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Running head: ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 1

The Relationship between Employee Trust and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Olga Piedra

A thesis submitted in partial fulfillment


of the requirements for the degree of
Master of Science in Organizational Leadership
School of Business and Leadership
Nyack College
2013

Thesis Committee:
Chair: Dr. Claire Henry, Director MSOL Program NYC
Co-Chair: Dr. Anita Underwood, Dean School of Business Leadership
Co-Chair: Prof. Cynthia Dorsey, MSOL, Thesis Advisor
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 2

Table of Contents
Acknowledgements............................................................................................................................ 7
Abstract......................................................................................................................................8
Chapter I: Introduction...........................................................................................................9
Purpose Statement.........................................................................................................9
Social Relevance..........................................................................................................10
Theoretical Framework................................................................................................11
Significance of the Study.............................................................................................14
Definition of Variables.................................................................................................15
Inpendent Variable: Employee Trust...................................................................15
Dependent Variable: Organizational Citizenship Behavior................................15
Research Question.......................................................................................................15
Hypotheses Statement..................................................................................................15
Chapter II: Literature Review..............................................................................................16
Purpose Statement.......................................................................................................16
Organiztional Citizenship Behavior.............................................................................16
The Five Dimensions of OCB...............................................................................18
Altruism.......................................................................................................................18
Conscientiousness.................................................................................................18
Sportsmanship.......................................................................................................19
Courtesy................................................................................................................19
Civic Virtue...........................................................................................................19
Employee Trust............................................................................................................20
Ability..................................................................................................................21
Benevolence.........................................................................................................21
Integrity................................................................................................................21
Relationship between Employee Trust and Organizational Citizenship Behavior......22
Ethical Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behavior.....................................25
Summary and Conclusion............................................................................................26

Chapter III: Methodology..................................................................................................28


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 3

Purpose Statement.......................................................................................................28
Research Setting and Sample.......................................................................................28
Selection of Organization............................................................................................28
Data Collection Strategies...........................................................................................29
Sample Characteristics.................................................................................................30
Instruments and Measures.....................................................................................31
Instrument for the Dependent Variable – Organizational Citizenship
Behavior.............................................................................................................31
Instrument for the Independent Variable – Employee Trust..............................32
Demographics....................................................................................................32
Data Analysis Plan.............................................................................................35
Chapter IV: Results............................................................................................................36
Purpose Statement.......................................................................................................36
Demographics and Organization Citizenship Behavior...............................................36
Relationship between Employee Trust and Organizational Citizeship Behavior........37
Relationship between Employee Trust, OCB and Demographics...............................40
Other Studies Conducted On the Variable Employee Trust and OCB.........................41
Summary and Conclusion............................................................................................41
Chapter V: Discussion and Conclusion.............................................................................43
Purpose Statement.......................................................................................................43
Interpretation of Findings............................................................................................43
Hypothesis of the Study...............................................................................................43
Research Question.......................................................................................................45
Discussion....................................................................................................................45
Summary of the Literature Review..............................................................................46
Summary of the Results...............................................................................................47
Limitation of the Study................................................................................................48
Data Surprises and Statistical Significance.................................................................48
Recommendations for Future Research.......................................................................48
Conclusion of Study....................................................................................................49
References.............................................................................................................................51
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 4

LIST OF TABLES

Table 1 – Demographics of 50 Participants by: Gender, Race & Age Group......................30


Table 2 - Gender...................................................................................................................33
Table 3 - Age Groups............................................................................................................33
Table 4 - Race.......................................................................................................................34
Table 5 - Work Status............................................................................................................34
Table 6 - Demographics v. OCB...........................................................................................37
Table 7 - Statistical Chart on Participants.............................................................................38
Table 8 - Pearson Correlation...............................................................................................38
Table 9 - Linear Regression of Employee Trust and OCB...................................................39
Table 10 - Results of Survey Scores.....................................................................................40
Table 11 – Employee Trust, OCB & Demographics.............................................................41
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 5

LIST OF APPENDICES

Appendix A: Cover Letter of Consent..................................................................................59


Appendix B: Survey Instructions..........................................................................................60
Appendix C: Instrument for Organizational Citizenship Behavior .....................................61
Appendix D: Instrument for Employee Trust.......................................................................65
Appendix E: Sample Flyer ...................................................................................................68

Acknowledgements

As I present my Thesis, it is important to me to present the best thesis which

represents my academic success at Nyack College. I would like to take this opportunity to

thank my Thesis Advisor, Prof. Cynthia Dorsey, for the many hours she has spent making

sure that my thesis met Nyack College’s requirements and standards and guided me to

ensure that I succeeded at accomplishing it. I also would like to give thanks to the Dean of

Students, Dr. Anita Underwood, who was always available to solve any academic concerns

and matters. I also would like to give thanks to Prof. Millicent Waterman, the Director of

the Writing Lab, for her many hours of review and assistance she provided me with and

with the guidance I needed within the Writing Lab.

