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Adjective Clause

Pengertian Adjective Clause

Adjective clause (atau relative clause) adalah salah satu bagian paling penting dalam
tata bahasa bahasa Inggris karena sering digunakan dan berperan dalam memberikan
informasi lebih rinci dalam suatu kalimat. Pada dasarnya, adjective clause adalah
suatu klausa yang tidak dapat berdiri sendiri (dependent clause) yang berfungsi untuk
memodifikasi noun atau pronoun pada kalimat kompleks.
Kalimat kompleks:

Terdapat tiga karakteristik penting dari adjective clause, yaitu:


1. Harus memiliki subjek dan kata kerja.
2. Harus dimulai dengan:
 Relative pronoun : who, whom, whose, that, atau which
 Relative adverb : when, where, or why
3. Berfungsi sebagai adjective, yang menjawab pertanyan seperti apa, berapa banyak, yang
mana, dan lain-lain.
Pola adjective clause biasanya mengikuti salah satu di antara dua pola berikut:
Pola Contoh

I lost the book whom I borrowed from her.

Whom : relative pronoun


Relative pronoun atau adverb + S + V I : subjek
Borrowed : verb
The contract that was signed last year is no
longer valid.

Relative pronoun sebagai subjek + V That : relative pronoun sebagai subjek


Was signed : verb

Restrictive vs Non-Restictive Adjective Clause

Terdapat dua jenis adjective clause, yaitu sebagai berikut:


Jenis Fungsi Contoh

I prefer to use smartphone that can


capture great picture.

 Diperlukan untuk Merupakan restrictive karena


megidentifikasi noun yang dibutuhkan untuk menjelaskan kata
dijelaskan. benda smartphone.
Restrictive  Biasanya menggunakan relative
pronoun that.
I prefer to use my smartphone,
which can capture great picture.
 Hanya sebagai informasi tambahan
karena tidak terlalu diperlukan
untuk mengidentifikasi noun yang
Non- dijelaskan Merupakan non-restrictive karena
Restrictive  Biasanya tanda koma (,) hanya sebagai informasi tambahan
mendahului relative pronoun. dari kata benda mysmartphone.

Menghilangkan Relative Pronoun pada Adjective Clause

Dalam adjective clause, sebenarnya relative pronoun dapat dihilangkan dengan ketentuan
sebagai berikut:
Ketentuan Contoh

 She received the gift (which) I sent


Ketika relative pronoun mempunyai fungsi yesterday
sebagai objek.  The university was proud of the
students (whom) they gave awards to.
Ketika relative pronoun mempunyai fungsi
sebagai subjek yang diikuti oleh to be.  I am excited to meet the students (who
Namun, to be tersebut juga harus turut were) awarded by the faculty dean.
dihilangkan.  My father sold our home (which is)located
in Tangerang.
Ketika relative pronoun mempunyai fungsi
sebagai subjek yang diikuti oleh have
(not) untuk menyatakan kepemilikan.  I do not want to work a job which hasstrict
Namun , relative pronoun + have rules.
(not) harus digantikan dengan with BISA MENJADI
(without).
 I do not want to work a job with strict rules.
 She does not want to be around people that
hurt the feelings of other.
Relative pronoun tidak dapat dihilangkan TIDAK BISA MENJADI
apabila subjek dari adjective clause adalah
selain to beatau have.  She does not want to be around
people hurt the feelings of other.
Adjective Clause: Formal dan Informal

Penggunaan adjective clause juga berbeda antara situasi formal dan informal.
Contoh Penjelasan

(a) I remember the man whom I


accidentally hugged yesterday.  Dari (a) sampai (d), urutannya adalah dari
yang paling formal sampai dengan yang
(b) I remember the man who I paling informal.
accidentally hugged yesterday.  That biasanya digunakan pada situasi
(c) I remember the man that I accidentally informal seperti percakapan sehari-hari
hugged yesterday.  Dalam penulisan formal, preposisi harus
(d) I remember the man I accidentally selalu mendahului objek dari relative
hugged yesterday. pronoun.
Parts of the Sentence - Adjective Clauses

A complex sentence is made up of an independent clause and a dependent


clause. Example: The television was playing (independent clause which can stand
alone and make sense) as I left the room (dependent clause which must be attached
to the independent clause to make sense). There are three kinds of dependent
clauses: adjective clause, adverb clause and noun clause.

