c) + /Jf'<c) = 0. (R)
We substitute the values of A and 8 from Eq. (6) into (8) and obtain the equation
[f(b) - { (11 ) ) g' (c) - [g(b) - g(a} ) ['(c ) = 0.

This is the same as Eq. (2) in the conclusion of Cauchy's mean value theorem. and
the proof is complete. ~
A· 38 APPENO:CES

Nor~ t\ltbm::r.'l the 31sumnuom tb.lt .; (/> 1 ~ dal 3nJ l:'l<"l ~ 0 \\ Crc needed fo r
O:Jr geometri:-m:errreLltio~ of t!:e t!!eorern. the~ -. e re not u~C'J in it~ proof-{)nly
an the molt' atw n fo r the me:hod of rroo!.

rrUJOF OF 1.'1 /0P/11 \ CS RL"LE Su;-ro<c th:~t /I rl ~~ d h:1< the ind c- tc-rmtnatc
fo rm II () 3: , = a. We ml~ i~' oi:e co:::a:m 1 :~ off JnJ .: "' .lllo" t he as<umptaon
that ! a 1 =r = f ! TI:J: is.,. e <::::;-!' de line [t al :1nJ t;t.t l to 1'C' 7Cr<> tn e:1sc thcar
\a lue1 a: .z =a a:: r.ot o n2;:'Ll !:\ Z!\!'C.
:-;,. .. "' C r!'~:n:: o~ : -a: :en;,.~~ 1 ' , ai:Jes o~ .x ="
tn a ti~ cd rctj:hl>orhood of
a on.,. ., ::h lv•:!': ' a~.:! ;; are Cl ~:e::r:· t.l"k Ch<x~ ,,::e su~h ' alue of • and ho ld
it tCffij'<t: .t rth Cl"~ <: ln : Tr:e~ ar;-1\ Ca:J:h~ .• mc.ln \3IU~ theorem Cll1 the tnterval
(a . .z) II! .z ~ a . u'C the tn:cnJ I [ r . .; j 1 \\'c fi nJ tlut there i< :1 number: h<:t\\ CCn a
and r th~ t "c h3, c s .H c J,..:< 1:1 Eq 1: 1 Hen:c. 1>~ \Htuc of l;q (:). \\ C o btain the
cqu1t um
f lrl 1 1 tl - {1 .1 1 f t: l
---
~;l r l
= 1;1 t l - ~ t.J )
= ---
( (: )

Now : dcf't' rHh on t. hut:,, trlrf't'd 1-<:t" ccn r .tnd '' · ~o: a• forrc,J to approach n
a< A 11 We con.:luJc th 11

/1• 1 f t: l f't.t l
!•:t! ,clc ) - ~~~7! ;:'( :) ~ !'~! c ( c) '
under the n~•umptinn tl111 t the t t!:ht·h.lnd hntll c xt~l<. Titu\ "c ha"c w rill cd l'll t)pi tnl's
r ulc in the fMm of Eq . ( 1) ~

APPENDIX/: PROOF OF TAYLOR'S FORMULA


c' cral different proohof·raylo r's formull (lllcnrcm 1 of Scctwn I I..I) arc known.
h ur none of them >ccms very well moti, arcd-.:;•ch rcqmrc' wmc "Irick " tnl>cgin
the proof. ln~ trick we employ here (suggesrcd hy C. R. M.teCiucrl i~ tn hcgin by
introducing an au~ilia ry functio n F (.rl . defined a• follow•:

F (.r ) = / (b) - [ (.r) - Fc.r )(b - .x) - /"C.xJ Cb - .c)l


2!
f" ' (.r )
- ... - - ----(b - x )•- K (b- .c)•• l (I)
n! .
=
"hcrc the comttmt K is chosen so th:tt F (a ) 0. To sec that the re is such a value or
= =
k. \\ C cou ld suhst itu_rc .r = a o.n the right and F (.r ) F (a ) 0 on th e left in Eq . ( J)
and then sol' e routmcl~· fo r 1\. bur we have no need to do this explicitly.
Equation ( I ) makes it quite ob,·ious that Fib) = 0 as well. 'lhcrcfore. Ro lle's
theo rem (Section -1.3) implies that
(2)
ro r some poinl: of the open intcr\'al (a. b) (under th e assum ption that a < b). To
sec what Eq. (2) means. \\C diffcn:ntialc both sides of Eq . (I) and find tha t
/"(x) =- f'(x) + [Fc.xl - J"(x)(!J- .rl l

+ [ J"(.r)(b - x) - ;! [ 01 (x )(b- x) 2]

+ [;! f 31
(x)(b - x) -
2
;! [!'1(x)(b- .r) 1]

+ .. · + [ (11-I I )! f'"1(x)(b- x )"" 1 - ..!_


II!
[ 1. .11(.r)(b-
.
.c)"]
+ (11 + :)K (b - :c)".

-
APPENDIX I A-39
Upon care f u I tn<pccu
. . on of thiS . 1te fi11·1 "~ ttwo caned
. r~sult, we ~c that all terms c'<ccptt
in plirs. Th us the sum '' telc cope<" to !!i'e

(J)

li enee Eq. (2) mcnns thJt


f'•Hl( -)
( 11 + I ) K (h - : )" - • (b - ~)· = 0.
n!
Consequen tl y we c:m canc·el (h - :)" and solve fo r

K = /'" ""(:). (ol)


(n ... I )!

Finally. \\ e re turn to Eq. (I) and substitute x = a. f(x) = O.and the value o f K
given in Eq. (J ). The result i< the equation

0 = / (b)- /(a) - f<a)(b- a)- /"(a) (I> - a ):


2!
J l•l(a) • Jl••ll(~) •-I
- .. ·- - - (b- a) - (I> - 11) •
11! (n+l)!
which is equivalent to the desired Taylor's formula. Eq. ( I I) of Section 10.4.

APPENDIX j: CONIC SECTIONS AS SECTIONS OF A CONE

. The parabola. hyperbola. and ellipse that \\ e studied in C h:!Jllcr 10 were originall y

c£, . , .,
introdu•-.:d by the ancient Greek mathcmatici:lns :1s piJnc 'cctilllh ( traces) of a right
circubr cone. Here we show that the intersection o f a plane and n con..: is. imkcc.l,
one of tlu.: thr~o.: conic sections as defined in Chapter I 0.
,:...-- · Figure J.i shows the con.: with equation z = Jx2 + y2 and it s intersection with
~ / apla nc'Pthatpasscs th roughthe point(O.O. I )andthclinc x c > Oi nthcxy-pla nc. =
' 1 , ~ 10. 0. 11 An equatio n of 1' is
"""" •}-------...,.
' / X
:=1- -. (I )
' c

' "' • The an~:le be tween 1' and the xr·pl:me i< ¢ = t:m - 1 (1 /c). We want to show tha t t he
conic section obtained by intersecting the cone anc.lthc plane is
fiCUR£ 1.1 f inding an equation A p:uabol:l if ¢ = -15" (c = I ) .
lot • conic l«tJOn.
An ellipse if¢ < .ts• (c > 1).
A hype rbola if¢ > 45• (c < 1).

We bet:in by introducing u•·-cuurdinatcs in the pl ane P a s follows. llle


11.coordinMe =
of the p~int (x. y. zl of 1' i~ 11 y. Th~ 11:=oorc.linate of the sa me point
iS itS pcrpcnc.J~CUI:tr (:~~tanCCJ fro m thehiJnc X = C. • nit'S CXpl;un~ the II • and ll•:tXeS
indica ted in F1g. J.l . h gurc .2 s 11ows t c cross sccu on mthc plane y = 0 exhibit ing
t he relation betwee n 11. x. and z. We sec th at
• II
z = vsm¢ = JI+C:1'
(2)
Equations (I) and (2) give

x=c(l-z)=c(l- ~ )·
I + C"· (3)


=
We bad ..l x2 + >l for the equation of the cone. We make the foltowin
·on: Rep1ace y wn
· h 11, an d rep
. I·.tee. z and x wuh
b· . .
. the c•p S su. stnut tons
·n this equat1
1 ., rcss1ons o n th e
A-40 APP£ND!CE5

right-hand sid~ o r Eqs. (2} and (3). respecti,·ely. These repl3cements yield

After we simpli fy. this last equation t.1kes t he form

' c -. - 1 . ~ '
_, . 0 (.t)
r:r - - . - - I'" - t • .._ C" = •
c-.!.l , 1- r
Thi~ t> the equation o~ !he cun·e in the u 1 -plane.\\"~ e"tamine tht' thn:e c:~scs: for the
angle¢. ·
Suppose lint that o = ~ 5" . Then c- = 1. so Eq . (~ )contains :1 term thJt mcludes
u 2 • ~noth~ r te rm that tnclud<:-< 1 • ~nd a ron;un t tcmt. So thl" curve is :1 parabola; sec
Eq. (6) of Sectto:: 9.6. •
Sup;xN: ne(t th)! ¢ < .!5.. Then c > 1. JnJ l-<1th th<' codlkicnts o f~~~ :tnd ,,.
in Eq.(~ ) uc fY><tthe. l nu< the cunei < an elli p•e : ~<'<' Eq . ( I i) of Section 9.ti.
Fin~JI\·. I f~ •. .l.' . then (' < 1. and the .-.-..:ftin<:nt< or~~~ :lnd •. ~ in Eq . ( ..j) h~ve
opp<.xitc <iin' So the Cltr' e i< "h~pcrl'-oLl: <cc Eq . (: f'll of St.:ction 9.1\.

APPENDIX K: PROOF OF THE LINEAR APPROXIMIITION THEOREM


Umkr !he hlp<Hh e< i' .. r cnntinuou< dtffc rcn!IJhill ty nf the !int":H approxi m atio n
lhcnr<·m sla tc:d in Sec! inn 13.n. """-Jilt to prove tha11he increme nt
l!.[ = [ (a ... h )- / ( ul

is gi ,·cn by
Af = \1[ (a) · h + r( h l · h (I)
whac E( h l = (f 1 (h). lz( h ) . . ... f. (h)) is a vector s uch that c~ch demen t f , (h) ap-
proaches zero as h- O. [No tc the symllolt!. for ~increment" and the inverted \1 fo r
" gradi<,n t- o n !he right-hand side in Eq . ( 1). )
To analy7.c the increment .lf. w.: splilthe jump from a to a + hi nton se parate
steps. in each of which only a single coordinat~ is changed. Let c, denote the unit
n-vector \l ith I in !he ith position. and wrilc

II() =a and a, = a, _ 1 + It, e, (2)


fori= I. 2, . . .. 11. so tha t 11. = a + h. Then
t!.f = /(a,) - /(:l:J)
= (f(un) - f(a._,J) +[/(a._,) - /(a._z)] + .. .
+ Lf(a2 ) - /(a!)]+ (f(a1)- /(:l:J)];
that is.
n
Af =L [/(a; ) - /(a,_ 1)).
(3)
i= l

The ith term in this sum is given by


f (a,) - /(a;_,)= /(a, + lz, , ... . a;_t +h; _1 , a1 +h;.a,+1, ... ,a.)
- f(a, +ht . .. . ,a;-t + h,_,,a;,a;+l · .. . . a.)
= g1(1)- g, (O),
where the differentiable function g, is defined by

g;(/) = f(a, +lz,, ... ,a;_, +h;_,,a, +tlr1,a;+1 .... ,a.).


AFi'[NOIX l A-41

l he mean \ J)ue theorem t hen )•elds

{fa >- {Ca -d= ~. Ill-, tO! = s:;e7, HI -01


= n, /I 11 : - 1: I· . a -I -
0. 0 1: -I· a. - I 1:, 0c. · I· 0 0 0 0
0

a. ) h,

= n fl a -: - I,J:,c ) h .
for <nmc 7, 1-ct" ecn 0 and I • uktilU~IO:'l i:l (: ) t h::n g1\ CS

~~= I:
.. , n rca .• - t:h,t',) h,

= L lD / ta l - D,ffa - 7 h. c.l- D./Cal( · /:, .


... 1

l llU\

.':J.f = .__
' 1n ft • l - f th l} h,
•••

( ,(h ) ., 1>. /I a • 1 .-. /,lr co 1- D./Cal - 0


( h} Cllnt muit} o f /J, f at a ) :t' h - • 0 (and hence a 1 - · a hy ( ::! )). \\".: h:l\ e thcrcfllfe
c~t:lhh~h(•tl (I) and hence complete d the p rc>O!. ~

APPENDIX L: UNITS OF MEASUREMEN T AND CONVERSI ON FAC TORS

IMKS SCIENTIFIC UN ITS


• Length in meters (m): m:nt in k iloj:rJm~ ( kg). timr in second~ (s)
• Force in nC\\ wns (I"): a fon:c of I S imparts an accdc ration of I m/s2 t o a
11\:ISS of I kg.
• \lilfk in jouk> (J): I J is the work do ne by a fo rce of I N acting through a
di~tancc t)f I m.
• /'cii\W in watts (W) : I W is I J/s.

I BRITISH ENG INEERING UNITS (F PS)


• LC'ngth in feet (ft).fora in pounds (lb).tmrt' in seconds (s)
• .\Ills> in ~!up: I lh of force imparts an accclcrn tio n of I CVs 2 tu a mass o f 1
slug. A mass of m slugs at the su!facc of the earth has a weight of w = mg
po unds (lb ). " here !i ::::: 32.17 ft/s-.
• ll'ork in ft ·lb. pn..-u in ft · Ibis.

~NVERSION FACTORS
1 in. = 2.5~ em= 0.025~m. I m:::::: 3.2808 ft
1 mi = 52SO ft: 60 milh = 88 ft/s
I lb :::::: ~.4~~'2 N: I slug ::::: 1~.594 kg
1 hp = 550 ft ·Ibis :::::: 7~5.7 W
A-4 2 AJ>PENDKE..S

• Crm itatinnal acalcrarion: s:::: 32. 17 ftlsl :::: 9.W7 mls:


• A rmospht n c prrsm rt": 1 atm is the pressure cxcncd by :1 col umn o f mercury
76 em hi!!h: 1 a tm:::: I·UO lb 'in.: ::::: 1.0 13 x I(}' :--::m:
• !lear rr.ugy: I Btu ::::: 778 ft · lb :::: 2~2 ca l. I cal ::::: .!.JSJ J

APPENDIX M: FO RMULAS fRO M ALGEBRA, GEOMETRY, AND TRIGONOMETRY

ILAW S OF EXPONENTS
a,.,o" = af"\" 111
• (ab)' = a"b".

in particular.
a1: = /a.
If 11 ~ 0. t hen

(1
· • =-
I
o•

IQUADRATIC FORMULA
ll1c quad ra tic equatto n
II X l + b:r + C =0 (1.1 7- IJ)

has solutio ns
-b ± .Jt.! - .lac
.t =

I FACTORING
11: - h: = (a - b )(a +bl
a3 - lY = (a - b )(a! + tlb + th
a' - b' =(a- b )(a 3 + alb + ub: + bl )
= (a - b)(a + b)(a z + f12 )
5
a 5 - b =(a- b)(a' + a 3b + a 2 /J + ab3 +I>')
(llte pauern continues.)
a3 + b1 = (a+ b)(a 2 - ab + bz)
a 5 + b5 = (a + b)(a' - a 3b + a 2/J -a/} + b' )
a
1
+ b7 = (a+ b)(a 6 - a 5 b + a' I} _ " J/} + 112b' _ abs + b~)
(The pattern continues for odd exponents.)

IBINO MIAL FORMULA

if n is a po sitive integer.
APPENDIX M A-4 3
EA AND VOLUME
~ In fi g. M.l . the symbols have the fol lowi no meanings.
A: area
"'
b: length of base
- r: rad ius
lJ: nrc a of base C: circumference V: volu me
h : height l : lengt h w: width

0 l~ G
I

I7 .. ~
b,
lo

1 h

Rm>ngle: .-1 =bh Par.alld,,tram· A a bh


Ibh
Tri>ngle· A, Trl.prtntd. A • ~ (b 1 + b:\h Circ!c: C :;- 2:rr and A: Jr,J

r+=?l·
ox.
Recur. ~ular raratlt lc!-('ipcd Pyrami1l: R•ght Ctrcul.t.r cont· R1g.h1cu'C'Uhtt cylinder Spll<"re:
\ 'o ( wh v ~ }BJ1 v~J n r~h-= Jan V: ~,lh • Bh V • j ~rr 1 nnd A. • 4f.' rl
FlGURE M. l The b.,sic gt-omctric sh,lpcs.

IPYTHAGOREAN THEOREM
In a right triangle with legs a and ba nd hypotenuse c.
al+b2=cz .

~ORM ULAS FROM TRIGONOMETRY


sin ( -0) = -sin 0

cos( - 0) = cos 0
2
sin 0+ cos2 0= 1
sin 20 = 2 sin 0 cosO

cos 20 = cos 2 0 - sin1 0

sin(cr +/J) = sin cr cos,'l + coscrsin fl

cos(cr + /J) = cos cr cos fl - si n rt sin fJ


tan cr + tan fl
tan (cr + tl) == ------..:_
I - tan cr tan tl
,O 1 - cosO
sin·
2 = 2
,0 I +cosO
cos· - =
2 2
A-44 APPENO:Cts

For an a r bit ra~ trian~k ( Fig. ~1.2 ):

\
\
II
La" of sines:
sin A
- a- =-;;-=7
si n LJ sin C

<

f iGURl M.2 An arb11tary ttiang'e.

APPENDIX N : THE GREEK ALPHABET

A u alpha I iota r I' rho


B
r
{j
y
~Ia
gamma
K
,\
I(

i.
ka ppa
lamtxl.t
,.
I: 0
r
Sif!lllil
IJU
6 0 del ta M II mu I l' upsilon
E ( c p\ ilon N ,. nu ¢ <f; phi
z
II
{
'I
zeta
eta
-
0
~
(I
~I

omicron
X
ljl
X
,:,
chi
P'i
e 0 th eta n :r pi n omega
"'
ANSWE RS TO
oDD -NU MB ERED PROB LE MS

S<CTION 110. 1 (Pi\GE 628)


21
I
• ' =cos (I+ sinO .r + y=l
1. x+2y+3=0 2
3. 31 - 4.r=2S 2.t r = . ; )'=.t + 2
smiJ- cos O
l. x +y = l
2~. r +i!sin li =O: .r 1 + y' + Ry= O
1. Center t - I. 0). radius J5
27. r =2(co<0+ sinO); .r1 + y1 = 2.r+2y
9. Center (2. - 3). radius 4 29. Matches Fig. 10.2.23.
ll. Crntcr (\. 0), radius I
JJ. :O.I:uchcs Fig. 10.2.24.
L\ Center (\ , -~) . radius 3 JJ. !'.latches Fig. I 0.2.25 .
1!. Center ( - t
j , j• ),
•• •
r aviUS 2
3~. !'.latches Fig. 10.2.26.
11. The single po int (3. 2) 37. Circle, center ( ja.jbl. radius ./a ! + t,l1
19. There arc 11<'> points o n the graph. 39. Circle, center (I. 0). radius I. symmetric aro und the x -a xis
!1. <• + ll' + ( ,V + 2)' = 34 4 l. Cardioid. cusp at the origin (where 0 = 1r ). symme tric
2.\ (r - 6)' + (y - 6)1 = i around the .r -a,is
!S. fhc locus is the pcrpenuicular bisecto r of the segment join· .u. Lima\<>n. symmetric around the y-axis
ing the two given points: it ha< equation 2.r + )' = 13. ~S. Lcmn i,catc lying in the firs t nnd third q uad ra nts, sym metric
l7. The circk with center((>. I I ) and rad ius 3Jl a round the lines y= x nnd y = - x and wi th rCSJl<:Ct to the
pole
!9. Thelocu< has equation 9.r' + 2Sy' = 225 : it is an ellipse with
center (0. 0), horizonto l majo r axis of leng th 10. verttcal mt· ~7. rour·lcaved rose, symme tric aruund both coord ina te axes.
nor a'is of length 6. and interC<'pts ( :I: 5. 0) and (0. ± 3). around both lines y= ± .r, and with r espect to the pole
ll. There arc two such lines, with eq uations ~·1. T hree-leaved rosc. s~m mctric a ro und the x-axis, u nchange d
y - I = (4± 2-.IJ ) · (X - 2). t hrough any rota tion aro und the origin of an integ ral m ul-
t ipk of 2:r / 3
ll. There are two such lines. with equatio ns y- l = 4(x - 4)
and y + 1 = 4(.r + 4). 51. Fivc -le.w ed rose. symmetric a round the y- nxis, unchanged
t hrough any rotatinn a ro und the o rigin o f nn integra l mul-
t iple of h / 5
SECTiON 10.2 (PAGE 63 5) 53. The o nly point of intersect ion h as coordinates ( 1. 0).
55. The points o f intersection are q. lrr>. q.
~ :r ) , (-1. ~ rr ),
La. (l ./2. jJ2): h. (1. -JJ): c. (~. -tJ3):
anu (0. 0).
57. The points of intersection are (0, 0 ). (2. rr) .
e. (J'i. - ./2): r. (JJ. - 1): g. (- JJ, l)
(2-'2- 2. cos- • (3- 2,/2 )) and

(2-'2 - 2, - cos- t (3- 2-'2)).


61. The polar equatio n can be writlcn in the fo rm r = :!:a +
!J sin 9. If Ia I = lhl and ne ither is zero. the n the gr aph is a
cardioid. U Ia ! "' lbl and neith er a no r b is zero, then the
g raph is a hm a~on. If en her n Or h is 2ero and the o ther is
I S. (x 2 + >~)' = 4 Y'
19. r =2scc 9: x =2
not, then the g raph is a circle. [(a
consists of the pole alo ne.
=
b = 0 the n the graph

A-45
A-46 ANSWERS TO 000-NUMBtREO PROBW.IS

SECTION 10 .3 (PAGE 64 1) 9. 9r~~y== Z!S 11. or : - -1,1.: = 16


13. .c' - _,.: =I I ~- ." =I - r. 0 ~ .r S I
I. 17. 9.r = J.-
i; IX)ncl\C' ur" Jrd
19. :_-:-.I- J_,. = ::-=: ronc:\'C do~n"'ard
'I q -
-
~ !..\ t7 =-=;
~

- · - - 6 -
IJ ) .. ~- flc nzo ::u! u,,cen!.S .1t n. -:1~nd 11. :21. 'ertac31llnscnt 3t
I t1 Oa J::J '"' t;n.:~nt line :u f ) . Ill.
-) -l.l-2 -l.l-1 - <IJ I '"ii:i""' !i. H~~nz4-,:::...tl un~"!~nls Jl ( i. ± ~ ,13) 3nd :tl (0, 0): ' crtical t:Jn·
~-e:-:1 lt 1: . n,
3.
c:, ,. .t= _
, &l
29. - = - :~ JnJ - • =CV •
dT '1'C'"

.\1. r
c=---:.,=-.-x<nr<+~ 1r "
r- "!

J.._\ The slOf'i: of the hn~ t."·nn t.llning 1:, nnd /'' is
I + ,~l,~ tt
~10 0

11n.d ti'U< 1< ·''~'the


\':tluc of d\'/ •1 t .1t th\! poin t /'.
5. y
.H. The llknlltl('~ W'i 1r = n"' 1 - J 'illl~ t t:l'S t anc..l si n Jr =
04 J\lnt w'' t - .,.n' t "'Ill'<: ' ~ rr holrful.
51: ,,l
.St . t • - -,. \ - -· -.. fl .. I <+~
1~ , J .L. , ..

4J. :-<o hon70ntal tangent\; '""'""' t:lll!'cna. nt (-3. 21 and


I I.O t.infl<et l"n~llnt.ll1- 1. 1).
45. llori wnl.lil.an~cn" at Ill. - ~ ;\1177). !0, II. and (0. 2.1H3)
3 9 (nurnt>.:r. -.. ath J~nnu l ~>ina. orc .1J>pmxima tions);
7, :r 9. 2" II. l.~ \ertical Ung<nh at <- 1 K5.W, I 7.l~ l ). (2.432·1. 1.7321).
19 I and 0 .5~7J .fla: anllectann p<>~nt< at (-5. 1.SO.S. - 3. 1103),
13. 4:r
·~· 2, 17. i'' (0. - ~ ."17il. r ~.f1Jill. - I 1~1 t.\a. (1..5117-l. II) . (ll. I).
!0. 1.1 4331. and ( J ~01'>1. ~.X.Sl>Sa. To >cc the g.rarh. use
19. -:r 2 1. 2 ZJ. ~ a computer algebra >~.tern tc> pl<ll the parametric equa-
4 1 1
tions.< = (t - 5t + J ) 1 ' . y= t with the (suggested( range
:..<. !n + J./3 27.
SJT - f.../f -2.7 ~ t ?; 2.7.
6 24
39./3 - IOJT 2 - ,fi
29. 6 31. - 2 - SECTION 10.5 (PAG E 657)
20.~ + 21./3 rr- 2
3.5. - 2- 22 4
JJ. 6 1.
5 .J. 3
1 2
37. (x- !) + (y - !} =!: I
s. 2<r +I) 7. ~
35
9. 16!T 74
15 II. -
3
I.J. ;r ./f
4 15. (e 1' - I )J5
8
17. ~~ (5312 - 2 312 )
19. ~~ (13~12 - 6}
21. 16JT 1 23. Sn 211 J
25. a. 1rab; b. ~1rabl
27. ~ [21r \h + 4rr 2 +In (2.-r +VI + 4;r2 ) ]
SECTION 10.4 (PAGE 6SO) 3 ,
29. s"'a- 31. ~2 ll'Ol
1. y=2x-3 J. yl = .t )
33. 216./3 24.:.:.3,.
::.../3.:..;3::.
S. y=2x1 - S.t +2 7. y=4x 2,x>0 5 35. .:..
4
ANSWERS TO ODD·NUMBERED PROBLEMS A-4 7

r.
h fr• + -lr' - -l/5- .;,s + 4ri +1 ,
J'. '!bC lcr.gth is 211 (r> + 1)1 dt r·
47. :._-- - 1
4 12 -
" J,917.l8.~7217.
41. 5 :t )a·'
6
s.. ('·;2Y-(';I)l =I

~.l Center (1, 2). foci (I±/~. :!I. n<ymrtutc< .•· - :; = ..1: ( ' - I )
t\ [ / is ... :!6cos61l tf•l "" 20 ~13398308 5<5. Cente r (0. 3), foci (0. J ::: 2./5). 3s~ mptotcs ." = J ± xJJ
m.
t'. t' /io- 6cos~ d·1:::. 19.37~896-411
57. Cente r (- I. 1). foci (- I ±
±i(.r +I )
ll. awmptotc< ." - I =
·
~9. Parabola. opening to the left. \ Crte \ 0. Ol. :ni< the .r-a , i>
61. P~r~bob. o pemng to the n~ht. \ 'CrtCX c-} .lll. fl\iS the
n. { ) 106 + 90 co~ II till"' 61.0)35813739 .r·axis
63. Elh('$c, center (0. 21. \Crtic'cs a t (0. tl) nn<l (II. -2)

tl. J.'' ~ J29 - 20 em(! 0) till "' 16.3-1283337 39


65. Min imize ( r -{•l' + ~-= whcrc.t =,1.:/(.J.p).
69. A!'Out 16 h JS min
71. ~hximi1c R(al = <•·,; <in 2a)/K ·
~L (a) Appro~imatcl~· 16.0570275666; (b) '~; 73. Approximately I.J. ' -10' p • :tnd 75' 19' ·17'
75. Square the !!J''cn cqu•t~<ln t" tee to dnninatc radic.tls. con-
~ {' 2
)25 cos 2 5t +9sin 3rdr :>: 2.1 .6029616185 \ crt to polar form. rotate .J.5 h)' rcpl~cing r' "it h 11 + (:t / -1),
nnd finall)' return to Cartc~ia n coordinates. You" ill rccog·

!!. un~th: 1~' Jlr'CrlF + b'<r>F ar "'39.4035787 129 ni1e the equation as that of a p:tr:tt...oh.
77. n. ;\hout 322 b il hon mile~; to. ahout 1211 hill ion mi les
79. \\'ath focus F<O. c) and ducctri\ the Ime L: )' = r:f•·'
SECTION 10.6 (PAGE 676) (0 <,. < I). begin with I P F l = ,. · I I'Ll. dom inate radicals.
)itnplify. replace "'(I - ~' ) woth lr . :md con, e rt the result-
ing Can esiJn equation to ~stand:trd Co rm."
L ();x'ns to the right; c<Junt ion >l = 12x
Ill . Go to nww.liUJ!<buq:.cdu/d(•ptvmalllfMATinu.V
l. ();>ens downwa rd: equation (A - 2)1 = -S(y- 3) tllip<t<.1.09.0.html.
!. OjYns to the lch; equMion ()' - 3)1 8(.t - 3) =- ( r - 1) 2 3);
7. (};lens downward; cqu~ t ion x= = - 6()' + ~) 83. lloe on ly solution is
4
+ 16 = I.
9. ();>ens upward: equation x: = 4 (y + I) 85. (c) In this case there arc no points o n th e graph .
II. Opens to the right. vertex at (0. 0). n~is the x-axis. focu~ a t =
89. lt\x 1 + 50xy ... 16)J J6':1
13. Ot. dtre<trix x = -3 91. If A is at (-SO. 0) :tnd B is :ot (50, 0 ), th e n the .r ·coord inllle
U Opens to the left. vertex at (0. 0), nxis the r-nxis. focu~ at of the plane i~ :tppro ximatcly .J. I.3395 (in mi) .
<-l.O).directrixr = i 93. 2000 mi
IS. Opens upward. vertex at (2. - 1). n~is r = 2. focus at (2. 0). 95. !legin with r = ~/(1 - .. c~ll) and tirst show tha t the area
d:rec1ri~ y =
-2 o f the ellipse i<
17. Opens downward, vertex at( - ~ . - 3), nxis r = -!. focus
't ).
at(- \. directrix y = - ¥-
19. (~)I -(~ y
= 1 Then u<e the substitutio n discu~sed after l\.l i'l:elbncous
Proble m 134 of Chapter 7.

~ (~Y+(-JrY=' CHAPTER 10 MISCELLANEO US PROBLEMS


~~ , (PAGE 679)
l7. - +
16
r.12 --1
)I, (~)I
5
.(~
)'- )l
,..
I
=I JJ.
(r -
81
I )I
+
()' - 2)1
72
=I
t . Circle. center ( I. 1). radiu' 2
3. Circle. cente r (J. - ll. radius I
S. P~rahola, \'C:rlCX (~. -2), focus(4, -25), openinjl d Ownward
35
· ~tcr (0. 0). foci (±2./5. o). axes 12 and 8 1. Ellipse. center (2. 0). vert ices ut (0, 0), (4, 0 ), (2. 3), :md
37
· ~ntcr(O. 4). foci (0. 4 ± J5 ). axes 6 and 4 (2. - 3). fo..• (2. ±J5)
9. fl ypcrholn. center (-I, 1). foci (- 1. 1 ± J3l, vertices
)9, ~I _ yl _ I
15 - .u.
(~)2
4
-(!)l 3
= I (-1. I ± J'iJ
11. There arc no points o n the graph .
IJ. Hyperbola. cente r ( I. 0), \c:rtitXs (3. 0 ) and ( - 1. 0). foci
(I± J3.0)

h •
A-48 ANW/£RS TO ODD-NU'.1 o£~ED PROSlE'.IS

I S. C1rcle. c~ntct C~ I l. t~d1u• I SECTION 11 .2 ( PAGE 689)


17. The ~tr•rh cO:\\ I"'
of th~ •:rar~l:tl:~e >= - z ~~~~::~ ..,:,'1
the IV>I>tcd J" "ntl? il. II 1\ nola CO:UC \ tCIIOn- 1. c . =,.;. c..~r r. i: 1
19. Cucl<. c~n ·~ : f- I. 01. ud1u• I 3. c., = 3- . (Jt r. ~ I.
!I. l hc •tr•12ht hr.c ,. nh <;,.;,,.an equa:.on 1 = z- I ~. c.= ( } ' l - n-· t~=- r: ~ 1.
2.3. lhc hur11nntal hn~ >= 3 7. c. = 1 - (- 1l· for r:;:: 1.
2..<. A pau of UOftOI <l'ah throu;h the o"r::o:.tl:e f.6.!1t 1J \~1:"1·
9. <
.' I I. 0 1.1. I
mctuc around the_. .• .,.
17. 0 19. (l
27. ,, hma,cm \)tnmctroc ar ound lhe )·UI\ ~ ~- o .,er-;.~
~!'. ()
29. Elhf"e. ccntc1 f- i 111. hor11n:l!al \<:t::I~3J(>r am o~ 21. 0 !.'. I
:!:Q. 0 .H . ()
length j. \CtnJmonur •~" of lcnr1h ' ,"\ 'tfloce< 1-.1 0 :7. 0
I
(II. .!. j v'j 1. and Cj. Ol.foo 1- j .Ill a~d •II U, .u. ~ J~ . .17. ~
~
J I. 11 - 2 3'!,/:i - Ill· -'I. OJ\ Crj!CS .t.l. I
.l?. I
2 31 A 4$. : -'1. I -'11. :r

35. 2 37.
51 ~ 1. T, 1-cj:•n. <Uj'J" "C ( "llhl'lll 1,"' of ):CilC r.1111y) Iha I t\ > ll.