Secondly, I also want to give thanks to my family for being there for me through the

entire year of my Master’s degree work, research study and thesis. My family was all there

to insure I gave my best academically and supported my decision to further my education

after this.
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 6

Lastly, I would like to give thanks to God for giving me the strength I needed to get

through this and let me be as successful academically as I have been with the preparation of

this Thesis.
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 7

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to explore the relationship between employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior. The demographics data requested gender, age, ethnic

background and years in the workforce. The organizational citizenship behavior scale

measured the participant’s assistance within the organization, and communication with co-

workers and supervisors and dedication to the organization (Organ, 1988). The Pearson

Product Moment Correlation calculated the extent to which there is a positive relationship

between employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior. The R-squared was used

to calculate the relationship between the demographics and the variables. The results

showed that there tends to be a relationship between employee trust and organizational

citizenship behavior. The Pearson Correlation = 0.158, SE of r = 0.138, Calc t = 1.146, Crit

t = 2.16, df = 48 and Rsquare = 0.024. Further research recommended on the variables

employee trust and OCB.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 8

Chapter I: Introduction
Purpose Statement

The purpose of this study is to understand the type of characteristics that are

associated with organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Organ’s (1988) definition of

organizational citizenship behavior includes three critical aspects. “Organizational

citizenship behaviors are thought of as discretionary behaviors, which are said not to be

part of the job description, and are performed by an employee as a result of their personal

choice” (Podsakoff, 2008, p. 515). “Organizational citizenship behaviors go above and

beyond that which is an enforceable requirement of the job description. Finally it is noted

that “Organizational citizenship behavior contributes to the overall organizational

effectiveness of an organization” (Organ, 1988, p. 4). The reason for this is that employees’

satisfaction, commitment and attitude towards an organization are the direct indicators of

employee’s perception of the organization.

In the research previously done, (Lambert, 2006) indicates, “organizational

citizenship behavior is an individual behavior that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly

recognized by the formal reward system” (Lambert, 2006, p. 504). According to Burrows

(2011) OCB is also defined as:

OCB comes about as a result of job satisfaction. This then leads employees to be

more willing to help out doing extra hours voluntarily, volunteering for extra job

activities and avoiding unnecessary conflicts amongst employees. OCB is different

from normal working behavior in the sense that the employee goes out of his normal

working behavior to get involved into helping others and go beyond the normal

expectations of their jobs.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 9

“As a normal working behavior would be doing the tasks being asked of you and

forced upon you as it is in your job description, but OCB differs from normal working

behaviors as OCB are employee behaviors that, although not critical to the task or job,

serve to facilitate organizational functioning” (Burrows, 2011, p. 1). These behaviors,

although voluntary, serve as vital indicators of personal job values.

“OCB is a behavior that goes beyond the basic requirement of a job. It is, to a

large extent, discretionary and it is of benefit to the organization” (Lambert, 2006, p. 520).

OCB has been known to have a positive impact on employee performance and well being,

and the positive impact in turn has noticeable effects such as satisfaction, commitment and

positive attitude towards the employee’s job.

Social Relevance of the Study

Employees’ behaviors are an important issue in organizations because people

typically spend 40 hours a week in a workplace for over 30 years. Researchers have given

a label to the superior efforts that employees make on behalf of their organizations -

entitled organizational citizenship behavior. “Given the value of citizenship behavior, it is

important to gain a better understanding of what organizations can do to cultivate a

workforce of good organizational citizens” (Bolino, 2003, p. 62).

The earlier studies about OCB show that it is a key factor for achieving productivity

and performance in any organization. OCB is defined as those extra-role behaviors which

go above and beyond the routine duties prescribed by job descriptions. Employees who go

above and beyond the requirements of their job description have a more effective job

performance and the result is enhanced workgroup efficiency (Turnipseed & Rassuli,

2005). OCB is actually a desired behavior by the employee of the organization and this
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 10

behavior is helpful for the organization to meet its objectives and goals (Turnipseed &

Murkison, 1996).

“An organization’s ability to elicit employee behaviors that goes above and beyond

the call of duty can be a key asset and one that is difficult for competitors to imitate”

(Bolino, 2003, p. 67). OCB is important to organizations because it is beneficial to the

organizations involved in this study to learn how and what makes employees go the extra

mile in their job.

Theoretical Framework

The theory, organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) describes a unique aspect of

individual activity at work. The OCB concept was first introduced in the mid 1980s by

Dennis Organ. It is stated that “citizenship behaviors must be monitored and properly

managed in order for such behaviors to enhance rather than have deleterious effects on

organizational and employee performance” (Bolino, 2003, p. 60). It is clearly noted that

OCB is a human behavioral science that has psychological and socio-psychological.

In researching the theory of OCB, the following behaviors are shown to be part of

OCB: altruism, conscientiousness, sportsmanship, courtesy and civic virtues. Altruism

refers to behaviors that are voluntary. For example, being cooperative, helpful and other

instances of extra-role behavior, which helps a specific individual with a given work related

problem. According to Podsakoff (2008) the construct of conscientiousness is defined as:

The construct of conscientiousness refers to the extent of behaviors to which someone

is punctual, high in attendance and goes beyond normal requirements or expectations.

In addition, courtesy refers to behaviors that are directed to the prevention of future

problems, which is different from altruism because altruism is helping someone who
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 11

has a problem, while courtesy is helping to prevent problems, performing thoughtful

or considerate gestures towards others.

