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Criteria for evaluating the weldability of steels


a a
G.M. Grigorenko & V.A. Kostin
a
E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute , Kiev , Ukraine
Published online: 23 Jul 2013.

To cite this article: G.M. Grigorenko & V.A. Kostin (2013) Criteria for evaluating the weldability of steels, Welding
International, 27:10, 815-820, DOI: 10.1080/09507116.2013.796633

To link to this article: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09507116.2013.796633

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Welding International, 2013
Vol. 27, No. 10, 815–820, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09507116.2013.796633
Selected from Svarochnoe Proizvodstvo 2012 65(10) 3 – 10

Criteria for evaluating the weldability of steels


G.M. Grigorenko and V.A. Kostin
E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute, Kiev, Ukraine

The term ‘weldability’ is analysed and the methods for evaluating this parameter are discussed.
Keywords: welding; weldability; cold and hot cracks; carbon equivalent value; weldability criteria

It is well-known that the weldability of steels differs. Some of ‘weldability’ through the capacity of the material to
steels can be welded without any restrictions, for others it form a welded joint does not indicate how this parameter
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is necessary to apply special technological measures. can be measured.


Therefore, the concept of weldability is interpreted by In [4], the weldability of materials is regarded as a
many different approaches. For example, according to the collective concept, characterizing the suitability for
standard ISO 581:1980, the metal can be regarded as welding and reliability of the welded joint, and in [5] the
weldable if welding results in the formation of a sound weldability of the given material improves with the
welded joint using the welding process producing the increase in the number of welding methods which can be
joints satisfying the requirements on the local properties. used to weld the given material, with simplification of the
According to the standards of the Welding Institute technology and the increase in the range of the permissible
(United Kingdom) 499-1:2009, weldability is the capacity welding conditions resulting in the required properties of
of the material to be welded by any method without any the welded joint.
special measures in order to produce the welded joint with In [6], evaluation of the weldability of high-strength
the properties satisfying the requirements. steels is reduced to the determination of optimum welding
According to the standard DIN 8528-1 (Germany), the conditions that preclude the possibility of a welded joint
weldability of components made of metallic materials is cracking and maintain the required ductility, strength and
good if a specific welding method and technology result in cold resistance of the welded zone.
the formation of joints in materials by welded joints In [7], the authors indicate the principal difference in
satisfying the requirements on the properties and the effect the concepts of ‘weldability’ and ‘joining capacity’ and
on the structure. denote the position of weldability in the formation of the
In accordance with the GOST 29273-92 standard, the welded joint.
metallic material is regarded as weldable up to the required At the same time, analysis of studies concerned with
extent in the given processes and for the given application the weldability of steels and alloys shows that concepts
with the welding process resulting in metallic integrity in such as metallurgical, physical and technological weld-
the appropriate technological process so that the welded ability are widely used.
components satisfy the technical requirements with Metallurgical weldability [8] (http://www.xiron.ru/
respect to both the interface quality and the effect on the content/view/21389/28) is determined by the processes
construction which they form. The determination of taking place in the fusion zone of the welded components
weldability by the standard DSTU 3761.1-98 is close to leading to the formation of a permanent welded joint. The
this definition. contact boundary of the welded components is character-
Thus, the ‘weldability’ concept should include four ised by the physical – chemical processes determined by
related factors: the type of material, the type of structure, the properties of the welded metals. Metals with the same
the required properties and the degree of reliability. chemical composition have the same metallurgical
Depending on their selection in combination, a specific weldability. The welding of dissimilar metals may be
level of weldability is reached [1]. associated with difficulties because the properties of these
Individual welding scientists also have their own views metals are sometimes not capable of ensuring the
on weldability. A large amount of work in the system- occurrence of the required physical –chemical processes
atization of the term ‘weldability’ and the methods for in the fusion zone and, consequently, these metals have no
evaluating weldability has been carried out by K.A. metallurgical weldability.
Yushchenko. For example, in studies [2] and [3], a new Physical weldability [9] (http://www.metalloved.com/
concept of the term ‘weldability’ is proposed on the basis spravochnik/svarochnye_raboty/fizicheskaya_svarivaemost/)
of the analysis of the currently available approaches to the is the possibility of producing monolithic welded joints
evaluation of weldability and standards valid in the with chemical bonds. This weldability is typical of almost
individual countries and organizations. It is shown that in all technical alloys and pure metals and also a number of
the large majority of cases the weldability is evaluated compounds of metals with non-metals.
qualitatively and subjectively; the term ‘weldability’ is Technological weldability [10,11] is the characteristic
regarded as a philosophical concept, and the determination of the metal which determines its reaction to the effect of
q 2013 Taylor & Francis
816 G.M. Grigorenko and V.A. Kostin