;w. The <lr•ip,hlline .v .. x + 2


4
5.1. l.cl /. = hm '· ll>cn I
.. ' ..lo·n, '··• ·
!-~. ~~~ c; - <i· - G, = 1: G •• ,,_ G. + G • • : fur 11 ~ 3.
41. ·n,c ci1clc wilh cen te r 12. II"'"' radm• l Cl>cd U:• <\%.
4.t The •· scrnicuhklll Jllllllh..!.,.. "'''h Cane'"'" cqu.ltoon 51. (h) ~
l n ( l - 1)'
45. y =- j(J -J 2)
4'1. 2-1 ~I . .l:t SECTION 1 1.3 (PAGE 699)
13 ./IT - K ( -1.!
5.\. ~-. () 3
27 I. :;

') ./5 . ,/5 Jil 9 J5 . ./5 J. DJ 'trg~' (I he 41h pJrll.ll <u m •~ 41)
57. I + -I U- :uc~m
.
- - -- - -
3 M IU
nrn1n-
6 ~- 0 aH."f £<"S (~<0"11('lt1C v. alh r .tlw -2 )

-1 712<J5n ~ c.-·+1 >..15 7. 6


S'J. 1112-1 61. ~ 9. Di\Cr):c~ (rcomclnc "'' h ra lio I 01).
II . D i, agcs b~ the r.lh ·lclrn lc•t.
6.\. Supp<>-c 11131 I he circle mil< 10 Ihe rij!hl thiOUJth 3 ccn1ral
J.l, 01\cq:cs (gcomclrlc "" h rallo -3/ c).
ant: I<" II. Then r .. 111• - /"on P• ." = 11 - /re-o< 11.
l~. :! + ../1
6$. If lhc .-picycluid is ~hif:cd 11 unil< In Ihe lcfl. il< cqu>lion~
...II he 17. Di' er~cs b~ I he nlh·ICrm ICSI •
I
z=2ncosO -nro<20 -a. y = 2nsm8 -asin UI. 19.
12
Now compute and simrlify , : =z: + >:· ! I.
:'! - t!
67. f>:tla'
2.1. D1verges (geometric with ralio ~~1 ) .
69. r = 2 p cos(ll - o)
65 2-17
7 1. Maximum 2n. minimum 2b 25. 12 27. - g 19
• •
-1/n:(h- x ) 31. Diverges by lhe nlh ·lcrm tes t.
73. y= li
1
J.l. Dive rges (geomelric wi1h ralio 1a n 1 > 1).

75. The ellipse h:o s cqu:olion ( ; Y+ ( i) = I.


3~. _!!__
4 -IT

7')• .. =2
4
lccl 0 tan! 0 3
37. D iverges: Show1ha1S, ~ i'·l ~ tl.r·" In .t
> ln( ln(k + l)).

lL
'f/
81. A = I)
0 (I + 1311 I O) '· tf() = .2 • 39. -
47
4l. ~ 31-'1 56
99 43.
83. If lJ < then I he conic is an ellipse: if lJ > t it is a hy· 333 9\MI<J
z
p.-rbola." lf IJ =
l •he graph i' a degenerate p nrabola: '"o 4!'. Conve rges 10- - if -3 < x < J.
parallel lines. If the graph is normallo th ey-axis nt 1he point 3 -.r
(0. 4). I hen I he graph is 1hc ellipse with equation .r - 2
47. Con,·erges to if -I < z < 5.
5- x
5z2
49. Converges 10 ir -2 < x < 2.
16- 4z2
ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS A-49

I ~ (- 1) ' (2 r ):..• l . · ·
25. ~i n lr = L · This represent~ Iron IS vahd ror
:1. 6 (1n + l )! ·
.~
1 (BcavcrboCk's const~nt) all x.
:J.:; ~
(- l )' r .,.' 2
I !7. si n(.r 2) =
L · . lhis reprcscntJtt· on •os vnhd• for
;s. :;
3 57. 2 59. 3 • ..0
(2n + l)!
all .r.
61. vsc t he• con\'crsc of part 2 ofl11eorem 2. 29. In(! + .r) = ~
N ( - l)" •lrJt
· . This representation 1S v:tl1d 1f
. . . .
6.1. :.5 s L II
•• I
. M, _ 0 as 11 __. + oc. - 1 <X :i l.
67
4 2
_. Paul: -; ~13 ry:
c •·r·. 7'
£9. Pl 7 7 .11. r - ' = 2:
" <-Wx" . Thts · ·IS va1·ctr
· representation 1 or a 11 .r.
.!. of the incident li ght
.
..., n!
i1 ( - l)"'l(.r - I )' . . . .
' ' 12
JJ. In x = ~
N
. 'This representation IS vahd 1f
L II

SECTION 11.4 (PAGE 713) 0 < .r S 2.

r~ t~ :r" r~ t 6
1. ,-• = 1- x + ' ! - ·J ! + ~ ! - ' ! + ' ! ,.-: for some nu mber
2 5
.15. cosx = .J22 - .J2
2
(x - ::_)
4
- 2!../2· 2 (.r - ::_4 ):
6
z between 0 and x .
xz x' .ts .
3. cosx = I - ! + ! - S! stn z for some number~ between + -31_11..-2 ( x - :r
-
4
)J+--
.J2 (
4! . 2
. t - -:r ) '
4
2 4
0 and .r.
This rcprt"sc ntarion is ,·a1id for all.r.
r,-:- X x2 .rl 5x•
I v1+x = I + - - - + - - for some
1 + ~) 1: I
•.
number z between 0 and x.
2 8 16 128(1
- =
.17. .r L"' (- IJ' (.r- 1)". 'lltis representation is valid ror
xJ .rt .,
.....
7. tanx=x + - + - (16sec' ~ tan: + Sscr ~ tnnl :) for
3 4!
0< .r < 2.
some number z between 0 and .t.
.
9. artStn .r = x +
x 3 (1 + 2:'!
for some number : between 0
· 39. sin.r = _.Jf + _J I
2 2
(x - ::_) - 2!_../2_2· 2 (.r - =:.)
·I 4
1
- 2
_..J2_
3! · 2
3!(1 - ~>":
and .r.
II· <_. .= r + ~(x-l) + i(.r-l)"

e , t'
+ (i(.r- 1 ) +
1
24
~ ,
(.r-1) + x(.r- ~ )J + -41-.2 (.r- ~ )' + -5~-~2 (x- ~ )s
1
liO(x- 1) for some number z between I an<l .r. llris representation is ''a lid lor all.r.

B· I JJ(.r-6:r) -4I(.r-6:t) ../3( :r)·'+


·Stnx = 2+2
1

- 12 .r-6
45. Given / (.r) = .- -•. its plot together with that of

~ ( .r - 7, )' for some number :between :r /6 and .r.


~ I • are shown nc~t.
(;_ 4)i == l- 2(x-5)+3(x-W- 4(.t-5)1 + 5(.r-5) -

6(x - W + (.r - 5>" . SQ.IO for some number z between


, 720 (z-4)0
o and x.
11
• <osx =-I + (x- rr )·' •
_ (x- rr) _
••
~ (.r -:r)1 for some
2 24 120
number.... bctwecn 1r an d x.
19. _rn 3 3 1 3 •
==l+i<x- IJ+s<x-1)2- 16 <x- tl '+m(.• - l>-
(x-I)S •
4
~· · ,_, ..
, :,, for some number z between 1 and ·• ·
2
'I
•. t ' '
"'
'\"' (- l )"x" d r II
== L_ --;--. lltis representation is vali or 3 x ·
ll -c} If . 'Jlre graphs of /(.r) = e· • and
lJ. ,-J._~(- 1 )"3'.1'" . .
- L- 1
• This representation 1s vahd for all x. /{,(.t ) = 1_ x + ~2 _ ~l x

.rl x6
"-<> n.
2! 3! + 4! - 5! + 6!
A-50 ANS\'IlRS TO 000-NUMeEP.£0 Pl!OBlfMS

are lhO~~>'TI together next. ~9. Results: With .r = 1 in the M aclaurin scrks in Problem 56.
"'C find that

0 = L!» ( t•• l
....::..I_"" 0.6S32~71 605759l!I I SS·C56S8J 1{.19.
n
~1

\\itll .r = l in the second scric$ in Problem 5$. we lind that


'
••
2 3 • b = ')" ...!__ "'0.69JI-l7 1 l'05599~5.3()<}-li72J210107.

47. One of the: Taylor polynomials for / (z 1 = cos...c is f'.l< ) =


I- ,
.f2 .XC
+ 14 . . l ltc graph• of I and /', arc l hown together.
---·
.__ n·3;'t

BeC<lll5<' IJ - In 11 "" O.OOQ9l'Xl(lJ\I'JS-I. " hcrt•as 1/J - In 21 "'


2• 2.039 " JO·-". it iHkarthat the second ~cries of l'rohkm 5~
nc>t. is f.u surcrior to lhc s~ries of Pro~l~m 56 for chc :lCCUr:Hc
arpro-cim.1tion of In : .

SECTION 11.5 (PAGE 720)

y •C<-1\ 1
1. D1•crgn· 1~ l
+
X ... I
11.1 = [~- ln(.t' + I)] "'= +oo.
0

49. One of the 'litylor polynomials fnr llxl = -


1
/~! r ) =
1~! r + l)- 1' 2 d.r = [2(.r + 1) 11'],~ = +oo.
- i•
I ~ x J. l>1 verge<:
2
I - x + x - .r' + x' . The graphs of I nnd /~ M< •hown
together. next.

y
5. Converges: 1~ .r ' ~ j d.r = [ arctJn X]~ = ~ < +00.

7. Diverges: 1, . . x- 1
In .r
- d.r = [ lntln .r)]"' = +oo.
~

9. Converges (to I):


1~ 2·• dx = [- -
0
I- ] "' =1- < +oo.
2•1n2 ., ln2

I
.''= -I + .r
11. Con\'crges: 1"' x' e· • dx = - [(x 2 + 2.r + 2)e·• ] ~= 2

r
< +oo.
-0.5 0.5 •
13. Converges: 1"' :,.r 1
dx = [- I +;nx = _I-~-0

S I. lltc gmph of the 'lllylor polynomial . I+ ln .r


- hm - =I < +oo.
.~ -~ X
x x2 .r 3 .t 4

1"' [I ]"'
P,(.r) = I - 2! + 4! - 6! + 8!
15. Converges: .x' x+ 1 dx = 2: arctan(.r 2 ) "' ~ < + oo.
of [(.r) and the graph of g(.r) are shown together. next. 0
0

17. Diverges: 1"' x' !~:! 17 dx = [ Jn{.rl + 5.r + 17)]~


=+oc.

19. Converges: 1"' 1


In (• + ~)
.t
dx =: ~2 - In 2 < + oo.

21. Diverges: 1"' 4 x 2x+ 5 dx = [~ Jn(4.r2 + 5)]~ = + oo.

57. By Theorem 4 of Section 11.3, S is not a number. Hence


23. Diverges:
i "' xJiiiX 1""
2
- I dx:
2
{In .r)- 112 dr
.r ·

[zclnx> 112 ] ~"' +oo.


auempts to do arithmetic with S will generally lead to false
or meaning! ess results. =
ANS\V[RS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS A-51

47. Usc the romp.1ri,nn It'<I.


~ 9- t\ pply the C'<lll\'t'fSc or '111COrcm 3 in Section 11 .3 and Ihe
rcsuh in Prohlcm ·Ill.
51. Usc Ihe rcsuh in l'rohlcm 50 in Section 11.5.

SECTIO N 11.7 (PAGE 735)

:'/. Con,crgc~: 1 arcta n .t


:
X + 1
d1 =[ :;~I (arctan x )l ] " '
I
I.
3.
Cum·t·rj:cS ( 111 ;1: .~:) hy the ahemating series lest.
Divcr!!es hy the nlh ·lcrm test for divert:cncc.
J,~l
=n < + ex>. ~-
7,
Dive rges hy Ihe nlh·lcrm test fnr diver~cncc.
Divcr~:es hy lh<' nlh·lerm test for divcq:ence.
31. This is not a posi tive-t.:nn ~crks. 9. Con,·crgcs (lu -~ ) hy the ahcrnalingscrics test.
_1,\ The terms of this seric< arc nnt monntnnically decreasing. II. Convcr!!c< by Ihe !!h<•rnating se ries test. (The sum is ap-
3,;, 01\CI~CS if 0 < f' ::: I. wnn:rj:CS if p > I. rroxim:nel~· -0. 1 71\2~.\~556.)

37. D1vcrgc~ if p ~ I, com·c r~cs lllhc r\\i<c. 13. Con,crt:c< hy the ahc rnatmg series test. (lllc sum is ap·
proximately ll.71 1\M~~ 11\1156.)
39. n > IOCOO
1 ~. Cun\'cr~c< hy the ahcrnnting series test. (The sum i< roughly
R 11 > 100 4.l II > 160,000
- O.S5079f,'Wll t:\·1.)
~5. n ~ 15 47. f' > I
17. Divcr!!es hy the nth·lcrm I<'SI for di\'crgc ncc.
~- Sloppy nnswcr: Over (,(J.J,.It4 ccn llH ics. /\more prl·cisc nn- 19. Divcr~cs hy the nlh ·lcrm tcs l for di,·crgcncc.
!"cr: t\ lillie on:r 922.-160 n: nturics.
21. Con"crgc. ahsulu tdy hy the rat io test. (The sum is~ -)
~1. Apply Theo rem 4 and l'robkm 52 of Section 11.2.
2.\. Cnll\·crgc~ by the alte rnating se ries test. but only condi·
tionally h)' the iniCjtral test. (The sum i< approximately
SECTION 11.6 (PAGE 727) 0. 1 59S6.,'<XlJ7~~.)

2!-. Conwq:cs ah~<•lu tcly hy the root lest. (l11c sum is approx-
irn:ucly I S6.72~1J.11'6 1 ~02-1.)
I. C'onverg.:s: Dnminat.:d hy the p-se ries " ith p = 2.
3. Diverge< hy lirnit -compari<on wi th the harmonic series. 27. ConvcrJ!<'S nhsolut cly by the ratio lest. (l11e sum is
,.· "' "' O.OOtMl4531J9'12<J76.)
S. Con,ergcs: Dominated bv the geome tric se ries with
29. Di"crgcs hy the nlh -lcrrn lest for diverge nce.
ralto \. •
,\1. Conwq:cs al"''lutcly hy the root lest. ('The sum is approx-
7, Dl\ crgcs by limit-compari<on with th e harmonic scrks.
inmely U IS7'Hl7S75U56.)
9. Con,cr~c~: Dominated by the (>·Se ries with P ~- = J .\. Convcr!!<'~ h)' th<' nllcrnating series test, hut only condi-
11. C'oO\erge<: Domi nated by the fl·<erics "ith T' =; · tiun:olly hy the c<unpnrison test. (The sum i< approximatdy
13. 0 1\erge, by comparison " ith the harnwnic series. U.761J:!O~t•252 1 ').)
l5. CoO\crges: Dominated by the p ·sc ri.:s wit h P =2. J!'. Di,•cr)!CS hy the lllh-lerm lest ror dive rgence.
17. Converge<: Oomin 3 tcd hy a )tCnmctric ,cries with ratio J· 37. Divcrg<'< hy the nlh·termtcsl for divcr~cncc.
19· CoO\ergcs by compari~on with the p -se rks "ith I' = 2. 39. Convcr~cs :tl"olutcly by Ihe ratio test. ('lllc sum is approx-
21. Cun,crgc<: Dominat ed bv the p -scrics "ith I' =~ (anw n~ im:ttdy tl.S$1171!1<)')1!767.)
other<). · 41. Convaj:t'S ah,olulcl)· l>y the ratio test. (The sum is approx-
!.l· c on, crgcs: Dorn in3tcd by the p ·scnes
· w11· h P =.,~· imntdy 2 Sll7 11»--M ISS.)
25. Converges: Do minated hy the geometnc · sen'c<" with 4.\. 0.904-1: O.lXlS: 0.90
. 2_.
ratuJ -1~. 0.6319: O.l~ Ml2: 0.632
c•
27· [) ·cvcrgcs hy limi t-compa ri"ul w11h · I1IC p-sc · ·ricswith
· {•.. !· ~7. n.flS;\2: o.o'l:
. n.1
29· ()'l\ crgcs by limit -cn rnpari<on w11 II 11eI ,..,. ·crk<Wilh(> <= \. •
~9. 11 = 6; 0.9~7 (lht• Slllll is nu:T•)
.II C0
• " 'crgcs b)• compari'><ln with a gt•nmc tnc '~
· ·ries with rn ·
. ,· h 51. " = 5: 0 t.(l(\5
llo 11 and by hm11 compari -.on "ol b a jtenn1c·tnc sc ncs '"' ~'- " = ~: 0~1.\
ra11o !
)' 5!'. 11u~ sc<tucnce or term< is not monotonic:~lly decreasing: the
.1.1. Con ' t rges b\' compari<on \\llh. I h e I'' sc·ric:s with p = 2. series di\CI!!C~ l•y com p3rison with the harmonic series.
.1~. D, • . h 1 m1onic series.
.17 ' crgc, hy llmiH:o mpari>oll w11h I c 13 (- tl"
.19. s.-,-. o'lll i 71J3 wi th error k~' th an 11.09-IS.'U. 57. Let n, = 1>, =
Iii ·
~ . s.(l <: 0.52R/170 with error k << th an 11. 1.
'
t ll l l 111 I t t
I. ~ .. It 0 Ll'ifl~01 63. l +3 - 2+5 - 4+7 +9- 6+il+i3-ii +T5
~ I: I he sum ;, appm\Jrlla ldy '" · · ·
~ ~ "'); the \Urn i\ apprn~imatcl)' I) !1)07f4. 6..~ II ('()0\CrjtCS 10 lC! O.
. lJ'C the converse or Theorem 3 in Sectio n 11.3.
A-52 ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS

SECTION 11.8 (PAGE 748) SECTION 11.9 (PAGE 756)

3
I )'' 4 . 64
"" 4 + 3 I "'4.021.
( + 64
1. (-1. I) 3. (-2. 2) I. 65''3 = 4 . I

5. [0, 0) 7.[-~·~] I I
3. sin(O 5) "" - - - - 3 "'0.479.
. 2 3'. 2
s. 0.464
9. (-~·D 11. [-2,2)
7 sin(~) ""~ - _;r_ =::; 0 .309.
J

13. ( -3, 3)
15. O·n 9
• 10

sin(~)""~--;r-"='0. 174.
10 3! . 10'
)

17. u. n 19. (0. 0]


.
1
18 18 3! . J8l
t I I ~o
1
sin.r
II -dr"='l --+---~ .9641.
• o X • J!3 5!5 7!7
21. ( -4, 2) 23. (2, 4]

I 3•
1' 12
arctan x d _ ~ _ _ 1_ _ _1_ _ _
.r
1_ ,. 0.4872
x - 2 2J . Jl + 2l . 51 21. p •
0
25. (5. 5] 27. (-1. I)
1
In(! + .r) I I I
29. (-co. +oc) IS. [ .r d.r "" IO - 4 . IOZ + 9 . I(}' ::,0.0976.
0
31. f(x)=x + x 1 +x 3 +x'+xs + · · · : R=l 1
I - e-' I I I I
1
/l
17. - - dr:=, - -
2 2!. 2 . 21
+ 3!. 3. 2"
- .,..,........:......-:-:
4!. 4. 24
('I; (-1)"3,.r"• 2 0 .t .
JJ. j(x) = '"' : R= + oo
L- n! I
•• o
+ 5!. 5. 2s "=< 0.4438.
"' (-l)"x ..
35. f (x) = L
"=0
(2n +I)! :
+Z
R= +oc 19. 0.7468241328124270 ::,(),7468
21. 0.5132555590033423 ::,().5133
I 2 x 1 2 . 5 .r1 2 . 5 . 8 x' l . r . r1 I
37. j(x) =I -
3x- 3l · 21 - y · J! - - y . 41 23. - - - - - - - · ·· - - - as x - + oo.
2 6 24 2
2. 5 . 8. 11 xs
_;...J_,S,_-.5,- .. . ; R=l
25. lim
x2 x3 •-0
39. f(x) =(I + x)·' = I- Jx + 3 · 4 · -2! -3 · 4 · 5. -3!
x•
+3·4 · 5 · 6 · - .. ·; R=l
41

41. f(..r) = L"" -;;-:;:T;


(-l)"x"
R= 1
•••
. O M "' I - -I · ( -;r )" "=< 0 9S·IS
.
'"' (- 1)"x""•' 29• smou
2! IS ' '·
....,
43. /<..rl=L (2n+ll!·(6n+4J: R=+oc
31. IH>R1998
"' (-1)"..r.lo+l 33. Six·placc :tecuracy
45. f(x)='"' , ( I); R =+oo .lS. r·i vc·pbcc nccuracy
~ 11. • 3n+
oJ )
37. ,.ll.l "" 1.39
( - l )" .. 'x 111 - 1 39. a. IU,(.t)l < 0.000002;
L % .

n!. (2n _ 11 ; R = +oo


b. 1R,(.r)J < 0.000000003
47. /(..r}=

X
••• 41. V = 21T 1"
II
sinl x •lx "' (2tr )l - (2Jr >'
xl 2 1• 4'• · 3 +-
12.T)•
6! ·-
5 - .. ·
49. -I < x < I
(I -xr, , "' 8.91050')1465101038.
2.•
+ x),
SL x(l
(I - ..r)l
- I < x <I

~ (-l)"xl<
43. v =2;r
1"
""15.3162279113254.
6J. {(X) =~ {PI+ I)!, -00 < X < +00
....,

1
ANSWERS TO ODD·NUMBERED PROBLEMS A-53

n- 1
c,. = - , r. .. ,
n- - n + 1
if 11 i: 2. w y(.t ) a 0.

25 I .I 2 l 17 7 62 9 131!2 11
• x + ) ·' + IS.t + 315.t + 2835x -'- IS5925.r
. 21R-:-t ll 929569 \5
~ 6081075.t + 63&512S75.r + ...

CHAPTER 11 MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS


(PAGE 767)

I. I
3. 10
!9. - 1
5. 0
7. 0
SECTION 11 .10 (PAGE 766) 9. The limit doe~ no t exist.

L •(.r)=a~
~

)' . .
-r = auc•: R = +oo
II. 0
13. +~ (or "Does not exist.")
. -...- n! 15. I
,.,()
17. Converges by the ah c rnnting se ries test. (ll1c sum i~ 3Jr
" - (- 1)' (3.r)"
· ....,
l >(I )=tl,j '\"'
L.. n!
-
2
- =1\1.. -l•r.; R=+o:> proximately O.O.c;()J57603217.)
19. Converges by the ratio test. (ll1e ~um i~ approximntcly
x3l + -2!1 (x'-3 )l 1.405253Sl<028-t)
' l
i I(I )=tl,j I ... -1 . -
I!
21. Converses hy the comparison test and ll1corcm 3 of Sec·
tion 11.7. {'n1e sum is approximately C.23!1-'UMH3!i03.)

=~cxp(~} R= +oo 23. Dive rges by the lllh·le rm tc~t for divergence.
25. Converges hy the comparison test . (The sum is nppro~i·
mntely 1.45lJ973~!U376.)
1
L 2'x" =a~ L (2x)' = 1 ~ 2x;
"\!" :I¢
0
7. )1J)= a 1 R= i 17. Conve rges hy 1hc ahernnting series t:st. {'n 1c sum is ~p·
• .., o
n ..
pwxirn.•t ely 0.;\71\Sfli\S iti llJX.)
2~. Di•cr~cs hy the intcgrnl test .
"'
9. ,\l.r)=tl,j ~ (n+ l )r'= ~I. C(ln~erg.cs by the ratio test; the s um is •. :. nru.l thc radiu~ of
...,
L..
ao
(I - .tl 2
; R= l
convcrl!encc: is +oo .
33. l nc inte rvnl of con•·crgcncc is I -2. ~) .
•\~. ll1c interval of convergence.: i~ I- I . q.
37. l nc scrie• con• e rgcs only if x = 0.
31J. '111c series con,·c rgcs to cosh x on ( -cc. +o:>).
~I. Oil'cr~cs fo r all x hy the nth·tc rm test for di•·crgcnc:c.
.u. Conwrges for all x to cxp le' ).
~5. Let n. =b.= (- 1)" · 11 · 1/,.
51. LOS~
SJ. OA61
~5. 0.797
65. ~~ =2 and "• = 4 for nlln ~ 1.

SECTION 12.1 (PAGE 777)

1. v = Rs = (2. 3)
3. • = Rs = l - 10. - 20)
s. w :: u + ,. = (4. 2}
7. u + • = 51 - 2j
9. ./5. 2Ji1. 4Ji. (-2. 0}, (9. - 10}
A-54 ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS

11. 2../2. 10. ../5. (-5. -6). (0. 2) 49. a::::74.206831•. fJ==Y ::::;47.124011"
13• .JIO. 2../29. J65. 31- 2j. -i + 19j 51. a:::: 64 .895910? • fi "'55.550098•. Y = 45'

IS. 4, 14, J65. 4i- 7j. 12i + 14j


S;l. :3
S5. Approximately 7323.385 cal
3 4, 3. 4,
17· ••= -si-sJ· ··=s•+sJ 57. W = mglt .
. Wtl. h 1a.,.. b j: -_(a + b) . (u +b) and expand Ihe nght·
l\, 15 , s , 15, 59. Bcgm
19· U = !7 1 +UJ' \' = -17 -17J hand side.
61. Anv nonzero multiple of w == (-2. 7, 4 )
21. a= PQ =-4j • ~ l>~cl - blcl - a ,c2 - azcl
23. a = llQ =Si - 14j 6::..a
'
== b.P- (.l l t·r,l-l·2
a ,bl- lll l
,, b1 .

25. a.Lb =
67• 2x + 9 y _ Sz ZJ: the plane that bisects AB and IS perpen-
27. a.l b dicular to that segment
69. TI•c angle between any two edges is ;r /3.
29. i = - 4a + 3b and j = 3a - 2b
1 5
Jt. c=-2a+ 2b
SECTION 12.3 (PAGE 794)
5, 7.
J3, D, 15i- 21j; Il, - I - - J
3 3 I. (0,-14 , 7)
s~ s.../89 .
JS. a. (7i- 3j): b. - (81+ 5J) 3. -101- 7j + k
58 89 5. (0. 0. 22)
37. c = 0 is the unique solu1ion.
43. 1i=7i=l00 7. ±/J (I2. - 3. 4)
45. 1i "'71.971. 7i "' 96.121 (lb) 11. a X (b X c)= -k ~ -i + j = (a X b) X c.
47. Compass bearing 86"13', airspc~<.l approximately 13. b x c is parallel to a.
536.52 mi/h 15. l v'2546
49. Compass bearing 320' 43', airspeed approximately 502 milh 17. u. 55; h. ~
19. Coplanar
21. Not coplanar
SECTION 12.2 (PAGE 786)
23. The area is approximately 4395.6569291026 mz .
&: E../5(2. 5. -4) 25. ·n1c area is approximatdy 31271.643253 ft 2.

-
L (5. 8. -II): (2. 23. 0): 4;
29. Begin with the observation that the a rea of the triangle in
3. (2.3.1); (3,-1.7): 0; .15: ~ J3(1.1.1 ) . !
Fig. 12.3.13 is JPQI · tl.
5. (4.-1.-3): (6.-7. 12): -1: Ji7: j./5(2.-1,0)
31. Begin with the observation tha t a vector perpendicular to
7 • .(1::::8 ) •
=
both lines is 11 F;Q; x ;;;Q;.
9. e = 'JO' 33. Usc Eq. (12) and the result inl'robl~m 32.
11. & ::::: 98' 35. Sec the discussion roll()wing Eq. (3) in the text.
13. comp.b =TI ../5: wmp~a:;; ~ v'i4
15. comp.b =0 = comp.a
SECTION 12.4 (PAGE 801)
17. comp.b =- ~ .15: comp•11 =- ~ Jiii
19• .r= -6.r+ >,2 -2y+ 1! -4z= II I . .r = t, y = 2t, <=31, -oo < 1 < +oo
21. xz- JO.r + 1- f!y + 1! + 2z + 33 =0
J •.t = 21 + 4, )' = 13, : = -JI-3, -OO<I<+OO
23. x 2 + .~ + 1! - 4z =0 = =
5. x - lit. y 31, z =Sr . - oo < 1 < +oo
25. Center (-2. 3. OJ, radius ./f:i
7. .t = 31+3. y e S, : = -31 + 7. - OO< I <+oo
27. Center (0. 0. 3). radius 5
29. 1be .ry·planc:
9. Parametric equations x 1 + 2, y = = - 1 + 3. : = -21 - J.
-oo < t < +oo: symmetric equations
Jl. The plane through (0, II. 10) parallel to the .ry-plane
:+4
JJ. .,
3!.
37.
The union of the three: coordinate planes
l'he single point CO. 0. 0)
The single poinl (3. -4. 0)
X -2=-.)•+ 3= - - .

11. Parametric cquationsx =I , y 1.:


Cartesian equations .r = I, y = 1.
-
= =1 + 1. -oo < 1 < +oo:
39. Parallel (and not perpendicular)
13. Parametric equations .r = 2t + 2. y =- 1 - 3. : =3t + 4,
41. Parallel (and not pcrpcndicula.r) -oo < 1 < +oo: symmeuic equations
43. The poinl\ lie on one line:.
x- 2 ·- J
~. Alllhre.c: angle> h3\'e me:.surc: flY. -2- = -( y + 3) = :::__
3 .
47. ! A :::::79' . £8 :::: 64•, tC :::: J7•
1.5. The lines meet at (and only at) the point (2. - I. 3).
ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBlEMS A-55

11. Lt
and /.. '
are skew lines.
/..~ are parallel and dtstmct. 31. r (l) = (!1
6
1+ 10. ..!..,•
12
+lOr ..!_,,)
. 20
Q. L: and
1
1y-3:=0 33. r(l) = (I - I - COS I, I + I - sin I, 51)
lL 1 +•....

s.,o
•\ ~ -.
35. v(i:r) = ( 3./2.3./2. 8}. ••On) = 10. nnd
;q,7 = (- 6./2. 6./2. 0}
a(l:r)
- 1+ \I Y"'II ~
•''· •1 + J )' - ..· -- 0 37. u (l) x Y (l)+ u' (t) x •·(t) =(0. .Wt. -IS}= D,( u(l) x v (r)J .
, . J%
• ,. _ :=0 .u. 100ft
lL 1.J -
. ·--1y+ 17t =78 ~3. t·o = .;,..j-z- .,..= 32Ji65 ::: ~ JI.().I7.U25171S~ ft!s
. 5-2110
J.\"'
L and1' arc paralicI an d h3\C no pomts
. .m common. -l7. (a) Ran ge: J00/3 ft. maximum height 100 fL (b) R nng::
J.l. ""• , meet at (and onIy at ) thc potnt
· ( 9917 800ft. mnimum height 200ft: (c) Range: -100./3 ft. mnxt·
i. ; . 7 ).
Jl. ···l mum height 300 It
" 11:....,. ande b<:tv. ccn the piJnes is 0 = arcccx( 1/ ./3).
- ~9. 70 ./iO mls
· · The analc t>etwccn the planes i~ 0 "' 0 because the planes 51. Angle ol inclination: appro~om atol)' ~1·50'33.7.'922-1•: ini·
lL •
11< rarallcl tial ,·elocit)': appro~imatc ly I JJ.6-l .'l515·1S.~ m.!s.
=
l.\ Parametric ~quations.x = 10. )' 1. : = - 10- 1. -oo < 1 < 53. Fim at\umc th>t u (l) =( rro( r) . u ; (l )) nnd •II) = (o•r(1). t•:(l )).
+:<:: urte~t3n cquatmn~ .r = Hl. )' = -10- z Your prooh•ill be u s) to gcncrJluc to ' ector.> with three
ll. There is no line of intersection because the planes nrc ur more cornponc11 ts.
fH31icl. 55. Fir~! sho" tho t D, 1•11) • v(l ) ( =0.
li. Parametric equation' x =3. )' =3 - 1. z = I + 1. - oo < 1 < 57. A centr:rl repulsive fo rce " ith mognitudc proportional to
+:>::: Cartesian equations x =3. : .. ~ - y. dtstancc !rom the origin.
4'!.Jr + 2y + z=li 6J. 5 ft north
!1. 7t-5y-2<= 9 53. x-2y+~:,.J 6~. h. 12 s: t. 2-100 ft nonh. I+I ft caJI: d. 71!-l ft
10Jj 133J50t
!~ - 3- 59. Pnrt (b):
501
SECTI ON 12.6 ( PAGE 828)
SEatON 12.5 (PAGE 813) I. 10.~ 3. 19 (~- 1) o: 32.6-l7355

1. BcCluloC + :! = I while xis arbitrary. the graph lie' on


,~
S. 20 + 9ln 3 "' 2.98ln51 7. K(Ol = 0
10
L\c cyltnder or r~diU> I " ith a.is the X·3Xis. i\ sm>ll port or
tbcgraph is shown in l'ig. 12.5.17. 9. • (0) = 1
l Becau!>t .r1 + ,~ =1' = ~ . the graph lies on the cone with
i US the :·a•i' and eq uation i =
.r1 + f. A sm~ll pan of
" ) = -10.182
II. <( :i lf.S I .. 0.2 1 5~76
the graph is shown in Fig. 12.5.1(1.
5. r (I) =O= r' (l ) IJ. (-j ln 2.jv'i)
7. ( (01 = 2i- j and r"(0) =4i + j 15. Maximum at (±5, O), minirnurn at (0. ±3)

'··(n =6ni and ·(n "' ~~~ J 1 17. T(-1) = (


./iO 3
To· Ji1j)
lO . JI0(- 1) ~ <3 Jfti
10 .
-../iii)
10

ll • II ) = (1. 21. 31') . u(l) = J I + 41! +'.It' , a(l) =(0. 2. 61) 19. T (n / 6) = (
,ill
19· .a ,/19)
-19 . N,(lf/61 ~ (- 4./W ./57)
- 1\1 • - 19
-
ll •(1)=(1. x . 4r') . r·(r) = .J1 + 25t"". a (l) =(0. 31. -l< )

ll ' r) =( -J sin i.Jcosr . -~) . 21. 'rt31T/~) = (-.;;. -.;;).


l (l)=J 9sin1 1 + 9 co~' r + IIi .. 5. lRt 6
• 'r) =(-3co-s 1. - 3sin r. 0) :!J. or = ~.~ • a., ,. _ ,::..=
v91' + '1 . ,/91I+i'