Additionally, Podsakoff (2008) defines sportsmanship as:

Sportsmanship describes those individuals who tolerate the annoyances that are

inevitable in the workplace a set of behaviors that demonstrate tolerance of less than

ideal conditions at work without complaining. In addition, “civic virtue consists of

those behaviors that are concerned with the political life of the organization.

All of these previously mentioned special behaviors have become a lively research field

investigated by organizational sociologists, psychologists, and management researchers

(Vigoda, 1995).

In researching the theory of OCB, the researcher found that sociologists say that

“Organizational citizenship behavior, which is traditionally called “good soldier” syndrome, is

on-the-job, work related behavior(s), not related to the formal organizational reward system,

and promotes the effective functioning of the organization” (Turnipseed, 2002 p. 3). In

comparison, psychologists say that “More recent empirical research demonstrates that values

directly affect behavior by encouraging individuals to act in accordance to their values”

(Locke, 1976, p. 1298). Management researchers say that “By discretionary, it is stressed that

the behavior is not an enforceable requirement of the job description that is the clearly

specifiable terms of the person’s employment contract with the organization” (Isbasi, 2000, p.

370). The researcher has found, in researching the theory of OCB, psychologists feel that

values work together with behavior.

Although “Organizational citizenship behavior is a relatively new concept in


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 12

performance analysis but it represents a very old human conduct of voluntary action and

mutual aid with no request for pay or formal rewards in return” (Bolino, 2003, p. 72).

Organ and Ryan (1995) are widely credited with introducing OCB in academic

literature. In the last three decades, it has grown to become a prominent stream of research.

Various behavioral scientists have got their own way of defining organizational citizenship

behavior. Organ (1988) also noted that defining organizational citizenship behavior as

behaviors that are not formally rewarded is actually too broad, as few "in-role" behavior(s)

actually guarantee a formal reward. There is no doubt that organizational citizenship

behavior is discretionary behavior of an employee to provide “Extra” to his organization

which is not a part of his defined duty. The researcher states that the definition of OCB is

linked to the theory as Organ (1988) proposed that “OCB is the broader construct of extra-

role behavior; he further, defined extra-role behavior as behavior which benefits the

organization and/or is intended to benefit the organization, which is discretionary and

which goes beyond existing role expectations” (Organ, 1988, p. 4). Thus, “organizational

citizenship behavior is functional, extra-role, pro-social organizational behaviors directed at

individual, groups and/or an organization. Organizational citizenship behavior excludes

those pro-social behaviors that are prescribed by the organization as performance

requirements, and dysfunctional or noncompliant behaviors” (Sharma, 2011, p. 68).

Significance of the Study

This research study expands upon the current literature by examining employee trust

and its relationship to organizational citizenship behavior. The reason for this is that

employees’ satisfaction, commitment and attitude towards an organization are the direct

indicators of employee’s perception/trust of the organization.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 13

This research study attempted to enhance the organizational learning of OCB by

showing that some employees are able to demonstrate OCB and other employees do not.

This is so, because organizations will be able to use this research study as guidance on how

employees use OCB in their own organizations and will be able to better identify the use of

OCB. This study will contribute to organizational learning by showing that the significance

of OCB in an organization will result in positive outcomes for the organization (Organ,

1988). Even though there have been a lot of studies around the field of OCB, this area of

research has not had much research.

This research study should further benefit the manner employees’ understand and

identify the attributes of OCB which will allow the organization to see that the employee

has emotions which connect them to the workplace. This will be valuable to both the

employee and the organization (Lambert, 2006). “Demonstrating OCB towards the

organization can actually directly benefit the individual by strengthening feelings of self-

worth which will essentially cause the employee to give back to the organization in a

positive way” (Schroeder, 2010, p.11).

It is important that the organization meets the needs of employees so that the

employees give back to the organization resulting in positive outcomes for the

organization. Both employees and managers of an organization will benefit greatly from

this study. Employees that trust the organization they work for are more likely to perform

their job duties to include organizational citizenship behavior (Organ, 1990). The

researcher believes this is so because employee trust is an essential characteristic of

organizational citizenship behavior.

Definition of Variables
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 14

Employee Trust – Independent Variable

“Employee trust is defined in an organizational manner which entails having trust,

planning, implementing, and managing recruitment, as well as selection, training, career,

and organizational development initiatives within an organization” (Pate, 2012, p. 149).

Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) – Dependent Variable

“OCB is defined as a behavior that goes beyond the basic requirement of the job, and

to a large extent requires discretionary attitude on the part of the employee as well as

the organization. The result in turn will promote OCB behavior “which serves to

benefit the organization” (Lambert, 2006 p. 506).

Research Question

Why are some employees able to demonstrate organizational citizenship behavior and

others do not?

Hypothesis Statement

There is a positive relationship between employee trust and organizational citizenship

behavior.
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 15

Chapter II: Literature Review

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this study is to understand the types of characteristics that are

associated with organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). In this chapter, the researcher

will review the literature that underlies the present study. Organizational citizenship

behavior has rapidly become one of the most extensively studied areas of applied

psychology and organizational behavior (Podsakoff, 2000). Within the last 44 years, it has

been found that organizations could not succeed by relying strictly on the performance of

behaviors designated in employee’s job descriptions. In this chapter, the researcher

discusses Organ (1988) suggestion of OCB which is composed of five dimensions, namely:

Altruism, Conscientiousness, Sportsmanship, Courtesy and Civic Virtue. This literature

also discusses the connection between employee trust and organizational citizenship

behavior. One of the connecting theories discussed is the connection between ethical

leadership and organizational citizenship behavior.

Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Organizational citizenship behavior (OCB) is defined as “individual behavior that is

discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in

the aggregate promotes the effective functioning of the organization” (Organ, 1988 p. 3).

OCB provides a means of managing the interdependencies among members of a work unit,

which increases the collective outcomes achieved; reduces the need for an organization to

devote scarce resources to simple maintenance functions, which frees up resources for

productivity; and improves the ability of others to perform their jobs by freeing up time for

more efficient planning, scheduling, problem solving, and so on (Podsakoff, 2000).


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 16

Organizational citizenship behaviors are a special type of work behavior that are

defined as individual behaviors that are beneficial to the organization and are discretionary,

not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system. “These behaviors are

rather a matter of personal choice, such that their omissions are not generally understood as

punishable. Organizational citizenship behaviors are thought to have an important impact

on the effectiveness and efficiency of work teams and organizations, therefore contributing

to the overall productivity of the organization” (Sharma, 2011 p. 67).

Various behavioral scientists have different ways of defining organizational

citizenship behavior. According to Organ (1988), the definition of organizational

citizenship behavior as quoted herein above as “individual behavior that is discretionary,

not directly or explicitly recognized by the formal reward system, and that in the aggregate,

promotes the effective functioning of the organization” (p. 3). Organ (1988) also noted

that:

Defining organizational citizenship behavior as behaviors that are not formally

rewarded is actually too broad, as few “in-role” behaviors actually guarantee a formal

reward. There is no doubt that organizational citizenship behavior is discretionary

behavior of an employee to provide “extra” to his organization which is not a part of

his defined duty.

Van Dyne (1995) proposed the broader construct of “extra-role behavior”, defined as

“behavior which benefits the organization and/or is intended to benefit the organization,

which is discretionary and which goes beyond existing role expectations.” (p. 216).

Organizational citizenship behavior is functional, extra-role, pro-social organizational

behaviors directed at individual, groups and/or an organization. These are helping


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 17

behaviors not formally prescribed by the organization for which there are no direct rewards

or punishments. Organ (1988) has postulated the following types of organizational

citizenship behavior which are known as the five dimensions of organizational citizenship

behavior.

The Five Dimensions of OCB

Altruism

Altruism consists of discretionary behaviors that aim at helping specific persons in

face-to-face situations with an organizationally relevant task or problems. “OCB is

referred to organizationally beneficial behavior and gestures that can neither be enforced on

the basis of formal employee’s role obligations nor elicited by a contractual guarantee of

recompense” (Somech, 2007 p. 40). It is said that OCB is a voluntary behavior of an

employee which is not required as part of the job. OCB is a kind of job behavior which is

not considered as a job qualification.

Conscientiousness

Conscientiousness refers to impersonal behaviors such as compliance with norms

defining a good worker, it involves employees going beyond minimal requirements in

carrying out their assigned tasks.

OCB can be divided into two groups “role” and “extra role”. Extra role behaviors are

not organizational qualifications but leave positive effect on performance of organization

(Organ, 1997). Since these behaviors leave positive effect on organizations, organizations

put strong emphasis on OCB (Yoon, 2008). Paying attention to OCB helps to support,

sustain and enrich social and psychological context, developing task performance (Organ,
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 18

1997). Chen, (1998) wrote that OCB reflects real trends of employee to deal with different

issues in organizations.

Sportsmanship

“Sportsmanship reflects the employee’s willingness to tolerate the inevitable

inconveniences and impositions of work without complaining, such as not wasting time

complaining about trivialities” (Somech, 2007 p. 40).

These kinds of employees show sportsmanship by not consuming a lot of time

complaining about trivial matters. These kinds of employees focus on the positive side of

the organization instead of the wrong within an organization.

Courtesy

Courtesy consists of actions such as consulting with other employees before making

decisions, giving other employees advance notice, passing along information to other

employees and issuing reminders to other employees. A courteous employee takes that

extra step to try to prevent problems with other workers. This kind of an employee does

not abuse the rights of others.

Civic Virtue

Civic virtue is concerned with keeping up with matters that affect the organization

such as attending meetings, contributing to discussions, and generally getting involved in

organizational activities in order to assist and improve the organization. Civic virtue also

refers to the responsible participation in the political life of the organization (Graham,

1987).
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 19

A civic virtue kind of an employee attends meetings that are not mandatory to be

attended but are considered important to the organization. This kind of employee keeps

abreast of changes in the organization on a day-to-day basis.

Having listed these five dimensions, Organ (1988) also reiterates:

All these dimensions might not emerge simultaneously. Some of these dimensions

might be a technique to impress managers of organizations. It means some

employees try to have effect on manager’s decisions for promotion and rewarding,

observing these dimensions. These employees tend to be “good actors” rather than

“good citizens” for the organization.

Employee Trust

“Over three decades ago, Argyris (1964) proposed that employee trust in management

is important for organizational performance. Recognition of the importance of trust in

organizational relationships has grown rapidly in recent years, evidenced by a large number

of publications on the topic addressing both academic and practitioner audiences” (Argyris,

1964 p. 51).

