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CHAPTER 4 TANGENTIAL VELOCITY ‘Tue tangential velocity of the fluid in a cyclone increases as radius decreases when starting from the cyclone wall. The free vortex condition where there is complete conservation of angular momentum is thus being approached. The tangential velocity in the outer regions of a free vortex by definition constant, aw ‘Though there are variants which will be discussed later the relationship de- termined by numerous workers with both gas cyclones and hydrocyclones is: VR® — constant cy ‘where 1 normally has values between 0°5 and 1. The cyclone is consequently basically different to a centrifuge in which the fluid rotates as if it were a solid body, that is, with constant angular velocity: VR7* = constant ) In the cyclone the condition more nearly approaches that which has con- servation of angular momentum as implied by equation 1. Graphical representation of these three basic relationships is given in Fig. 10. In the vortex relationships it will be seen that V approaches infinity as R approaches zero. This does not occur in practice since the relationship only holds until small values of radii are reached when the velocity begins to fall with further decrease in radius. The relationship in this region becomes that corresponding to constant angular velocity, that is, solid body rotation. This relationship holds good until the air core interface is reached in the case of the hydrocyclone or a low pressure turbulent region is reached in the case of the gas cyclone. Ilustration of this general pattern is again given in the detailed studies of Kelsall) Figure 11 is reproduced from this paper, again Series 1. In this instance it will be seen that the tangential velocities at the wall are around 13 to 17 sec rising to 50 f/sec and falling again to 27 ft/sec at the air core interface. The reason for the variation in the velocity at the wall is that the data concern the converging section. ‘The data did, in fact, show that the loci 9 20 ‘THE HYDROCYCLONE of constant tangential velocity were cylindrical and velocities were inde~ pendent of level in the cyclone. Fig. 10, Tangential velocity disteibutions corresponding to given relationships ‘The maximum tangential velocity in the example given in Fig. 11 occurred at a radius of O-18 in. This value did not change with change in the design variables covered by Kelsall (primarily D, and D,). It also did not change with change in flow rate (or feed pressure). ‘This result was confirmed for a wide variety of design changes by dye injection studies of the flow pattern.) Alternative data have been given by Lilgé") who obtained a value for the radius of maximum tangential velocity of R,/6 and Broer who suggested a value of 0-5 t0 0-7 Ro, Dye injection observations have been interpreted as follows. It has already bbeen seen that the fluid rotates with constant angular velocity within the position of maximum tangential velocity. There is thus no shear and an injected dye stream remains relatively undispersed. This is shown in