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# ME313L Fluid Mechanic Lab Manual (DRAFT)

## Flow Measurement Experiment

Object:
Several types of flowmeters will be studied for their characteristics including
accuracy and head loss. Calibration of a flowmeter will also be performed.

Equipment:

Safety valve

Manomete
Rotameter

Gate valve

Elbow

Rotameter

## Wide angle diffuser Orifice meter

H
Manometer tappings Venturi meter D E F G
A B C
Flow
26 mm 51.9 mm

16 mm 20 mm
26 mm

## Figure 1 Flow measurement apparatus

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ME313L Fluid Mechanic Lab Manual (DRAFT)

The flow measurement apparatus consists of a water loop as shown above figure.
The supple line is connected to a gravimetric hydraulic bench. The flow rate
controlled by a gate valve located at the discharge side of the hydraulics bench. A
venturi meter, wide-angled diffuser, orifice meter and rotameter are arranged in
series. Pressure taps across each device are connected to vertical manometer
tubes located on a panel at the rear of the apparatus. The discharge from the
apparatus is returned to the hydraulics bench.

Procedure:

1) Ensure that the hydraulic bench valve and the flow control valve on the
apparatus are both closed.
2) Turn on the pump in the hydraulic bench and open the valve on the bench
fully.
3 ) Slowly open the flow control valve to allow any trapped air to escape.
Continue opening the valve until the rotameter reading reaches its maximum
or the water manometers reach their readable limit, whichever happens first.
4) Record all the pressure readings from the manometers and the flow rate data
from the gravimetric bench (see the Gravimetric Bench Operations handout).
5) Repeat the procedure of step 4 for flow rates of approximately 85%, 70%,
55%, 40% and 25% of full flow. Use the flow control valve to adjust the flow
rate.
6) Fully close the flow control valve and the hydraulic bench valve. After both
valves have been closed, shut the pump off.

Theory:

A) Calculation of Discharge

1) Venturi meter
Apply the continuity equation and the conservation of energy equation
across the venture meter (pressure taps A to B). Neglect the head loss
across the meter. Assume za- zb is zero. The density of water can be
taken as 1000 kg/m3.

## From the continuity

ρV AA A = ρV BA B

The discharge
12
• 2g PA PB
m = ρQ = ρV BA B = ρ A B 2 ρg − ρg
1 − AB AA

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ME313L Fluid Mechanic Lab Manual (DRAFT)

## Considering the geometry of the Venturi , the mass flow will be

• 12
m = 0.962 h A − h B kg/s

2) Orifice Meter
Apply the continuity equation and the conservation of energy equation
across the venture meter (pressure tappings E to F). The head loss ∆H
across the orifice meter cannot be neglected. In the energy equation
the terms

PE PF
− − ∆H
ρg ρg

can be replaced by

P P 
K2 E − F 
 ρg ρg 

The effect of the head loss across the orifice is to make the difference
in the manometer heights less than it would otherwise be. The
coefficient of discharge K for this particular orifice geometry has been
found to be 0.601. Again assuming that zE - zF is zero and the density
of water is 1000 kg/m3 gives that
12
• 2g PE PF
m = ρ VF A F = ρ KA F 2 ρg − ρg
1 − AF AE

## Considering the geometry of the Orifice, the mass flow will be

• 12
m = 0.846 h E − h F kg/s

## B) Calculation of Head Loss

The head loss is the non-recoverable pressure drop across each meter, that
is, the orifice, venturi and rotameter.

## for the rotameter ∆H = hH - hI

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ME313L Fluid Mechanic Lab Manual (DRAFT)

## C) Calculation of Minor Loss

Write the energy equation across the wide-angled diffuser (from C to D)
and include the minor loss term, KV2/2g, where K is the minor loss coefficient
of the diffuser.

Results:
The results can be presented as
1 ) From the gravimetric bench data, determine the mass flow rates
through the apparatus for the six runs.
2) In tabular form compare the theoretical to the actual mass flow rates of
the venturi meter and the orifice meter and determine percent errors.
3) Determine the actual head loss (mm water) for the rotameter, venturi
meter and the orifice meter and plot the results as a function of actual
flow rate through the meter (plot both curves on the same graph).
4 ) Plot a calibration curve for the rotameter (volumetric flow rate
liters/min as a function of rotameter reading).
5) For the wide-angled diffuser plot a curve of the K-value (minor-loss
coefficient) as a function of flow rate. Compare the experimental value
of K to the published value of K and find the percent error. The
diffuser has a cone angle of 100o