11. (2-2..fi. . ./2) 15. 11r


I
= vr:r:-; • a t\' •
I'+ 2
i· + I ...fil + I
I
;n. II !7. < c -
a 29. X! + (y - 0l = !
15. r (l) =(I. O. r) 31. (~ - 2) 1 + ()'- 2) 1 = 2 33. K (l) S l
35. A'( l) .. .ji -·
3" 37. Or c Oa a.•
A-56 ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS

4t+ll'lt'
31. Equation x = 2<l + zlJ; circular paraboloid opening along
39. a r = -;:~,:,;,;,:::=;4 the positive .t-axis.
J l + -lrl + 9/ 33. Equation .r= + i- :! =I; circubr hypcrholoid of one sheet
1 Jr• + Sr i ... g with axis the ;:-a~is.
41. o 1 = -JiT+2.
- - av = ..:....:._.fi!
..:,.;;,~.:.:.
+2 3!'. Equation: -l.t = .'.: + :!;circular parabolo id. a xis the pos itive
x-axis. vcrh:x a t the orig in.
43. T (O) = ( Ji
2. Ji
2. o) • N'(0 ) = (0. 0.-1) 37. Equation: : = etp! -.t~ - J.z).
=
39. Equation : :! .r' + r~; roth n;~ppcs o f a right circular cone
with axi~ the : ·:tt is :tnd ' c rtc x at the o rig in.
45. T (O) = ( ,fj
3 . ,fj
3 . ,(!.
3 ) N(Ol= Ji Ji . )
. ( --
2 •-20 .u. The traces in ho rizonta l pla ne~ a rc cllip'c~ with centers on
the :·a ti< and scm iat e > 2 and I.
-ls 12r 3s -l.l The traces in the pla nes x = a are circ k s if tal < 2. single
47. x(s)=2+ - . y(s) = I- . ~(s ) = 3 + l3
13 13 poin ts if ta l "' 2. empty if Jal > 2.
-lJ
49• x (s ) =.>cos
, s.
5 y(.<) =3 sin 5. .f
<(.f ) = -
5
-15. lhe 1race in the pla ne x = a i> a pa rabo la opening upward
1\ith \'CrlCX at ( 11. (), ·111 2 ) .
51. Note that D,(v • v ) =0 (why?). -17. The tr:tces a rc ge ne rally parabola~; some open upward.
I some downward: ro ta te the surf;t cc of Fig. 12.7.22 around
SJ. =-
K(t)
It I the :-axis 45 · to >cc the surfncc .
55. y =3.r l - Rr 4 + 6x' 55. Elliptic paraboloid: : = 2u 2 + 4t•2•
57. Apprn~in13lcl)' 36.651 mils; 2-l.IJ(l m ils 57. llypcrhol ic paraho lnid; : = 5ul - 51' 2•
59. ,\rproxionntcly 0 .672 mil•: 0,(,02 rni/$ =
59. El lipt ical parabolo ttl:;: J·ht' + t 7v'.
6 1. About 7')5 below the ~u rface of the Earth 6 1. Hyperbolic paraholoid;;: J61)ul - 169vl. =
63. Approximate ly I h 42 min 2.588 s 63. H yrcrboluid of o ne shee t; _ , : + t•l + 2w2 = 5.
65. Be£,in with Eq. (-12). su bstitute Eqs. {37) and (41). 65. I lyp.:rbolic cylinder: -5u ' + 5,..: = 1·1.
67. Ellipt ic cy linde r: 2t·1 + 3,..: = 5.
69. E ll ip,o id : 3u 1 + 3t·2 + (,,..l 23. =
SECTION 12 .7 ( PAGE 837)

1. The plane "' ith intercepts x =


lj!. y = 10. and~= 2. SECTION 12.8 (PAGE 843)
3. C ircular C)'hndcr. radtu< :l, a ~ i< the :·n~i ...
I. (0. 1,2) 3. (-Ji.Ji.J)
5. A hyperllolic C) Iinder "'ith rulin~< parallcltn the : ·axi< and
mee ti n~t the .1 y·plnnc in the h)'perbola with equation x y =4 . 7. co. 0. 2)
5. (I. J3. -5)
7. EUtpttC paraboloid. a.xts the :·a xis. •·ertcx at the oricin.
opening upward. - 9. (-3.0. 0) 11. (o. - ,IJ. 1)
9. Circular pJtaboloid, axis the :-axi!l, vcrte~ a t (0. 0. 4). open·
Note ~hat a 8'~~~~ pomr tlo~s not lto \'r' Wll( /lh' cy fu ulrica/ or
ing d o "'n"' ard. sph~nctll Wt~rduwrt•J. lml~"'· rho,• me mji11ir~lr m am · a>rr~n
II. Circular pa rabolo id. axi< the z-u is. \'ettcx a t the origin. answu.<to l'ro~>lt·m 1.1 rhrt~u,~h 22. If " com1,,,,., pmcrammt'd
opcnmg up,..ard. t o unplr·m t'lll l:tf.~. (3) and (()I COII\'r' rt\' ,\ our'"""'''' 10 l'Otri"('/
13. Both nappes of a circular cone. :ui< the :-a~is. vertex at the rt•cmngular roordilwft•.t. your mawc•r ;, alnJtl.\1 rrnmnh· co,("('l.
o rigin. 13. Cylindrical: (0. u. 51: sphc ric.tl: (5. u. 01 ·
15. f'a rabolic cylinder pa rallel to the y-nxi"- opening upw:m.l.
Jo,.. cs t p01nts th~ on the line z., - 2. x = 0. 15. Cylindric:~!: (h.:rt-1.0); sphcric:tl: (Ji. :r{ 2.:rt 4)
17. Elliptica l cylinder pawllclto the t·nxi~.centerlinc the : ·axis.
19. Both nappes (I( nn ellipticnl cone. a.is the x-nxis. vertex at
17. Cylind rical: (Ji ..~t-1. 1); spht·ricnl: (.Jj. m., - t .Jj ~)
3 .4
the origin .
%1. Paraboloid openin g d o wn ward. am the nega tive z·axis, vcr· 19. Cylindrical : ( ../5, tan - 1 ( ~). -2):

n.
tcx at the o rigin .
:zJ. H yperbolic parnb<tlo id. S3dd lc point at the origin; to sec it.
execute the Mothrmorico 3.0 command sphe rical: (3. ('C)\ - I ( - tan · l (D)
Par. . .tri c~lotlO( { 2•Y•Y • zoz, y, z ),
{ y , - 1 , 1 ) , { &, - 1,1 II 21. Cylindrical: (S. arctan j. 12):
%!. H yperboloid of one sheet, axis the : ·axis. spherical : ( 13. aroin n.arctan j)
%7. Ellipt.i cal paraboloid. axis t he nonneg~tive y-axi.s. venex at 23. Cylinder. radtus 5. axis the :-axis
the oriJin. 25. The ver ttcal plane y = x
19. H ypcrbolo;d of two shee ts. axis the y-ui.s. oenter the origin. 'l7. The ci rcubr cone i ., 3x1 + 31 "' ith u i' the : ·u is and
intercepu (0. ±6. OJ. venex at the ongm

..
ANSWERS TO ODD.NUM BERED PROBLEMS A·57
,rr·pllOC . . . 19. The position vcclorr(t ) .. (- s in 1. co'il) traces I h e circle o f
!'I· 11t~ • od " ilh ccn1cr a l I he ongm and mlercepts
radius I \\ ilh ce nter (0. 0).
1JtC rlhp<O
)1. !' H. Ol. (0. :b f'~- 0). and (0. 0 . --'-2 )
21. T"o solu1ions: u "" 0.0333~ (aboul l 5-l'.t2") and a "= 0

1:1: ' •· ·lomkr. radou' 2. a xi< I he \'e rt icalli nc .r = 2. y = 0 1.2\11 156 (a bout 73'5R'.t(Y')
C1n;uiJr C) •
-'~; r~ ,., ('l.'n'-'-=
.. 011 oc circu br C) h ndc rs " n h common axis I he
.. 23. K(l) = ~ . 117( 1 ) = 2 , a.- ( l )== I
·~d
-'" ··3'<1' ... ~
radu I and 3 . 2$. lk gi n wil h the ob,crv:uion 1ha 1 v1 x •z is n o rmal 10 lhc
•, T"''. Ct•>ntl