The adjective clause is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. It will begin


with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate
conjunction (when and where). Those are the only words that can be used to
introduce an adjective clause. The introductory word will always rename the word
that it follows and modifies except when used with a preposition which will come
between the introductory word and the word it renames. Examples: The
student whose hand was up gave the wrong answer. Whose hand was up is the
adjective clause with whose, the relative pronoun, renaming and
modifying student. Jane is a person in whom I can place my confidence. In whom I
can place my confidence is the adjective clause with whom, the relative pronoun,
with the preposition in between it and person, the word that whom renames and
modifies.

Instructions: Find the adjective clause in the following sentences and tell which
word it modifies.

1. I like a leader who listens to his men.

2. The dog which I loved dearly was hit by a truck last night.

3. Rulon is a person who takes responsibility well.

4. All individuals who purchased tickets will be admitted.

5. The shirt that you bought me doesn't fit well.

6. The woman who baked the winning pie is my wife.

7. You called at a time when I was unable to answer.

8. Gayle is the one for whom you are looking.

9. Those who are willing to serve others will be rewarded.

10. One to whom much is given is expected to give much in return.


Answers:

1. who listens to his men modifies leader

2. which I loved dearly modifies dog

3. who takes responsibility well modifies person

4. who purchased tickets modifies individual;

5. that you bought me modifies shirt

6. who baked the winning pie modifies woman

7. when I was unable to answer modifies time

8. for whom you are looking modifies one

9. who are willing to serve others modifies those

10. to whom much is given modifies one

 1. The professional __________ doesn't follow ethics can not be considered


a professional.

A. Which he

B. Who

C. Who he

D. Whose

2. What do you do when you are at a party ___________ don't know people
very well?

A. Where

B. That
C. Where you

D. Who you

3. I always remember the times _________ my family and I spent Christmas


together.

A. When

B. Where

C. Who

D. That

4. Do you know where I can take the bus _________ goes to Saint Peter
Cathedral?

A. Which

B. When

C. Who

D. That

 5. Has Helen reviewed the latest sales report _____________ gave us last
week?

A. Who the sales manager

B. Which the sales manager

C. That the sales manager

D. Whose the sales manager

6. There are a couple personality traits ______________ would like to change


about me. I am too moody and sometimes I am easily distracted.
A. That

B. Whose I

C. That I

D. Which

 7. Steven Spielberg movies, __________________ have seen, are very well


thought stories with a lot of excitement and sympathetic characters.

A. Most of whose movies

B. Most of that I

C. Most of which I

D. Most of who I

 8. Martha told me that the place ________________ stayed last vacation


was really wonderful and that we should go there.

A. That she

B. Where

C. Which

D. Where she

 9. Hachiko is the story of a lost dog that is found by chance by a man


_____________ he develops a strong link that certainly shows how lovely and
attached dogs can be to their owners.

A. With whom

B. With what

C. With which

D. With that
 10. The man ___________ received that recommendation letter works for the
government.

A. That she

B. Who she

C. From whom she

D. To whom she

Adjective clauses are used to modify nouns or pronouns. Fill in the blanks with an
appropriate relative pronoun. Also, underline the adjective clauses in the following
sentences and state which noun or pronoun is modified by them.

1. The girl ........................................ won the first prize is my niece.


who

whom

which
2. The forest through ........................................... we travelled was dark and gloomy.

that

which

what
3. My sister ............................................. lives in Mexico is a nurse.

who

whom

which
4. This is the same house ......................................... Tennyson occupied.

that

who
where
5. This is the same old story .................................................. we have been hearing
since our childhood.

what

that

whom
6. He has a brilliant son .................................................... is certain to bring credit to
his family.

who

whom

which
7. All ................................................. glitters is not gold.

what

which

that
8. He ................................................ is down fears no fall.

which

what

that
9. The plan .................................................... I proposed was rejected.

that

what

who
10. This is the reason ................................................. he does not want to come
here.

why
what
Answers

1. The girl who won the first prize is my niece. (Modifies the noun girl.)

2. The forest through which we travelled was dark and gloomy. (Modifies the noun
forest.)

3. My sister who lives in Mexico is a nurse. (Modifies the noun sister)

4. This is the same house that Tennyson occupied. (Modifies the noun house)

5. This is the same old story that we have been hearing since our childhood.
(Modifies the noun story)

6. He has a brilliant son who is certain to bring credit to his family. (Modifies the noun
son)

7. All that glitters is not gold. (Modifies the determiner all)

8. He that is down fears no fall. (Modifies the pronoun he)

9. The plan (that) I proposed was rejected. (Modifies the noun plan)

10. This is the reason why he does not want to come here. (Modifies the noun
reason)