The weldability of the materials is strongly affected by


the chemical composition of steel or alloys, the structural-
Technology Weldability Structure phase composition and changes of the composition in the
process of heating and cooling, the physical –chemical and
mechanical properties, the activity of elements in relation
Material
to oxygen, carbon, etc.
As the number of parameters characterizing the parent
Figure 1. Relationship between weldability and materials used.
and filler (electrode) materials is very large, the
weldability is a complex characteristic including the
sensitivity of metal to oxidation and formation of pores,
welding and the capacity to form welded joints with the the correspondence of the properties of the welded joints
required service properties. In this case, weldability is to the given service properties, the reaction to thermal
regarded as the extent to which the properties of the cycles, the susceptibility to formation of hot and cold
welded joint correspond to the same properties of the cracks, etc.
parent metal or normalized values of these properties Of these parameters, the cracking resistance is the most
(Figure 1).
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important parameter in welding and surfacing of carbon


The degree of weldability in [4] is determined by the and low-alloy steels.
extent of formation of contacts (Figure 2). Weldability should take into account the resistance of
The suitability of steel for welding is determined by weld metal to the formation of hot, cold, lamellar and
weldability tests which include in most cases the tests of reheat cracks.
susceptibility to formation of cracks of different types. For Hot cracks form in most cases as a result of reduction
example, the following weldability parameters are used for in the deformation capacity of the metal due to the
welded joints in carbon and alloy steels: formation in the structure of low-melting brittle eutectics,
crystal structure defects and internal and external stresses.
. hot cracking (HC) resistance; The probability of formation of hot cracks in welding
. cold cracking (CC) resistance; surfacing can be determined using the Wilkinson
. lamellar cracking resistance; criterion [8]:
. temper crack (TC) formation resistance;
. values of the main mechanical properties of the %Cð%S þ %P þ %Si=25 þ %Ni=100Þ
weld metal and the heat-affected zone (HAZ); HCS ¼ £ 103 : ð1Þ
3%Mn þ %Cr þ %Mo þ %V
. resistance to the propagation of crack-like defects;
. other parameters in accordance with the special
In welding low-alloy steels, cracks start to form at
features of working load and service conditions HCS . 4 [13].
(endurance under cyclic loading, cold resistance in The methods of reducing the risk of formation of hot
service at sub-zero temperatures, etc.). cracks include methods such as reduction in the content of
sulphur, phosphorus, and carbon, increase in the
Sufficient parameters of the weldability of the manganese content, application of austenitic steels and
materials are those which are equal to or higher than the the formation of a primary ferritic structure.
normalized values of the required properties according to The cold cracks form mostly due to the hardening of
the technical conditions for service of welded structures of the steel, in rapid cooling and saturation of the metal and
a given type. If all of the weldability parameters are the HAZ with hydrogen. They often nucleate after a
regarded as sufficient, i.e. all of the requirements on the certain period of time after welding and surfacing and
service properties of the welded joints with the given propagate over several hours or even days.
assumptions are satisfied, the weldability of the materials In most cases, the susceptibility of the metal to the
is regarded as sufficient. If the minimum acceptable level formation of cold cracks is evaluated using the carbon
of at least one of the weldability parameters is not equivalent which can be used as the parameter
achieved, the weldability of the material is classified as characterizing the weldability of steels.
insufficient. It should be mentioned that in this approach The carbon equivalent parameter, proposed by the
the weldability of a specific material can be evaluated International Institute of Welding (IIW Doc. IX-535-67),
differently, depending on the purpose for which the used for low-carbon steels containing no more than 0.8%
component is produced. carbon, or when the cooling time in the temperature range

Satisfactory Unsatisfactory
All service requirements fulfilled At least one requirement not fulfilled

Satisfactory Limited Poor


Good
Change welding conditions Change welding method Positive results cannot be achieved

Figure 2. Degree of weldability.