'· · ·3'<1(
n" rucnl circular pa rabolood s, each wilh axi< lhc
" • '
•·cn cx al l he ongon : o ne opens upward. the o lhc r
pi.IIIC.
... 27. 3.r - Jy + z = I
j,," n•••HLI .\.\. I' = 2em~~
=
~- C)linJrocal: , : .._ ~: :!5: ~phcrical : I' = 5 ( I he same a< I he .\5. fl: = 2 CU> 2~,
. ~nrh C'f " = :::5l
.tJ. Minima l a t e very m tegral m ultiple of 11 , ma t ima! at C\'Cf)"
II. C•hnJncal: r c~/1 -'- ' <m il~ ~ =l :
odd inlcgra l multiple o f :r/ 2
1 ·hcric:~.l. p <on¢ co, fl-'- •""'<' ~m t1 + p co • ¢ = 1
r . . . I I
\ OlinJnal: , • .,. ~ = r C<"" - 'sm tl + :: 45. T = J:i1+.1 ( - :r. 2) . :-; = (- 2. - :r )
I! . •
= • . . II
srb<nC:I.I: p• I' <In ('I CO'<• ~ 1' ~In¢ Sin + f1 CO< ¢
:r l +4 J.~ l + -l
(t:"s k p llo caned ,. fr \lm l-oth sod~s <lf I he la<t equal io n). 15 5 ' 3 l
49. ) (x ) = -.r- - .t + - x
s
~. l hc rart of I he C) lmdc r <:'f radius.> and ccnl<' rlinc I he : ·a , is 8 -l
1r. 3t ltes !-< I~t ee n lhe piJ n<·s : = - I a nd : = 1
41• The r an of the sr hcric:ll surfJce of ra d ius 2 and cen1cr the SECTION 13.2 (PAGE 857)
0,;~in that lies 1-ct~t ecn the two ho rizonta l p lanes z = - I
•nd : = I I . l11c cnlire .ry·piJ nc
11. "De solid is round ed 3N)\c by Ihe plane : = 2. bclo~t by
3. 1loe cnlire .ry· plane cxccpl fo r i he origin (0. 0)
~~~ pl3n< : =
- ~. outsode t>y the C)"lindcr of radius 3 wi1h
5. All points of I he .ry·plane
~nt:rlmc the : ·J\1'. anJ on, ide by lhe C) Iinder of radius I
•1t~ c-entcrhne the :·3 ~1\. 7. A ll points o n a nd wilhin Ihe u ni l circle
! L "P.:t 1-'lid i<th~ rr~ion bcl\\ecn 1wo concemricsphcricalsur· 9. 111c entire .ry·p!Jnc
!1t:1 ~~!crcd 31 I he o rigin. one o f rndiu< 3 and I he Olhcr I I. "the region a l><n·c the >U3i[!hl h nc " " h cq u:uion y = .r
c: n~u.s 5. IJ. A ll points of the XJ ·plane no 1 o n ~llhcr coordinate atis
!~\ : = ,-: 1~. All po int< of lhc •>-plane no l on e ithe r slraighlline y = x
:E. L - ,.! - r · :; :. ' ../.! - r ! . 1 ~ r ~ 2,. 0~9 ~ 2rr: or ."= -x
b. sc:co ~~~;; ~ . .-r t} ~ o :: .l~ /3 . 0 ~ 0 & 2:r 17. , \ ll poinls in space Olher I ha n Ihe origin 10. 0. 0)
;7, A!-oct :'-'i~ l mo lal-out f> l ~\1 km ) 19. r\ ll poi111S of ~pace: strielly abo ve I he paroboloid ~ "' .r: + _,.:
!9. A !.ttl< It~< th3n J I mi tr,r, km) 21. ·n ,e ho rizontal pla ne 1hrou~h ((). !1. 101
=
2J. "llle pla ne with cq u:u ion ~ .r ~ r
61. 0 ~I'~ ,
1
f(. .._ 1r: . () :; 1< :; 2.-T. ¢ = arctan ( :;) 25. A corcul~r pa raboloid " ilh :.,; , the nonnej:aliw :·a' i"-
opc:n ing. upward. \ crlc x :olt hc m igin
U L !~:c,: ~· >;1=1•'- / .. :? + a1 - ~) 1 ; '!7. 1nc upper half o f 1hc: spheric.a l >Urfucc " ith rad ius 2 a nd
b. ( f -. D ,: - ~ :2 /f •
center (0. 0. 0)
c. =.::;;,,:-2¢ =p= - a~ - IF
29. The lowe r nappe nf a circular c one '' ll h 3 \:1' Ihe : ·:nis ;~nd
verlc, at (0. 0. 101
CHAPHR 12 MI SCEllANEOUS PROBLEMS 3 1. S uaoght hnc> of I he fo m1 • - v = c ("her<' c i< a oon~tanl )
(PAC.[ 84S)
JJ. Elhr-csccntcrcd Jl lhc mogi n ' "lh nujur 3 \ c s o n I he .r·a • i•
a nd mmur axe' un the y·a "< i'
L ... ~' M - AO... )"' 2~( AV - I~ + Mr + MQ) = AV. .l~. C"ur•cs wilh C<jUaliun' nf Ihe furm y
Cllll , IJ OI)
=1' .._ C (C i' a

!. .'>ot c that A ., ~ J P,j / i'Hj. 37. C orcle' cente red :11 the p111111 <2. Ill
7p ~ J'l, ( ·uc~,~ c~n tcr~·l nl lh~ mi1:in
' <r~:nti/IC cqUJIIOn~
4 1. C"onp ucnl cunol.ll p.u .ol-.•lui,h nil \\llh :1\i• thc : ·,. is and
1 - ':IC .; t .; + ~ .
" l -2t. ,1 • - ! +31, : c 2 - Jt . nil npc ninj! upward
'~-"!
· - ... r1c r q u111o ns
-1.1. Srhcoic.ol " ufart•< l'<'llle rr d .11 lhc I"IIIII (:!. 1. J l
-15. "J hc lc:•cl \Urf.orn ..r I nrc .- lhpl ll"JI C\hnd<r> r arallc l 1(1
.J - 1 ·· - l ~-2 t he :~311\ .md rcntr red Hn t tl\.• \ C II IC.t l hnc lh;at m<c:t\ lhe
T=J-=-:J· .r) -pl.onc 311hc I"'"" 12. I. Il l I he d hr-c on" hoch c 3ch such
' · r, '·- L~ ... arc r3 ra l!cl 10 u = (6 . 3. 2>·. lhC r l.lDC h3< C) hndcr mu h the t1· pl3nc h.l\ mJ)"r 3 \1< r a rallcl 1n Ihe
C..- ..._., cqu1uon 13x - ~) - 6~ = .!.J. ~- x· >ll\. monor "" p.ralld In I he '"''"''and 1hc majo r 3t h
ll
1!. }l- ' - .,. : .
I"S I\\ ICc lhc lc nglh o f I he nunur .1\o\.
3
~7. MJichcs Fig. 13.2J2

1........___ _ __
A-58 ANSWERS TO ODD-NUM BERED PROBLEMS

49. Almost matches Fig. 13.2.30 at = we• + e•, -at =u e•+ t'.. • and -at = e" + ve"'.
19. -
S1. Matches Fig. 13.2.28 au av aw
53. Matches Fig. 13.2.41 21. z,(x.y) = 2r-4y. z,cx.y)=-4.r+6y. z,,cx. y) = -4.
SS. Matches Fig. 13.2.42 z,.,(.r. y) = -4.
23. z,(.r. y) = 2xcxp(-/). z,(.r, y) = -2x yexp(-y2),
2
57. Matches Fig. 13.2.44
59. If a and b are not both zero, then the surface has one pit z,,(x. y) = --l.rycxp(-/). z,,(.r. y) = -4xycxp(-/).
and one peal.:. I
25. z.(x, y) = - - =~1 (x, y) and
61. Apparently t1 peaks and n pits alternate ly surround the x+y
origin. I
z, ,(.r. y) =- ( )'
x+y ·
=z ,(x. y).
1

J - JJ .
27. z,(.r. y) = -3··- • cosy. z1 (x. y) = -e sm y.
SECTION 13.3 (PAGE 866) 3
z, 1 (x. y) = 3e- 3' siny. Zp(x. y) = Je- ' sin y.

1. 7 3. t' s. -35 29. z, (.r. y) = 2x cosh ( ::) . z,(x. y) = - ~~ sinh ( : 2 ) .


3
7. 0
13. 1
9. I
15. -4
11. --
17. y;
2
X
z,1 (x. y) = - 4.r . ( yl
y smh I) . z,,(x. y) =- 4x .
yJ sm h(>.zI) .
19. ~-=; 2xy 21. 0 ... !3
.....,, 31. z=6x+8y-25
25. 0 JJ. Z = - 1
27. Docs not e~ist; it is also correct to indicate that the limit 35.z = 27.r - 12y-38
is +oo. 37. z= I -x + y
29. 0 39. ~ =IO.r- 16y - 9
31. All points (.r. y) such that y > -x 41. One answer: f (.r. )') =.r 21
33. All pointS (.t. y) such that xl + yl > 1 43. f, 1 (.r, y) = -2x sin xycosxy ;e -2ysin xycosxy =f ,(x. y).
1
35. Continuous at all points (x, y) other than (0. 0) 45. Ma tches Fig. 13.4. I 4
37. 0 39. 0 41. 0 47. Matches Fig. 13.4.13
43. Docs not c~ist 49. !\·l atches Fig. 13.4.15
45. Doc-s not exist St. f,,(.r. y)= tllfl.r'"- 1y" - 1 = J,, (x. y).
47. Does not exi5t 53. f.,(.r, y. Z) =/ie'".
49. Does not exist r., (X. y. ~) = r,.
(.r z) = (.ryi + z)e'''.
0 ) '.

SS. Continuous for all (.r. y) f,,(.r, )'. Z) = f:.o(X, )', Z) = ()' + .ry;::)e"'.
f,,(x, y. z> = J,.<x. y, Z) = (.r + x 2yzk'"·
SECTION 13.4 (PAGE 875)
=
[,(x. y, z> .r 2 it>"'.
f.,(x. y . z) = .r 2ye'".
f,,.(x. y , Z) = (I + 3.ry;:: + x: / i)<""'.
SS. 11, (.r. I)= - n 1 kexp( - n 1kl) sin n.t .
1
u,(x.l) = ncxp(-n kt)c:>sn.t. nnd
1
11.,(.r,t) = - n exp( - n 1kt)sinnt.
57. !'art (a): y,(.r, t) = acos(.t + 111),
y,(.r. t) = ros(.r + 111),
)'u(.r,l) = - 11 2 sin(.r + dl),
y., (.t. t) c - sin(.r + 111).
l'~rt (h): y,(:r, t) = -Jdsinh(J(.r - 11 t)).
y,(x, t ) = 3sinh (.1(r - til)),
y.,(.r,l) = IJ11 1 ~·"h {.l(.o - <II )),
y ., (.r,l) = 9cu•h(3(x- at)).
l':ort (c): y,(x.t)= - .l:nsinkt sinkm,
y, (X ,I)= k CO$ lu CO'! kill,
y.,(.r. I) = - lla 1 si n k.c CO'< knt
y., (.r . tJ = - II sin k.r cos kat. '
59. y,(x. t) = af'<:r +at)- ag'(x- at).
=
y.,(.r ,t ) a 1 /(.r +at)+ a 1/(C.r - at),
y,(.r ,I) = J'(x +at) + g'(.r - at),
y,.(x. t) = /(.r +at)+ g·cx- at).
ANSWERS TO 000-NUMBERLO I'ROBllMS A-59

SECTION 13.6 ( PAGE 895)

J. d.. :: .lcl.l-~dy .r d\·


\' tit-
!o. d..·=. . .
,It ... ..: ... _,~ .l' + )-

7. (I "'" =
u dr + ...,nh· ... "· d·
~ # ..........

.t: + ,~ + .:
. '
9. cl" = I:L'I~~cLr + .r~se.= •·:ch-- t\' SCc= \': tl~
II. J.,. = - .•·:t' "'dr- r:t-"'th - r;r.' "cl:
B. d ..·= 2u cxp( - r: ) du- 1Jlt• ~1p( _·,.:) tl r

1 ~. "" =Xdx + ~ d~· .,. : d :


17. 5.01~
\ l .t:+,,:
. _ ..: -
19. 0.0993
1 ~53
21. I }(X) "" 13.0.10769 l.\ 106
s£cnoNn .s ( P,\Gl 886) 25. 191.1 !7. lA
3.H
\. n.:r: 3~ n,, h••rirontJit.m~~nt pbncs. !9. 26 "" 12$01692 .\1. LOS

~ 10.1\ ~) ::.h
33. 2.5 35. 6 "' 13.0:,'9969
!. \~- - I. -5\
•. 1-~ l\ -~) \7 :\('( ~375:r J3
- • - l "' "'961.2.~101!\ ft1 • about 0 022008 acres
\ 1- :.CI. -;land 1-::. I . - 'l) 36
lh
ll 1-I. O. :~- 1 ). I I. 0. ~t- 1 ). and (0. 0. 0) ~9. 1920 "" 0.027l\16
L\ ~....... ~ !"'nti I. I. 1\ , -o
~I. 1!.5 -'3 ....) :t .. 303 77281 ~
H. r.-\:1~1~ his.h hi~hN roints (\. -I.:!) and { ' . I. 21 IJ
~. a. Let (c. y) - (0. 0) along theline• y .. x andy ,. 0:
r . ~...,.~t romtt:!. : . - 50)
b. you should ftnd that f, (0. 0) =0 = f, (0. 0).
1•. Ey~l~ I'"" lllv.~lf''ints ( -1. 2. -16) and(~ . -1. - 16)
:LHc£!l:SII''int \1. - ::. ~ ~
:>. -} 1.-:.l 3 !~. - I nnd ~ SECTION 13.7 {PAGE 904)
:"'. - I1:1J I !9. (12. ~- 3)
tl~,. ~
Jl !15. 5. ~, .l~. ( J1 . ./2. l) l. - = -(21 ~ l ) exp( -1' - I)
dt
!<. ('.::).) 1 37. 10" 10 x 10 in. d~· aK' 2 t)w
3. - =6t ro<l
dt
j •
!-. -
at = --
s + , = -at
l'l. ~ I[) b' 10 in.. hei~tbt 6 in.
!\. 8~~ a~J.top \ 5 '< ICl in_ (ron\ and b:lC\; 15 X 5 in.. Sides 7. -
a..· =0.-
a... =51
10..: S in. 3J Jt
Jr
U !lf: ,.;~~(in front).~ ft deep. 10 h hish 9. a:; = (y + ll exp(yz.,.. x: +.xy).
\1. ~ ar "'(.r + z) e:cp(y~ + .rz+.xy).
- and
~-
ay
,-
1
~-
-ar =(x + y)cxp(y: + x: + xy)
3:
11. Here we hl•c

,,,
-=
(2y+3=>Jt y' z' ( J xy'z' )
ax + 3:)' .- cos
2.t( % + 2y Jx + 1~· + Jz .

ar (.r + )' + 3:)~ ( ..r.H )


ay"' y(.r+2y+3z>'' cos ./.t+ly+3= . and

3r 3(x+2y~2:)~
3: .. 2.:(.t + ly + 3:>"'
A-60 ANSWERS TO ODD·NUMBERED PROBLEMS

13. The formulas arc SECTION 13.8 (PAGE 915)

-iJp at · ax at ay 3. (0. 0)
a, = -
ax a,- +-·
ay -.
a, 1. (3. - 7)
s. (0. 6. --l) 7. (1. I. I)
ap = at . ax + at . a,.. and
9. (2. -~. -2) 11. sJi
iltt ax av /Jy Ju J:l
~,m
-ap = -·-+
at ax -· at -a.v. JJ. I •.
~ - -20
13
ilw ax i)w ily OIV
I 19. - 6./2
15. Answer: 17. -6
ilp i.lt J rt at au at ihv
./iTo and (7.11)
-
a.r=3rt
- ·ax
- +- · - +()w- ·ilx.
~ I' ox
- 21 •

iJp
-iJy =-
at
.- + - . - +-
il u
. -;:- .
at a.. at ilw
and
2
23. - and (3. -l)
5
Ju ily il t· ay i) w iJy
2.5. 14 Ji and (3. 5. - 8)
Jp at i)u at ·-+
-a~ = -ilrt · -+-
il o• ilf ihv
-ilw ·-. 27. 2Jj:j and ( I. 2. 3)
a~ J ot a~ il~
29. 3.r + 4y = 25

= f'< w) · -aw
iJp i.l w
17. :- = f(w)· - .
ol,t il.r -ilp
ay ay
, Jl. 29.r - ·I )•= 70
J.l. + y + z= I
.r
ap
-a: = J'( w ) . -d:
a...
.
ap
-
a..·
= J'(w) • -tl u . and .W. U•c the fact thl t '17 (- t< P)) = - '17 t(l').
au
45. 1·1 dcglonin
iJp
- = /'(w) . - .
a... T
47. a. ' O ft: h. 13. in the direction (4. 3. 12)
<I t• Ju
49. u. 3.r+ 2y- W: = 4:
a- . t, J a~ ~~o
19. il.; = - ;1!3. ily =- y'!l b. approximately 0.44 (true value: 0.448)
51 . .r -2y + z+ 10=0
f:' Y +X)'..-''' + .v:e" + y:e' 1
21. -d~ = - :.._...:....:~_:..:;_:.;;___:_:..;;.;_ 55. Each such pyr3mid ha~ volume 4.5.
ax .r yr:..a + ,.. ,.
57. Heading approximately 36 52' 1 1.6"; up a t an nnglc of 45•
a: x=t'-" + ( :,_ + xu·-' 1
1

59. Heading approximately 203, 11'54.9"; up at an angle of ap-


a)' =- xy~u + ~lJ proxima tely 75' 17' 8.327"
a: r.r a: ely 61. a. Descending, angle ahout R• 2'58.1";
lJ. -
iJ.r
= --.-.
a·: d)' = -0:: b. descending. an~;:lc ahout 3' 37'56.7"
aw a...
2S. -
iJ.t
= 6.r~ -=6y
iJy
!7. ,\ nswcr: SECTION 13.9 (PAGE 924)

I. Ma., imum ../5, minimum - ../5


J. Maximum 4, minimum - 4
5. M3ximum 3, minimum - J
7•.•~o• maxtmum;
. . .
mtnamum -IR
7
9. !'lf;oximum 7, minimum - 7
and II. Maximum 20, minimum - 20
a... l<,V JJ• ,Max .unum ':!.
Ill mmomum
.. ()
i)y = J (x l + )~)l{l ( (.rl + y l) l!l + (,rl + yJ)IIl J . .. 25
3.r))
Is• Nu maxmtum; nummum -
3
+ 2 C.rl + ) .l)lr. ((.rl + yl) IIJ + (.rl + yl) lllJ 17. Max imum I + ./2. minimum I - ./2
19. (12. 16)
)
+x ln (l.rl + l>'fl + (.rJ + y)'',).
21. (12.4.3)
29. x + 2y + 2z = 9 z.t m.S.4>
31. z = . l - y
ZS. ( ./2. ../i. I)
33. -2880 in.J /h
261!' 27. Maximum: lHOOO
3!.T "" 16.3363 f tm1n
,, . 29. Minimum: 600 in.2
.ng at T
37. Oeaea1o 13 u mm. Jl. Slfi.OO
JJ. Front 15 in. ~·ide and Sin. high. depth 10 in.
57. It will brut.:. J!. Two closest points: (2. -2. I ) and (-2. 2. I)
ANSWERS TO ODD-N UM BERED PROBLEMS A-61

1 3) and (-2. - 3) 35. Local minimum at ( 1..532. 0) ( numbers with d ecima ls a re a p-


)~· (. . paint (L/5. ~ J5. - 4 + J3) · p roxim:ll ions). saddle point at (0.3.l7, 0). glo ba l m inimum
JJ, !!ig.heSt S at (- 1.879 . 0)
oint (-l J5.-! J5. - 4 - J3) 37'. Loca l ( inde ed. glo ba l) minimum at ( - 1.879. 1.879) (num·
lo" tst p s
bcrs with decimals are appro~imations). saddle poin t at
J.l. Cl v••
~·st point
(0.3-17. - 0.3-l7).1oca l minimum at (1.532. - 1..532)
(~[- s + 3J5 ]. t; [-s + 3J5]. H3- J5 ]). 3?. G lobal m inimum at (3.62.5. - 3.9S.l) ( numbers with d eci -
mals a rc a ppro xima tions) ~ nd at (3 .625 . 3 .9S.lJ, sadd le p oint
(lrthcst point
at (0, 0)
(- ~ [5+ 3J5 ]. - f.; [5+ 3J5J.l[3-'- J5 ]).
J,
7
~l3ximum area: l(3 - 2 J2 )1' ~ (0.1).l3)P 2
2
CHAPTER 13 MISCELLANEOUS PROBLEMS
st. (0A10245 . 0.3-178 10) (cooroinatc~ approximate ) (PAGE 936)
CJ, (4. 6)
~5. Closest ( - 0.60-1 . - 1.207. - 1.8 11). I. Yo u should obtai n r 2 sin: 0 co,z t1 - 0 as r - 0 .
·· farthest (2.60·1, 5.207. 7.R I I ) (coordinates approxi m3tc ) I .
3 · g (x. )')- 2 i g CO. 0) as ( r . y) - (0. 0 ) along t he hnc y =.r .
51. Closest point ( nJi3. f; Ji3 ). 5. f<x . y)= .r'>) + e'sin y .,. y+ C ("'he re Cis a n a r bitra ry
farthest point ( - nJi3. - f\ Ji3) constant).
7 . 11\c origin and points o n the circle formed by the in tc rscc·
59. ~Ji
~
tio n of the parabolo id a nd the ho r i1ontal plane ~ = J.
11 9. You should find tha t the no rma l to the co ne nt (a , 1'>. c)
6~ The minimum is (a:ll + h21l) '
(extended . if necessary) pa.sscs through the po int (0, 0 , :2c).
65. (7. ~3. - 21 )on t t and ( 12.41. -22l on L 1
I I. You sho uld lind tha t

SECTION 13.10 (PAGE 933)


13. Yo u should find that
1. !.De~ I (in !:let. global) mini m um a t (- I. 2)
r, X r, = (- f , (x . y). - f 1 (x. y ), 1) = V g (x , y , ~)
3. Saddle point at ( - j . -~)
5. !.Deal (in fact. global) m inim um at ( - 3. 4) where x< x. )'. ~) = t - /Cr . y ) .
7. l ocal maximum at (-I. - I ), saddle point at (0. 0) J:S. '!be base of the shipping c'" tc will be a ~quare 2 . J IIJ ~
2.8&144991~ feet on each side and the height of the crate
9. No exlrcma
will be 5 . 3 11l"' 7.21 1 2~78.5 fee t.
ll i.Dcal (in fact. globa l) minima at (-1. -1 ) a nd ( I. I ). saddle
17. The estimate of the erro r is 2 n.
point at (0. 0)
19. The maximum erro r will !'<: approxima tel y 3% .
1l Saddle point at (-1. l),local minimum a t (3. - 3)
2 I. The six points (±.l, 0. 0), CO. :!:2. 0). and (0. 0 . ± j} .
1!. local minimum a t ( - 5. 3). saddle p oi nt at (0. - 2)
2.3. Fir~! rename u. b . a nd r ( if nece ssary) so tha t a . h . c fo rms a
17, local (in fact j:IObal) maxima at ( -1. - 2) and (1 , 2). saddle
right-handed triple, a nd th us " x b = c. e tc.
point at CO. 0)
ZS. Eith er ( - ~. 3) or (~. - 3). 27. 1
19. Saddle point a t ( - 1. 0), local m inimum at (2. 0)
lL Saddle point at (0. 0), local (in f<~ct. globa l) maxima at 29. The global minimum va lue of / (x. y ) is 0 = / (0. 0 ).
H -'2. -l J2) and(l Ji. l J2) . local ( in fact, global) ·'·I. '!b e se miaxcs h:l\'c lengths I and 2.
3·3. The min im um Ol-curs when the triJngle is totally degcn e r·
minima at (i -'2. -j J2) and (-~ Ji. l Ji )
ate: Its three \'ertices arc all located a t the same poin·t of
ll Global minimum a 1 (0, 0) • the circumfe rence of t he ci rcle.
•c
~. Global maxi mum at (0. 0) 3~. 1l1c closest and fart he.st po ints a re ( respectively)
!7, Global minimum va lue 3 at (-I. -I ) a nd ( I. l i . no ex·
tremum at (0. 0)
29• The global maxim um value 900 occurs on the boundary of
o-16.~-16) a nd ( - ~-16. -~ -16).
the do main. 37. Let n be a fixed positi"e integer and let /(.r1• x 2 • .. .. x") =
)l If 1 andy are both eve n integers. then there is a saddle point x, + x1."' · · · + x•. ~hxi m ize this function subject to the
01 ( x, Y): if x and y are odd integers both of the form 4k +I constr:unt
or both of the form 4k + 3. then the re is a global maximum · g (Xt . X2, • · · , .t,.) = xr+ .t?+· · · +.\'~ -a:= 0
at (z . Y): if x and y are o dd integers one of which is of the
fo!ln 4k + I and the other of which is of the form 4k + 3. where a is a fixed but Otherwise tubitrary nonnegative re al
ll. then there is a global minimum at (x. y). number.
Exa.'lline the behavior of f (x. y) on lines of I he form J9, Maxim11m: I; minimum: - !
2
y"' ""'·
A-62 ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS

41. Theorem I of Section 13.10 yields these results: 61 17. 0


13. 3 15. 0
AtP(-1. - 1): A=6. 8=0. C=2. t-=12, 21. I 23. 2
19. 11'
/(P) =-I: Local minimum; 32 4
512 3
At Q(O. 0): A= 0. 8 = -3. C = 2. 6 = -9. %5-
• 21 -~7• -3 29.
/(Q) = 0: Saddle point;
AtR(-./3.0): A=O. 8=6. C=2. 6=-36. 31. 2 33. 8"
[( R) =
0: Saddle point; 35. Approximately 7.9517471897
AtS(./3.0) : A=O. 8=6. C=2. 6=-36. 37. 0 39. 0 4 1. 0 43. 0
f <Sl = 0: Saddle point; e- 2
At T(1. 1): A= 6. 8 = 0. C = 2. 6 = 12, 53. Midpoint approximation: 0.1 09696; exact value: - -
4
J<n =-I: Local minimum .
There are no global extrema (examine [(x. y) on the lines SECTION 14.3 (PAGE 959)
.1' = ±.t).
43. Saddle point at (0. O).local (not global) minimum at {2, 2) 1 32 5 5
t. 6 3. 3 .6
45. Local maximum at <J.
!>.saddle po int at (0. 1). local max·
imum at C\'cry point of the x·axis for which .r < 0 or x > 1. 32 II. 2
7. 3 9. 21n2
local minimum at every point of the .r -axis fo r which 0 <
.r < I , and no global extrema. I 41
47. Saddle point at (0. 0). global minimum at every point of the
13. u IS. 3 17. 60

~
hyperbola with equation .ry = In 2. and no other extrema. 4
19. i5 21. 23. 19
49. Saddle points at (- I. - I) and (1. I); no extrema.
51. The coefficients m and b arc the !generally] unique solutions 4
25. 3 27. 6 29. 24
of the equations
. . . 31. rr 33. i(32 - 12J3)
I
b I: +'"I: <x.>2 = L::
.r, .r,y, and
35. -abc
6
·-·. .·-· . ·-· 37.
2
3
Ll +ml:x,= L>l·
Jot lo
{,;;:::; J a2- .rl- y2 tly dx.
b
••• ,_, ••• 39. The volume is V = 8

SECTION 14.1 (PAGE 94S) 625;or 3 J3 + 2;or R 1


.u. - 2- 43. 6
1. L 198; b. 480 J. 8
I , 4(, 256
• 15
5. 88 7. 2"''
47. Approximately 3.5729749639
9. L~ M ~ U 11. 80
49. S;or
13. - 78 15. 128.25
51. IOB:r
17. -·U 19. I
~-I
53. The "hole ,·olumc~ is approximate I)· 26.7782.
1 1. -2- 2J.Z..-2

,.• + B:r ~1 I SECTION 14.4 ( PAGE 966)


%5. 4 - •
29. 21n 2 31. Both values: -32
I.J.t. lof' r tlr tiO"' rr 3
J. 2:r
1~ (9./3 - 8Ji + I)
o
JJ. Bo th values:
4rr - JJ:i
. 2:r-23./3
1'1'
5. 6 7
35. .r" y" d.r dy = I )2 .
o (n+I 9 l6;or
'3
J7. Note that 0 :i [(.r. y) ~ sin jll' =I if (.r. y) iu p<Jint of R. ;or In 2 16:T
13. 4 15. 5
SECTION 14.2 (PAGE 9S3) ;r
17. 4 (I - co~ 1) =>: 0.361046
5 J. ! I
I. 6 5 19. 2-T 21. 4Jr
2 ' 12
I
7. 20
I
9. - -
18
II.~
2
23. lt.[ z..Jaz -rltfrJO
ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS A-63

SECTION 14.6 ( PAGE 985)

l. 18 3. 128 ( ..!...
-· 60
z1. ~1 I
7. -- 9. 12 II. 6
.. ~,(2 _ J2 )a
1 6
.,. 3 13 128 15. 332 17. 256
,ustQtcd. the volume i.s If /2. If the equa tion of the lcmnis· '5 105 15
~I. e3te should be r 2 == 2 sm 2fl. then the \'Oiumc is :r /~.
37. 8.T 39. 241f 19 .!..!.
1
JS. 111a b ' 30

4(. ~(6-1 - 2~J3 )11'


J
128
21. Mass 5 : centroid (o 20 10
. 7. 7)
tl. JlclagonJI hole: 9.R30~ I (numbers with decimals arc ap-
pro>imo tions). Penta gon al hole: 9.0368fl. I lcptagnnal hole: 23. (o ~ . 1' 7 ~)
IOJ~7. 17-sidcd hole: 11.49809.

25• (o. 72~ -- 9,T 9:r. 9;r - 16)


72 - !/;!
SECTION 14.5 (PAGE 975) I
27. 1,=,8 29. I,= Jo

u
1. (2. 3) 3. (1, I)

~)
16 8
5. m: ~. M, = J' M, == j 7. 2' 5

9. (o. -n 11. (! !)
5' 5

9
I
37. I ,= -k
3
11 (o. ':) 15.
( t4' 14)
.u. 24:r

n. (o. ;D 19. (~2. ::)


8
45. (! ~ 12) 47. "=-32
-

zt (~7a)
12 ' 12 ll (o. 2n 4Q 1
5' 5' 5
-
St . rl= -
49
• :j 10
25. (~.
;r
::)
8 27. ( 0. ~: )
2lra" .-"
53. ; [6J3 - :r + 8:u csinh ( '7)-8ln 2+ 161n( l
4
+ ..!3)]
29. ( o. 36;r + 33,/j) 31. loa - -
32.'!' + 12J3 n+~ ~ 0.960592
I
ll 4 : i;rk 35. I~=
9 SECTION 14.7 (PAGE 993)
~ Ji05.
37. r: 21 y=-\rs5 39. x =}=..!..a&
3 10 J. s...
4l (~- ~)
3,, J,,.
43. C' 2r)
-. -
:r If 3. V= 2 Jo Jo Jo
t· r r..j;'O rd~drdO
St L Centroid (o. 4a' 3:ra
+ 3:rab + 6/});
+ 12!>
5. ~;(s - 3..13) 7. ~~ra'hl

b. volu :ra 9. I,= ~~ ...a'hl J 1• Sl:r


-2-: (0. 0. 3)
me 3 · (~a 2 + 3:rab + 6/J)
Sl I I
.. "iim(a' +If)
13. 2~1T I S. i (SJ'i- 7)
_ I 'h : , I
- '"l) t484
f< r.
-k 17• I •- 126:ra (3a + ~~~ ) = 'iim(3Jz +~ill)
3
S7, Mau
:r • et-ntroid
(
0. ~ ) 19.
IT
3 21. (o. o. ~a)
1"1''1"'*
1
• ~la11 If2 · centroid
59
(
~ • ..:_ ) ZJ. V = P
2
sin rJ> tip tl¢ cl8 = ~
~ J .T 0 0 0 3
A-64 ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBLEMS

25. m= j(2-J2)al; i = y=O. Z= ;~(2+J2 )a s. x = 11 ; 11


, y= ± ../u -
2
v (choose the sign so that Y ~ 0 );
the Jncobian is
28 s 7 ,
27. I,=
15
:t6a = s"u''
29. This "pinched to rus" has \'Oiume V =2:rlal.
2-./2
2
31. I,= IS (128 - St J3);r6a 1 ~
7. s 9. ln2 II.
8

33. Mass
37 4
l!a ; x
-
=-y =0. 13. 3~;r 15. 8
48
4
37. (a) J:t( l - exp (-aJ)J 17. first usc the suhstitution x =11 + t•. y = 11- v. The value of
the integral is
3
39. il =4(1 2
•T (1 - .!..) J3::::; 3.4469') J.
3 eJ
j j o(x~ + y
l l•J.-or Jp-or'
2
41. I, = ) d A where d A = a 2 sin¢ d¢ dO
s 21. f, = (p 2 sin 1 ¢)(a1 cos
2
0
3768 -o
45. -1-1 :T + b2 sin1 0)oalxp 1 sin¢ dp dr!>t/0
49. x::::: 2. 7~~9 x 106 (meters): mantle th ickness: abou t 3606 k m ,
• 3· (.r.-')-
_ ., _ ( nJJ - 40..16
151n2 ·
6..16 -
ln2
sJJ)
SECTION 14.8 (PAGE 1000)
25. / 1 =~ M (112 + 1>2); the other moments follow by symme try.
I. 6:rJTI 3. ~ ( 17Jt7 - 1) 27. 2.300261!52
S. 3J2 ... ~1n (3+2Ji) 7. 3Ji4
CHAPTER 14 MISCEllANEOUS PROBLEMS

., .
2:r (2d-l
;; ) II. : _6 (65./65- I) (PAGE 1010)
9. T
1-1 1 J.''
1

13. .r1 = a d zd9 IS. 8a 2 I. I


~tlytlx= 2-
-- ./2
.<l y:O vI + x· 3

:.1>. 1! - l
"'2c"" "• - I
23. A=
1 0 0
r dz d9 3.
~
3
5.--
ol
9
25. a. 4 + 7
3arcsinh
(2,/5)
- -
5
- I (4) 7
3 arctan .3 + 6 In 5:
7. 9. 9:r: ( 0, 0. 16)
II. 4:r IJ. 4.T

b. -2../5
- + 5./2 . (T
- -arcsmh
3
./6) I
- (;arctan ( 72- 25,/5)
71
15. :T -
16
2
l7. 12S
15 .
(32 )
7. 0
3
21. i' = ~ '
1
19. k:r; (1.0)
- -I arctan ( 72- 25,/5) + :;_I arct:m (25,/5 "- 72 ) . 3:T

(o. D
6 N n 2~
2.'. 25. IO:r (Js - 2)
(25,/5- 72) ~
+iSI arctan 71 3
27/
• I= J() !1 fit '.
17. a. A pproximatdy 5.123 157: b. approximately 2.302311
29. E lliptic paraboloid 2••'· f • =iS"")(',.
4 I (/ , ' 1 '
+c-)=-s"'or ,
+•>
31. H yperboloid of two shcc:t.s
33. Appro ximatelr 111 .545775

SECTION 14.9 (PAGE 1007)

u+" u - v il(.r. y) I
l • .r =-2- , y = - 2-; iJ(II,V) =- 2
37. 'il = - 11
:ra o o
J.•J.lM"•• r drd(J 1

3. Two 50iution,: z =± (ufv ) n , y o: ±(uv)sn (dloosethePm.e


1

sign): the Jacobilln is l /(211) in each case.

...
ANSWERS TO ODD·NUMBERED PROBLEMS A-65
Jl l)sc I he spheres p = 2 cos¢ and p = 4 cos </>.
J; ~(3757 -J7v'i7 ) 47. 4:- 15.V · F =3.V x F=O
17. V· F= O.V x f'=O
53. rr abc 19. v. f = x 2 + / + i. v x F = (- 2y<:. -2rz. - 2xy)
15
21. V · f'= O. V x F = (2y- 2z. 2z - 2r. 2.r - 2y)
23. V · f = 3. V x f = (x cosxy- xcos.rz. y cosyz - y cos .ry.
SECTION 15.1 (PAGE 1018) ~cosxz - zcosyz)
35. See I he answer to Proble m 15.
I. 3. 37. Usc the results in Pro blems 2.8 and 35.

1 I I ~
""""
/ / / 41. Usc I he res ulls in Problems 28, 35. a nd 39.

1 I I ~ / / / /I I
\ \
//I
\ ' -
SECTION 15 .2 (PAGE 1028)

310 2-18

-' -
I.

5.
3 . 3 . and 62
49 4
3. 3 J2 and 3
6

"
and ) 5
"'-. \ I / / 24 7.
I I / / / / \ \ I I/ 9. 315 19
1l. 60
13. JT (I + 2JT ) 15. 28
7.
/ / /
17•
l 4./i4 - I
(, 19. (o.~ )
2 1. l\!Jss IOk:r; centro id (0. 0, 4JT )
/ / /
I kal ; ce nl roid ( 2 a. 2 a. 0 ) : I, = 1 = 2I "UI';
23. Mass 2 ,
/ / / 3 3
1

/o =mal
, /, ./, ./ .

/ / /
25. /0 = 3k= ~~~~where m is I he mass o f the wire
2
4a
/ / / 27. -
JT
/ / / 1 J:3 -13
29. 2 + 12 arctanhT "'=< 0.690086
I
31. 2
9.

"'\ \
"'-.'\\
)'

I//
I I/
,..._
11.
2

I
\
'- '' ~
" .... .-
_,. ,..../
- ,.. , I
, ; I I
33. a.
1
2kln 2:
.
b. -

37. Note I hat r is normal to the sphere.


I
2
kln2

1 0
\
'
\

,

.. .. • I I
39. 15000 ft ·lb
41. 20000 ft·lb
• ' 1
,_ I I
. ' ' ''
//j ,,,
' I
2
j /
I I

t/.L_ _. -
;
~'_,..

,.. ....,,',.
'
\
SECTI ON 15.3 (PAGE 1036)
/It \ \" -2 -· 0X l
I. ~~(.r. y) = x 2 + 3.~y + )'2
3. ¢( .r . y ) = .rJ + Zx y + 2r'
13. 5. Not conse rvative
I , I l
''
'- '
\
\ I
I I /
t I / /
7. -' (.r , v) = - x + )•ln.r +- 1•
"
9. ~ (x. y}
.
=
4 3.
sin x + .r In y + e'
o..s ~~... .... ' ~ ' " , ....., I I. Not conservat ive
r
' ol- -. . . - - 13. ¢(x. y} =.r·' y"' + .ry' + s>"
I '
t- - - . . . - -
-~:r:
'.( 1 1
: ; ::::: l\\'..1
15. ¢(x. y )

17. ¢(.r. y) = .rl + 2xy 2


= -
xl

)'
+ 2../Y + )
y
X
+ 2)'l
·I - 0.5 0 0.~ I 19. ¢ (x. y)= xll+ x y• + I _r
• 5
A-66 ANSWERS TO ODD-NUM BERED PROBLEMS

SECTION 15.6 (PAGE 1063)


21. 6 23. !I'
25. - Jr "7 "'( x. y. z)= xyz
- · ., I. iff R
V·t' d l' = 4Jr = J!l'·ndS
S
29. ¢(x . y. : l =xycosz - yzl"' I
37. IV= S.O#U x 1010 N·m 3. 2~ s. 2
I
7. ~ 9. 4
SECTION 15.4 (PAGE 1045)
2
703125;r 13. 16;,-
I I. ~
3
1. 0 3. 3 5. 482620 + 29-103 In II
10
23. 48 ;r
7. 2 9. 0 II • ~
105

SECTION 15. 7 (PAGE 1070)

1. - 20.7 3. ()
- 3;,- 19. 972
1!>. -
s
17. 30;,-
5 s. -52,7 7. - 8.'T
3 9. - 2
21. 301f 23. 45 33.
2 II. ¢(.r . y. z)= 3.ry - 2.rz+ y:
13. ¢ (x. y. z) = 3xe' + 17z + 5ycos x

CHAPTER 15 M ISCEllANEOU S PROBLEMS


SECTION 15.5 (PAGE 1055)
( PAGE 1072)

I 125 s. 2 1 ~8
·T 5
7. 1-i rst assume (hy way of contratliction) that there e.t ists 3
3. 27;,- ,fj:i
functio n <f> (x . y) suc h th3 t V ¢ = (.r~y . .ri).
s. ~ ( - l + t 7 ..fi7) sJS - t soJS + 2
9. m= 3 ; ly = 15
81 9
7. :.8J3 = i'" whe re m is the mass o f S 2St6
II. -7-
2
10 6 = 5
9. -:. . the m3ss o f
-m where mts s 13. Both integrals a rc zero.
3 6 1.5. Begin with the obsc r\'ation tha t ( P. Ql =V ¢ fo r some d if·
520 26 . feren tiable functio n ¢ .
11. T;,- 6 =)'"where m ts the mass o f S
13. 36;,- IS. 2-b
17 371;,- 19. 60.T + 12.-. = n.-.
. 30
17. 0 19. 6 r d¢
23. 1458;r 29. •- - 1/>'(r ); b. 3¢(r) + r - ; c. O
21. 0 r ,/r

"C
I
-a -I a -a
1 )
...,. ( 2' 2 '2 APPENDIX A ( PAGE A·5)
21. x=O=.Y· I
(24a' + 2a1 - I JJi+4ii! + I. I. 14 3. 2
t= 10[11 + 4al)l11 - 1] •
s. 25 7. 27

I,= ~Jr& ((24a' +2a -1J~ 1


+ 1] 9.
22
T - :r (because :r < •,.1• )
11. 3 - x 13. ( - oc, 2)
29 ( - 4 . 0 .:rr - ) IS. (7, + oo) 17. ( - ~ · +oo)
• 3Jr - 6 2:r - 4
19. ( - 4. )) 21. 0-¥]
460..1i7 + 13 arcsinh 4 25. ( -oc. \) u ( I. +ocl
31. 48 23. (- 1,4)

35. - 172S:r 1.1. [o. j] u [t. ~] 29. n. m


37. /,=> 5157.168115 31. (-oo. !) u 0· +oo)
39. I,"' 98S46.934874
ANSWERS TO ODD-NUMBERED PROBUMS A-67

13. If x = J::r • then the, alues of the six trigonometrid unttio ns


6
are given in the follo-..i n!! table.

tan r sec x cse x cot x


sinx COS X

I ./j ./3 2.,/j ..fj


-2
2 2 3 3
OIX B (PAGE A -12)
,lPPEN
:::.---
"' , lie on one line. 15. x = n:r ,. here r. is an intei!cr
1 1,.c) •
• d not lie on one 1me.
). llttY 0 • I
17. x = 2n.'1 - I -..here n is a n intege r
. •rallclogram •~ a rectangle.
~nus p.. 19. x =2r..-= ,. here n is 3n intei!a
;, (tight angle at A 21. x =r-'! "' here n is an integer
'·Slope j. y-interccpt 0 2J :r . .
• x = n::r - -J "'here n IS an mte.:er
Jl. Slope 2. y-intcrccpt 3 ~ •

Slope - j. y-interccpt 1 25. The rcsulu arc in the ne' t t:tble.


11
17. y = lr -7
~~ y= -5 cscx C'Ol .f
21. 2.r + y=1 sin .r cos x tan .r scc.r
19. y:6- .r
4 J 3 5 5 4
25. i3 ./26 J
1.\ 2y=l3-.r - j
5 5 J J 3
))-)'1
)I. p1M and M~have the sa me slope - -.
X1- X2
I I
!25f + 57461 29. - 31. - i JJ ./3
2 • 2
ll. K= 225
II 7 rr 2:r
1.1.. 1136 gav..It 37. X= - -:i· )' = 2 35. -.;; .&J. )• 3 .. :!.
4" 2
37 I 22 I ~ 3;r 5n 7rr
l9. .r=6· y=-2 4 1. x = 5' y=-s 47
'IS' S 'll' 8
1!1 7 33 119 19
U.r=-:j· y = S 45. x =
12 . y=-'4 APPENDI X D ( PAGE A·23)

1. Given t > 0, let .S = t .


APPENDIX C (PAGE A-17)
J. Given t > 0. kt cS = t .
2 7 5 !'. Gi,·e n f > 0. lett. be the mi nimum of I and l /3.
I. 9" (rad) 3. n (md) 5. -
6n (rad)
4 7. Given t > 0. let cS be the minimum of I and t /6.
7. 72' 9. 675• 9. Consider th ree c:tscs: a > 0, a < 0. nnd tl = 0.
13. Consider t"' o cases: /. > 0 and L < 0.
IL ~X= -=j.
then the values or the six trigonometric rune· 15. Gi,·en a > 0 and f > 0. let 6 be the minimum o f n /2 and
liOns are given in the following table. (../IQ.

sinx cosx tanx secx csc x cot x APPENDIX G ( PAGE A -36)


2J3 J3
--2 I
2
- JJ 2 - -3- 3 I. J
1
J• ~3 s. -2I 7. 9
52
REFEREN CES FOR
FURTHE R STUDY

References 2. 3. 7. and 10 may be consulted for historical topics pertinent to calculus.


Reference 14 provides a more th eoretical treatm ent o f single-variable calculus topics
than ours. Refe rences -1. 5. R. a nd 15 include ad va nced topics in multivariahlc calcu-
lus. Rdcrcnce II is a standa rd work on infinite se ries. Refe rences I, 9, and 13 are
differential equations textbooks. Reference (> d iscusses topi cs in calculus together
with co mputing and progra mming in BASIC. Th ose who would like to pursue the
topic of fract al~ should look at reference 12.

I . Boyce. Wolli3m E. and Rich>rd C Dil'rima . Elt·mentury Diffam· 9. Ed ..·ards. C H.. Jr. and David E. Penney. Diffatmial £qrw-
rwl Equations (Sth ed.) . New Ymk : John Wiley. t99 t. tioru "''itlr /Joundary Valut Prob/tnu · Compw;n~ and ,\·!odt'ling
(2nd ed.). Up per Saddle River. NJ: l'renuee Ha ll. 2000.
2- Boyer. C.rl B . A f/i.<tr>ry of .\ fathrmntiN (2nd cd.). New York:
Jo hn \\llcy. I'I'l l. 10. Kline. M orri". J\·farhonntical 71w ught from An(irnt to .\fO<Itrn
Times. \'o l"- I. II. and Ill. Kcw York : Odord Uni•·enity Press.
3. Boyer. Carl B.. 71~< lfistory of tilt Ct~lmlus and lu Corruprual
Dr,rlopm~r.t. ~e:w York: Do,•cr Publication<. 1959. t972.
1!. Knopp. Konrad. Tlr<o ry and Application of Jnfinitt SaitJ
4. Bu<k, R. Creigh to n. Ad•·anud Calculus (3rd cd.). New York:
(2nd ed.). l"ew York: lbfncr l'r<\S. 1990.
!'olcGraw-llill, 1977,
12. Pcitgcn. 11.·0. and I~ II . Richter. 77re Btamy of FnuraU. Sew
S. Courant, R1chlrd and Fritz Jo hn. /ntro dm:non 10 Calcu/u.t and
York : Sp ri n~er - Verbg , 1986.
,A.naf..-su. \'ot.. l and !!. New York : Springer-Verlag. 19S2.
13. Simmons. George E .. D•ffem rt:al Equations wult Applications
6. Ed..,.·ards. C H.. Jr.. Calculus ami tlu Pt'rso,wl Complltt r
and 1/u toricai.Vous l"cw York: !'otcGraw-Hill. 1972.
Engle .. ood O •!fs. :"J: Pr<ntiee-Hall. t986.
14. Spi,·ak. !'otichad E .. Cakulru (2nd ed.). Berkelev: Publish or
7. Ed"' ards. C H .. Jr .. Tlrt 1/istorical Devt lopmrnt oftht Calwlu.s.
Perish. 19$0. ·
:->e"' Yo rk: S;>ringer-Verlag. 1979.
t5. Taylor. Angus E. and \\'. Robert Mann. A cl>·ana •l Calc11I11S
8. Ed.,.ards. C. II .. Jr.. Ad•·anctd CalculuJ of S<>•tral Variable<. New
(3rd ed.). ~ew York: John \\l!cy. 1983.
Yo rk : A cademic Press. 1973.

A-68
.2 }•"t!u• -n +I1- u".r +C if n"-1

~ fa" t!u = .E::._


ba
+C /i Json II du "' • ('(K II +C

*' ....-':1·~'" u .. c
8 f stc:udu•Unu + C 10 J 1« u l>n udu• ~c u + C
1
f :O'

f . ,'A utfus -esc u + C


12 J ra.o u du =lnt<ec •I + C I J J ror u du =-In lese ul + C
II ""' • •

«< • J •· •lnJ«C • + <>nul • C


1.5 Jcsc u du = -ln~sc u +roc llj + C 16 J
- tfu
- - = sm· 1 -u + C
,Ia:- ,.,: a
I~
J
I
I 7 :l•wl
~.
~--un
a
I ·I U
a
-+
C I ll f - = - II n - -01•C
- Ju
al- 111 2D u-a
t• 19 Jwiu·-~~~ gl
=~=-~/~/ · c

TRIC.O~O,\IETR IC FORMS · ' uJu = -I u - -1''"


20 f sm·
2 ~
. 2u + C 21 Jr.x 1 u du = !,
2
+! sin :Z.I+ C
~

2J Jcot~ u clu, -cot u - u + C 2-l J <in 1 • Ju • - 5(2 • sin 1


u)oos u +C

!.1 J""' o d• • ~fl + cos1 u)sin u + C 26 Jun 1


u Ju= ~an2 • + lnlro> ul +C 27 JcOt1 • du • - 4cOt1 u- In !sin ul • C
lS J...: •4• • ~sec• ton u+ I lnlsec u+ tnn ul+ C
1
2? Jc><:l u tlu • - ~c>< u cot u • ~In I<>< u - cot •I + C

Jll JSlnov 11n "
b d
"=sinCa-b)u
2(a _b ) -
sin(a + b),.
~(n +b) +
C ·r , b'
1 a· s ..
,
•1
J L
cO<Inuco<ttu~u•
, sin(o -b)ll sin(o-+b)u C If , b 2
l(a-b) + 2Ca + b ) + a·•

J! Ju••• rosIN d• = - cos(a-


~Co b)
blu - cos(o + b)u + C
! (a • b)
if a 1 • li

.lJ J. . udu • -~sin"- 1 u cos u + n:


1
Jsin•·l u du
1
35 rtlllf' u.d"a-L.tan"' - 1 u- rt3n•-l , du if ntt l
J' n- I J' 31i Jcoc• u du • -n-1
--coc•-• u -f coc.. -1 uJu jf n -. 1

37
- 1- S«"' - 2 111.1n"' • !.:l
f\c'C"'"J"• n-1 n-1
f kC'"- 2udu if n •l

l.! f«c' d:. =-• ~ I esc"· u


0 1
COt u+: =; Jc..c" · l u du if n • I

J9a J~rr- • cO\"' ., d u=-- sirt' - 1

n +m
., CO!.... • ' u n- I
+ --
"+m
J. .,
sm" ·u c0\"" 11du

l9b J.,.. •""'"' • d• • - sin" • n • m I • c<>IM . I • m - I


~ ;;-:;-;;;
J, -
)In" II Ceh""
2
II tfu if m-. - ,,

~ J•~n .
II d 4 • 'ID I I - U COS U +C

TA-1
(Table of lnt('!!rals continues rnnn previous page)

FORI\IS ll'VOI.VI:'II(; J,: ± a l

(a + Jul + a2)
41i
J ,lwl + al
--.,- d11 =~r::;-:-:;
.,z + a2 -a In 11 +C

~(2111 ± alJVwl ± a2- ~ lnlu+ .'u2 ± a 2l+ C


J
J~~l- al 11
-18 J u2 Ju1 ± 0 1 du .
.&7 - - - du= ·.'u2-a2 -asec- 1 - •C
11 a

50 f d11
11 2 •./ul ±0 2
= ;Ju2±a2+ C
2
a u

52 f t ill
(ul i a l ).ll2
:: ± ,,
a' Jill± a1
+ c

f'ORJ\IS 1~\'0LV I:-\G J.,:- ,:

S~
_ J --.,-du
Ja: _ .,: = va•
,..-:--;
-u'"' -a In
I"+ Jal-wll
u +C

~9
f Ja: _ .,: Jal-u1 w
- -- dw =-- ---sin- 1 - +C
ul u a
60 f ""
u ~al- u!
=-~lnJ"•
a
~~
u
+C

F.XPO-.;t::"TIAI. A I'll I.OC:ARITII~II C FORMS li.~ J.... dll .. (• - l)e" ... c

65 J ln • du = • In u - u + C

67 fr'• sinbudu ..
01~"b1 (a sin bu- bcosbu) +C

f•'l J•in· 1 u du • u sin"1 u + J1- u: + C


IN\'ERSE TIHGONU~IETRIC FOK\IS

70 JWl· l II cfl, • II WI· I U- ~ In (I + u 1


) + C 71 Jsec· I u du =u sec· I u -In~ + .r.:;i':lj. c

72 Ju sin" 1 u du s l1m:- I) 1
sin" u + ~ .[J""::;i + C 7.1 Ju~an· 1 udu • 2! (u1 + 1 )1an· 1 w-!!+C
2

J. -·•udJI•~=·•u-~Ju1-l Ju" sin"1 u du • u"+•1sin· • u - n-•1 -I J~


1
7-1 +C
75
11 J _ .,: du j( " --I
1

scc·l u- -1 -J~ du
n+l w·• ,.,-J"" •
Jrt" w-l "tl»• .1' •
1 1 1 77 Ju" s<c"1 udu• ,.., n + I .r,:;i:l
i( " • -I
76 , .... u- - , tlu " + I

-
TA-2
ALGEBRA Binomial t ·omwla
(.r+>i=x1+2.ty+),l
Quadntic Formula
(.r + yr' =..-J + 3..-ly + 3.rl + r .
The wlution. of th<: qu>dratic r<Jilltion (.r + y)' =.r• + .t.-Jy + 6.r2y2 + 4.r yl + J
=
a.rl + b.r + c 0 are givrn by
In gencr.>J. (.r + yY' =.r• + (~).r • - 1y + ( ~).r• - 2?
F•ctorb l n olation
" ) • - tl.l
+ .. · + ( 1 .r · + ... + ( n -1
n )xy• - I+ y•.

For e3ch positive intrger n. ") is the integel m'(n-


n! m)! .
"here the b inomial roc:fficient ( m
n!=r.Cn-l )(n -2) ... 3·2·1:
by defioi1ion. 0! = I.
ractoring
Radicals
t f n i~ a posith·c integer. then 2 3 2
.r• - y• =(.r - v)(.c" - I + .r• - y + .r•- >' - ...
.. .r, ·_ t - 1\ .• + . .. +.ry•-2 + y" - 1).
• :xJKmt·nt' '
(ah )' = a' b' a'a' = a' • ' ~"'~'~~=-
I tr r. i~ an odd positi\"C intrgc:r. thenJ l - 2 , - J .2 _ .•.
~ e a'-•
•• .r• + )'" : (.f + v)(.r" - 1 - x ,\ + .r' )
(a')' = a"
a' t.·- - )' . ...
. I I IT -.ry • - 1 +y.• - I).

GEOMETRY
Ui,hm<t'· t"nrmula'i Rectangle an:n: r-1
_ It

Dis.tnncc o n the real number hoe:


A= bh L_____j
> - -d - . . b
d e Jn - bi
a b
Dist:mce in the cOOfdin:ue plane:
=l (.rl - .rl): .. ( y l - ) 'l )l rPkrv
u
tl bz Circre 3rc3:
Trnrcw id area~
........-· cxi·Yil b 1 + bz h .:
=
A "' 2
F:tlUOllion5 or I Jn('S und Cirrle~ A= - 2 - Circumrcrencc:
bl C= 2nr

Slopc-intcrttpt equotion:
y = m.r + b

'""'"~'~@
Cylinder \'Oiume: _t,. _
• 3 V = rrr 2h
V= 1 nr ~--:-z..--1:
-~ Curved A

~
Surf:u:e .;s-rea:
Point·slorc rquation: surf:~cc
area:
y-y 1 =m(.r-x 1)
A = 41'1'r•
A =2rtrlr ...
......
-----_...
' >o

Circle with C<'nter (h. k) and Cone volume:


radius r : V=fnr 2h
(.r- hr' + (y- ·•>'-=r-'
Curvrtl surface area:
A = nr¥r 2 +h 2

TRIGO NOMETRY cos(A + 8) - cos ,\ cos 8 - sin A sin 8


sinl A +cos:A = 1 ( lhefunda-ntal identity) cos(A - 8) = cos A cos 8 + sin.<\ sin 8
1an:A + I = seelA sin(A +B)= sin A cos B .. cos A sin 8
sin(ll -B)= sin A cos 8- cos A sin 8
cos 2A = cos2A- sin2A = I - 2 sinlA ~ 2cos2A- I
sin :z.~ = 2 sin A cos A sinlA= 1-cos2A
2
See !he Appendices for mon: reference fonnulas.
POLAR COORDINATES AND
PARAMET RIC CURVES

P icrre d e Fe rmat ex·


cm pl ific~ t h.- d J\ IIIl -
J:Ui~lu:d tr:Hhtion of
g re:11 nmatcurs '" m.l thc-
the Ch apt er I C>rt:nin)l). Fermat concentrat ed on the
in' c~t l~illion of ):COm c tri.: <·un·es defined hy a lgebraic
cqu.llion\. For m~t ancc. h<' in trndurcd the translation
method< of th i' chapte r t~>):l·t lwr with rt>tation me th-
mn t iel;. l.il.. c II•~ contcm· ll<l\ to ~how t h.!l th e 11 raph nf an e quatio n of th e l"nrm
p11rary l{c nc D e~cnlle~ At : 1 /In·~ (\.: + /h t- 1:1' t F = lli~!!<'nc rally aconic
he wn' c lluca h.~d ,,, a 1 ~1\\ . <c<.:uon. :-.t.•'l nr hi~ matla: m.lli.:a t wurk rc maim:d unpuh·
ycr. llut unlike I h-•cnrtc<. h<h cd du rin~t lu< tikt imc . hut it C<Hltain ~ numerou' ta n ·
Fermat acllla ll y p1act kcd !(C III lmc (deri vative) and nrea (in t<·gr:ll) comput:ll inns.
law as hi> profc"ion am i 'll1 c hntti~ ntly c:••lmnl lcfl ·h:uul p ho tograph is n
~er ved in the •q :ionnl p;u . twent1 c I h-ccntury example of a gcomcll ic <>l>jcct deli ned
liament. II i, ample lei<IHC hy m ea ns of al~:c hrnic orcr atiuns. S tart ing w ith the point
PienedcFernMt(1601 - 166S) tim e was. IH>wevl' r. tkvntcd /'(a . />) in the .ry-pl:lne, we interpret /'a~ the complex
t o mnthem:llics and to other nu mber c = a + l•i antltlc linc th e seq ue nce 1~,.) of points
intellectual pursuits. s uch a s the study of ancient Greek of the com plex pl.1nc ite rat ive ly ( ns in Section 3.8) by the
manuscripts. equations
In a margin of one such m :muscr ipt (hy the Greek •
~ = r. <o.Jtt-1 -_ .....l
, +c (for n ~ 0).
mathematician Diophantu~) was found a handwrint·n
note that has rcmainl·d an cni!!ma ever since. Ferm:ll as· If this seque nce of poi nts re main\ inside the circle x 2 +
serts that for no integer n > 2 do ptlsitivc intege rs x. y, y~ = 4 fnr all11. the n the original point l'(a.ll) is colored
and ;:: exist such that xn + \" = ;::n. For instance, although black . Othe rwi$l', the colnr a~signed to/' is determined by
15~ + !)~ = J7Z, the sum t;f two ( positive integer) cubes the sp eed with which this se quence "escapes" that circu-
c:tnnot be a cube. "I have fo und a n :ulmirahlc proof of lar di sk . ·n,c set of all bl ack points is the famous Mtmt/t•/-
this." Fermat wrote, "but this margin is too narrow to con· lm>t srt, discovered in 1980 by the French mathematician
lain it." Despit e the publication of many incorrc•·t proofs. Benoit Mandclbrot.
MFermat's last theorem" remained unproved fnr thrr<!
and one-half centuries. But in a June 19<JJ lect ure, the
British mathematician Andrew Wiles of Prince ton Uni·
vcrsitv announced a ton~ and complex proof uf Fe rmat's
last theorem. Although ·the proof a s originally proposed
contained some gaps. these hll\'e been repaired_. and c~­
perts in the fi eld ngree that Fermat's last conJt'CIItrl' 1S.
finally. a theort'm. . . f
Descartes and Fermat shared in the d•~covery 0
analytic geometry. Out whereas Dcscar.t cs typ•c.ally u~c~ The object in the right-hand figure is a subset of that In the
left-hand figure.
geometrical methods to solve algcbnuc equauons (sec

623
624 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curvt?i

10.1 1ANALYTIC GEOMETRY AND THE CONIC SECTIONS


Plane anal)1ir ~:eometry, a centra l topic ~f this chapte r. is the us.c nf algebra and
calculus to study the properties of cu rves m thcxy-pla.ne. llle ancient Greeks Used
deductive reasoning and the methods of a~iomatrc Euclidean geomet ry to study lines,
circles. and the conic sectiuns (parabolas. ellipses. ~nd h yp erho!as) .. :Ole properties
of conic sections h:wc played an important r.olc 111 d1versc SCICIIt1hc applications
since the seventeenth century. when Kepler d1scovcrcd-and Newton explained-
the fact tha t the orbits of pl;nets and other bodies in the Solar System a re conic
sections.
ll1e French mathematicians Desca rtes and Ferm a t. working a lmost indepen-
den tly of one another. initiated analytic geometry in I fi37. lhc cen tral idea of anah·tic
geometry is the correspondence between an equation F(x, y) = 0 and its locus (iyp-
ically, a curve). the se t of all those points (x, y) in th e plane with coordi nates that
satisfy this eq uation.
A central idea of analytic geometry is this: Given a geome tric locus o r curve,
its properties ca n be derived algebraically or analytically from its defining equation
F(x, )') = 0. For example. suppose that the equation of a given curve turns out to be
the linear equation

Ax+ By= C, (I)

where A, lJ. and Care constants with 8 t- 0. ·n 1is equation may be written in the
II form

y =mr+b. (2)
II
where. m . = - .A / lJ and b -- CjlJ· ll u t E-<1· (2) ·IS t h e slopc-mterccpt
· equation of the
5
\\t~;ug~ll hne wnh slop!! m a_nd )'·intercept b. Hence the given curve is this straioht line.
e usc
. .th1s approach
. · . c 1 n1 sh ow t11at a spec1hc
rn. Exampl· · • geome tncally
· <>
described
Iocus IS .1part1cular stra1ght hnc.

EXAMPLE 1 Pwvc that the se t of all · · ·


(5. 3) is the perpendicular bisector o'r ti~OIIi~t~ ~~.uldlstant fr?l~t the points (I. I) and
c segment that )orns these two points.
Solution ll1e typical point I'( r ) in Fi .
(5. 3) if and only if - 'y lg_ IO.l.l IS equally dista nt from (I. I) and

' (.r- 1)2 + (y- 1)2:: (.r-5)2+(y - 3)2;


'
FIGURE 10.1.1 The perpendicular x·- 2x + 1 + y2- 2y +I == xz- IO.r + 25 + / - 6y + 9;
bisector of Example 1. 2r + y = 8;
Y == -2r +8. (3)
Thus the given locus is the stra1·.,htl' . . E
I <>
through (I. I) and (5 , 3) has equation
rnc 111 ·q. (3) wh . .
ose slope IS -2. ll1e straight hne

Y- l= !<x- 1) (.t)
y
and thus has slope }. Bec·Jusc the d
• ' . pro uct of tl 51
follows (from Theorem 2 in Appe nd· ll) le opes Of these two lines is -I. it
solve Eqs. (3) and ( 4) simult aneous! .'x fit hat these lines arc perpendicular. If we
· (3, 2) o f the give>· we
· d cc d . th e m1'd po1nt lnd that' th c ·Intersect io n o f th ese lines is.
Jn
. I b' n 1.lne segmc 11 I • 11tus the locus described is rh;
perpen d1cu ar 1sector of this line segment.

FIGURE 10.1.2 The cirde with The circle shown in Fig. 10 1 2 h
. II h . . as center (h k) .
center (h, A) and radius r. geometnca y as t e set or locus of all points p · and radms r. It may be described
- (x, Y) whose distance from (/1, k) is r.
Analytk Geometry and the Conic Sections SECTION 10.1 625

The dista nce form ula the n gives

(5)

as the equation of this circle. In pa.rticula r, if 1z = k = O, then Eq. (5) takes the simple
fonn
(6)

\~e ca n sec d irectl y fro m this equation, witho ut furthe r reference to the definition of
Cir cle, tha t a ci rcle centered .at the origin has the follov.;n~ symmetry prope rties:

• Symmetry around the x-axis: The equation of the curve is unchanged when
y is replaced with-y.
• Symmetry around 1/u y-axis: The equation of the curve is unchanged when
xis replaced wi th -x.
• Symnu:1ry with rc.spcc1 to th~ origin: The equatio n of the curve is unchanged
when x is replaced" ith -x and y is repi:Jccd with - y.
• Symmetry tJrmtmltlr~ -l5' line y = .r: The equation is unchanged when.t and
y arc int erchanged.

"lltc re la tio nship bc tl' cc n E4s. (5) and (6) is an illustra tion of the translation
p·rin ciplt• stated informa l!\• in Section 1.2. lmacinc a translation (or "slide") of the
plane that moves each point (x. y) to the new posi tion ( x +h. y + k). Under such a
translatio n. 3 curve C is moved to a new position. The equation of the new translated
curve is easy to obtain from the old equat ion-we simply rc.:place x with x -lr andy
with y - k. Convctscly. we can rccogni1.c a translated circle from its equation: Any
equat io n of the form

.t~ + y1 + At + /Jy + C = 0 (7)

can be rewritten in the form


(x - 11)2 + (y - k)2 = p

by completing sq uares. as in Example 2 of Section 1.2. lbus the graph of Eq. (7) is
either 3 circle (if p > 0), a single point (if p = 0), or no points at all (if p < 0). We
usc this approach in Example 2 to discover that the l.ocus described is a particular
circle.
EXAMPLE 2 Determine the locus of a pointl'(x, y) ilitsdistance I API from A(7, 1)
is twice its distance i /Jl'l fr-o m 8(1, 4).
Solution The points A, 8. and P appear in Fig. 10.1.3, along with a curve through
y
.P that represents the given locus. From
iAP12 = 4181'1 2 (because I API= 2iBPI).

we get the equation


(x- 7}2 + (y- 1)2 = 4((x- 1)2 + (y- 4)2].
Hence
A(7. I)
3x2 + 3y2 + 6x- 30y + 18 = 0;
_x2 +I+ 2x -lOy= -6;