Although there has been some research to investigate how trust affects group

performance and the performance of interorganizational relationships, little research has

been done relating to employee trust within organizations. The examination of the process

that trust affected the performance of employee within organizations was beyond the scope

of some of the research conducted.

However, there have been a number of attempts to define trust in organizational

literature. Mayer (2011) states as follows:


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 20

In a recent attempt to integrate the important components of various approaches to

trust, Mayer, Davis, and Schoorman (1995) proposed that trust be defined as the

willingness to be vulnerable to another party when that party cannot be controlled or

monitored. It is said that a key component of trust is its relationship with risk

(Deutsch, 1958; Giffin, 1967; Riker, 1974). This definition explicitly recognizes the

relationship between trust and risk, since risk is inherent in vulnerability.

Trustworthiness is comprised of three factors: Ability, Benevolence and Integrity.

Ability

Ability is the perception that the trustee has skills and competencies in the domain of

interest. It is said that ability related to trust as the word trustability wherein reliance

on the integrity, strength, ability and surety of a person or thing provides confidence.

Benevolence

Benevolence is the trustor’s perception that the trustee cares about the trustor’s well

being. An example of benevolence is when an employer’s benevolence towards the

employees was such that she actually let one live in her home temporarily.

Integrity

Integrity is the perception that the trustee adheres to a set of principles that the trustor

finds acceptable. An example of integrity is when an employee refuses to compromise on

matters of principle.

“In related research, Currall (1992) found that semantic differential measures of

benevolence and ability were predictive of trust and of expectations of trustworthy

behavior” (p. 298).


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 21

While the Davis (2000) study suggests that” trust in management contributes to

higher levels of organizational performance, it did not delve into the mechanisms by which

it does so” (p. 574). Davis (2000) suggested that “trust might lead employees to engage in

a higher level of organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB)” (p. 575). They suggested that

when employees engage in more helping behaviors, customers' needs are met more

effectively. Thus, the purpose of said study was for the researcher to examine the

relationship between employee trust and OCB which relates to management and employee

performance-related behaviors (Davis, 2000).

Relationship between Employee Trust and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

Employee trust seems to be a factor which exhibits dependency of organizational

citizenship behavior. In fact, trustworthiness is a base of generating organizational

citizenship behavior. Dirks and Ferrin (2000) found the relationship between trust and the

attitudinal outcome to be considerably stronger than the relationship between the

behavioral

outcomes which consist of organizational citizenship behavior (Dirks & Ferrin, 2000).

The concept of trust has been defined, throughout the literature, in different ways.

From a different prospective, but widely referenced within organizational literature is

Rotter’s (1967) definition. Rotter (1967) defines trust as:

An expectancy held by an individual or a group that a word, promise, verbal or

written statement of another individual or group can be relied upon. Underlying this

definition, to be trustworthy, trustee must follow through and keep their word and/or

promise.
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 22

Other authors such as (Carnevale, 1992; Matthai, 1989; and Nyhan, 1999) extend the

definition of Rotter by defining “trust as feeling of confidence and expectation that the

person or organization will continue to act in an ethical, fair, and non-threatening way”

(Carnevale, 1992 p. 473).

Trust enhances cooperation (Coleman, 1990). It is source of good leadership. It

improves the information sharing process. Trust enhances the relationship between the

supervisor and the subordinate (Zand, 1972). For the last ten years, a boost has been

observed in the research on employee trust. This has enabled the researchers to examine

the mediating role of employee trust. Supervisory trust mediates the relationship between

employee trust and OCB. According to Burke 2007, “the key three components of trust

are, willingness to be vulnerable, positive expectations that interests will be protected and

promoted when monitoring is not possible; and assessment of others, intention, sincerity,

motivations, character, reliability and integrity” (Burke, 2007 p. 610).

In all of the aforementioned definitions trust is defined. Additionally, Pratoom

(2011) states:

the present study defines trust as employees’ confidence and expectation in the

intention and actions of a supervisor or organization that will always act in an ethical,

fair and non-threatening manner. By this definition, trust is predicted on personal

experience with authority.

Several trust researchers, such as Dirks (2002), have shown a direct relationship between

employee trust and organizational citizenship behaviors (OCBs). They also suggest that

OCBs tend to be associated with trust in supervisor rather than trust in organization because
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 23

of the distinction in the role of the supervisor and top management. Supervisors tend to

perform actions such as managing performance and day-to-day activities on the job.

In contrast, top management perform more strategic functions such as setting strategic

plan, allocating the resources to departments, communicating the goals of organizations

and so on and so forth. According to social exchange relationship, they believe that

reciprocating trust is a supervisor would tend to involve job-related outcomes such as

increasing in-role performance or engaging in OCBs. For OCBs, Dirks (2002) suggested

that if employees feel that their supervisor demonstrates care, trust is established and these

employees are willing to go above or beyond their job role. (Dirks, 2002).

Prior research revealed mixed results with regard to this association. It was found by

both (Aryee, 2002; and Wong, 2006) that OCBs is strongly related to trust in supervisors

rather than to trust in organizations which support the previous argument. The study of

(Wong, 2006) shows that the organizational citizenship behaviors of employees is affected

by their trust in organization, in both joint ventures and state-owned enterprises sample.