Welding International 817

Table 1.

Technological approaches
Preheating Heat treatment
Steel Carbon equivalent according Prior to During Prior to After
group Weldability to Equation (2) CE (%) welding welding welding welding
1 Good , 0.2 – – – Desirable
2 Satisfactory 0.2 – 0.35 Necessary – Desirable Necessary
3 Limited 0.35– 0.45 Necessary Desirable Necessary Necessary
4 Poor .0.45 Necessary Necessary Necessary Necessary

of 800 – 5008C does not exceed 12 s, is assumed to be monotonic increase in the maximum hardness in the weld
equal to zone. Therefore, the restriction of the maximum hardness
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by some critical value can be used as an efficient criterion


%Mn ð%Ni þ %CuÞ
CE ¼ %C þ þ for selecting the steel and application conditions. For
6 15 ð2Þ example, in Japanese standards for steel welded structures,
ð%Cr þ %Mo þ %VÞ
þ : in addition to the restrictions on the carbon equivalent
5 introduced in the 1970s, there is also a restriction on the
In [15], the following parameter is proposed for steels maximum hardness of the weld zone, which should not
containing less than 0.22% carbon and for rapid cooling exceed 350 HV.
(cooling time in the temperature range from 800 to 5008C The classification of steels on the basis of weldability
is shorter than 6 s): is presented in Table 1.
The first group includes the most widely used grades of
%Si ð%Mn þ %Cu þ %CrÞ low-carbon steels (Ce , 0.2) which can be welded by
PCM ¼ %C þ þ
30 20 ð3Þ conventional methods, i.e. without preheating prior to and
%Ni %Mo %V during welding, and also without subsequent heat
þ þ þ þ 5%B:
60 15 10 treatment. The cast components with a large volume of
deposited metal should be welded with intermediate heat
Another modification of Equation (3) is used quite often:
treatment. For the structures working in conditions of
%Si ð%Mn þ %CuÞ static loading, heat treatment after welding is not carried
CE ¼ %C þ þ out, whereas heat treatment is recommended for important
25 20 ð4Þ
%Cr %Ni %Mo %V structures operated under dynamic loading or at high
þ þ þ þ : temperatures.
10 40 15 10
The second group includes carbon and alloy steels
In [16], it is proposed to use a different equation for the (Ce ¼ 0.2– 0.35). In welding these steels in the normal
carbon equivalent for the steels containing up to 0.25% production conditions, the welded joint is free from cold
carbon: cracks. This group includes the steels which should be
  preheated in order to prevent the formation of cracks, and
%Si %Mn %Cu %Ni
CE ¼ %C þ Að%CÞ þ þ þ postweld heat treatment is also recommended. The
24 6 15 20 procedures of postweld heat treatment differ and depend
ð%Cr þ %Mo þ %Nb þ %VÞ on the steel grade and the design of the component. For
þ þ 5%B;
5 example, annealing is compulsory for cast steel 30 L.
ð5Þ Machine components produced from rolled materials or
forgings, with no sharp contours, can be welded in the
where A (%C) ¼ 0.75 þ 0.25 tanh[20(%C –0.20)].
heat-treated condition (quenching and tempering). Weld-
Equation (5) can be easily transformed into Equations
(2) – (4) because parameter A (%C) strongly depends on ing at an environment temperature below 08C is not
the carbon content of the steel. recommended. The components with a large volume of
It should also be mentioned that the formation of deposited metal should be welded with intermediate heat
quenched structures and of the associated cold cracks treatment (annealing or high-temperature tempering).
depends on the cooling rate of the metal and the weld zone, In cases in which tempering after welding is not
which is influenced by the thermal parameters of welding possible, the welded component is subjected to local
(heat input and initial temperature) and design features of heating. Postweld heat treatment welding differs for
the welded joint (shape and thickness). In welding steels different steel grades. In welding of small defects in steel
with the same carbon equivalent, the increase in the containing more than 0.35% carbon to improve the
cooling rate increases the probability of formation of mechanical properties and machinability, it is necessary to
quenched microstructures and this is reflected in the apply heat treatment (annealing or high-temperature
818 G.M. Grigorenko and V.A. Kostin