FICURE 10.1.3 The locus of 2
Example 2. (x + 1) + (y - 5)2 = 20.
Thus the locus is a circle with center ( -1. 5) and radius r = .JW = 2./S. •
626 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coord inates and Parametric Curves

Conic Sections h rc the curves formed by a plane inter.


Conic secrions are so named because. they -:cula r cone with two nappes extending
Cl<nn>ton secting a cone. The cone ~sed is_ a ng.1t..1).c• There arc three types o f contc
· secllons.
·
1 10
II infinitclv far in both dtrecuons (Fig. .
· - If the cutu ng P13
nc is parallel to some generato r of the
as illustrated in Fig. IO.l.:l. d axis, forms the cone). then the curve of
. tha t. w hen rei·olved aroun . an ·parallel to a generator. I h e n th e curve
cone (:1 hne 1
inte rsection is a parabola. ~f the plan~ IS "~e-an e/lipse-{)r a hyperbola with two
of inte rsection is either a smgle close cur
branclr(S.

Ads

FIGURE 10.1.4 A cone with two


nappes. llypcrhula

FIGURE 10.1.S The conic sectiom.

In Appendix J we usc the methods of three-d imensio na l a na lytic geometry to


show that if an appropr iate xy-coo rdinatc system is se t up in th e int e rsecting plane.
then the equations of the three conic sections ta ke the foll owing forms:

Pam bola: ·' .1 = kx: (H)


Ellipo.c: x-' r
-; +-;-= 1: (9)

IJ~·pcrbola:
. r.
II '

x-
/>•

II '! - /.f! = I. (10)

In Section 10.6 we discuss these conic sections 0· n lite h · f d fi · · h


. .
two-dmlcnstonal-they do not require the three-<li ·asts 1(l c· mllto
f ns t at are
d
an ·mtcrsecung
· pane.
1 -
Example 3 illustrates one su hme nstonrt1 scttmg o a· cone· an
c approac 1 to the come secuons.
L 1 EXAMPLE 3 Let e be a given positive numb. ( .
logarithm hasc· in th.: co nte xt of . . cr 1101 to be confused w11h the natural
·· · , contc sections_ e st·lnd f . . ) .
the locus of a point P(x )') if its d ' st f ' s or I'CC('Ilfrlcu y . Detenmne
. •
distance from the vertical line L whose , ance rom
. .the fixed F
pouu · (p. ) IS e tunes 1'ts
. 0 . .
f equation ts x = - p (Fig. IO.I. 6 ).
Q(-p.,l ----- Solution Let PQ be the perpendicular f J> .
rom 10 the hnc L ·ntc n the condition
IPFi =ei i 'QI
takes the analytic form

V(x- p)2 + y2 == elx - (-p)l.


~ - -p That is.
FIGURE 10.1.6 The locus of
wmplt3.
so

(Ill
Analytic G~etry and the Conk Sections SECTION 10.1 627

• Ca.u 1: e = I. Th en Eq. ( II ) reduces to


~ ( 12)
·'J = -.px.
W e sec upon comp3 rison .,.,; th Eq. (8) t hJt the locus of P is a parabola if
e = I.
• Ca.sc 2: e <I. D ividing both sides of Eq. (I I) by I- c, we get
• t~r= '": ~
x- - 2p·--,.:c.o.-·-. =-p·.
I - e- I - f'·
We now complete the square in x. The resul t is

.:c _ P . I .._ r~ ) " _ ~ = P: ( (I + t'~ )


1
_
,
I] = a· .
( 1- e- 1-e- 1-e-
1

Th~ equat ion has the form

(13)

.._--1@ -. whe re

h = +p · - -
1 +c
and h: = a=(l- r 1 ) . (I.$)

.. _, I - ,.z
When we compare & 1s. (9) nnd ( IJ). "'c sec th:ll if e < I . then the locus of P
is an •·llipsr with (0. 0) t rn"'l :otcd to (h. Ol. as illu,trah:d in f-i);. 10.1.7.
FIGURE 10.1.7 An ellip\e: e < I
• Ctz.w~ 3: ,. > I. In this'"'". E q . ( II ) red uces to a tran<latcd vcr.<inn of Eq. ( 10),
(Example 3).
so the locus or ,. i> a hypulmla. 'lltc: dc t:t ils. which :uc similar to those in
C;~sc 2. ;~rc left for Problem J5.

TIJU< the locus in Example 3 is a parabola if r = I, an dlip.H· if c < I, ;~nd a


lzypc:rhn/a if<' > I. ll1c num ber r is called th e eccentridty or the conic section. lltc
point F(p. 0) is commonly called its focus in the parabolic case. Figure IO.I.H shows
the parabola of Case I; fig. 10.1.9 illustrates the hyperbola of Case J. +

x• - P

FIGURE 10.1.8 A parabola:~ = I FIGURE I 0.1.9 A hyperbola: t > I


(Example 3). (Example l).

If we begin with Eqs. (8) through ( 10). we can derive the general cha racteristics
of the three conic sections shown in Figs. 10.1.7 through 10.1.9. For example, in the
case of the parabola of Eq. (8) with k < 0, the curve passes through the origin • .:c ?; 0
at each of the curve ·s points. J - ±oo as :r - oo. and the graph is symmetric around
the .:c-axis (because the cur\'C is unchanged when y is replaced with - y).
In the case of the ellipse of Eq. (9), the graph must be symmetric around both
coordinate axes. At each point (x. }')of the graph. we must have txt:;; a and IYI :£ b.
The graph intersects the axes at the four points (±a. 0) and (0. ±b).
Finally, the hyperbola of Eq. (10)-or its alternative form
b
y= ±-J.:cz -aZ
a
628 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

-is symmetric around both coordinate axes. )Is meets the x-axis at the two points
(±a. 0) ami has one branch consisting of points with x ;:; a and has another branch
where x ;£ -a. Also. lyl -> oo as lxl -> oo.

0 10.1 TRUE/ FALSE STUDY GUIDE


10.1 CONCEPTS: QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION
You may 1•·am co usc the implicit plotting facility of a compwcr algebra system to
investigate the following question.~

I. The g raph of the equation x2 -I


=0 consists of the two lines x- y = Oand
x + y = 0 through the origin. What is the graph of th e equation x" - y" = O?
D ocs it depend on whether the positive int eger n is eve n o r odd? Explain
your answers.
2. I low do the g raphs of the equations .r3 + ),3 I and x~ + = l =
I differ from
+I =
the unit ci rcle .r 2 I (and from each other)? How docs the graph of the
equation x" + y" = I change as the positive integer 11 ge ts larger and larger?
Discus~ the possibility of a "limi ting set" as n -> +oo. Do these questions
depend o n wht:ther 11 is even or odd'!
3. 'llu' graph of I he C<luaJion x 2 - y 2 = I is a hyper bola. D iscuss (as in Ques·
tion 2) the graph of the equation .r" - y" I. =
10.1 PROBlEMS
In Pmhlt'ln< 1 through 6, wriu· an rq11ntion of th~ .<pccifirtl In Problrms 17 through 20, slww that the graph of rite gi1•en
straight lim!. rquatwn cmr.<Ltt.r eitlwr of a single point or of no po int.<
I. The line lhrough I he poin l (I. -2) that is p•rallcl to the line 17• .r
2
+ 1- 6.r- 4y + 13 =()
with equation x + 2y 5 = 2
18. 2r +2y+6x+ 2y+ 5 = 0
2. lnc line through the point (-3, 2) that is perpendicular to
the line wilh equation 3.r - -ly = 7 19. .xl + >'2 - 6.r - lOy + 84 = 0
3. ·rnc line 1hat is tangent to the circle .r~ + f = 25 at the 20. 9xl + 9f - 6.r- 6y+ 11 =0
point (3, - 4)
In. Pro!J/rms ~' I thro111:11 24• wme
· the eqrwlion of the speciGed
4. ll1e line that is t:mgcnt to the curve );: = .r + 3 at the point Ctrc1e.
1
'
(6, - 3)
21. The. circle with ccn1cr
• ( 1
- • - 2) that passes through the
5. ·ntc line that is perpendicular to the curve .r 2 + 2f = 6 at pomt (2, 3)
the point (2, -I)
2Z. The circle with ce 1 12 2 .
6. lnc perpendicular bisector of the line segment with end- n er • - ) that IS tangent to the line
Y = .r + 4
points ( -3. 2) and (5. - 4)
2J. llte circle with ,
In /'rohlt•ltLV 7 through M.jiml the cmt~r and ratliu.r ofthe circle _ center (n. 6) that is tan.,cnt to the line
Y- 2.r-4 .,
descrih~tl in the gi•·en equation.
24. lltc circle that
7. x 2 + 2x+ l =4 and (5, -I) ' passes through the points (4, 6), (- 2. - 2).

8. rl+l-4y=5
In Problmr.r 2.5 throu •11 10 .
points f>(x ) 8_ • • dmvc tht> I'IJIUIIion of thr srt of all
9 • .fl + l- 4.r + 6y = 3 11
"ftJ•>Iroftllo• Y wr. .WI/Irfy
. the gi1't'n COlli1·111011.
· 7·ht•IJ .t k·etcII II(
I
" ' • CffiW/ton.
10• .r2 + l + 8.r- 6y = 0
25. The point /'(.r ) ·.
15
, . .
II. 4xz + 4y - 4.r =3 (3, 2) and ( . ). y
7 4
equally dtstant from the two pornts
I
IZ. 4r+41 + r2r= 7 26. The distance fro
from /'to th IU
.
1, 10 the pomt ( -2. I) is hair the distance
f u. 2x1 +21-2x +6y= 13 c pomt (4. -2).
j .... 9.r1 + 9y- J2x = s 27. 'llte point P is th ·
it is from th · . rcc ltmcs as far from the point ( -3. 2) as
, c pomt (5. 10).
IS. 9x: + 9_.J + 6.r- 24y = 19 28. The distance fro p . .
t • , ... J 411.<- JO!!y = 47 lane~ f h m to the hnc .r =< - 3 is equal to its d1s·
rom t c fl<llnt (3. 0).
16. J6.r• + .>V.T -
PoiJr Coordinates SECTION 10.2 629

%9. The sur:' of the d~t~nces from I' to the poinu (~.OJ and ~ Find all hnc~ thlt arc tangent to the omc y = rl and nrc
(-4.0) I\ 10. <~l<o pJrallcl to the hne J , - y = 5.
.)(). The su~ of the d1stanccs from I' to the points (0. )) and 35. Su~ tlut < > 1. Shov- thlt Eq. ( II ) of this section can
(0. - 3) IS 10. be"' ntten in the form
31. find all the line~ thro,ugh the point (2. 1) that arc tanrent
to the parahola y = x· .
Jl. Find all line' throufh th e point (-I . 2) that are normal to
the paral,ol.1 }" = .1 · .
33. Find all lines that are normal to the curve xy = 4 an:l thu~ ~ho.,.ing th3t its graph is a hyperbola. Find a, b. and h
~imultnncously arc parallel to the line y,., 4J . in terms of pan.!<.

1Q.2 1POLAR COORDINATES


famili ar v.ay to locate
A n point in the coordin:llc pbnc i~ by speci fying its rectan!!ular
coordina te' (x. y)-that i\. hy gh·mg its abscL"-.<.1 .t and o rdinate y rcl:t tivc to give n
perpendicula r a'e" In ~orne problem\ it is more conve nien t to locn te a point by
means of it\ polar coordm(lfn 1ltc pol.lr coordmatcs I:i' c it~ positi on rela th·c to
a fix ed refe rence poin t 0 (th e l'"lf) nnd tn a given ray (the pnl~r n:d~) hcginning
at 0 .
For convenience. we begin with a give n xy·coordinatc sys tem and the n take the
origin a~ the pole ami th e non nC!:at l\'e x-axi• as the polar axi5. Gi ve n the pole 0 and
the pol;u axis. the poin t /'with pnl:u runrd inatf• r and 0 , wrillen as the ordered pair
(r. 0) . is located a~ follows. First find the te rm inal side of the angle 0 , give n in radia ns.
where 0 is mcasureJ counterclockwise (if O > 0) from the .r·a.t i s (the polar axis) as its
in itial side. If r ;;: 0. then I' is on the terminal side of this angle at the d ista nce r rrom
the ori!'in. If r < 0 . then I' lies on the ray opposite the te rminal side at the d istance
Jrl = - r > ()from the pole (Fig. 10 .2.1). 'fne r11di:al cunrdin:tte r can be described as
the tlirc·<·t,·d Ji~tancc of I' from the pole alon!' the te rminal side or the angle ll. Thus.
if r is positive. the point I' li es in the same qu:~<lra nt as 0 . whereas if r is negative.
then Plies in the upposite quadrant. If r = 0. the an gle ll docs not mallcr; the po lar
coordinates (O.ll ) reprc$cnt the origin whatever the llllJ:Uiar coordinate 0 might be.
llte origin. or pole. is the only point for which r = 0.

I' 1
, ,,
,,
,'\0

r<O

I'
y
FIGURE 10.2.1 The d ifference between the two ca~e~
I' r > 0 and r < 0.

EXAMPLE 1 Polarcoordinatcsdifrcr rrom rectangular coordinates in that any point


has more than one representation in polar coordinates. For example. the polar co·
o... • ordinates (r. (}) and ( - r . 0 + ;r) represent the same point P. as shown in Fig. 10.2.2.
, ,, More generally. this point P has the polar coordi~ates (r, (} + mr) for any even integer
,, am/the coordinates ( - r. 0 + mr) ror any odd mteger n. Thus the polar-coordinate
11
pairs
FIGURE 10.2.2 The polar
coordinates (r, o) and (-r, 0 + ~r)
represenl lhe same point P
(Example 1).
630 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

y
.
all represent the same pomt p 10
. Fig• 10.2.3. (The rectangular coordinates or •p
are (1. J3 ).)

. tes into rectangular coordinates, we usc the basic


To convert polar coord ma
relations
~

x=rcosO. y= rsinO (1)

· h t tnang
that we read from the ng · 1e 1·n Fi<>:o· to ·2 · 4• Converting
• in the opposite direction •
we have

FIGURE 10.2.3 The point P of


Example 1 can be described in
.,

r = x·
"t ~
+ .' . J;lll (I = X;..v if X f. 0. (2)
many different ways using polar
coordinates.
S
• ome care IS
· rcqurrc
· d ·rn rna k'mg tl1e correct choice of 0 in the formula tan 0 = yfx.. If
x > 0. then (x . y) lies in either the first or fourth qu~drant, so - ;r /2 < 0 < ;r /2. whrch
is the range of the in"crsc tangent fu nction ._ Hen ce 1f x > 0, then 0. ~ arctan(> I x). ~ut
if x < then (x. y) lies in the second or th1rcl quadrant. In thiS case a_proper cho~cc
o.
for the angle is 0 = :r + arctan(y/ x). In any C\'ent. the signs of x andY rn Eq. (I) With
r > 0 indicate the quadrant in which 0 lies.

Polar Coordinate Equations


FIGURE 10.2.4 Read Eqs. (1) and Some curves ha\'c simpler equations in polar coordinates than in rectangular co-
(2)-conversions between polar o rdinates; this is a n imponant reason for the usefulness of polar coordinates. Tite
and rectangular gra1•h of an equation in the polar-<:oordinatc va riables r and 0 is the s~t of all tl_tosc
points I' such that P has some pair of polar coordinates (r. 0) that sausfy the gt~cn
coordinates-from this figure.
equation. 'lbe graph of a polar equation r = f(O) can he constructed by computmg
a table of values of r against 0 and then plotting the corresponding point.s (r . 0) on
polar-coordinate graph paper.

EXAMPLE 2 One reason for the importance of polar coordinates is that many real-
world problems involve circles. and the polar-coordinate equa tion (or po lar equation)
I I of the circle with center (0. 0) and radius a> 0 (Fig. 10.2.5) is very simple:
!
! r =a. (3)
I
Note that if we begin with the rectangular-coordinates equation x2 + y2 = a2 of
this circle and
2 transform
2 it using the first relation in (2). we get the polar-coordinate
equation r = a • Then Eq. (3) resu lts upon taking positive square roo ts. +
FIGURE 10.2-5 The circle r = a
centered at the origin (Example 2).
EXAMPLE 3 Construct the po lar-coordinate graph of the equation, = 2 si n O.
I
I
Solution Figure 10.2.6 shows a table of values of r a s a function of o. ·niC corrc·
spondingpoints (r. 0) are plotted in Fig. 10.2.7, using the rays at multiples of rr/ 6
and th~ c1rcles (centered at the pole) uf radii 1 and 2 to locat e these points. A visual
ins~ccllon of the smooth curve connecting these points suggests that it is a circle of
1 radiUS I. Let us assume. fo~ the mumem that this is so. l'otc then that the point P(r, 0)

I
l
moves once around tlus crrcle cmmterclock,..;,r,. as 0 incn:ast.:s from 0 to ;r and then
moves around this circle a second time as 0 increases from ;r to 2:r.
the nega_tive ~alut.:s of r for 0 ~etwcen ;r and 2rr give-in this example- the same
gcomctnc pomts as do the posntvc values of r foro between 0 and·"'. (Why?)
1
+
·n
is is because

The verification that the graph of r =2sin O is the indicated circle illustra tes
the general pro~edure for t~ansf7rring back and forth betwee n polar and rectangular
coordinates, u.smg the relatiOns m (1) and (2).
Pollr Coortfr.lt~ S~CT10'l10.2 6 31

(} ,
0 OM
:t /6 1.(()
:r /3 113
-~ /2 2rt)
2."1 /3 I.,
S,-;tf> I Cfl
8. ~~ 1
:r orn
- l i ft
7:r
4:r '"
/3 -I 7.l
3.~ / 2 -2(;1)
S:r /3 -173
II :r / 6 -I (( )
2.'T n111
(d~t~ rcv",.,JeJJ

FIGURE 10.2.6 Valu~\ of JICUR[ 10.2.7 T~ gu ph of the poldr t-qu•tlon


r = 2 s•nY (U.•"'P'e )) f a2 ~n· (l-4"'1* ) )

EXAMPLE 4 To t r~n•form the eq ua tiOn ' = 2 <in tl o f Example 3 into rcctn ngultlr
coo rdinates. we lir't mu lt irly hoth 'Ide< by r to ~et
r2 = 2r i ln O.
Equations (I ) and (2) now give

Finally, after we complete the square in y, we have


x2 + (y -1 ) 2 = 1.
the rcctangul:u·coordinate equation (or rrc:angular rquation ) of a circle who'e center
is (0. I) and "hose radius is 1. •

FIGURE 10.2.8 The gr~phl of the More generally. the graphs or the equations
clrclel whose t-quations appur In
Eq. (4) with a= 1. r = ~~sinO and r = :!a co~ II ( 4)

arc circles of radius a centered. respectively, at the points (0. a) and (a. 0). This is
y illustrated (with a = I) in fig. 10.2.8.
s,, substituting the equations !!i"en in ( 1). we can transform the rectangular
equatia'n ax + by = c of a straight line into
ar cosO+ bt- sin 9 =c.

Let us take a = 1 and b = 0. Then we see that the polar equation or the vertical line
:c =cis r = c secO, as we can deduce directly from Fig. 10.2.9.
••<
EXAMPLE S Sketch the graph of the polar equation r = 2 + 2sin9.
fiGURE 10.2.9 finding th~ pol" Solution If we scan the second column of the table in Fig. 10.2.6. mentally adding 2
eqwtion of the vertical lin~ x .. c.
to each entry for r. we see that
• , increases from 2 to 4 as 8 increases from 0 to rr/2:
• r decrca)es from .t to 2 as 0 increases from rr /2 to :r;
• r decreases from 2 to 0 as 0 increases from :r to 3rr/2:
• 1 increases from 0 to 2 as 0 increases from 3rr /2 to 2rr.

'.
632 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

.. f . I JlsusthattheeraphrescmblcsthecurveshowninFig.I0.2.JO
Th IS 10 ormauon c ' - • 'd Th aphs of the equations ·
'This heart-shaped graph is called a atrdl 0 1 • e gr.

r=tl ( l ±sin fll ami r = ll(l ± cosO)

arc all cardioids, differing only in size (determined by tl ). axis of ~ymmetry (horizontal
or vertical). and the direction in which the cusp at the pole p om ts. •

EXAMPLE 6 Sketch the graph of the equat ion r = 2 cos 20 .


Solution Rather than constructing a table of values of r as a function of 6 and then
plotting individual points. Jet us begin with a rectangular-c~ordtnnte graph of r as a
FIGURE 10.2.10 A cardioid fun.:tion of 0. In Fig. 10.2.1 1. we sec that r = 0 if 8 is an odd u~tegral mult1ple of IT { 4,
(Example 5).
and that r is a lternately positive and negative on success1vc mtcrvals of le ngth :r/ 2
from one odd integral multiple of :rj.!t to the next.
Now le t"s think about how r changes as (J increases, beginning at 0 = 0. As 0
increases from 0 to :r f -l. r decreases in value from 2 to 0, and so we draw the first
po rtion (labeled ·· r..) of the polar curve in Fig. 10.2.12. As 0 increases from ;r f 4 to
3:r f -l, r first decreases from 0 to -2 and then incr eases from - 2 to 0 . Because r is
now nt:g;llive. we draw the second and third portions ( labeled "2" and "3") of the
polar curve in the third and fourth quadrants (rather th;m in the first and se-cond
quadrants) in Fig. 10.2.12. Continuing in this fashion. we draw the fourth throu•h
eighth portions of thc polar curve. with those portions where r is ne gative in the
q_uadrants opposite those in which 0 lies. 11tc arrows on the resulting p;Jar curve in
~-•g. 10.2.1 ~ mdJe<llc the direction of motion of the point P(r. 0 ) along the curve as 0
mcreases. ntc whole graph consists of four loops. each of which begins and ends at
f i GURE 10.2. 11 The rl'Ctangular the pole. •
coordinates graph of r = 2 cos 28
as a function of(! . Numbered
portions of the graph correspond 11te curve in Example 6 is called a four-leaved rose. The equations r = n cos nO
to numbered portions of the and r · =h 11 Sill ~roses" with 2n ·'leaves·" or IOOJ)S . an d n >
polar-coordinates graph in 1 nO ·rrepresent
· .. 1·f 11 1s· even _2
h Ul Wit 11 oops 1 IllS odd and n ;:: 3. -
Fig. I 0.2.1 2.
.rr. .·The four-leaved
d.· r rose exhibits-several tvpesofs"ntrnct
• J
r )·, 11te fo IIowmgaresomc
. ,
su"tcwnr con 1t1ons .or symmetry in polar coordinates:

• For symmetry around rite x-axis: 11JC equation .


replaced w!lh -0. IS unchanged when 0 is

• For .1)'1111111'/ry tlrutmd the y-axis . lb, .


replaced with 11 _ o. · " equatiOn is unchanged when 0 is
• For symmetry wirlt respect 10 the uri.;,. 11 , . .
is replaced with -r. 8 · lc equat10n IS unchanged when r

flecausecos20 =cos( -20) = cos 2 (rr _ 0 . .


Jca1•cd rose satisfies the; first two sv ). the cquahon r = 2 cos 20 of the four-
. . mmetry condit' . .
svnunetnc around both the r-ax1·5 ~nd •ons. and therefore liS 0oraph IS
" • ' · " 11lC y ' I X. · 11 ·
the origin. Nevertheless this CCJttat 1·0 d . ., · •s. Ius II is also S\'lllme rric around
' ' II 0\!S /lot S'l( ·f h · .
for symmetry around the origin 11li . ' Is Y t e llmd condition the one
FIGURE 10.2.12 A four-ll'aved
.. . . s r11 ustratcs that I I .
d 1110ns g1ven art: sufficient for the . . ' a t wugh the symme try con-
. · s~mmerncs de· ·b 1 ·
rose (Example 6). con d 111ons. sen et, they are not nt!cessary

EXAMPLE 7 Figure 10.2.13 shows the !ern .


IIJseate with equat ion
r 2- 4 .
- - 511120.
To see why it has loops only in the sec c.J
of signs of values of -4sin 21J. on and fourth quadrants, we examine a table
-
r

l'olar Coordinates SECTION 10.2 633

(I 20 - 4sin 20
0 < (I < j:r 0 < 2fl < lr l'q ;a1ive
Jn < fl < n lf<20 < 2lf Pusiti\'C
lf < ll < ln 21f < 20 < 3.~ Ncga1ivc
~:r <0< 211 :l-7 < 20 < 411 l'dsiti\'c

When 0 lies in the first or th e third quad rant, the quantity - 4 sin 2IJ is negat ive, so
=
tht: equa tion r 2 - 4sin 2lJ cannot be satisfied for nny real values of r. +

FIGURE 10.2. 13 Th~ lemnlsc3te Example t1 illustrates a peculiarity of graphs of polur equations. caused by
rl = -4 sin 29 (E.Xd mple 7). the fact that a single point ha s multiple rep resenta tions in polar coordina tes. The
point with polar coordinates (2. :r /2) clearly lies on the four-leaved rose. but these
coo rdinates do nut satisfy th e equation r = 2 cos 20. lltis me am that a poin t m ay have
one pair of polar conn.linatcs that sat isfy a gi\'e n equation and o thers that do not.
Hence we must be cardul to understand this: ·nte
gra ph o f a polar equation consists
of all t hose points with at least om• polar-coordinate representation that satisfies th e
given equation.
Another result of the multiplicity of polar coordinates is that the simultaneous
solution of two polar equations docs not always give all the points of inlerscction
of their graphs. For instance. consider the circles r = 2 sin 0 and r = 2 cos 0 shown
in Fig. 10.2.R. The origin is clearly a point o f intersec tion of these two circles. Its
polar representation (0. lf) satisfies the equation r =
2 sin 0. and its represen tation
(O.rr/2) satisfies the other equa tion. r = 2cosl'l. Rut the origin has no sing/<' po·
Jar represen tation that sat isfies both equal ions simultam:o·.tsly! If we think of 0 a s
incr easing uniformly with time. then the corresponding moving points on the two
circl es pass t hrnuj:h th e orig in at d iffe rent times. lienee the origin cannot be discov-
ered as a point of in ter.<ection of the two circles merely b) solving t heir equations
r = 2 sin 0 and r = 2 cos (I simult aneously in a straightforward manner. But one fa il·
safe way to find all po inls of in tersection of two polar-coordinate cu rves is to graph
both curves.

EXAMPLE 8 Find all points of intersection of the graphs of the equations r =


I + sin O and r 2 = 4sin0.
Solution llt c graph nf r = I + sin 0 is a scaled -d own version of the cardio id of
, Example 5. In f>rublcm 52 we ask you to show that the g.r:tph of , : = -l sin 0 is
A
th e tigurc ·cight curve shown with the card ioid in Fi~:. 10.2. 1-l. lhc ti~urc shows four
poin ts of int ersection: II. II, C, ami 0 . Can we find all four u~ ing al g.chr:t?
Give n the two equat ions. we begin by eliminating r . llccausc

( I + sin 0) 1 a r1 = 4 si n 0,
it follow~ tha t

sin' 0 - 2sin 0 + I "' O:

(~in O - 1) 2 .. 0 :

and thu' thJt ~iniJ .. I . Sn 0 mu't he nn angle o f th e form l:r + 2n.~ where n i~
fiGURE 10.2. 14 Tho! urd>ood ~n integer. ;\II pomt ~ on the ca rdioid :md nil poinb un the figure-eight curve ar c
t ~ 1 • ~ @ .and trt~ f~u·~ ~~ht
produced by lc ttmg tJ r.angc fr om 0 to h. Kill = rr_12 will prod uce: all the ,olu11un~
•' • 4 " nl) mt'fl on tour poinU
that we ca n obtatn by stmplc ul~c:huuc eh nunattOn . lhc onI)· ~uch point i' ,v1. :r / 21.
(~8)
and the other three po in t' of intcncct ion arc d etected o n I) 111•hcn I he two cqu;ll ton~
arc graphed. •
634 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinate~ and Parametric Curves

Calculato r/ Computer· Genera te d Pola r Curves


,. . -
.
· ·
. . . , to construct !>v hand the "buttcrny curve" shown
It m1ght t~kc you qulle a " 1111c · 1 b
h' calculators and computer a ge ra systems have
m h g. 10.2.15. But most grap '"!! ' . 'tl a T l calcul:ltor se t in " 1
facili ti.:s for plotting polar curves. For 111St~nce. WI 1 . po ar

gr~ph mode," one need only en ter anv::.
·' "ratlh the equation
_ 2 • cos( 4 0 ) + si n(0 /4 )/\3
r • e /\. ( cos ( 0 ))

. 1
-)
on t I1e ·mterva10 < < 8rr. \V'1th ,•·ta
=0 = ~te and Marlremaricn the graphics package com-
mands
polarplot(exp (cos( t )) _ l • cos( 4 • t) + sin(t/ 4 )/\ 3, t•0 •• 8 • Pi)J

and
PolarPlot( Exp (Cos( t ]] - 2•cos( 4• t] + Sin(t/ 4 ] /\ 3, { t, 0, S • Pi ) );
FIGUR E 10.2. 1S r = e<•• 1 -
2 co~ 40 + sin 1(0/ 4 ). (respectively) give the same result (with r in/ lace of 0). .
Because of the presence of the term sin (0 f4), the more usual mte rval 0 ~ 0 ;ii 2..-r
gives only a part of the curve shown in Fig. 10.2. 15. (Try it to sec for yourst:lf.) But

sin) (
0
: Srr) = sin
3
( ~ + 2rr) = sin
3
( n.
so values of si n3 (0/4 ) repeat themselves when 0 exceeds S:r . l11crefore the inter-
val 0 :3 0 ~ Srr suffices to give the enti re bu tterfl y curve. You mi gh t try plott ing a
j butterny cu rve with the term sin 3(9/ 4 ) replaced with sin 5 (0 / 12)- as originally rec·
ommended hy Temple H. Fay in his art icle -The Butterny Curve" (American .\lath·
I'' em atical .\ lmrthly, :\lay 19$9, p. 442). What range of values of 0 will now be required
to obtain the whole butterfly?

10.2 TRUE/ FALSE STUDY GUIDE


10.2 CONCEPTS: QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION
I. figures 10.2. 16 throu~h 10.2. 18 illustrate the polar curve r = 11 + bcosO for
va rr ous va lues of a and b. Wha t de termines whe ther the curve exhibits a
cusp (fig. 10.2. 16). a loop (fi!!. 10.2. 1i). or neit her (Fig. 10.2. 1R)? Docs your
answ~r apply also to polar curves of the form r == a + h sin 0? Given 11 :md b.
wha liS the drffcrcnce be tween the cu rves r - + b cos 0 a nu.• r a + b Sill
· Q?•
- (I =
1 1
y

X
X
.r

FIGURE 10.2.16 r = 4 + 4 cos O. FIGURE 10.2.17 r = 4 + 7col O.


FIGURE 10.2. 18 r = 4 + 3 cos O.
2. Figu res 10.2.19 and 10.2.20 show the
r = sin 40. G iven a positive . graphs of the equa tions r = cosJO and
" rose graphs" r ==cos nO . d lllteg~r " · what is th e diHerc nce between the
olll r =Sill nO? E I . . I
of leaves in the complete ,, · xp <nn prcc1scly how the nullllCr
1
, II 1 ucnends
0 S 8 S :r or() :;; 0 s 2;r givesgmp ,. on n. \VI1:1t delcrnun· cs whet I1o·r
a t 11~:: leaves?
Polar Coordinates SECTION 10.2 635

-I -I

FICURE 10.2.19 1 =<Os } q , FIGURE 10.2.20 r = sin48.

10.2 PROBLEMS
1. l'lot the 1x•irm with the g" ·e n po lar coordinates. and then 26. The circk " llh C'cntcr (;\ . .1 ) ~nd radius 5
find the rcct~ngul:rr CtlQrdina tc• o f each.
:1. The m cle "" h crnte r 1I. I) th .H p.1sses thrCiugh rhe origin
(3) ( 1.11 / ·l ) (b) ( - 2. l:t / 3) (C) (J. - 11 / 3)
2!<. The mcle " "h cente r (5. -2) that p3S>CS through the point
(d) (3. 31! / 2) (c) (2. -.•/~1 (f) (-2. -7:r/ 6) (1 , I )
(g) (2. 5,Tf {l)
In l 'mhl<m<]Q rhrou;:h 31. tran.<form til~ givm polar-courdinat~
Z. finLI two po lar·cnnrdinntc rcprcscnt :uion~
nne v. ith' > 0 t'IJIWtion ;, , a r~rr.zngu!nr·COt1rdinmr t"qulltion. lht·n
nwtch lhi!
and the ot he r with r < 0. fm the points" ith the given reel· <qunrimr o.·irll ia ~rraph amo ng them• m Figt /0.2.11 throu~:ll
:mgulnr counhnatc\. / O.l.U.
(3) ( - 1. - 1) (b) ( ,/~ . - I) (C) (2. 2) 29. r = - .I cos !I 30. r = 5cos0 + 5sinll

(d ) (-I. v0) (c) (..12. - ..12) (f) (-3. v0) 31. r = --! cos O+ 3sin 0 32. r = Scosll- IS sin O

In l'mblmrs J tlrrou~lr 10. o'.rJirt-<S tlrr J:in·n ,.-crangulm ~qrmrion


in polar form.
J..r a ~ 4. y = 6
$.• .r = 3y 6. x 1 + i = 25
7• .ry = I
10• .f + ,. = .t

br l'mblttns 1/tlmmglr /8, ~.rpfi'JS tlr~ ~:il·m polar eqrwtion in X

ratrm~llltlf fo mL
II. r = 3 Jl. /) = 3:r/~
1.\. r = -5 cos0 14. r = sin :!II FIGURE 10.2.21
1~. r= l-cos20 16. r = 2 + sin 0
17. r = 3scc0 HI. r' =cos 20

F11r thr run·rs 11~scribr11 ill l'mbii.'IIU /9 tlmmglr 28, writ~ ~qua·
tio11s i11 bmh rrclllngular and pt~lar form.

19. The vertical line through (2. U)


20. The horizontal line through (1, 31
21. The line with slope -1 through (2 , -II
22. The line with slope I through (4. 2)
23. The line through the points (I. 3) and (3. 5)
14.. The circle with center (3. o; that passe! through the origin
2S. The circle with center (0. -4) thai pas5<:S through the origin FIGURE 10.2.22
636 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

FIGURE 10.2.23 FIGURE 10.2.26

FIGURE 10.2.24
FIGURE 10.2.27
The graph of a polar equation of rhe form r =tl + bcos O
(or r = 11 + bsin (I) i.f callt•d 11 lima~on (from the Frc11ch word
for snail). In Problems 33 thro ugh 36. march the ;:ivcn polar· y
coordinatr t•qrullio n 1\'ith its graph amo11g the limaro ns in
Figs. /0.2.25 through /0.2.2B.
33. r =8+6cos0 3-t r =7 -"-1 cos 0
35. r = 5 + 9cos0 .'6. r = 3 + II cosO
37. Show that the graJ"h of the J"Oiar equation r = ncos ll +
b sin II is a circle if a 1 + b1 # 0. Express the center (h. k) and
radius r of this circle in terms of a and b.
38. Show th:rt if 0 < a < b. then the lima,on with polar cqua·
tion r =a+ bcos 0 has an inner loop (as in Figs.10.2.25 and
10.2.27). In this case. find (in terms of a and b) the runge of
"alues of 0 that correspond to points of the inner loop.
FIGURE 10.2.28
y
Skt rch the gra11hs o{tl .
j? I I'. te flO111r eqrwtrons in Problt'ltr.v 39th rough
• ·. ~< tWI<' Y symmerries around eirlter coordinate oris o r tire
011
orrgm. ·

3'J. r = 2cosl) (circle:)

40. r == 2 sin()+ 2 coso (circle)


41 • r == 1 +coso (cardioid)

42. r == I - sino (cardioid)


43. r == 2 + 4 sin 0 (lima,on)
44. r ==4+2coso (lima~on)
FlGURE 10.2.25 45. r 1
= 4sin 20 (lcmniscntc)
Polar Coord inates SECTlON 10.2 6 37
46. , : =4 cos28 (lemni~ate)

J7. r c 2 \in 211 ((nu r-lcnvcd rO<.e)


48. r = 3 sm .311 (three -leaved rose)

49. r ,. 3co'30 ( thrcc-Jea,cd rOY.:)


~. r = 3~ (.pi ral or Archimede~)

! I. r " 2sin 50 ( fi \e-Jea ,cd rose)


S!. , : =4 sinO (figure e ight )

In Probltm.f 53 thro ugh 58, firul all points of intu uction of the
(Un·es wirh t he givm polar equnrioiU.
SJ, r = I , r "'co•O
FIC.URE 10.2.30 r a cos ( s;)-
!4. r = sino. r 2 = 3cos 2 o
SS. r = •inO. r = cm 21l (o,rrl•rrin2) lt-.ops v.hile the other ho< tcn l oop<? In ench
case '4h3:t r;n~c of \ alun of tt i' require-d to oht:tin :til the
56. r = I + cosO , r = I - sinO
loo~~ In the ~ore g~ncral ca~f.' r = (n'l< Jl(lf q l where p ~nd
57. r = I - cosO, r2 a 4cos0 q :uc pc-~1ti'C' m tc~cf'.. ic;, It p o r tJ (or ~oth ) rh.lt d~..:tcr~ mc
the numhe r <>f lo"ps a nd the rnngc or values of II tcqUtrcd
~8. r 2 = ~ sin O, r' = 4 cos0 hl ~how all the lc.J·op~ an th~ complete grnph?
59. (a) The straight line L passes through the point with polar (;.1, Ft~ure< 10.2.31 :md IO.l.J2 shov.· the !!raphs of the cqua -
coordmali:S ( f' . a) and is pcrpcndicul.u to the line sog· hrms r = 1 + ..t ~in .lO and r -= 1 + 4 cns.l/). \VhJ I Uct crrnmcs
ment joming the pole nnd the point (p. a). Wnte the p<Jiar· 'ol.' ht>thc r a po.I;H CUf\ C of the (<'lrm r ;; tJ + h sin(n0)- with
coordinate cqunl ion or L. (h) Show that the r~mngul3!­ a and b poso h'c cor.sta~ts and 11 l positi\'C integer- has
coordinatc equation or L is both larger a nd smaller ILXJ~'! \ \'h3 t d etermine-s whethe r
the small<:r loops are ""i thin or outside of t he larger ones?
x cosa + ysina = p.

60. Find a rectan!)ubr-coonlinate equa tion o r the cardioid r


"1th poiJr cqu:nio n r I -cosO. =
61. Usc polnr coordinat es to identify the graph or the
rectan!)ular-coordinatc equatio n a 2(x 2 + ).l) = (.r 1 + 1 -
byl'.
62. Plot t he polar equ31ions ,

r = I + w s 0 and r = - I + cos 0

on the some coordinate plane. Comment on the re>ults


6J. Fi2 ure$ 10.2.29 and I0.2.30show the graphs of the equations
r;;. ros(50/3) a nd r =
cos(50/ 2). Why does one have five
FIGURE 10.2.11 r c I + 4 ,;n 30.
1

- t

FIGURE 10.2.29 r "' cos ( s: )- FIGURE 10.2.12 r = 1 + 4 cos 40.


4
638 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

]0.3 1AREA COMPUTATIONS IN POLAR COORDINATES


y The graph of the polar-coordin ate equation r = f(O) may bound a n area, as d.oes the
cardio id , = 2(1 +cos 0)-see Fig. 10.3.!. To calculate. the area of thts regton, we
may find it convenient to work directly with polar coordmates rather than to change
to rectaneular coordinates.
To ;ee how to se t up an area integral using polar coordina.te s..we consider the
region R of Fie. 10.3.2. This reeion is bounded by the two radtal lines 0 = a and
---]ii---+--~---x 0 = {3 and by the curve r = j(O). a~() ~ {3. To approximate the area A of R, we
begin with a partition
rt = 00 < 81 < ~ < · · · < 0, = {J
of the interval [a. /3) into n subintervals. all with the same length D.O = (/3 - rt)/ n.
We select a point 0," in the ith subinterval(B, -t. 0,) fori= l. 2 ..... 11 .
FIGURE 10.3.1 What is the area of Let 6 A, denote the area of the secto r bounded by th e lines 0 = (), _1 and 0 = 0,
the region R bounded by the ~nd by the curve r = j(O) . We sec from Fig. 10.3.2 th at for small values of D.O, 611;
cardioid r "' 2(1 + cos 9)? ts approximately equal to the area of the circular sector that has radius r;" = f(O;")
I and ts bounded by the same lines. ll1at is.
'
I
6A,"" ~<rn 2 M = ~ [f<OnJ 2 60.
lI We add the areas of these sectors fori = I. 2•.. . . 11 and thereby find that
I

I A=
" .
L D. A;"" L ~ [!(0,"))2 MJ.
I i=1 1=1

TI1e right-hand sum is a Riemann sum for the integral

1·'
a !lf<0))2dO.

Hence •. if f is continuous, the value of this integral is the li mi t as D. O --. 0 of the


precedmg sum. We therefore conclude that the a A .r 1 · · ·
. 0 10 rea o, t ze r eg1011 R bounded by
rI ze I mes =a ant = /3 and the curve r =
/(0) is

(1)

The infinitesimal sector shown in Fig 10 3 3 . h .


tl ;1 = ~ r 2 dO, serves as a useful de vi~ .

i·'WI! radtus r • central angle dO, and area
e or remembering Eq. (I) in the abbreviated

I
\

Polarui•

FIGURE 10.3.2 We obtain the area


formula from Riemann sums. F:GURE 10.3.3 Nonrlgorous derivation
0 the area formula in polar coordinates.
-
Area Computatioru in Polu Coordina t~ S!:CTION 10.3 639
form

(l)

.....
rotu
EXAMPLE. 1 Find the area or the re~ion bounded by the tima~on with equ:ll ion
r= 3-'- 2cos6 , 0 :l 9 ::; h ( Fig. 10.3.-1).- •

Solu tio n \\'c could apply Eq. (2) with a = 0 and fJ = 2:r. Her~. instead. we will make
use of s~mmetry. \\'e 11.·ill calculate the area of the upper half of the region :tnd then
FIGURE 10.3.4 The lima,on of
Example 1. double the result. :"ote that the intinit~simal sector shown in Fig. 10.3.-l sweeps out
the upper half of the lima~on as fo increases from 0 to :r (Fig. 10.3.5). Hence

A =21! !r'd9 = L ' (3+2 cosO)'d8

=fo' (9 + l2cos0 + J.cos 2 9) dB.


Because

4 cosl(l =..• . l+cos2ll


2 = 2 + 2 cos 20 .

we now ge-t

FIGURE 10.3.5 Infinitesimal


i\ = 1" (II+ 12cos 0 + 2cos 20) d9
sectors from 0 • 0 to 0 : "
(Example 1).
= [110+ 12sin 8 + sin 2oJ: =li lT. •
EXAMPLE. 2 Find the area bounded by each loop of the lima~on w; th equation
r =I + 2 cos 8 (Fig. 10.3.6).
Solution The equation 1+ 2 cos O =0 has two solutions for 8 in the interval (0. 2:r ]:
0 = 2.• / 3 and 0 = J.;r / 3. The upper half of the outer loop of the lima<;on corre-sponds
\
\ to values o f (I between 0 and 2:r / 3. where r is positi,·e. Because the curve is S)mmetric
\ B• lK/l
\
around the .t-axis. we can find the total area A 1 bounded by the outer loop by
\ integr;1ting from 0 to 2.•/ 3 and then doubling. Thus
\
\

iO+ 2cos8)2 do =fo:..o(l +4cos9 +4cos2 8)d9


\
\ A 1 =2 fobf.l

I
I ....
Polar

=
rl.·(J(3+4cos0+2cos 20)d8
Jo
I
I
I 2.•!3
'•1+2cos 0
I
te. 4%13 = [ 39+ 4sin9+sin28] =2:r+~~-
I
0

FIGURE 10.3.6 The lima,on of The inner loop of the lima,on corresponds to values of 0 between 'l.T f3 and
Example 2. 4:r / 3. where r is negative. Hence the area bounded by the: inner loop is

[
=~ 38 +4sin O+sin20
l
b fl

Z.•f.l
=:r-!J3.
The a.rea of the region l)ing bttwttn the two loops or the lima,on is then

A= At- Az = 2.• + !J3 - (;r - ~J3) = ;r + 3J3.



640 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

p0 Jar Curves
The Area Between Two d, _ gCO) . with f <B> ~ g (BJ ~ 0 for a S 9 ~ fl.
Now cons1'der t"·o curves r == j. (O) ·ann boun
- dcd 1,V• these curves and theh rays
· (radil)
10
lnen we can lind the area of the re£ tin the area bounded by t e mncr cun:e
). ·) 0 _ a •nd 0 =a (Fi!!. 10.3.7) by subtrac . £the area A between the two curves 1,
1ncs - .. ~' - urve. litat IS. • •
from th at bounded by th e outer c

given by ft 1 . JZdO -1/J H;;(O) j2 dO.

so that
A=
1a
~(f(O} a

Pol.u U H
A= ~ 1~ j l/llllf - ],t:lilJf } dtl. (J)

FIGURE 10. 3.7 The area bet~n . r curve• we get the abbre\·iated
the graphs of I and g. With ' outer for the outer curve an d ' •nncr fort hc 1nne
formula
(4)

for the nrea of the region shown in Fig. 10.3.8.

FIGURE 10.3.8 Theradiaftinesegmcnt


FIGUR E 10.3.9 The region of
illustrates the radiir...,.. and r....., of Eq . (4). Ex;~mple 3.

EXAMPLE 3 Find the area A of the region that lies within the lima~on r = I +
2 cos 0 and outside the circle r = 2.

Solution 'Il1c circle nnd lima~on are shown in Fig. 10.3.9. with the area A hctwccn
them shaded. 'llle points of intersection of thc circle and lima,on arc given by
I+ 2coso = 2, so coso=~·
and the figure shows that we should choose the solutionsO = ±:r /3. 1lu:sc two values
I of 0 are the needed limits of intcgratiun. When we usc Eq. (3), we find that
• J)

t A=~ j- • JJ
IO + 2cos0)2 - 2~]t/O

(hy symmetry)
r/3
= lo (4coso + 2cos2u- l)t/9

= 15~ -2;r
= [4sinO+sin20-oJ:Jl
1 •
J
Alea Computations in Polar Coordinates SECTION 10.3 641

~ 10.3 TRUE/ FALSE STUDY GUIDE


10.3 CONCEPTS: QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION
I. Give an example of a plane region whose area can t>e calculated both by
a rectan gular-coordinate in tegral and a pol:~r-coordi nate integral. but the
latter is easier to c ,·aluate.
2. Give an example of a plane region "hose :1rcn can be c:~ lculatcd bot h by
a rectangular-coordinate integral and a poi:Jr-coordinatc integral. but th e
former is easier to evalua te.
3. Give an example of an unbounded pbnc region such th at its pola r-coordinate
are a integral is improper but convergent.

10.3 PROBLEMS

In rroblmrs /IIJrOllgh 6, >ketch the plmw rc~:ion bowu/rd by,,, 20. r = sm51l (Fig. IO.J .P)
givm poi.Jr curw' r = [ <0). a ;:; 0 :i (!. mrrltlre ray>11 =''· I)= p. 21. , : = 4 sin 1/1
t.r =O. O ~O;ii;r 2.r =0. O ;l 0 ~ 2r.
22. r! = ~ C0>21' (fig. 10.3 .15)
3. r = 1/0. rr ~ 0 ~ 3;r 4. r = 1/0 . );r ;ii 0 $ 5.'!'
B. r 1 = 4 sinO
U. r = l•co<M
In Problmu 7 thro ugh 16. find 1/re tuen bounded l>y 1/rt givrrr
curvt. 0.5
7. r = 2cos0 R. r = 4 sin0 r• ""50

9. r = I+ cos O
10. r =2 - 2sin0 (Fig. 10.3.10) II. r = 2 - cos O
JZ. r = 3 + 2sin 0 (Fit:. t0.3.11}
·l

fiGURE 10.3.14 The live. FIGURE 10.l.1S The


r •l-2\111 0
I
( ) leavt'd rose of Problem 20. lemniscate of Problem 22.
0 0

~)
In Problem> 25 Il~rouslr 36, find rlre ar<a of tire regimr ties·
I r•l +:.iinO cribed.
._
' 2!'. Insider = 2 sin 0 and outsider= I

FIGURE 10.3.11 The 26. Inside bot h r = 4cos0 :lnd r = 2


FtC.URE 10.3.10 The
c~rdioid of Problem 10. lima, on of Problem 12. 27. Inside both r =cos O nn.d r = J3sin0

13. r = -4cos9 1~. r = 5(1 +sin&) 28. Inside r = 2 +cosO anc.l outside r= 2
IS. r = 3- cosO 16. r =2 +sin9 +cos9 29. Insider = 3 + 2 cos 0 and outside r = 4

In Problmu 17 tlrrouglr 24. find tire area bormt!et! by o11e loop


=
30. Inside rl 2 cos 28 and o utsidt r =1
31. Inside r 2 = cos20 and r 2 = sin20 (Fig. 10.3.16}
of tire gi•·tn eurw.
17. r = 2cos20 18. r =3sin30 (Fig.J0.3.12) J2. Inside the large loor and outSide the small loop of r =
I- 2sine (Fig. 10.3.17)
19. r = 2 cos40 (Fig. 10.3.13}
4,..----.---~

4 l
2

r •2c<M49
-l
-I
-4'-----'---_.J
flC.URE 10.3.12 Th~ thr~· FIGURE 10.3.13 The eight·
lea.,ed rose of Problem 19. FIC.URE 10.3.16 Problem 31. FIGURE 10.3.17 Problem 32.
lta•ed rose of Probl~ 18.
64 2 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves
the region thai lies between the (n- l)th
(b) The area o f --
33. Insider= 2(1 +cosO) and outsider = 1 and nth turns for n > I.
3-l. Inside the figure-eight curve r 2 =4cos0 and outsider = J
I -cosO
35. Inside both r = 2cos 0 and r = 2sin9
36. Inside r = 2 + 2 sin 0 and outside r =2
37. nnd the area of the circle r = si n 0 +cosO by integration
in polar coordinates (Fig. J0.3.1S). Check your answer by -t
writing the cyua tio n of the circle in rectangular coordinates.
finding its radius. and then using the famili~r formula for the
area of a circle.

FIGURE 10.3 .20 The logarithmic


spiral of Problem 41.

42. Figure 10.3.21 shows the first turn of the logarithmic spiral
r = 2e· •JIO together with the two circles. both centered at
-I
(0. 0). through the e ndpoints of the spi ral. nnd the areas
of the two shaded regions a nd \'Crify that their sum is the
area of the annubr region between the two circles.
FIGURE 10.3.18 The circle
r =sinO+ cos O (Problem 37).

38. Find th e area of the region that lies interior to all three
circlesr = l.r = 2cosO.and r = 2sin e.
39. l11c spiral of Archimedes, shown in Fig. 10.3.19. has the
simple equation r = aO (a is a con>tant). Let A. denote
the area bounded by the 11th turn of the spiral. where
2(n - I )n ~ 0 ~ 2n:r. and by the portion of the polar axis
joining its e ndpoints. For each n E; 2. let 1<. = A. - "•-I

FI GURE 10.3.21 The two regions


Polo~r .uis
o f Problem 42.

43. lllc _sl~adcd region R in n g. 10.3.22 is bounded by the


cardror.d ' - I + cos 0, the spiral r = ,••• ,, , U S () $ JT. and
the sprral r - e"t> < < . - .-
. . - · -:r ~ 0 = 0 . Graphrcally estunatc the
pornts o. f mtersc·~tr'on
• of h . . .
t c cardro rd and the sp1rals. then
FIGURE 10.3. 19 The spiral of approxrmate I he area of the region R.
Archimedes (Problem 39).
2.s r - - r - - ---. 8
deno te the area between the (II- l)lh and the nth turns. 2
u 6
111en derive the following results of Archimedes:
I
•I
(a) A 1 = ! n<2:ra) 2 ; (b) A1 = TI"(~na ) 2 : o.s
2
(c) R 1 = 6 A ,; (d) R•• , = ttR1 for n i: 2. -0'0 l--1:-1r:;:-lf--\-._J
r = c(l·)
y
0
40. Two circles both have radius ''· and each circle passes -I
through the center o f the other. nnd the area of the re· -I.' -2
gion that lies within both circles. -2 -~

4 1. A polar curve of the: form r = at' ... is called a logarithmic 2 3 -6


6
-6
spiml. and the portion given by 2Cn- I ):r :ii 0 :ii 2n:r iscalled • -4 -2 0

2 4

I •
~~~~=~ ~0/' 22 The region of
the nth turn of t his spiral. Figure 10.3.20 shows the: first five
9110
turns of the logarithmic spiral r = <' " • and the area of the: FIGURE 10.3.23 The region of
region lying between the second and third turns is shaded. 44 Problem 44.
· The shaded region R 10
.
I~ Find: cardioid, ., + .
3 3 11
fig. 10.3.23 lies in~ide both the
I (a) The: area of the region that lies between the first and Graphically . Sin and the polar cur\'c r = 3 +cos ~0.
second turns. curves· the estimate. the po'Ill1s o f ·rntcrscct .ron o f the two
· n appro~tma tc Ihe area of the: rc~tion R.
Parametric Curves SECTlON t 0.4 64 3
J0.4 l PARAMETRIC CURVES
Until now we have encountered curves mainly as graphs of equations. An equatio n
=
of the _form y = { lx) or of the form x g(y) determines a curve by giving one of the
coordmatc variables c~p:icitly as a function of the o ther. An equa tion of the form
F(x. Y} = 0 may also determine a curve, but then c:ach variable is given implicitly as
a func tion of the other.
Another important t~p~ o f curve is the trajectory of 3 point moving in the
coordinate plane. The motion of the point can t>e described by giving its position
(x(r }. ylr)) at time r. Such a description in,·oi\'CS e ~pressing both the rectangula r-
ct>ordinate variables x and y as functions of a third variable. or paramtter. r rather
tha n as functi om of one another. In this contc~t a purnmetcr is an independe nt
variable (not a constant. as is sometimes meant in po pular usage). This approach
motivates the follo...,i ng t!cfi nition.