Whereas, trust in supervisors show there is no influence on employees’ OCBs in state-

owned enterprises sample.

Trust in supervisors tends to mediate the relationship between employee work-related

behaviors and OCBs. While “trust in organization tends to mediate the relationship

between distributive and the organization-referenced work outcomes” (Aryee, 2002 p. 272)

Many studies found trust in organizations was positively related to OCB (Aryee,

2002). As Tan and Lim (2009) reported trust in co-workers led to trust in organization, it is

expected that trust in co-workers may also affect employee’s OCB directed in the

organization. (Tan, 2009).


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 24

OCB is about giving more than the everyday expectation which affects the overall

functioning of the organization and its members emphatically (Joireman, 2006). Where,

“OCB is defined as individual behaviors that is discretionary, not directly or explicitly

recognized by the formal reward system” (Organ, 1988 p. 295). As said by researchers,

OCB is one of the outcomes of social exchange relationship. “OCB has a positive impact

on other outcomes, which increases productivity, enhances organizational performance

stability, attracts new employees and retains the old ones, and helps coordinate activities”

(Borman, 2004 p. 240).

Culture plays a vital role in developing OCB (Gautam, 2006) as OCB may have

different meanings in organizations of different geographic framework. “OCB is portrayed

as the determinant of organizational success which can be evaluated or predicted by the

number of employees who are engaged in OCB” (Yen, 2004 p. 1619).

Ethical Leadership and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors

“The organizational crises and ethical scandals in business, government, sports, non-

profits and even religious organizations have increased the motivation for research in ethics

and ethical leadership” (Brown, 2006 p. 596). In an attempt to define ethical leadership,

Brown (2006), defined ethical leadership as “the demonstration of normatively appropriate

conduct through personal actions and interpersonal relationships and the promotion of such

conduct to followers through two-way communication, reinforcement and decision-

making” (Brown, 2006 p. 597). Piccolo (2010) explains that:

ethical leaders focus on moral values and fairness in all their decisions, consider the

impact of organizational decisions on the external parties and clearly communicate


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 25

the employees how their actions at work contribute to the overall goals of the

organization.

Ethical leadership is about properly and morally influencing people in the right

direction towards attaining organizational objectives. This “such kind of leadership forms

the foundation of effective performance and practices in organizations” (Bambale, 2008 p.

35). Past research results reveal significant negative relationship between unethical

attitudes and pro-social behavior (Adebayo, 2005). More recently, Piccolo (2010) found

that “employees in jobs rated high in task significance who perceives their leaders to be

ethical, put more efforts in their jobs and engage more in organizational citizenship

behaviors” (Piccolo, 2010 p. 273).

Summary and Conclusion

The literature reviewed revealed a consistency between employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior. The research was supported by the literature with

documented references that fully explained the meaning of trust and organizational

citizenship behavior. Additionally, the relationship between employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior were discussed and presented so the reader could see

the connection between the two variables. The literature spoke on the importance of

organizational citizenship behavior in the workplace. The researcher agreed that

organizational citizenship behavior is the behavior of individuals that is discretionary, not

expressed explicitly or recognized by any of the official system expected on an employees’

job description.

Prior research on organizational citizenship behavior indicates it is important to have

a positive impact on other outcomes, which increases productivity, enhances organizational


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 26

performance stability, attracts new employees and retains the old ones, and helps

coordinate activities within an organization.

The research also discussed how the importance of trust in organizational

relationships has grown rapidly in recent years. It was also said that the examination of

trust affected the performance of employee(s) within organizations and that it was beyond

the scope of some of the research conducted.

Additionally, the research discussed how ethical leaders focus on moral values and

fairness in all their decision, consider the impact of organizational decisions.

In the following section, the researcher presents the methodology of the study.
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 27

Chapter III: Methodology

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the methodology used to explain the

relationship between employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). This

section is divided into six sections: Research Setting and Sample, Selection of

Organization, Data Collection Strategies, Sample Characteristics, Instrument and

Measurers and Data Analysis Plan.

Research Setting and Sample

The organization is a community, local library located in an urban area of the

northeastern section of the United States. This organization serves approximately 200 +

patrons of all age groups daily.

Selection of Organization

On Saturday, June 30, 2012, the researcher contacted the Branch Manager of the

library via email requesting permission to administer a survey. On Monday, July 2, 2012,

the researcher spoke directly with the Branch Manager of the organization and discussed

the research study and administering the survey on OCB. The researcher was advised, at

that time, by the Branch Manager of the organization, that the Branch Manager needed to

get approval from her supervisor and get back to the researcher within a week as to whether

the research study could be conducted or not.

The researcher discussed with the Branch Manager the fact that the research study

was for academic study and that both the participants and the organization would remain

anonymous. The researcher also advised the Branch Manager of the organization that the

research study would be conducted by the researcher administering a survey to participants


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 28

of the organization. The researcher advised the Branch Manager that the research study

would be announced with a flyer (See Appendix F) which would be posted on the library’s

bulletin board. Having the flyer posted on the bulletin board allowed all prospective

participants to learn about the research study prior to the study being administered with the

surveys.