tempering using the conditions recommended for the In analysis of weldability, it must be taken into account
given steel). that at high temperatures cause softening of the steels
The third group (Ce ¼ 0.35 – 0.45) includes carbon and strengthened by heat treatment. Thus, prior to developing
alloyed steels of the pearlitic grade susceptible to CC in welding and surfacing technologies, it is necessary to
conventional welding conditions. The weldability of these determine the weldability of the parent, filler and weld
steels is ensured using special technologies, based on heat metals, the probability of cracking, softening of the alloy,
treatment prior to welding and preheating. In addition to and to indicate the measures for reducing or preventing the
this, the majority of components in this steel group are occurrence of undesirable phenomena.
subjected to postweld heat treatment. For components and Lamellar cracks form in T joints. The formation of
castings produced from rolled material or forgings with no these cracks is caused by the presence of sulphides and
sharp contours or rigid sections, it is recommended to silicates at the grain boundaries and this is determined by
carry out welding in the heat-treated state (quenching and the quality of steels and high internal stresses formed as a
tempering). result of the incorrect shape of the structure.
These steels can be welded without preheating in cases Reheat cracks form in heat treatment and the formation
in which the joints contain no sharp contours, the thickness of these cracks is associated with the reduction in ductility
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of the metal is not greater than 14 mm, the environment of the overheated metal in heating to 500 –6008C.
temperature is not lower than 58C and the welded joints are The ductility of overheated metal may be reduced by
of the secondary type. In all other cases, the specific the increase of the energy of the primary grain boundaries
temperature of preheating during welding and surfacing by surface-active elements. In a number of studies,
depends on the type of welded materials and normally special attention has been given to the effect of the
varies in the range of 250– 4008C [17]. method of deoxidation and the content of microalloying
The fourth group (Ce . 0.45) includes the carbon and elements. However, the experimental results obtained in
alloyed pearlitic steels which are difficult to weld and are this area are very complicated and contradicting. For
susceptible to cracking. In welding these steels using example, a small increase in the copper and antimony
advanced technologies, it is not always possible to obtain content has proved to be detrimental and the tin content
the required service properties of the welded joints. The appears to be quite beneficial. It should be mentioned that
weldability of the steels is limited and, consequently, they deoxidation of the steel with aluminium with the higher
are welded with compulsory preliminary heat treatment, aluminium content of up to 0.035% has a detrimental
preheating during welding and postweld heat treatment. effect, whereas deoxidation with titanium is has a number
These steels should be annealed prior to welding. of advantages. The increase in the P þ Cu þ n
If the evaluation of weldability on the basis of the þ Pb þ As content from 0.5% to 1.2%, and also of the
carbon equivalent indicates that the steel is susceptible to grain size, increases the susceptibility of materials to
CC, it is necessary to carry out preheating of the welded the formation of TCs (http://www.mswelding.com/
component. The preheat temperature for avoiding the treschiny_povtornogo_nagreva.html). Many researchers
formation of cold cracks can be determined from the have concluded that vanadium and chromium, present in
equation proposed in [18]. the low-alloy steels in the amount of up to 2%, have a
strong detrimental effect. The views on the effect of
pffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffiffi nickel and molybdenum differ, although generally it is
T ¼ 350 ½CEtotal  2 0:25; ð6Þ assumed to be beneficial.
Current views regarding the mechanism of formation
where [CEtotal] is the general carbon equivalent equal to of temper brittleness are linked with the processes of grain
[CE]c þ [CE]s, [CE]c is the carbon equivalent which boundary segregations of harmful impurities (P, Sn, Sb
depends on the chemical composition of metal, calculated and As) and, consequently, with the reduction in the
from one of Equations (2) –(5); [CE]s is the carbon cohesion strength of the grain boundaries and with the
equivalent which depends on the thickness of metal and is change in the intragranular failure mechanism to
calculated from the equation [CE]s ¼ 0.005d[CE]c (d is intergranular. The strength of the negative effect of
the thickness of the metal of the welded component). harmful impurity elements in the weld zone on the
If the effect of important parameters, such as the resistance of metal to temper brittleness is higher than in
hydrogen content of the weld metal, is taken into account the parent metal as a result of the larger austenite grains
[19], the preheat temperature should be increased by a and the large resultant reduction in the specific surface of
further 30 – 508C [18]. Welding of such large components, the grain boundaries.
such as shell structures, offshore platforms, large diameter The detrimental effect of the impurity elements
pipes, etc., with such preheat temperatures is not increases with the increase in the content of manganese
recommended, and the manufacture of small components and silicon in the composition of the welded joints. The
by this technology may increase the energy and labour condition for ensuring the temper brittleness resistance of
consumption by approximately 40%. the metal is expressed by the Watanabe factor (http://
The hydrogen content of the deposited metal is reduced www.mswelding.com/treschiny_povtornogo_nagreva.
by improving the shielding of the weld pool against the html):
effect of the environment, efficient surface preparation
prior to surfacing, baking of the filler material, etc. I ¼ ðMn þ SiÞðP þ SnÞ104 # 200%: ð7Þ
Welding International 819

