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# olution

The parallelogram law will be used. First, construct parallelogram OACB as shown,
with AC equal and parallel to P2 and BC equal and parallel to P1. Then, from Figure 3.2,
calculate angle (the angle at O between line segments OA and OB, which represent
the forces):

## Since OB and AC are parallel, angle can be calculated:

Using triangle OAC, now calculate the magnitude of R, recognizing that side AC is
equal to P2 (or 140 lb):

from which

Note that the cosine of 105° is a negative value. Recall that the cosine of an angle
between 0° and 90° is positive and that it is negative from 90° to 180°.

The direction of the resultant with respect to force P1 can be calculated using the
law of sines. Again, using triangle OAC,

Substituting, noting that the length AC is equal to the length of P2 and equal to 140 lb:

The direction of the resultant with respect to the horizontal X axis, designated

Note that the cosine of 105° is a negative value. Recall that the cosine of an angle
between 0° and 90° is positive and that it is negative from 90° to 180°.
The direction of the resultant with respect to force P1 can be calculated using the
law of sines. Again, using triangle OAC,

Substituting, noting that the length AC is equal to the length of P2 and equal to 140 lb:

The direction of the resultant with respect to the horizontal X axis, designated

## , can be determined from Figure 3.2:

This angle is measured clockwise from the X axis. Therefore, the sense of the resultant
is downward and to the right.
Note that in Example 3.1 the geometric diagram of the forces was based on the
parallelogram law. A parallelogram was sketched and the triangular portion OAC was
used to calculate the unknown resultant. Instead of the parallelogram, a force triangle
could have been sketched based on the triangle law as previously defined and as shown
in Figure 3.3. Note that this triangle is the same as triangle OAC in Figure 3.2. The
computations using the law of cosines and the law of sines would be identical.
Figure 3.3 Force triangle.
Another method of determining the resultant of two coplanar concurrent forces is
known as the method of components. This method is probably the most general method,
and therefore the most common method used, with applications in other types of force
problems as we will see in subsequent sections. The method is shown in Figure 3.4
graphically superimposed on a parallelogram method solution.
The method of components again makes use of a selected X–Y rectangular coordinate
axis system. The sequence of steps in the application of the method is as follows:
1. Calculate and algebraically sum the X components for each force .
2. Calculate and algebraically sum the Y components for each force .
3. The results from steps 1 and 2 represent the X and Y rectangular components of
the resultant force. Designating as Rx and as Ry, the resultant R can be
calculated using Equation (2.1):

This equation represents the magnitude of the resultant. To determine the sense
of the resultant, a sketch should be drawn indicating the two rectangular
components, with the resultant superimposed on an X–Y coordinate set of axes.
4. The angle of inclination between the resultant and the X axis can be observed in
the sketch of step 3. It can be calculated using Equation (2.2):
Figure 3.4 Resultant by method of component