On Friday, July 6, 2012, the Branch Manager contacted the researcher by telephone

and advised that the research study was approved and could be administered by the

researcher. The researcher requested that the Branch Manager of the library provide an

Approval Letter via email advising that the research study had been approved and the

survey could be administered once approval from the college’s IRB was received. The

Approval Letter was received in the form of an email on July 6, 2012. On October 3, 2012,

the researcher was able to obtain the required signature from the Branch Manager of the

library on the IRB form.

Data Collection Strategies

On the day of the study, the researcher was present, in the assigned room, waiting to

administer the survey to the public. The researcher introduced herself to the participants

and informed them about the survey being administered. As each participant entered the

room, the researcher gave the survey to the participant of the study along with a copy of the

cover letter of consent.

The participants were advised that they had approximately 30 minutes to complete

the survey. There was a Consent Letter that stated the age requirement of the participants

as 18 years old or older. The Consent Letter also stated that this study was being used for

academic purposes. The confidentiality of each participant was protected. Moreover, the
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 29

participants did not need to include their names on the survey. The participants were

informed that their participation was voluntary.

Once the participants completed the survey, participants were instructed to put the

completed survey in an envelope and seal the envelope. Once participant inserted the

completed survey in the envelope and sealed the envelope, the participant then inserted the

sealed envelope into a large manila envelope which was also located at the front desk.

Thereafter, the large manila envelope was be collected by the researcher for the statistical

data processing and analysis and it was kept in a safe located in the researcher’s home.

Sample Characteristics

The sample for this study consists of 50 participants, male and female, from various

ethnic backgrounds all over the age of 18 years old.

Table 1 reveals 93% of the participants were males and 7% of the participants were

females. 80% of the participants were Black, 10% were Hispanic, 5% were White, 3% were

Indian and 2% were Asian. 80% of the participants were between the ages of 36 – 55, 10%

between the ages of 18 – 35 and 10% between the ages of 56 and older.

Table 1: Demographics of 50 participants by: Gender, Race & Age Group


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 30

Instrument and Measures

The questionnaire is divided into three (3) sections for a total of thirty-five (35) items.

Section one assesses Organizational Citizenship Behavior consisting of twenty (20) items

and Section two measurers employee trust consisting of eleven (11) items. The

demographics section will include 4 items.

Dependent Variable - Organizational Citizenship Behavior

The instrument “A study of job satisfaction as a predictor of OCB” measures

Organizational Citizenship Behavior. The operational definition of Organizational

Citizenship Behavior is defined by the instrument which has twenty (20) items measuring

respondent’s assistance within the organization, communication with co-workers and

supervisors’ and dedication to the organization (Organ, 1988).

In keeping with the definition, OCB incorporates five dimensions: conscientiousness,

altruism, courtesy, sportsmanship and civic virtue which are present when measuring

organizational citizenship behavior.

The OCB instrument was scored using a scale as follows: (1) is for “extremely

meaningful” (2) is for “very meaningful” (3) is for “moderately meaningful” (4) is for

“slightly meaningful” and (5) is for “not at all meaningful”. The lower the number used,

the higher the level of agreement. For example, the number (1) meant the participant feels

the question is extremely meaningful. The higher the number used, the lower the level of

agreement. For example, the number (5) meant the participant finds the question not at all

meaningful. A sample question in this survey is as follows: I am willing to assist new

colleagues to adjust to the work environment.

On September 15, 2012, the researcher was granted permission to use the
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 31

instrument.

The instrument will not be modified.

Independent Variable - Employee Trust

The instrument “Employee Trust and Organizational Loyalty Poll Findings” measures

employee trust. The operational definition of employee trust is defined by the instrument

which has fourteen (14) items measuring respondent’s leadership, trust, loyalty, value and

ethics (Burke, 2004).

The employee trust instrument (SHRM) was scored using a scale as follows: (1) is for

“strongly agree” (2) is for “agree” (3) is for “disagree” and (4) is for “strongly disagree”.

The lower the number used, the higher the level of agreement with the question regarding

respondents’ perception of trust, value and loyalty. For example, the number (1) meant the

participant strongly agreed. The higher the number used, the lower the level of agreement

with the question, relating to leadership, trust, loyalty, value and ethics. For example, the

number (4) meant the participant strongly disagreed. A sample question in this survey is as

follows: My organization provides enough information to its employees on the

organization’s financial standing.

On August 28, 2012, the researcher was granted permission to use the instrument. The

instrument was not modified.

Demographics

The demographics section consists of four (4) items regarding adults 18 years of age

and older: age range, gender, ethnic background and years in the workforce. The result of

the data collected also revealed that 50% of the participants worked outside of the home
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 32

and the average amount of years the participants were employed in the workplace was 10

years.

Table 2 reveals that 93% of the participants were males and 7% of the participants

were females.

Table 2 - GENDER

Table 3 reveals 80% of the participants were between the ages of 36 – 55, 10%

between the ages of 18 – 35 and 10% between the ages of 56 and older.

TABLE 3 - AGE GROUPS


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 33

Table 4 reveals that 80% of the participants were Black, 10% were Hispanic, 5% were

White, 3% were Indian and 2% were Asian.

Table 4 - RACE

Table 5 reveals that 50% of the participants were employed and 50% of the

participants were unemployed.