The Bruscato factor [20] has been proposed for evaluating steel. Chromium supports the formation of refractory
the temper brittleness resistance of the weld metal: oxides, which complicate welding [21].
Like chromium, nickel is present in low-carbon
X ¼ ð10P þ 5Sb þ 4Sn þ AsÞ100 # 25: ð8Þ steels in the amount of 0.3%. In low-alloy steels, the
nickel content increases to 5%; and in high-alloy steels, the
The results of the tests on low-alloy steel with a maximum nickel content increases to 35%. In nickel-based alloys,
chromium content of up to 1.5% were used in http://www. the nickel content has the controlling effect. Nickel
mswelding.com/treschiny_povtornogo_nagreva.html to increases the strength and ductility properties of the steel
derive the equation for evaluating the effect of the chemical and has a positive effect on weldability [21].
composition of steel on susceptibility to the formation Vanadium in alloy steels is present in the amount of up
of TCs. to 0.2 –0.8%. This element increases the toughness and
The parameter for evaluating crack formation plasticity of the steel and improves the structure and also
susceptibility has the form (http://www.mswelding.com/ hardenability [21].
treschiny_povtornogo_nagreva.html): The molybdenum content of steels is restricted at
0.8%. At this content, molybdenum has a positive effect on
DG ¼ Cr þ 3:3Mo þ 8:1V þ 10C 2 2: ð9Þ
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the strength properties of steels and refines the structure.


The equation taking into account the effects of However, in welding, molybdenum burns out and this
microalloying elements on temper brittleness PSR has causes cracks to form in the deposited metal [21].
been proposed in http://www.mswelding.com/ Titanium and niobium in corrosion-resisting and
treschiny_povtornogo_nagreva.html: creep-resisting steels are present in the amount of up to
1%. They reduce the susceptibility of steel to intercrystal-
PSR ¼ Cr þ Cu þ 2Mo þ 10V þ 7Nb 2 5Ti 2 2: ð10Þ line corrosion and, at the same time, niobium in the 18-8
steels supports the formation of hot cracks [21].
If DG or PSR is greater than 2, i.e. these parameters are Copper is present in steels as an admixture (up to 0.3%
positive, both the steels and welded joints in them are inclusive), as an addition in low-alloy steels (0.15 –0.5%)
susceptible to TC formation. and as an alloying element (up to 0.8– 1.8%). Copper
The chemical composition of the steel has the increases the corrosion properties of steel without
controlling effect in evaluating the weldability. This impairing weldability [21].
parameter is used in the first approximation to evaluate the The weldability of the welded joints from the
weldability. viewpoint of HC resistance must be evaluated taking
Carbon is one of the most important admixtures and into account the effect of hydrogen. The results of
determines the strength, ductility, hardenability and other investigation of the effect of all three main factors
characteristics of the steels. The carbon content of the (composition, gas saturation and the rigidity of the
steels of up to 0.25% does not impair weldability. A higher structure), supporting the formation of cold cracks, have
carbon content leads to the formation of quenched been used to determine the criterion for evaluating the
structure in the HAZ metal and to cracking [21]. susceptibility of steels for the formation of cracks of this
Sulphur and phosphorus are harmful impurities. The type – the crack formation criterion [22].
higher sulphur content leads to the formation of cracks
(red shortness), and a higher phosphorus content causes
H K
cold cracks to form (cold shortness). Therefore, the Pc ¼ Pcm þ þ ; ð11Þ
sulphur and phosphorus content in low-carbon steels is 60 4000
restricted to 0.03– 0.05% [21].
Silicon is present in steels as an impurity and in an where Pcm is the coefficient characterizing the embrittle-
amount of up to 0.3% as a deoxidation agent. At this ment as a result of the structural transformation and is
silicon content, the weldability of the steels is not calculated from Equation (3); H is the amount of diffusible
impaired. When silicon is used as the alloying element hydrogen in the weld metal; K is the coefficient of rigidity
with a content of 0.5 –1.0% (especially higher than 1.2%), of the welded section, calculated from the equation
silicon oxides, reducing the weldability of steel, can form K ¼ K0d (K0 is the coefficient determined by the force of
[21]. displacement of the edge of the welded joint by 1 mm,
Manganese at a content of 0.1% in steel does not related to the unit thickness of the sheet and the length of
complicate the welding process. Welding of steels with a the welded joint; d is the sheet thickness). The value of the
manganese content of 1.8– 2.5% may be accompanied by coefficient K0 can be calculated or determined by
the formation of quenched structures and cracks in the experiments [23]. For welded joints, the value of
HAZ metal [21]. coefficient K0 changes from 200 to 4000 N/(mm2 mm),
The content of chromium as an admixture in steels is and for the Tekken test piece it is 690 N/(mm2 mm)
restricted to 0.3%. The low-alloy steels can contain up to [23,24].
0.7 –3.5% chromium. The chromium content of alloy The formation of cold cracks is strongly affected by
steels varies in the range of 12– 18%, and in high-alloy the residual tensile stresses after welding. These stresses
steels it may reach 35%. In welding, chromium forms depend on the thickness of the welded joint, the type of
carbides, which impair the corrosion resistance of the welded section and, in particular, the rigidity of the welded
820 G.M. Grigorenko and V.A. Kostin