DEFINITION Parametric Curve


A parametric ron c: C in the plane is a pair o f functions

X = / (1). )' = ,1)'(/ ), (1)

that give x andy as conlinuous functions of the real number t (the parameter) in
some interval / .

Each value of the p~rameter 1 determines a point ( /(1). g(t)) . and the set of all
such points is the l!ruph of the curve C. Often the distinction between the curve-the
pair of coordinate runctiom f nnd g~1nd the graph is not made. Therefore. we may
refer interchangeably to the curve and to its graph when the context makes clt.:ar the
I X )' intended meaning. Titc two equations in (J) arc called the parnmetrk eq uations of
the curve.
0 1 0
The graph of a parametric curve may be sketched by plotting enough points
:r I~ 1/./i l t./i to indicate its likel y sh np~. In some cases we can elimina te the parameter t and thu,
.T/2 0 1 o btain an equation in x and y. This equation may give us more information about
J:r/ 4 -lf./i l f,/i the shape of the curve.
:r - I 0
5-T/~ -1/ ./i -11./i EXAMPLE 1 D etermine the graph of the curve
3.1{2 0 -I
1:rf4 IJli -l f,/i x=cosr. y == sinl. 0 S t :ii2-r . (2)
21r 1 0
Solution Figure 10.4.1 stows 3 ta ble of values of x andy that correspond to multiples
of ;or f4 for the parame ter 1. These values give the eight points highlighted in Fig. 10.4.2,
FIGURE t0.4.t A table of vJiucs
for Example 1. all of which lie on the unit circle.lhis suggests tha t the graph is. in fact. the unit circle.
To verify this. we note th3t the fundamental identity of trigonometry gives

50 every point of the gr.~ph lies on the circle with equation x2 +f =


I. O>nverscly,
the point of the circle with angular (polar) coordinate 1 is the point (cost, sin/) of
the graph. Thus the graph is precisely the unit circle. +

What is lost in the process in Example I is the information about how the graph
is produced as t goes from 0 to 2rr. But this is easy to determine by inspection. As 1
travels (rom 0 to 2:r, the poin t (cost, sinr ) begins at (1. 0) and traveh counterclock-
wise around the circle. ending at (1. 0 ) when t = 2Jr.
A given figure: in the plane may be the graph of different curves. To speak more
FIGURE t 0.4.2 The graph of the
parametric functions of Example t • loosely, a given curve may ha\'e different parametrizations.
644 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

arametric curve
EXAMPLE 2 The graph of the p '

I_ 12 21 _ 00 < 1 < +oo


x =1 + 12 • Y -- ----,.
1 + 1·
. I I ·r2 + ).2 .
. we fin d Ita =
I here as well. If 1
a lso ties on the unit c1rclc. because . P ( r(l) y(l)) bcgms at (1, 0) a nd travels
begl' ns ~ 1 0 and increases. the n the potnt . · ' 0 and decrea ses. then the point
" , . le If t bcgms 31 ' ,. .
along the upper half of the ctrc . · half of the circle. As 1 appro:~chcs ~II her +oo
P (x(t) v(t)) travels along the lo,,er ' . ( O) Thus the g raph cons1sts of the
o r -~· the point P approaches the pmn t ~ siight modi ficat io n of the curve of
1
unit cir~lc with the single point ( - 1· O) delete · . -
A
Example I.

x= Cost . )• =sinr. -rr < t<:r,


I
I
I
I
y
I
I
I

l y:lt2 - t
is a diffe re nt pa rametrization of this same graph. •
I I
I I
I I EXAMPLE 3 Eliminate the parameter 10 d e1e rmine the g mph of the parametric
(-1. I ) (I. I)
curve

X
X =( - I. )' = 212 - 4t + I. 0~l 2 2.
(0. -I ) Solution We substitute t = x +I · n for x) in to the equation for y.
(from 1h e equa110
This yields
y = 2(x + 1)2 _ 4(x + I)+ I = 2x2 - I

- I < x < 1 Thus the graph of the r-iven curve is a portion of the parabola Y =
2~~- 1(Fi~ 10.4.3). As t increases from 0 to 2. the point (t - trave~
FIGURE 10.4.3 The curve of f
Example 3 is part of a parabola. I. 2t 2 - 4t + I )
along the parabo la from (- 1, I) to (1. 1).

REMARK 'rlte p;trabolic arc of Example 3 can be reparametri zed with

x=sint, y=2sin 2 t-l.

Now. as t increases, the point (sin r. 2 sin 2 1 - 1) travels back and fo rth along the
parabola between the two points (-I. 1) and (I. 1), rather like the bob of a pendu-
lum.

lbe parametric curve of Example 3 is one in which we can eliminate the param·
eter and thus obtain an explicit equation y = /(x). Moreover, any explicitly presented
curve y = f(x) can be viewed as a parametric curve by writing

x =r. y = /(1),
with the parameter r. taking on values in the o riginal domain of f . Dy contrast. the
o.s circle of Exam~le I Illustrate's a parametric curve whose graph is not the graph of
any single fu~cuon. (Why not!) Exam~le 4 exhibits ano tho.:r way in which parametric
y curves can d1ffer from graphs of functtons-thcy can ha\·e self-intersections.

