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CHI-SQUARE TEST

HYPOTHESIS:

NULL HYPOTHESIS:

Assumes that there is no association between the sex of the respondent in two variables.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:

Assumes that there is an association between the performance appraisal increases employee
motivation two variables.
HYPOTHESIS TESTING:

It is the same for the Chi-Square test of Independence as it is for other tests like ANOVA, t-test,
etc. If the calculated value of the Chi-Square test is greater than the table value, we will reject
the null hypothesis. If the calculated value is less, then we will accept the null hypothesis

Degree of freedom is calculated by using the following formula:

DF = (r-1) (c-1)

Where
DF = Degree of freedom
r = number of rows
c = number of columns

CHI-SQUARE ANALYSIS:
Chi-square test = (O-E)2/E
Degrees of freedom = V = (r-1) (C-1)
Where O = Observed Frequency
E = Expected Frequency
R = Number of rows
C = Number of columns
Level of significance = 5%.

sex * performance appraisal increases employee motivation Crosstabulation


Count
performance appraisal increases employee motivation Total
strongly agree neutral disagree strongly
agree disagree
male 8 14 16 10 12 60
sex
female 8 12 18 11 11 60
Total 16 26 34 21 23 120

Chi-Square Tests
Value df Asymp. Sig.
(2-sided)
Pearson Chi-Square .363a 4 .985
Likelihood Ratio .363 4 .985
Linear-by-Linear .005 1 .944
Association
N of Valid Cases 120
a. 0 cells (0.0%) have expected count less than 5. The
minimum expected count is 8.00.

ANALYSIS

The P-value is the probability that a chi-square statistic having 4 degrees of freedom is more
extreme than 8.00 .We use the chi-square testing to find P(Χ2 > 8.00) = 0.985

INTERPRET RESULTS.
Since the P-value (0.985) is less than the significance level (0.05), we cannot accept the null
hypothesis. Thus, we conclude that there is a relationship between age and benefits under equal
remuneration,

ANOVA TEST

ONE WAY ANOVA TEST

Anova is a statistical test which analyzes variance. It is helpful in making comparison of two or
more means which enables a researcher to draw various results and predictions about two or
more sets of data. Anova test includes one-way anova, two-way anova or multiple anova
depending upon the type and arrangement of the data. One-way anova has the following test
statistics:

Formula

SS total = ( x1)2+ x2)2+ x3)2-( x1)2+ x2)2+ x3)2-


N

SS total = ( x1)2/n1+( x2)2/n2+…..( xr)2/nr--( x1)2+ x2)2+ x3)2-

MS AMONG= SSAMONG /DF AMONG


MS WITHIN= SSWITHIN/DF WITHIN

F= MS AMONG/ MS WITHIN

SSwithin = SStotal - SSamong


x = individual observation
dfamong = r-1 dfwithin = N-r
r = number of groups
N = total number of observations (all groups)
n = number of observations in group

Steps (assuming three groups)

Create six columns: "x1", "x12", "x2", "x22", "x3", and "x32"

1. Put the raw data, according to group, in "x1", "x2", and "x3"
2. Calculate the sum for group 1.
3. Calculate ( x)2 for group 1.
4. Calculate the mean for group 1
5. Calculate x2 for group 1.
6. Repeat steps 2-5 for groups 2 and 3
7. Set up SStotal and SSamong formulas and calculate
8. Calculate SSwithin
9. Enter sums of squares into the ANOVA table, and complete the table by calculating:
dfamong, dfwithin, MSamong, and MSwithin, and F
10. Check to see if F is statistically significant on probability table with appropriate degrees
of freedom and p < .05.
11.

ONE WAY ANOVAS

NULL HYPOTHESIS:

Assumes that there is no association between the departments of the


respondent in two variables.
ALTERNATIVE HYPOTHESIS:

Assumes that there is an association between the organization achieving


through the performance appraisal two variables.

ANOVA
department
Sum of df Mean F Sig.
Squares Square
Between 27.534 4 6.884 4.489 .002
Groups
Within Groups 176.332 115 1.533
Total 203.867 119

INTERPRETATION

ANOVA to test whether there is/are significant difference(s) in the means of department and ”
organization achieving through the performance appraisal F =4.489 , p = 6.884 p >0.05, so t here
is no significant difference between the means of the three education groups for the importance
of social security provide.

REGRESSION

ANOVAa

Model Sum of Squares df Mean Square F Sig.

1 Regression 1.832 1 1.832 1.088 .299b


Residual 198.759 118 1.684

Total 200.592 119

a. Dependent Variable: performanceappraisalsystemneededinorganization


b. Predictors: (Constant), performanceappraisalhelptocooperationandteamwork

Coefficientsa

Model Unstandardized Coefficients Standardized t Sig.


Coefficients

B Std. Error Beta

(Constant) 2.746 .322 8.529 .000


1 performanceappraisalhelpto .100 .096 .096 1.043 .299
cooperationandteamwork

a. Dependent Variable: performanceappraisalsystemneededinorganization

INTERPRETATION
The test is used to establish if the correlation coefficient is significantly different from zero, and,
hence that there is evidence of an association between the two variables. There is then the
underlying assumption that the data is from a normal distribution sampled randomly. If this is not
true, the conclusions may well be invalidated. If this is the case, then it is better to use
Spearman's coefficient of rank correlation (for non-parametric variables). It is interesting to note
that with larger samples, a low strength of correlation, for example r = 2.746, can be highly
statistically significant (ie p < 0.01).