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Helping define the roles of parents and educators in Music Education, Literature Review

Kai Smith

800 S. Main St Harrisonburg, VA 22807

Introduction Results References

Conkling, S. W. (2017). Socialization in the family: Implications for music
In Gruhn’s (2002) article that sought to examine the stages in children’s early music learning, it found that infants enrolled in an early music program
education. Applications of Research in Music Education, DOI:
There are numerous studies out regarding music and its developed a strong interaction between motor control and voice production much faster than infants whom had little to no music in their daycare. More 10.1177/8755123317732969

benefits from participating in music classes for children and interestingly, Gruhn (2002) was able to differentiate between five different music learning stages in infants: Enculturation, Attention, Imitation, Co- Corrigall, K. A., & Schellenberg, E. G. (2015). Predicting who takes music lessons:
ordination, Elaboration. Parent and child characteristics. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 282.
adolescence. While teachers are constantly working with Gruhn, W. (2002). Phases and stages in early music education: A longitudinal study
While there might be clear cognitive benefits of taking early music classes as described in Gruhn’s article, Savage (2015) went out to ask why parents
parents, there is often a communication gap between the on the development of young children’s musical potential. Music Education
enlisted their children in such music programs and what they perceived to be the long-term benefits of the musical experience. From this research article, Research, 4, 51-71.
teachers and parents. According to Taylor (2017), “some Savage reported “mothers primarily enrolled their children in early years music classes not only for education in music but for the non-musical benefits that Ilari, B. (2017). Musical parenting and music education: Integrating research and
education students have expressed trepidation about these classes provide both their child and themselves” (p. 137). practice. Applications of Research in Music Education, DOI:
working with parents perceived to be difficult.” Establishing Research from Corrigall and Schellenberg (2015), aimed to find if there was correlation between the parents’ personalities and the length of which their
James Madison University (n.d.). James Madison University School of Music
that positive relationship between the teacher and the child stayed in a music program. In this article, Corrigall and Schellenberg (2015) examined the parents’ and children’s Big Five personality dimensions and [Photograph]. Retrieved from
found that children who had parents who scored higher on the ‘openness-to-experience’ section predicted their child’s duration of music training. Jindal-Snape, D., Levy, S., & Robb, A. J. (2017). Disability, personalisation and
parents early then becomes necessary to nourish an
Another research article that tried to examine parental characteristics was in Phillipson, Phillipson, Tai (2017). In this article, Phillipson et al. (2017) community arts: Exploring the spatial dynamics of children with disabilities
environment that is conducive to student learning.
used the Parental Involvement in Music Training Questionnaire (PIMTQ) to analyze 7 characteristics of involvement in music from parents in Hong Kong participating in inclusive music classes. Disability and Society, 32, 254-268.

While parental involvement is vital during a child’s early Patrikakou, E. N. (2016). Parent involvement, technology, and media: Now what?
and China: family music background, family music interest, parental support toward music training, parental expectations, home music environment, music
School Community Journal, 26, 9-24.
years through “enculturation” (Gruhn, 2002), parents should program support, and attitude towards music. This research found that they were unable to find any correlation between the parental involvement and family Phillipson, S. N., Phillipson, S., & Tai, D. M. (2017). Hong Kong parents and their
seek to “strike a balance between autonomy and assistance music background and family music interest. On the other hand, this article found a correlation between parental involvement and the other five factors. children’s music training: Measurement properties of the parental

as their children develop and grow in culture” (Ilari, 2017). Another journal article that aimed to examine the different types of parental involvement was in the article by Upitus, Abrami, Brook, and King (2016). involvement in music training questionnaire. Educational Psychology, DOI:
This article hoped to help teachers explain to parents how they can support their child’s musical endeavors so that the child can have the most meaningful
Savage, S. (2015). Understanding mothers’ perspectives on early childhood music
experience possible. programs. Australian Journal for Music Education, 2, 127-139.
In the research article by Zdzinski (2016), Zdzinski analyzed the relationship between parental Taylor, D. M. (2017). Learning from parents of children with disabilities. Journal of
involvement, music aptitude, and musical achievement of middle school wind musicians. This article found Music Teacher Education, 26, 64-76.
Upitus, R., Abrami, P. C., Brook, J., & King, M. (2017). Parental involvement in
that parental involvement in their child’s music studies can be detrimental at the age of the students Zdzinski
children’s independent music lessons. Music Education Research, 19, 74-98.
was examining but Zdzinksi also agreed that while parental involvement was not particularly helpful Zdzinski, S. F. (1992). Relationships among parental involvement, music aptitude,
compared to parental involvement during the child’s infant years. and musical achievement of instrumental music students. Journal of Research
In Conkling’s (2017) article, the concept of Socialization is explored as a possible tool for music in Music Education, 40, 114-125.
educators to use to help close the gap between the cultural differences in music between the school and the
student’s houses. Taylor (2017) and Jindal-Snape, Levy, and Robb (2017), continue expand the topic of
parental involvement in their child’s music training by considering how parents and teachers can cooperate to
Ilari, B. (2017). Process-Person-Context-Time model with
help students with disabilities. examples in music. Retrieved from Acknowledgments

I would like to thank Dr. David Stringham and Jon Stapleton

for their assistance for this research. I would also like to thank the
Conclusions James Madison University libraries for giving students, like
myself, access to the numerous research databases that made this
research possible.
This paper explores 10 published articles that examines the roles of teachers and parents of children enrolled in music programs. The aim
of this paper is to offer a review of musical parenting research on how parents can continually be involved in their child’s music experiences to
optimize the enjoyment of music and musical progress. Through the review of these 10 articles, teachers and parents have a clearer idea of
how they can work together to create an environment that works the best for each of the uniques students and their unique needs and
aspirations. Through practices such as Personalization, Socialization, technology, and the understanding the natural progression of musical
Further information
achievement from infants through adolescence, music teachers can share these ideas and stories to the parents so that the parents can be as Contact:
supportive of their child’s musical growth as the develop and mature. “Continued communication between primary stakeholders in the
education of all children may accelerate teacher effectiveness, student learning, and overall quality of life for all involved” (Taylor, 2017).