-0 .s EXAMPLE 4 The parametric equations


_,
L-~;-:~~
X =COS(!/,
Y = sinbt
-1 -0.5 0 o.s ......
• (\\-ith a a~d b c~nstant) define t.he Lissajous curves that typica ll y appear on oscil·
FIGURE 10.4.4 The Lissajous
tosco~es m ph~stcs_ and elo.:ctromcs labora tories. 11lc Lissajous curve with a = 3 and
b =5 ts shown m_ fig. 10.4.4. You probably would not want to calculate and plot hy
curve w 'lth a = 3• b .. S.
hand enough pomts to produce a li_ssajous curve. Figure !0.4. was plo tted with
4
a computer program that generated 11 almost immediately. Dut it is perhaps more
· · to watch a slower gra h' 1 ·
mstructtve ' P tng ca culator plot a parametric curve like thiS.
/ '
Parametric Curves SECTION 10.4 645

because the curve is traced by a poin t that moves on the screen as the parameter r in·
creases (from 0 to 2:r in this case). Fo r instance. -.·ith a Tl CJiculator se t in ··pa rametric
graph mode,'" one need only enter and graph the equation~

Xr * COS ( 3T) Yr • a1n!5T)


on the int-erval 0 ~ r ::; 2:r. \\'ith .\fapl~ and Mathemarica the commands

plot ( (coa(J • t),sin r 5• t ) ,t= 0 .• 2 •p1) )1


and

Para:netrl.cPlot ( (Coa [ )•t ) • Sin I s •t )). (t, 0. 2•P1)) I

(respectively) give the same ftgurc. •


'J11c usc of parametric equations .r = ..r(l). y = y(l) is most advantageous when
e limination of the paramete r i< either imposs ible or would lead to an equatio n y =
[(.r ) that is comidcrahly more complicated than the origi nal parametric equations.
llti< oft en happen< when the curve is a ~come trie locus o r the path of a point moving
under specified cond ition<.

EXA MP lE 5 lhc curve traced by a point f' on the edge of a rolling circle is called
a cycloid. ·n ,e circl e rolls along a straight line without slipping nr stopping. (You will
sec a cydoid if you watch a patch or bright paint on the tire of a bicycle th at crosse~
your p;Hh.) J·in\1 pa rametric equation~ for the cycloid if th e li n~: ilion!! which tit ~ drd~
rolls is th·e .r·axis. the ci rri<! is above the x-axis but always tangent to il. and the pClint
P begins at the origin.
Solution Evidently the cycloid consists of a series of arches. We take as parameter r
the angle (in radians) through which the circle has turned since it began with /'at
the origin . This is the angle TC I' in Fig. 10 .4.5.
,.

P(<. y )

0 , T(ar. OJ , X

\ '~C(nt. n)

\,~lDCOSI
P (r. yl a""1 (l(aq •)

FIGURE 10.4.S The cycloid and the right triangle CPQ (Example 5).

'£11e distance the circle has rolled is 10'/l. so this is also the length of the circum-
ference subtended hy the angle TC P. Thus lOTi = ar if a is the radius of the circle,
so the center C of the rolling circle has coordinates (ar. a) when the angle TC Pis 1.
The right triangle C PQ in Fig. I0.4.5 provides us with the relations

at - x = tl sin 1 and a - y = a cos 1.


Therefore the cycloid-the path of the moving point P-has parametric equations

x = a(l - sirll). ,1'=11(1-cosf). (J)


646 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves
ows a bead sliding down a frictionless wire from
H ISTORICAl NOTE Figure 10·.4·6· Sh . - t h ·
point p to point Q.lne brachisrochrone problem ask s wh at s Jape t c wire should be
169
to min imize the bead's time of descent from I' to Q. In June of 6, John Bernoulli
proposed the brachistochronc problem as a public challenge. With a 6-month_ deadline
(later extended to Easter !697 at Leibniz's requc~t). Isaac N.:wwn. t~lcn rcllrcd from
academic life and scn·ing as Warden of the :VIint in Lond.on, received Bernoulli's
challe nce on Januarv 29.!697. The n:ry next day he communicated IllS own solution-
the cur~·c of minim.al descent time is an arc of an inverted cycloid- to the Royal
Society of London.
FIGURE 10.4.6 A bead sliding
down a Wlre-the b rachistochrone lines Tangent to Parametric Curves
problem.
'lne parametric curve .r = [(I ) . y = g(l ) is called smooth if the derivntives J'(t) and
g ' (l) are co ntinuous and never simultaneously zero. In so me neighborh ood of each
point of its graph. a smooth parametric curve can he described in one or possibly both
of the forms y = F(.r ) and .r == G( y ) . To sec why this is so. suppose (for example) that
/'(I ) > 0 on the interval / . TI1en [ (1) is an increasing functio n o n I and therefore
has :m inverse function 1 == ¢(.r) th ere. If we substitute 1 =
¢(:c) into the equation
)' = g (t), then we get
y = g(¢ (x )) = F (x) .

We can usc _the chain rule to compute the slope dy f d x of th e line tangent to a
:~i~~>~~ par:lmctnc curve at a given point. Differentiating y = F (x ) with re spect to

dy d,· d:c
dl = d~. dl.
so
tly _ tlyf tlr g'( l )
tfx - tl.r f tlr = /'Ct )
(4)

at :my point where


but g'(r ) # 0.
['(I) # 0· ·n1c tan •ent . . . .
' g hnc IS vcrucal at any point whe re f' (t) =0
Equation(~) gives y' = dy f dt 'IS a r .
respect to I, again ;ith the aid of thc,ch air~ncu.on ,of I. '~not her differentiation with
rule, results In the formula
dy'- d.
- 1i
.
dr
dl - dx . dl.
so
t/: ,. ,.
-.:.. - ( y til·' / tit
dr' - -,-
. 11 ·'
= -'----
r/.r/1/1 · (5)

EXAMPLE 6 Calculatetly/dx andtJ2y; 2 f


r.1x or the cycloid Wllh
. the parametricequa·
tions in (3).
Solution We begin with
.r = a(l -sin t).

I
>'=a (I -cost). (3)
Til en Eq. (4) gives
tly dyftlt .
I -J = - - a SIO I .
t .r tlxjd1 - (I _ Sill/
1
This derivative is zero whc . a - cos ) I - cos 1 · (6)
h . . n y IS an odd . .
onzontal at the midpoint r . . tntcgralmult' 1
correspond to c•·cn integra~ n e~ch arch or the cycloi~p .~ of 7T ·so the tangent line is
11
nominator in Eq. (6) are z~r 1 ~~lplcs of :r, where b ·h e endpoints of the arch es
cycloid fails to be a smooth o. esc arc isolated ?t the numerator and the de·
curve· (Se c Fi1g. 10.4.7.)POints (call c·d msps) at which the
Pclratmtroc Curve5 SECTION 10.4 64 7

FI GURE 10.4.7 Horizontal Ll'\~nu and cusps of th~ cycloid.

Kext. E.q. (5) yields

d~y (cos t )( I- cost) - (sin t l(sinl)


1
tl:x = (1-cost)l·a(l-co~l) = -a(l -cost) 1 .
Because d yf d.r2 < 0 fo r ali t (except fo r the i~ola tcd even integral multiples of :r).
2

t h i~ sho"'; thnt each arch of the C)·doid i~ concave do wnward (Fig. IOA.S). •

REMARK In Fig. 10..1.7 11 appears that the C)·cloid h:u a vertical tangent line at
each cusp point (211.~ 0 . (I) We can vcnfy thts ob~er,at ion by calculating the limit as
I - 2mr of the d.:rivatl\c on (6). Using l' ll6pitars rule. we get

. rly . sin 1 • cos 1


Iom -
t- J.• tl.t
= t-lornIn• I- CO~ I
., 1om - - = ±oo.
,_u,,
sin I
because cos 1 - I and ~in 1 - 0 as 1 - 2n:r . The limit is +oo or -oo according as
I uppmachcs 2111r from the right or the left . In either event, we conclude that the
tangent line is. indeed. \ er tical at the cusp point.

EXAMPLE 7 It would be impractical to attempt to graph t he curve


x3 = 2l -Sy' + 9y (7)

r ,_._ hy solving for y n~ a function of x. But we can parametrize this curve by defining

)' = '· X= (21


6
- 51
4
+ 91) 1' 3. (8)
Figure 10.4.8shows a computer plot of this parametric curve for -2.5 ~ 1 ~ 2.5. We sec
at least fou r likely critical and inHection point~ It appears that there are horizontal
tangent lines at the points P1 and 1'1 on the y.a ,is. and vertical tangent lines at P3
,. . .. and f'4• Let's investiga te the character of these points by calculating the pertinen t
derivatives.
FIGURE 10.4.8 The parametric To investigate the possibility of horizontal and vertical tangent lines, we usc
curve of Example 7. Eq. (~) to calculate th e first derivative
dy dyftlt 3(2t 6- s1• + 9t)?tJ
tlx = tl.r/tlt = 121' - 20tl + 9 · (9)

Using a computer algebra system. we find that the only real zeros of the polynomial
216 - 51 4 + 91 in the numcrutor are r = 0 and 1 :::: - 1.8065. These values of 1 yield
the points f't (0. 0) and /~ ( -0.00002~22. -1.86065). respectively, tha t arc shown in
the figure. Thus I~ docs not lie precisely on the y·:nis. after all.
The denominat or polynomial12t 5 - 20t 3 + 9 in (9) has only the single real zero
1 :::: -2.5587. wh ich yields the single point /'.l( -2.5587. -1.3941) on the curve where
the tangent line is vertica l. In p;orticular, there is 110 vertical tangent line neur the
point /'. indicated in the llgu.r~. . . . . .
To investigate the posstbohty of posstblc mflecuon potnts. we use Eq. (5) and a
computer algebra system to calculate the second derivative

d 2y d (dy) . dx
d;xl = dt tlx .,. dt
6(21 6 - St' + 91)ti3(36t 10 - 150t8 + 501 6 + 5941$- 450t 3 - 8 1)
= (12tl- 2013 + 9)J (10)
648 CHAPTER 10 p0 1 C .
ar OOrdonatt>s and Parametric Curvt'S

l h e two trinomial~ that appear in the numera l~~ and dc;nominator here are the same
as those in (9). and correspond 10 the three c:nttcal pomts already found. Our corn.
puter algebra system reports that the tcnth·degree numcrntor p olynomial in (IO)
has only two real zeros: t ::::: 1.0009 and I ::::: - 2.2614. Titcse two zeros of the sec.
ond deri\·ative yield the two points P.(l.ll172. l.OOO"J) and !'s< 4.8820. -2.261-1) that
are shown in the Iieure.
_ It is visually clear lh:ll
. the
. conc:avlly
b of the curve . changes
at /~-where dyj dx ::::: 0.9063 so the tangent 1!nc IS steep ut not vcrttcal-butthe
character of the rema ining point is not so ob,··~~s. Ncvcrt h~lcss. you can graph the
second derivative in (10) to ,·crify that it is posJtJVC 10 th e. n g ht :111d negative to the
left of / j-so this final Clndidate is. indeed. also an mflccuon pomt.
Finally. because our viewinJ: window in fig. 10.-1.8 is large enou~:h to include
all the critical points and inflection points on the curve in (7)-and since it is clear
from the equations in (8) that 1x1a nd IYI - oo as It I - co-we arc assured that the
figure shows all of the princip.1l features of the curve. •

Polar Curves as Para metric Curves


I
I
t\ curve given in polar coordinates by the equation r = /(0) can be regarded ;15 a
p arametric curve wirh parameter e. To sec this. we recall that the cquations.r = r cosO
I an~)' = ' sin 0 allow us ro change from polar to rectangular coordinates. We replace
I r wtth /(0). and thi~ gil'cs the parametric equations
I

I .r = /Ctl)cu,fl. y= /(ll)sin/1,

which express .r :md yin rerms of rhc parameter 0.


(II)

EXAMPLE 8 The spiral of Arrhimrdrs has Ihe polar·coordinate equation r = a!J


(Fig. 10.4.9). 'llzc equations in (II) give the spiral the parame trization

.r=nOcosO. y=aOsinO.

,.

...

FtG~RE 10.4.9 The spiral of


Archomede1 (Example B).

lhe slope dyfdx o f a tangent I'


l ordinates as well as rectangular c ~~e can b~ computed in term s of pelar Cl~
/(9) , we usc the parametrization s~r :1 tcs. Gt.vcn a polar·coordinatc curve ' -
10
gives · own 111 ( I I). l11co Eq. (4). with 0 in plac.: oft.

(Ill
Parametric Curves SEOION 10.4 649

o r, alternatively, denoting f'(O) by r ' ,

dy r ' sin fl + r cos O


- = -- - - , - - (13)
t/r r' ccx ll -r ~in ll'

Equation (13) h as the following useful consequence. Let y denote the an·
gle bet ween the tangen t I ine at P and the radius 0 p (extended) from the origin
(Fig. 10.4.10). Then

I dr
cut 1/f = -r · t!O
- 10 ~ ~~ ~ r. ). (14)

ln Problem 32 we indicate how Eq. (14) can be derived from Eq. ( 13).
y y

, . ~·


FIGURE 10.4.10 The interpretation of FIGURE 10.4.11 The angle 1/1 is always
the ang le.;,. (See Eq. (14).) 45' for the logarithmic spiral
(Example 9).

EXAMPLE 9 Consider the logarithmic spiral with polar equation r = e-~ . Show that
1ft = 1r / 4 at every point of the spiral, and write an equation of its tangent line at the
point (c•t2, 1r /2).

Solution Because tlr ! dO = <'9 , Eq. (14) tells us that cot 1ft = t!1 ! e'1 = I. Thus t/J =
rt / 4. Whcnt9 = :r/2, Eq. (13) gives
tly c·•i2 sin(;r / 2) + c•ll cos(:r./2)
- = =-I.
tlx e·• i2 coS(T'f /2) - e·• /1 sin(;r./2)
But when 0 =
rr /2. we have x = 0 andy = c-'12• It follows that an equation of the
desired tangent line is
)'- C/2 = -x; that is. X+)'= e•t2.
The line and the spiral appear in Fig. 10.4.11.

0 10.4 TRUE/FALSE STUDY GUIDE
10.4 CONCEPTS: QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION
1. Pick two points A and 8 in the plane. lben define a parametrization
P(t) = (x(t), y(l)) of the line segment AB such that P(O) = A and /'(1) = 8.
2. Pick two points A and II equidistant from lhe origin. Then define a para·
mctrization of a circular arc A/J such that /'{0) = A and P( 1) = 8.
3. Pick two points A and 8 on the parabola y = x2 • TI1cn define a parametriza.
tion of the paralxlla such that P(O) = A and /'(1) B. =
4. Let A and 8 be two points on a given parametric curve. Is it always pos-
sible to define :t parametrization of the curve such that P(O) =A and
P(l) =
8?
650 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

10.4 PROBLEMS

In Prohlrm < I rhroug/1 12. d iminare the paramnrr and then


5
~
:
sketch the cun·c.
J
I. X =I + I. )' = 2r- I 2
I
2. x =t 2
+ I. y =2t 2
- I y 0
3. x = r1 • y =r 3 -I
-2
4. X = .Ji. )' = 31 - 2 -J
5. X =I + I. )' =212 - I - I -~
2 J • 5 - 1 -0.5 0 0.5
-~) - 2 - I 0 I
6. X = 11 + 3t . )' =I - 2 •
1 . .• ="'· y = 4r FIGURE 10.4.12 The curve of
FIGURE 10.4.13 The curve of
Problem 26.
8. x = 2e'. y = 2r.- ' Problem 25.
9. x = 5cosr. y =3sint 29. n 1e curve C is dc re rmincd by the P?ra mc,lric equations
10. x =sinh t. y = cosh r .r =..-•. y =cl' . Calcul a te d y/dX and d · yjdx·. d1rcctly from
ll.x = 2co~ht . y =3sinht these parame1ric equat ions. Co nclutlc that CIS concave up-
wa rd a t every point. ll1cn ske tch C.
12. .t= 5CCI. )' =13111
;10. 111c graph o f the fo lium of D~scartcs with rectang ular equa-
In Problems 13 through 16, fi rst diminat~ rl.- pammrrcr and tio n .xl + yJ =3X)' appca~ in f'ig. 10.4.14. Parametrize irs
skt'lcllthe t:rtrvc. Then tlcscrrb~ tl:c m otion of tlr~ p oint (x(l). y (l)) loop as follows: Le t f' be the po in t o r inrc~ectiun of the
as t variej· in the gi~·en inurval. line y =
rx with the loop ; then soh•e fo r the coordinates .r
13. x = sin2:rr. y = co<2:r t; O;;i r ;;i I and y of I' in terms of r.

14. x = 3 + 2cos t. y = 5 - 2sinr; 0 ~ t :£ 2.-r y

IS. x =sin 2
:r t. y =ros 1
:r r; 0 ;a t :) 2
16. x =cost. y = sin r: 2
- :r :;i t :;l :r

{n Prnbl<'m.r 17 tlrmuglr 20. (a ) fir.sr write the equation of tire


/inc wngt•nt to rhr gh ·(•n paramt·rrrc curve at the pointthm cor-
2
re.<pmld., to tlrr gi ,·,·n •·a/ur •>f t. ami (I>) then calcrtlate tfl y I d r
to dctt•flnin~ wherJu~r the curve i.\' conca•·e up•~·aNI or conctn:e
do wnh'ard tllthi.f p u inr.
17. x = 2t 2 + t. y = 3t 3 + 2: t = I
18. x = cos 3 1. y =sin} r: t = n/4 FIGURE 10.4.14 The loop of the
folium of Descartes (Proble m 30).
19. X = tsint, )' = /COSt; I= n/2
31. Parame~rize the par;rbola >.2 = -lpx by expressing .rand y
20. x =~"· y=c-': t =0 as functoo ns of the slope m of the tange nt line ;tt the point
Jn Problmrs 21 thmugh U. find the anglr t/1 bctwr•t•n tire radirt< l'(x. y ) of the parabola . -
0 f' and the tt111gmt line at rh~ poirrt r that correspond.1 to the 32. Let I' ~ a point nf the curve with polar equa tion r = / (8).
giVt:ll mlue of 0. and let"' he the angle between the extended radius OPand
21. r=cxp (o JJ). 0=.-r/ 2
22. r = l /0. fJ =l the tangent . line •at p · l .c. 1"' b c 11c
1 angle of 1nchnat1U11
· · · o f t h.IS
tanc~nt hnc me·• ·d . .
23. r = sin 38. 0 = ~/6 24. r = I -cosO. 0 =n j J ta I.
-
Then t/1
·
- rr
· s ure co untcrclockwtsc fro m the honzon·
_ 0 v . . f E
" .
1 . - · " Y q. ( l·l)by substitutmgta na ='
11
'h>'l•..1t 110111 Eq. (IJ) and lan O yfx = (s infl)/ (c;,sOJ into
=
In Prohlems 25 tlrrortgh 28, f ind t c 1dcntaty
(tt) The puints on the ctlfl't' whrre the umgmtlin~ is hnri·
:ontal.
(b) Tlte slop<' of eaclt rang':nl lin~ at arty [JfJint ..-here th~ cot t/1 = I + tan a tanO
wn•e intersuts the x ·a.rt.t
t:ln{a - 0) = tan a - tan 0

.zs. x = 1z, y = rl - 3r (Fig. 10.4.12) 33. Let


· Po be
· the higllCSt pornt
· of the circle uf f'ig. 10..15- 1hc
c1rc 1c. that g· cncratcs the cycloid of F.xample- 5. Show th~l
26• x =sin 1, y =sin 2r (Fig. 10.4.13) 11IC 1me through ll d 1 . ·
p· h . u an t1c potnt P o f the cvcl0id (the pol01
ISs nwn on fig 10 4 S) . · .1._..
27. , = 1 +coso r · · · · IS tangent to the cycloid a t /'. ""
act 8"'c~ a geometric construction of the line tan~ent 10
%8. ,z = 4 cos 28 (See fig. I 0.3.15.) 1
lh C C)'C Old. -
Parametric Curves SECTION 10.4 651
'-' A circle of rad ius b rolls without 5 lipp'1ng · 'd . f
• . . . '"" c a c~rc 1e o Archimede1 viev. ed the path o f I' as compounded of two
rnd1us a > /J. l11 c path of~ pomt fhcd on th · f
. · · c cucum ere nee motions. or.e with speed a directly away from the o rigin
of the ro.II1ngmc1c I Hailed a h.~Pr>eyct01 d ( Fi £. lOA. IS). Let
0 and another a circular motion with unit nngu!Jr speed
[' bcg m I" JOt~rn~y nt A(tl, 0) and lett b-.: the angle AOC, around 0 . This sugges ts Archim~dcs' result tha t the line
" here 0 1s the ... un...~ c ·1.5 th e cen·
. center of the large eire!", PQ in the figure is tangent to the spiral at P. Prove th at this
· , o f p are
te r of the rolling Circle. Show that the coord ma,es
is indeed true.
gh·cn by the parametric equations
38. (a) Deduce from Eq. (6) thJt if 1 is not an integral mu ltiple
x = (a- b) cos t + OC(JS (a~ bt). of 2.~. then the s!opc of the tanscnt line at the correspond·
ing po1nt of the cycloid tS cow j 2l. (b) Conclude that nt the
cusp of the cycl01d whae 1 is an integ.ra l multi ple of 2.:r , the
)'=(a - b)sin t -bsin (a;bt). cycloid h:~s a \CnJCal tange nt line.
39. A lo.wdromr is n cun·c r = [ (8) such tha t the tangent line
at rand the radius OP in Fi2. 10.4. 10 make n constant an·
g!c. Csc Eq. ( I~) to pro'c th>t eve ry loxod romc is of the
form r = A<""." here A and k arc constants.. 'Ill us every lox·
odrome ts a loganthmic spiral s1milar to the one considered
in Example 9.
40. Let a eun·e be d<!scribcd in (Xlfar coordinatl'S by r /!9) =
where f i< cnntinunu<. If [(al "'0. then the origin is the
po1n t of the curve cn rrc,rcmding 1<1 0 = a . Deduce from the
pnramctritation ·' "' [It' ) cos II ,,>·= flO) sin !I that the line
tan gent to the curve nt this po int mnkcs lhc angle a wit h
the positi'e .r·nxis. FM exam ple. the cardioiJ r = [CO) =
I- ;inO shown in Fig. 10.4. 17 is tangent tn the y·axis a t the
origin. 1\nd. indeed, / (rr/2) =0. The y·axis is the line
0 =a = .~/2.
FIGURE 10.4. 15 The hypocycloid of
Problem 34 .

35. If b =af 4 in Problem 34, ~how that the parame tric equa· ' • 1- t;in9
tions of the hypocycloid reduce to
. t.
y = a sm· '
36. (a) Prove that the hypocycloid of Problem 35 is the graph
of t!he equation
x'" + / " = am.
(bf Find all points of this hypocycloid where its tangent
line is either horizontal or vc rtic:tl , a nd find the intervals on FIGURE 10.4.17 The cardioid
which it is concave upward and those on which it i~ conC3\'C of Problem 40.
downward. (c) Sketch this hypocycloid.
37. Consider a point P on the spiral of Archimedc~ the 41. Usc the technique of Problem 30 to parametrize the first·
curve shown in Fig. 10.4.16 with polar equation r = aO. quadr~nt loop of the folium·like curve .ts + _.~ = 5.t 2y2.
42. A line segment of length 2a has o ne endpoint constrained
to lie on the .r·a.is and the other endpoint constrained to
lie on the y·uxis. but its endpoints are free to move along
those u~~s. As Uwy d<:> so. its midpoint sweeps out a locus
in the xy·plane. Obtain a reetangular·coordinate equation
of this locus and thereby identify this cun·e.
' '
'\\ /11 l'rohlem s -IJ-46.• ilt vtstigate (as i11 t:xample 7) rhe givm curvr
I
Polar ui.s ami construct a sketch that .shows all tire crirical poims tmd in·
flection points on it.
43. X= ).J- 3y2 + I
4-l X = )'"- 3y' + 5y
45• .r) =yS -Syl + 4
FIGURE 10.4 .16 The segment PQ is
tangent to the spiral (a result of 46. ..s = 5/- 17yl + 13y
Archim~es; see Problem 37).
652 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

10 4 Project· Trochoid ln,·estigations . .


· • k· e of a wheel of rad1us a as 11 rolls along
· I' on a spo ' .
A trochoid is traced by a po•nt ', ntcr of the rolling whecl1s b > 0. show that
the x·aXJS. · • of P from t 11 " ce
· If the d1stancc tric equations
the trochoid is described by the p:~ramc
y:::: a- bcost.
x =at- bsinr.

-
I
-2~

,.
FIGURE 10.4.18 TI1e trochoid with o = 2 and b =4.

Note that the trochoid is a familiar cycloid if b =a. We allow the possibility that
b>a. Figure 10.4.18 shows the trochoid with a = 2 and b = 4. Experiment with
different values of a and b. \Vhnt determines whether the trochoid has loops. cusps, or
neither'!

Hypotrochoids
FIGURE 10.4.19 The A hypot rochoid is to a hypocycloid (Problem 34) as a trochoid is to a cycloid. Thus
hypotrochoid with a = 10, b = 2, a hypotrochoid is traced by a point P on a spoke of a wheel of r:ulius bas it rolls
c = 4. around insid.: a circle of radius tt . If the distance of P from the center of the rolling
'~heel is c > 0. show that the hypotrochoid is described by the parametric equa·
I lOllS

(lt-11)
.r =(a - b) cosr + ccos -
0
-r .
Y. = (a- b) Sill
. I .
- C Sill (a- b )
-b-t .

Note that the hypotrochoid is a hypocrcloid if c =b 11 . , ·


ways ·1 h\'pOtroch(1· . • k Fi • · Jere .He a number of d1fferent
. .• . • • lu can 1oo . ·•gurcs 10.4.19 and 10 . • . . 'I·
IIJ<!S. Experiment wit h differen t v·tlues .4.20 Illustrate two poss1b1
the trochoid has I<>Op• custJS < ' . h of a· IJ, and c. What det ermines whether
' ,, · · · lr neu cr? If tl
FIGURE 10.4.20 The many there arc'! Docs a h\'potro h .d · Jere are loops. what determines how
hypo trochoid with o = 10, b = 4, · , c 01 always re · If · be
of turns around th e origin? \VIJat h . peat ttse after a !imtc num r
c = 2. number'! · • appcns 1f · · ·
a IS an tnteger hut b is an irr:ttiOnJ1

Epitrochoids
An t•pitroclwid is gem:ratcd in th
. . II . I II · c same wav
sn1.1 cue c ro s around on the outsid, ' ' "•s· a I1ypotrochmd.
. except now th.c
otherwise, show that the epitrocho'd. c of ll~c large circle. With the same notllion
I IS dcscnbcd b h
Y t c parametric equations
x = (a+ b) cos r - c cos ( ~: b r).
.
11
Y :::: (a + b) sin 1 - c sin ( ; b r).
Ir b=c-so the pomt plies 0 h .
.1s an eptcyc n t c nm or h
. Imt., ('Illustrated · n Fi
1. • • 1 'Jg. 104 21) t e rolling CJrc · 1 h · ochoid
C, I1lCn I C cpllf
FIGURE 10.4.21 The epitrochoid h1. and c,han.~.~nvcs!lgate for epitroch~,:d .hExpcriment with different values of a.
l = =
with a= 10. b 2, c 2. ypotroc 01...,. s t c sam for
~lila.:.________________________
1
e questions posed previous Y
lnlegral Computations with Param~tric Curves SECTION 10.5 65 3

J0.5 ' INTEGRAL COMPUTATIONS WITH PARAMETRIC CURVES


In C'h~pl cr 6 we d1~cus<ed 1hc compu1:11ion of n variety of geometric c1uanti1ies
M<ocialcd \\i lh I he graph y = f (x) of a nonncgalivc funclio n on 1hc in1c rval (a , b).
111csc included 1hc follo"ing.

• ll1c area unde r Ihe cu rve:


(I)

• l11c volume o f revolulion around Ihe .r-axis:

V, = 1•:r_,.: dx . (2n)

• 'll1e volume o f revolution around the y-axis:

\1 1= [b2;u y t/.r. (2b )

• 'll1c arc lenglh of I he curve:

s
1' =lb
=0 • d.t VI + (tly/d.r)Zdx. (3)

• 'll1e area of Ihe surface of revolulion around the x-axis:

1'·'·" S, = 2rry ds . (4u)

• 'l11c area of Ihe surface of revolulion around they-axis:

s, = 1•'"" 2:r x tis . (4h)

We substitute y =
f(x) into each of these integrals before we integrate from .r a =
tO .t =b.
We now wantlo compute these same quantities for a smooth parametric curve

x = / Ct). ,V = g (t). tt ~ I ~ {1. (S)

The area, volume. arc length, and surface integrals in Eqs. ( 1) t hrough (4) can the n
be evaluated by making the formal substitutions

.r = /(1), y= g(l),

1/X = J'<l) t/1. tly = g ' (l) tit . nnu (6)


df = J lf'U> F+Ig'c n)!dt.

The infinitesimal "right triangle" in Fig. 10.5.1 serves as a convenient device for
remembering the latter subs-titution for tk The Pythagorean theorem then lends to
FICURE I O.S. I Nearly a right the symbolic manipulation
triangle for dx and dy close to
le<'O.

( -tlx)~
I 1 I
+ (''~')!
-1· lit = Jl f'CI)]2 + (!.: '11)]! tit
l/ ' ' (7)

Jt simplifies the discussion to assume that the graph of the parametric curve
=
in (S) resembles Fig. 10.5.2, in which y g(t) ~ 0 and x =
/ (1) is either increasi ng on
654 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coord inates and ParametriC Curves
. d creasing there. The t wo parts o f Fig. 10.5.2 illus.
y t he entire intef\·al a;; I ;; f3 or 15 e ·,ncrcases the cuf\'C is traced in the posi tiv-
'bT · whether as 1 . '
t •ll Irate the two ~st 1 tUcs,- . h ega ti ve x ·directio n from nght to left. llow
x·dircction from left t~ n~ht. ~r ft ~:rio~ into account depends on which integral
111

...__/
I I
and whether to take thts dtrecuon n
we are computing.
.
C\SI~ I Area and Volume 0 .
°
{ Rcrolution To eva lu ate the integrals in (I) a nd (2).
fl tot = a-th =
_ 10 1 == 11 or from 1
I I
I
I
I
I • 1vc r1.t, we ·mteg rate
• 11111\'0
w I11c • . cuher from Ih -a rr ·sponds'' to traversing th e cttr,·c ·c
I I . f) ' . be no th e one t a t co c tn
proper chotec o 1n11IS on r 1 , . .
a b th e positi"e x-dircction from left to right. Spcctficall}.
(a) /UI incrasing

I •(I

,.,__/ I
I
I
I
whereas

A= [ g(t ) /' (I) tit if /({J) < [(a).

I I
I
I
The validit)' or this me thO<! of c\'alunting the in tegrals in Eqs. (I) a nd (2) follows
• b
from TI1corem I of Section 5.7. on integration by substitution.

CASE 2 Arc Length and Surfau Art'a To evalua te the integrals in (3) and (4).
FIGURE 10.S.2 Tracing a which in,·oh·e lis rather than r/x, we into.:gratc from t = a to 1 = f3 irrespective of
parametriLcd curve: (a) f(l)
the direction of motion along the curve. To sec why this is so. recall from Etl. {-I) of
increJ~1ng ; (b) 1( 1) decrea~in g .
Section 10.4 tha t tlyjdx = g'(t)f ['(t) if ['(I)"# 0 on (a. fl[. Hence

= 1 \I + =1,- \I + [~
~ (dy)
1 1
.<,>]2
(h)
s I -1 dx I f'( t ) dt .
" t X f
f ·l(•) ' (f)

Assuming that ['(t) > 0 if [ (a) = a and f(/J) = b. whe reas J'(t ) < 0 if J(a) = band
[({J) =a. it follows in e ither event tha t

s --
1~ I1 +
a \
[g'(t)]2
['(t) I[ .(I )Jdt.

and so

f = 1~ / !f'<t>Jl + (g'<llF tit = [' (-,tlx) + (tly):


2
-1 tit. (8)
t I t I

ll1 is formula, derived under the assum )lion 1 ,


to be the definition of arc le nRth fo r an 1 . hat f (I) # 0 on (a. fl). ma y he to ken
11
the area of a surface of re\';hllinn 'is ~;li::~ar}: smooth parame tric curve. SimiiJrly.
y result of first substituting Eq. (6) into E ( a d lor sm ooth para m e tric curves as th~
to t = p. q. 4 ) or ( 4b) and then integrating from t :=a

EXAMPlE 1 Use the parametri~~, ·


· 1 ·h .... 10n r - a
ctrc e wu center (0. 0) and radius a ~ fi-d cos t . y =
volume V of the sphere obtained b
10 1 a sin 1 (0 :i 1 :i 2:r) of th~
. (a) t he area A of this circle: (b) th~
• (') th' surface areaS of this sphere. y revolvmg the 'irde around t he x · nxis: 3nJ

FIGURE 10.5.3 The quarter<lrcle Solution (a) The lcft·lo· right d ' ·
. trectton nlon h
of Example 1. t
ts from = "/2 tot = 0, and dx = -a sin
1
t}
t e quarter circle shown in Fi!!· 10..5.3
• Therefore Eq. (I) and multiplicnuon
lntegrdl Computatlom with Pat4metiic Curves SECTION 1O.S 655
by 4 give

A= 4 f y dx = 4 J.o (asin 1){-a sin 1) d1


l ta '!! /2 rr(!

= 4a 2 Jo
t {2 sin 2
1 d1 = 2a 1Jo
r {2 (I -cos 2r ) dr
I • f2
~ • ., 1T 2
= 2a· [ I - Sin 21 ] O = 2a· · = ;ra
2 2
ror yet another derivation of the familiar formula 11 = :ra 1 Cor the area o f :1 ci rcle of
r ad ius a.
(b) To calculate the ,·olume of the sphere. we apply Eq. (2a) and double to ge t

V = 2 f :r>; dx
},=.'f l2
=2 [,
6 {2
:r(a sin 1) 2( - a sin r dt) = 2rrn3
10
·• f2
(I - cos 1 1) sin ulr

= 2na 3 [-coH + ~COSJ IJ •fl =:!Tal.


3 0 3
(c) To find the su rface area of the sphere. we calculate first the arc-lengt h
d iffe rential

tis = Jc -a sin r) 2 +(a cos 1)2 rlr =a dr


of the parametrized curve. Titen Eq. (4a) gives

1•112:r(a si nt) · adt


1
• 11
5=2 2:ryds =2
,..o 0

= 4;ra 2 fo
6

!l sin 1 d1 = 4na
2
[-cos 1 J:fl = 4;ra 2.