part of the structure. The value of these stresses can also be specific case it is necessary to define the requirements on
expressed by the coefficient of rigidity intensity K. the welded joint.
The results of a large number of experiments show that
the steel is sensitive to the formation of cold cracks if
Pc . 0.286. References
Thus, up to now there is no united view as to what the 1. Hrivniak I. The weldability of steels. Moscow: Mashinos-
term ‘weldability’ means and which criteria should be troenie; 1984.
used to evaluate it and, similarly, there is no general 2. Yushchenko KA, et al. Weldability of materials. Kiev: E.O.
Paton Electric Welding Institute. IIW Doc. VI-842-07.
recommended method for the determination of weld- 3. Yushchenko KA, Derlomenko VV. Analysis of current
ability. In addition to this, the methods which are available views regarding weldability. Avt. Svarka. 2005;1:9– 13.
are qualitative. It should be mentioned that the most 4. Asnis AE, editor. Weldability of semi-killed steels. Kiev:
complete systematization and analysis of the ‘weldability’ E.O. Paton Electric Welding Institute; 1976. p. 3 – 4.
concept of the individual authors and documents has been 5. Shorshorov MKh, et al. Testing of the weldability of metals.
Moscow: Metallurgiya; 1972.
published in Refs [2,3]. 6. Musiyachenko VF, Mikhodui LI. Arc welding of high-
In most cases, the weldability tests are replaced by the strength alloy steels. Moscow: Mashinostroenie; 1987.
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tests of susceptibility to cracking, i.e. one odd term 7. Herol’d Kh. New aspects in the investigation of the
‘weldability’ is replaced by another odd term ‘suscepti- weldability-prerequisites for technology and ensuring the
bility to cracking’. Following the logic of this approach, required quality of the welding process. Avt. Svarka. 2008;
11:143– 150.
weldability should be evaluated by the parameters 8. Babenko EG, Kazanova NP. Calculation of the conditions of
characterizing the failure of the welded joint (tensile electric welding and surfacing. Khabarovsk: Far East State
strength, yield strength, the work of crack initiation and Communications University; 1999.
propagation, stress intensity factor, critical crack opening 9. Mazel’ AG. Advanced methods of fusion welding trans-
mission pipelines. Moscow: Mashinostroenie; 1979.
displacement, etc.) and not by the parameters of alloying 10. Solntsev YuP. The metals and alloys, a handbook. St
of the welded joint (carbon and other equivalents). On the Peterburg: Professional; 2003.
other hand, as a result of the existence of a very large 11. Stepanov VV, editor. A welders handbook. Moscow:
number of the types and methods of welding, it is quite Mashinostroenie; 1975.
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