Of course, the results of Example I arc familiar. In contrast. Example 2 requires
the methods of this section.

EX AMPL E 2 Find the area under. and the arc length of. the cycloidal nrc'h or
' iFig. !0.5.4. Its parametric equations are
.r=ll(l-sinl). y = a(l-cosr ). 0 ~ 1 ;:! 2:r.

Solution Because clx =a (I - cos t) dr and the left-to-right direction along the curve
=
is from r 0 to 1 = 2:r. Eq. (I) gives
FIGURE 10.5.4 The (y(loldal arch 26
of E•ample 2. A= { ydx
ltoO

= 12.• c1(1- cost)· a(!- cos t )dr = a 12.•( I - cosr)2 dt 2

(or the area. Now we usc the half-angle identity

1 - cost= 2sin 2 (~)

a nd a consequence o r Problem 58 in Sectio n 8.3:

r
}0
sinln II dll = If · !
2 4
· ~ · 6~ .. ·~
211 ·
656 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

We thereby get

A == 4a 2
. ~ (!..)
12.' sm 2 Jo
4
tit == 8a2 f" s in u du
0

-- Sa·~ . .•~ . -21 . 3-4 :=


...
.):fQ
2

·cJoid 1lte arc-le ngth differe ntial is


for the area under one arch o f t h e ~ ·
2
tis == / a Z(I _cos ! ) 2 + (a sin 1) tit

==a / 2(1 _ cos I ) dt = 2n sin ( D dt.

so Eq. (3) gives


2.•
s = 1b
2n sm
.
2
I
dt == [ - 4a cos 2
!_
]0 =Sa
for th e len gth of one arch of the cycloid. •
Parametric Polar Coordinates
Suppose thai a paramet ric cur\'e is dete rmined by giving its po lar coordinates

r = r(l). O =tl( l ) . a :i"; 1 ;£ fl

as fu nct ion~ o f the para meter t.1ltcn this curve is described in recta ngula r coordinates
by the parametric equations

x(l ) = r ( l ) cos O(t ), y(t) = r(t )sin O(l). a~ ~ ~ {J.

giving x andy as functions of 1. llte latter parametric equ atio ns ma y then be u..<cd in
the integral formula s in Eqs. (I) through (.t).
To compute ds. we first calculate the derivatives
dr dO dy .
tlx
- = (cosO )- - (rsin O) - .
dt dt dt
-
11I
= (sm O) -d
dr
I
+ (r cos O) -dO
til
.

Upon s~b~tituting t~esc cxp~cssions for dx f dt and d yf dl in Eq. (8) and making
algebratc stn:phficauons. we find that the arc-length differential in p arametric polar
coordmates ts

ds= \ l (dr
- ):
dt
+ ( r t/0)2
-
tit
d1 . (9)
0

FIGURE 10.5.5 The diHerential


In the case of a curve with the explicit polar coo rd ' t
. · ·• •
use 0 ttself as the parameter. Then Eq (9) takes th · f
·
ma e equat1on r = f ((} ),we m'''"·
triangle in polar coordinates. · e s1mp1er o rm

1
t/s = \/ ( "' ) + r ! 1/(l (10)
' dO '

The formula tis = V(dr)l + (r d0)2 c · ·


the aid of the tiny "almost-triangle",shqutva~ent to Eq. (9), is easy to remember wtth
own tn Fig. 10.5.5.
EXAMPLE 3 Find the perimeter ( I· .
r = 1 + cosO (Fig. 10.5.6.). Find als~~h~ngth) s of the cardioid with polar c~uatto~
cardioid around the x-axis. surface area S generated by rcvoh1ng th

Solution Becausedr/tiO =-sinO c (


' q. IO) and the identity
FIGURE 1o.5.6 The cardioid of
Example 3. 1 + coso == 2 cos2 ( ~) (til
Integral Computations w ith Parametric Curves SECTION 10.5 657
give

ds = Jc -sinW + (I+ cos0)2 dO= J2(1 + cosO)dO

=J 4cosl G) dO = l2cos (DIdO


.
El encc ds = 2 cos(O / 2) dO on the upper half of the cardioid. where 0 ::l 0 ~ rr. and
t hus cos(O / 2) ~ 0. Therefore

The su rface area of revolution around the .r-a.~is (Fig. 10.5.7) is given by

S= 1' 9=0
2.:ryds

= 1' z:r cr sinOlds = f" z.:r(l + cose)(sinO>. 2cos (D do


9dl fo
fiGURE 10.S.7 The surface
generate d by rotating the cardioid = 16:r
1.
0 2
0(l
2
[ 2
cos• -sin-dn = 16:r -- cos 5 -
5 2
0]. =
0
3211
--
5
around t.he x-axis.
using the identi ty

sinO= 2sin (0 (0 cos

.as well as the ide nt ity in Eq. (I I ).



@ 10.5 TRUE/ FALSE STUDY GUIDE
10.5 CONCEPTS: QUESTIONS AND DISCUSSION
I. If the circle of radius a is parametrized by x = a cos r, y = a sin r as in Exam-
ple I , explain care fully why th<! integral

1
2

1={)
y d.r = 1'r -;:0
ytlx + 12.'t =:t
y dx

docs n o r give the correct area of the circle. R elate the two integrals on the
right to the upper and lower halves of the circle.
=
2. If the circle of radius a is parametrized by x a sin 11 r , y a cos ;rt , explain =
carefully why the integral

1 1
t• O
y d.r = 11/1 + 13/2
t c.O
yd.r
r• l/2
yd.r +
12
t • 3!2
y d.r

dot's give the correct area. Relate the three integrals on the right to appro-
priate parts of the circular area.

10.5 PROBLEMS
In Probl~ms 1 rllrnuglr 6, find rile area of 1/re ugion rlrol lies In l'mblem.r 7 rhrouglr 10, fintl rhe •·olwne obtained by rt•vulving
bcrwttn the gi•'~'" paramt•tric cun·t> and thr X·tui.t around rhe X· fl.ris rhe region tlescrib..cl in rhe givm proMttn
l.x=rJ.y=2Jl+l: -l~r ~ l 7. Problem I II. Proble m 2
2. .r = ,.:.., y = .,-•; O~r ~ ln2 9. Problem3 10. l'roblcm S
3. x=cosr.y=sin r; O~t :i lT 1
In Problems II rlrrough 16,finc/ rlre arc lmgrlr ofrlre givm crm ·c.
4. .r = 2 - 3r, y = e z, ; 0 ~ 1 ~ I 11 • .r=21, y= jrl11 ; 5 :;; r :; l2
S.x =cos r,y=<"; O ~ r :i JT
6..r=l -<".y=21+ 1; o :;; r :; t l1..r = ~r 1 • y = \ rl; O:i t :ii l
658

13. x
CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

= sin 1 - cos 1. y = sin 1 + cosr: i ;r ~ 1 :i l :r 31 Fm . d t h e ar ea of the surface obtained


• troid of Problem 29 around the x-axls.
. by revolvino, the •S·

"
14. x = t' sin 1. y = t' cos 1: 0:; 1 ~ :r
3' fin d t h e area Of the surface generated by . revoh·ing
. the le-
..,.
IS. r = ~12 : 0 ~ 8 ~ -l:r 01
=
•· ·scate rl 2al cos 20 around the y-ax1s (F1g. 10.5.9).[Sug.
• Usc Eq · (IO)·' note tha t r dr = - 2a 2 sin 20 d9].
16. r =6 : 2:r ~ 0 ~ 4;r
gtJIIOII:

In Problems 17 llrrollgh 22.find 1/re area of 1/re surface of remill·


lion genua1ed b y revolving 1/re given Cllrve arollnd 1he indicaud
axil.
17. X = I -I. y = 2,/i. I :l 1 ~ 4; the .<·axis
1!1. x = 21 + 1- 1• y =SJr.
2
I :l 1 :z 2: the x·axis
19. x =1 , y =21 + 3.
3
- I ~ ~ ~ 1: the y· axis
20. = 2J + I. y = 1 + I.
X
1
0 ~ I a3: the y· axis
21. r = 4sin0 . OaO :l :r : the x·nxis
22. r =e'. 0 ~ 0 :i j ;r: the )'·axis
23. Find the volume generate d hy revolving around the x·axis
the region unde r the cycloid a I arch o f Example 2. FIGURE 10.5.9 The surface generated
24. Find the area of th e surface generated by revolving around by rotating the lemniscate of
the x·axis the cycloidal arch of Example 2. Problem 32 around the y-axis.
25. Usc the pMametrilat ion ·' = a cos I, y = bsin 1 to find:
(a) the arc3 bou nded by the ellipse x' f a1 + ;til = I: i 33. Figure 10.5.10 shows the graph of the parame tric curve
(b) the ,-o lumc of the ellipsoid generated by revolving this
ellipse around the x -nxis. x = 11 ./J. y = 31 - ~1 3 •
26. Find the nrc:• bounded by the loop of the parame tric curve '!be shaded region is bounded by the part of the curve for
.r = 1 2 • y = 1-'- J1 of Prohlem 25 in Section 10.4. which -3 ~ 1:; 3. Find its area .
27. Usc the parametrization x =1 cos 1. y =1 sin 1 of the
Archime dcan spiral to find the arc length of the first full y
turn of thiS Spiral (corresponding !O 0 aI ~ b).
=
28. The circle (x - I>)' + >~ a~ " ith r3dius a < band center
(b. 0) can be para metrized by

x = b + a cos 1. y = a sin 1. 0:;; 1 ~ 2.:r. X

Find the surface area of the torus obtained by rc,·olving this


circle around the y·axis (Fig. 10.5.8).

FICURE 10.5.10 The pa rametric


curve of Problems 33 through 36.

34. Find the arc len th f h


g o t c loop of the curve of Problem 33.
35. Find the volume 0 f .
the r- ·. h the sohd obtained bv revolving around
· ax,. t e shaded · · '
rcgtOn m Fi~:. 10.5.10.
36. Find the surface ar f . - .
around th . . ca 0 rc,·olutlon generated by re\'OI"ng
37 . e .r-axts the loop of Fig. 10.5.10.
• (a) With rcfcrcnc 10 .,
FIGURE 10.5.8 The torus of tio n 10.4, sho wthaet I roblem 30 and Fig. 10.4.14 in Sec·
Problem 28. of the folium f the arc length of the first-quadrant looP
0 0 cscartes is

29, The a.rtroid (four-cuspcd hypocycloid) has equation x lll +


ylll =a211 (Fig. 10.4.15) and the parametri7..ation
s:: 610
1
:i_l + 41 2 -41 3 _ 4 1! + 41 6 + 1S
(1 + 1l)2
dt.

x = a cos 3 1. y = a sin 3 t. 0 :l l :'j 2;r. (b) Usc a program


pro~imatc this 1 mable calculator or a computer to 31"
. engrh.
Find the area of the region bounded by the astroid. 33. Ftnd the
. surface area d th'
30. find the total length of the astroid of Problem 29. Y·axlsthecyclo"d ' generated by rotating aroun
only if x ;;: 0.] t al arch of Example 2. [Suggr.flion: ,:~ J?
Integral Computations with Parametric Curves SECTION 10.5 659
39 Find the volume gene rated by rotating arou d th . .
• · d · n C ) ·UXIS 42. !':o w suppose that the rope of the previous problem has
the regton un cr the cyclotdal arch of Exam p1e 2. length 2::a a nd is anchored at the point A before being
,w. Supp~c that after a string is wound clockwise a round a wound completely a round the tank. !':ow tind the total area
circle o f radtus a. liS free end is a t the point H 0) (S that lhc CO\\ can graze. Figu re :0.5.13 shows an involu te
'< h . ' a . . ee
· · ) · ow 1 e strtng is unwound. alwavs stre tched
Fig. 10 ·511 APQ. a semicircle QR of radius 2:ra centered a t A nnd
tight so the unwound ~rtion T P is tangen t ~0 the circle an involute RSA The cow can reach every point that lies
at T. l11e locus ~f the stnng's free endpoint p is called the inside the ou ter curve and o utside the original circle.
ln•olut e of the cucle.
(a) Show that the parametric equations of the in\'olute (in
terms o f the angle 1 of Fig. 10.5.1 1) are R

x=a (cosl+rsinl). y = a (sinl-rcosl).

(b) Find the length of the involute from 1 = o to 1 = :: . y


FIGURE 10.5.13 The area that the
cow of Problem 42 can grue.

fj
In l'ro/Jir,.~r 43 rhrougl• 54. uu a graphing calwlaror or com·
·' putn algt•brn .1ystem a.f appropriar~. ilppro.rimate (by integrnt·
ing nrut:ertcal/y) the desired quantity if it cannot b~ Clllculatcd
r.ractly.
43. Find the total a rc length of the 3 -lcavcd rose r = 3 sin 30 of
Fig. 10.3.1 2.
FIGURE 10.5.11 The involute
of a cirde. 44. Find the total surface area genermed by rotating around
the y·axis the 3-lcavcd rose o f Problem 43.
45. Fi nd the total kngth of the -!-leaved rose r = 2cos20 of
.$(. Suppose that the circle of Problem ~0 is a water llnk amlthc
Fig. 10.2.12.
"string" is a ro pe of length .1a. It is anchored at the poi nt 8
opposite A Figuw 10.5.12 depicts the total area that can be 46. Find the total surface area gen e rated by revolving around
grazed by a cow tied to the free end of the rope. Find this the x-axis th e 4-lcavcd rose of Problem 45.
total a rea . (The three label<d arcs o f the curve in the figu re 47. Find the tot al arc length of the lima~on (both loops) r =
represent. respectively, an involu te APQ generated as the 5 + 9cos0 of Fig. 10.2.25.
cow unwinds the ro pe in the counte rclockwise direction, a
48. Find the total surface area generated by revolving around
semicircle QR nf r~<.lius :rn ccnterctl at B. and an in"olute
the .r-axis the lima~on of Problem 47.
RSA 2eneratcd as the co w winds the rope nround the tank
proce';;ding in the counterclockwi;c direction from fJ to A. 49. Find the total arc length (all seven loops) of the polar curve
These three ares form a ch)>cd c urve that resembles a car· r = cos(jO) of Fig. 10.5.14.
dioid. and the cow can reach c\'cry point that lies inside this
curve and outside the original circle.)
y


FIGURE 10.5.12 The area that the FIGURE 10.5.14 The curve
cow o f Problem 41 can graze. r =cos( ~ 9) of Problem 49.
660 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves
y
SO. Find the total arc length of the figure-S curve x = sin t .
y =sin 2t of Fig. 10.4.13.

St. Find the tot~l surf3cc area and volume gcncr:ltcd by rc·
volvir1g around the x-a,is the ligure-S curve of Prob·
lem 50.

52. Find the tota l surface a rea and volume generated by revolv-
ing around t he y·axis t he figure -S curve o f Problem 50.
53. Fi nd the total arc length of the Lissajous curve x = cos3r.
y = sin 5r C>f Fig. I0.4.-t.
54. Find the total arc le ngth of the epitrochoid .r = 8 cos 1 -
5 cos -lr. y = 8 sin 1 - 5 sin -lr of r~g. 10.5.1 5.
SS. Fr:onk A . F:.rri s of Santa Clara University. while design- FIGURE 10.5.15 The cpitrochoid of
ing a computer laboratory exercise for his calculus stu· Problem 54.
dents. diswvercd an extremely lovely curve with the para·
metriLation
Svmmctry" in the June 1996 issue of Mat~lematics Maga~int.
l
.r (t) =cos t + co~7t + ! sin 17t. l'iot these equatio ns so you can e nJoy thrs e_xtraordtnaryfig-
ure. then nume rically integrate to approxrmate the length
y(t ) = sint + j sin 7t + } cos 171.
of its gra ph. What k ind of symmetry does the graph havc7ls
f or info rma tio n un what these equations rcpre,cnt. sec this predictable from the coefficients of t in the parametric
his article " Wheels on Wheels on Whcci'I-Surprisi ng equations?

10.5 l•roject: 1\loon Orbits and ltacc Tracks


"llte investigations in this project c31l for the use o f nume rical integration tech-
niques (using a calculato r or computer) to approximate the param e tric arc-length
integral

(I)

Conside r the ellipse with equation

(a> b) (21

and eccentricity f = v' l - (b/a )2 Substitute tile · ·


· parametnz:llton

x == 11 cost. y = b sin 1 (3)

into Eq. (I) to show that the perimeter or th II ' · . . · · I


e e tpse ts gtven by the elltptlc mtegra

(~)

"ll1is integral is known to be nonele , .


imation to it is mcntary tf 0 < f < I. A common simple approx·

P ~ lT(A + f~). (51


where

I
A== 2(a +b) and R =:: f2; ~
denote the arithmetic mean and root-s ua . sa
and b of the ellipse. q re mean. respectively. of the senuaxe
Conic Sections and Applications SECTION I 0.6 661

Investigatio n A As a warm·up, consider the ellipse whose majo r and minor semi-
axes a and b arc. respectivel y. the larges t and smallest nonzero digits or your stude nt
r.o. numbe r. Fo r this ellipse. compa re the arc-length estima te given by (5) and by
nu merical evaluation of the integral in ( .!).

Investigation B It we ignore the perturbing effects of the sun and the plane ts o ther
than the earth, the orbit of the moon is an almost perkct ellipse with the earth at
one focus. Assume th at this ellipse has major semi axis a = 384.403 km (e xactly) and
ecce ntrici ty ( = 0.05.!9 (exact ly). Approximate the perime ter p of this ellipse (usi ng
Eq. (.!)] to the nearest meter.

Investigatio n C Suppose t hat you are designing an elliptical au to racetrack. Choose


scm1a xcs for your racetrack so that its perime ter will be somewhere between a half
mile and two miles. Your task is to construct a table "it h timr and speed columns that
an observer can usc to determine the a,·eragc sp~cd of a particular car as it circles
the track. ll1e times listed in the first column should correspond to speeds up to
perhaps ISO milh.ll1c observer clocks a car's circuit of th e trac k and loca tes its time
for the lap in the first column of the table. The correspo nding figure in the second
colum n then gives the car's average speed (in mi les per hour) for th:lt circuit of the
track . Your report should include a convenient table t o usc in this way-so you can
successfully se ll it to racetrack patrons attending the au to races.

]0.6 1CONIC SECTIONS AND APPLICATIONS


H ere we discuss in more detail the th ree types of conic sections-parabolas, e llipses.
a nd hyperbolas- that were introduced in Section 10.1.

The Parabola
The case e = I of Example 3 in Section 10.1 is moti\'ation for this formal defi -
nition.

DEFINITION The Parabola


A parabola is the set of all points Pin the plane tha t arc equidistant from a fixed
point F (called the focus o f the parabola) and a fixed line L (called the p arabola's
dirertri x) not con taining F.
(a)

If th e focus of the parabola is F(p, 0) and its directrix is the vertical line x = - p,
p > 0. then it follows from Eq. ( 12) of Section 10.1that the equation of this parabola
is

y2 =4px. (I)

- - -- - --1--t--:, When we replace x with -x both in the equation and i n the discussio n that precedes
it. we get the equation of the parabola whose focus is (- p. 0) and whose directrix is
1he vertical line x = p. TI1e new parabola has equation
s•p

y2 = -4px. (2)
(b)
'The old and new parabolas. appear in Fig. 10.6.1.
FICUR£ 10.6.1 Two pardboias We could also interchange .t and Y in Eq. (l ). TI1is would give the equation of
with vertical directrices. a parabola whose focus is (0, p) and whose directrix .is the horizontal line y = - IJ.
662 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

. Fi!! !0.6.2(a): its equation is


1
This parabola opens upward. as 111 - ·
xl = 4py. (3)
. . in E (3). This gives the equation
finally. we replace)' wuh -) q.
xl = -4py (~)

. d . \\1·th focus (0. - p ) and with directrix y == p, ns in


. down\\ar
of a parabola opemng
(>)
Fig. 10.6.2(b). d. . ed far is svmm etric aro und one oft he coordinate
Eac h of the parabolas ISCU>S 50 • • · II d h .· . f h
axes. m e !me around w IC a par,al>ola· is· svmmctnc
. - . h. h · ISca
. e· t e ·ax1s
· o IIt e parabola·
The pomt . of a paralx>IJ 1111·d "") . . between its focus and Its ·dm:ctnx · \'ertex·
d ·1s ca ed the
.__1 . ·n.
Of l h e pa ravva . ' rtcv
tuC \C ·' of each
' parabo la that we d1scussc m connect1on with
Eq~ ( I ) through (4) is the origin (0, 0).

EXAMPLE 1 Determine the focus. directrix. axis, and vertex of the parabola
x 2 = 12y.
Solution We wrilc the given equation as x 2 = 4 · (3y ) . In this form it matches Eq. (3)
with p = ) . l ienee the focus of lhc given parabola is (0 , 3} and ils directrix is the
hori zont al line y = -3. The y-axis is its axis of symm e try, and the parabola opens
upward f10111 it~ ''Crl<:~ al Ihe origin. •
(b)
Suppose that we begin with the parabola of Eq. ( I) and tra nslate it in such a way
FIGURE 10.6.2 Two pa rabolas that its vertex moves to the point (h. k).1l1en the translate d parabola has equation
with horizontal directrices: (a)
opening upward; (b) opening
downward. (y- k} 2 = 4p(x- h). (h)

The new par~bola has focus F(p +h. k) and it s directrix is the vertical line x=
- p + h (Fig. 10.6.3}. Its axis is the horizontal line y = k .
. \\'c can obtain the translat es of the other three parabolas in Eqs. (2) through
(4) mthc same.way. If the vertex is moved from the ori gin to the point (h. 1.:), then
the lhrce equations take these forms:
ld)
Cy- kl~ = - 4p(X - h). (h)
IX - In~ = 41'ty- k). and (3a)
(x - hl: = -4p<_v- k). (4a)

Equations (Ia) and (2a) both take the general form


FIGURE 10.6.3 A translation ol
the par.!bola yl = 4px.
·' ..!+ Ax+ fly + C == 0 (, \ i: 0), (5}
whereas Eqs. (3a) and (4a) both take the general form

x: + Ar + 11.1• + (' - II (6)


Ill "" 01.
What is significant about Eqs. ( 5 ) d ( .
linear in one of the coordinat , ~
11
11
6) IS what they have in common: llolh are
e 'ana >es ·1nd . d · ·
relIuce any such equation to one of t •. . lJ~Ia ra tlc Ill the other. In fact. we ca.
n
by completing the square in tl _he st.mdard forms in Eqs (Ia) through (4l )
' · ' le coordmatc va ·. hi .. ' · · l~is
means t hat the {!raph of anv cclu . f rtcl C that appears quadratically. "
·n. f - 1
a1IOn 0 the for f · '-~Ia
."'c catures of the pa rabola can be re rn o either Eqs. (5) or (6) is a par·a '~" ·
In Example 2. ad from the s tandard form of its cquauon. as

EXAMPLE 2 D ·
eterrnme the graph of th .
e equatiOn
4r- Bx- 12y + 1 ::: O.
-
Conic Sections and Ap plications SECTION 10.6 663
Solutl~n Thi~ equal io n is linea r in x and quad rat ic in y. We d ivide th rough by the
coefficie nt o f >~ and t he n collect on one side of the equa tion all terms tha t include y:
y2 -3y= 2x- L
·nlc n we comple te the squa re in 1he va ria ble y an.d thus find that
----- -------- y
2
- 3y + ~ = 2.t- ~ + ~ = 2.t + 2 = 2(.t + 1).
:Ole lin:1l step is lo write in Ihe form 4p(x- h) the terms on 1hc right-hand side that
mclud c .t:
·~.
(y ')l
- 2 = 4 · iI · (x + 1).
·n l is cqu ~ lio n has 1he form o f Eq. ( I a) with p = !-
h = - I . and k = ~· lllUS the
graph IS a para hula thai opens 10 lh~ ri ght from its ve rtex a t (- I. ~ ). )Is focus is at
FIGURE 10.6.4 The parabol~ of
Example 2.
(- i • ),
~ its d ircc1 rix is Ihe vert ical line -x = - L and its axis is th~ hor izo nta l line
Y == ~ - It appe ars in J~g. 10.11.4. • +

Applications of Pa rabolas
':'1e pa ra hola y2 = 4p.r ( t> > 0) is ~hown in Fig. 10.6.5 a long with an incoming ray of
li gh1 I raveli ng tn the lcfl an d pa rallel to the x -a xis. l11 is light ray strikes the parabola
a t the point Q(a. h) a nd is reflected toward 1h..: .t-axis. which il mee ts a1 the poinl
(c. 0 ). 'J11e lighl ra y's :mglc o f reflection must equal its angle of incidence. which is
why ho th of these angles- mea sured with respccl 10 lhe lnnge nt line /.at Q-are
In he led u in th e figure. ll1c angle vcrl ica l to Ihe angle of incidence is also equal to cr.
It
I lcncc. because Ihe inco ming ray is parallcl lo the x-axis, Ihe angle Ihe rcficclcd ray
...
:•
makes wil h lhe .r-ax is at (c . 0) is 2a .
U sing t he poi nts Q :~nd (c . 0) 10 compu te the slope of the reflected light ray, we
lind that
b 2 1an a
- - = tan 2cr = •
a- c I - tan2 a
(lhe seco nd equality follows from a trigonometric idc nlil y in Problem 64 of Sec-
lion 7.5.) But the angle a is related lo the slope of the Iangen! line L at Q. To find
·•
. ~

Ihat slo pe. we begin with


FIGURE 10.6.5 The reflection y = 2./{ii =2(p.t )l/2
property of the parabola: a =
fJ .
and compute
dy = (!!.)'12.
dx x

Hence the slope of Lis both ta n a and tlyj d x evaluated at (a, b); that is,
p)l/2
tan a = ( ;; .
Therefore,

b 2 tancr
2
/f; 2,[Pii b
;;=c = 1 - tan 2 a = 1 _ !!.. = '' - p = a - p'
/l

because b = 2.jpii. Hence c = p. The surprise is that c is independent of a and b


d depends only on the equation y2 = 4px of the parabola . ll1erefore all incoming
~;ht rays parallel to the .r-axis will be reflected to the single point F(p . 0). This is
why F is called the focu.~ of Ihe parabola. . . . . .
This rellection property of the parabola ts exploited m the dcstgn of parabohc
· rs. Such a mirror has the shape of the surface ob1aincd by revolving a parabola
FIGURE 10.6.6 lncidentrays m lrro ·. ax' s of symmetrv. "Jben a bearn o f.mcomtng . I.1g ht rays para IIe I to 1h e ax1s
.
parallel to the axis reflect through aroun d 115• ' . 1• • ' •
will be focused at F, as shown in Fig. 10.6.6. lbe reftectton property can also be used
the focus.
664 CHAPT£R 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric curves b II I
reflected in a cam para c to the a~
he focus arc · · t r · s.
in reverse-rays emitted at~ e Moreover. apphcauons are no •mned to light
thu~ keeping the light ~am mtens ~d in visual and radio tcles~o~s. radar antennas,
rays alone; pa rabolic mtrrors ar_e us ·crophone S)'Stcms. satelli te groun d stations_
searchlight s. automo~t·1 e headheh - ts. m• .
and sola r heatin£ deviCeS. . ·entccnth century that th e traJectory or a
~ d lv 10 the se'( ndcr the ass umpt ·tons t hat ntr· rcststance
.
Ga lileo discoverc ear.
· 3 parabo1a u . · )
Pr01·cc tilc fired from a gun IS •• . 1 accclcratt on rcmams constant . SuppoSt
can be ignored and that 1he gravttattona
. : . •• 'ty '"' nt time 1 =
0 from t hc ongm
· · and at'
. . . fi d ·'th 1011131 \ c 1OCI • v h . .. ) ) .
that a prOJCCtlle ts. u e. wtf m the honzon . lal.r-axis.
• Then t e mttlll vc ocny of the
an angle a of .mclinatton ro
projectile splits into the components
Fi.nn1 potnl •·o. t'O.< = t•ocos a and I'Or = t'O sin a .
FIGURE 10 .6 .7 R~>Oiution of the f 1h t the projectile continues to move horizont~Uy
initi.JI velocity v0 in:o its horizontal as indicated in Fig. I 0.6.7. The act . ~ Eq (3.;) of Section 5 .2. impl ies that its .r- and
~~oi th constant speed t·n... together "'1 1 ·
and vertical components.
y-coordinatcs after 1 seconds are
.r = (~'O cos a ) r . (7)
y= - ~gr 2 + ( v0 sina)l. (8)

· · 1 = x / ( Vo COs a ) from Eq· (7) into. Eq.


By substttutmg . f(8 ) and then completing the
form
squ~rc. we can derive (as in Problem 70) an equatto:t O 11tc

y - M=-4p (x -! R)2• (9)


!lfn • • ,,
Here,
v5 sin2 a
•Itt = ...=...,:--- (10)
2g
is the maximum height attained by the projectile, and

FIGURE 10.6.8 The trajectoty of


v2 sin 2a
R = ....:.o' - - - (11)
the projec tile, showing its g
ma• irnum altitude lvf and Its
range R. is its ru n~:e, the horizontal distance the projectile will travel before it returns to the
ground. '[hus its trajectory is the parabola shown in Fig. 10.6.8.
The Ellipse
An ellipse is a conic section with eccentricity e Jess than 1, as in Example 3 of Sc<·
tion 10.1.

DEFINITION The Ellipse


Suppose I hat. t < I , and lc:t F be a fixed poi nt and La fixed line not containing f .
The ellipse wnh eccentricity e focus F and d' rt · l · h f · lS p such
h h d' • · • tre n x ~ ts t e set o a11pom
t at I e •stance iPFi is e times the (perpendicular) distance from p the line L
10
'lltc equation of th II' ·15 h
1
·
x-axts an d L · h . e e. •pse
ts t e ventcal hn c t _ • 2especially simple if F is the point (c. 0) on 1e
6 9 If Q
is the oint (cje2 , .' - ' 1c • 11tc case c > 0 is shown in Fig. I0· · ·..
~ th~~ ~i~~~n pc::rp~:ndicular
'
lP Fl ei /'QI PQ ts the from l'(x . y) to l - lltc condttlon

/'(~~~---- Q(~. ,)
, ,
,,
Fit. 0)

FIGURE 10.6.9 Ellip1t: focus F,


di~lriJC t. tccentricity ~-

l
Conic Sections and Applications SECTION 10.6 665
Thus

whe re

c (12)
a=-.
e

We divide both sides of the next-to-last equation by a= (I - r 2) and get


x2 y=
-+
a2 a2(1 - e2)
=1.

FinaUy. with the aid of the fact t hat e < I, we may let
b 2 =a 2(1-e·)=a·-c-
' ' '. ( 13)

Then the equation of the ellipse with focus (c, 0) and directrix x = cfe 2 = afe takes
the simple form

(14)

We see from Eq. (14) that this ellipse is symmetric around bo th coordinate
axes. Its x-inte rce pts arc (±a. 0) and its y-inte rcepts are (0. ±b). ·n1e points (±a, 0 )
are called t he vertices of the ellipse. and the line segment joi ning them is called its
major 1ui~. ll1e line segment joining (0. b) and (0. -b) is called the minor axis [note
from Eq. (13) that b < a).ll1e alternative form

(15)
of Eq. (13) is the Pythagorean relat ion for th e right triangle of Fig. 10.6.10. Indeed.
visualization of th is triangle is an excellent wa y to remember Eq. (15). The numbers
a and b arc the lengths of the major and minor seminxes. respectively.

1 L
'

(-a, 0) (a, 0)
X

a a
.r=- - x=-
t t
l/'F1l • <li'Q 1l
an~.t

!PF~ • tii'Q~

FICURE 10.6.10 The parts of an ellipse. FIGURE 10.6.11 The ellipse as a conic
section: two foci, two directrices.

0
Because a= cfc , the directrix of the ellipse in Eq. (14) is x = afe. If we had
begun ins tead with the focus (-c. 0) and directrix x = -afe, we would still have
obtained Eq. (14), because only the squares of a and c arc in\'olvcd in its derivation.
Thus the ellipse in Eq. (14) has two fcx:i, (c. 0) and (-c. 0), and two direct rices, x = c1fe
• and x = -a;e(Fig. IO.t\.11) .
c •0.97 t=0.70 ll1e larger the eccentricity e < I. the more elongated the ellipse. (Remember
that e = I is the eccentricity of every parabola). llut if e = 0, then Eq. (13) gives
fiCURE 10.6.12 The rel~tion
between the eccentricity of an b =a, so Eq. (14) reduces tCI the equation of a circle of radius a. llms a circle is an
~llip~e and it~ ~hape. ellipse of eccentricity zero. Compare the three cases shown in Fig. 10.6.12.
666 CHAPTER 10 Polar Coordinates and Parametric Curves

1
EXAMPLE 3 Find an equation of the ellipse with foci (±3. 0) and vertices (:!: 5, O).
(O. • )

Solutl·on We are g1\'cn


· c = 3 an d a -- ,. (13) gives b = 4.11lUs Eq · (14) &•\·es
5 · so En .
x2 y2
-+-=I
25 16
for the d esired equa tion. Tilis ellipse is shown in Fig. 10.6.13.

If the two foci of an ellipse arc on the y-axis. such as F1 (0. c) and F2(0. -c).
then the equation of the ellipse is
FIGURE 10.6.13 The ellipse of
Example 3. x··' \""''
-:;+ :, =L (16)
lr a·
and it is still true that 11 2 = b! + c2 . as in Eq. ( 15). But now the major axis of length 2a
is vertical and the minor axis o f length 2h is horizontal. The deriva tion of Eq. (16) is
similar to tha t of Eq . ( 1-1): see Problem 79. Figure 10.6.1 -1 shows the case of an ellipse
whose major axis is ve rtical. l11c \'crticcs of such an ellipse arc at (0, :!:a): they arc
always the end po ints of !he major axis.
In prac1icc there is liule chance of confusing E