Table 5 – Work Status


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 34

Data Analysis Plan

The data was analyzed by using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation to test the extent

to which there is a positive relationship between employee trust and organizational

citizenship behavior. The confidence level used was <.05. The R-Squared was used to

measure the impact of the demographics, the independent variable – employee trust, and

the dependent variable – organizational citizenship behavior.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 35

Chapter IV – Results

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this chapter is to describe the results of this study. The researcher

discusses the statistical analysis used to answer the research question “Why some

employees are able to demonstrate organizational citizenship behavior and others do not?”

and the relationship between the variables, employee trust and organizational citizenship

behavior. This chapter proved there is a relationship between employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior.

The areas of analyses outlined within this chapter are as follows: 1) Relationship

between the Demographics and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, 2) Relationship

between Employee Trust and Organizational Citizenship Behavior, 3) Relationship between

Employee Trust, Organizational Citizenship Behavior and Demographics and 4) Results of

other studies done on Employee Trust and Organizational Citizenship Behavior.

The conclusion and summary of this chapter discuss the results of the hypothesis for

this research study.

Demographics and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

The demographics data collected by the researcher revealed that the questions relating

to organizational citizenship behavior were geared to measure whether or not the

participant was an employee able to demonstrate organizational citizenship behavior or

not? In reviewing the data collected, the researcher was able to see that over 80% of the

responses given by the participants was “extremely meaningful” response to the questions

posed. This means that 80% of the participants felt “extremely meaningful” about doing

duties that were not part of their job description and means that they would do the “extra-
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 36

role” without being required to do so. This demonstrates organizational citizenship

behavior amongst most of the participants.

Table 6 reveals that 80% of the participants used OCB and 20% of the participants

did not use OCB.

Table 6 – Demographics v. OCB

The surveys taken by the participants included questions related to OCB. Table 6

above shows that 80% of the participants performed duties that were not part of their job

description and 20% of the participants did not. It is evident that the majority of the

participants demonstrated the use of OCB.

Relationship between Employee Trust and Organizational Citizenship Behavior

The data collected shows that there exists a positive relationship between employee

trust and organizational citizenship behavior. Listed below is the statistical calculation.

Table 7 reveals that the sample size is N=50, Mean = 25.50, the Median = 25.50, the

Standard Deviation = 14.577, the Range = 49, the Minimum sample size N= 1 and the

Maximum sample size N=50.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 37

Table 7 – Statistical Chart on Participants

N Valid 5

Missing 0

0
Mean 25.5

0
Median 25.50

Std. Deviation 14.577


Range 49
Minimum 1
Maximum 50

Additionally, Table 8 reveals that Correlation = 0.158, SE of r = 0.138, Calc t = 1.146,

Crit t = 2.16, df = 48.

Table 8 – Pearson Correlation

Correlation SE of r Calc t Crit t Df


0.158 0.138 1.146 2.16 48

The hypothesis for the study stated there is a positive relationship between employee

trust and organizational citizenship behavior. In order to test this hypothesis the Pearson

Correlation was performed to understand the strength in the relationship between employee

trust and organizational citizenship behavior. Table 8 demonstrates the analysis resulted in

a Pearson Correlation of r=0.158. These results indicate an acceptable strength in the

relationship between the two variables, employee trust and organizational citizenship

behavior.

Note: The null hypothesis is not rejected because the Calc t is not greater than the Crit t.
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 38

Hypothesis: There is a positive relationship between employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior.

Table 9 reveals that the linear regression between employee trust and OCB showed a

straight line at 58.36. This quantifies the strength of the relationship between the two

variables, employee trust and OCB.

Table 9 - Linear Regression of Employee Trust and OCB

Table 10 revealed each participant’s response to questions relating to employee trust

and questions relating to OCB.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 39

Table 10 – Results of Survey Scores

The analyzed results revealed conclusive that the hypothesis was proven and that

there is a positive relationship between employee trust and organizational citizenship

behavior.

Table 10 listed above was calculated by using the sums of each participants’ total

points for questions listed related to employee trust and questions listed related to

organizational citizenship behavior. This allowed the researcher to do a linear regression

on the two variables, employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior which shows

that there is a strong relationship between the two variables.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 40

Relationship between employee trust, organizational citizenship behavior and

demographics.

The relationship between the variables, employee trust and organizational citizenship

behavior, and the demographics was scored by the researcher using the Pearson Product

Moment Correlation which was tested to see the extent there is a relationship between

employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior. The confidence level used was < .

05. The score showed 0.158 as the Pearson Correlation. The Rsquare was used to measure

the impact of the demographics and the participants taking the employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior surveys and the results was 0.024.

Table 11 reveals that the correlation = 0.158, SE of r = 0.138, Calc t = 1.146, Crit t =

2.16, df = 48, Rsquare = 0.024.

Table 11 – Employee Trust, OCB & Demographics

Correlation SE of r Calc t Crit t df Rsquare


0.158 0.138 1.146 2.16 48 0.024

Other Studies Conducted On the Variables, Employee Trust and OCB

A study conducted by researchers in 2011, showed that employee trust in

organizations had results that were similar to the study conducted by the researcher.

Additionally, from a practical perspective trust is found to be a factor that positively affects

the work-related behaviors that are included in behaviors associated with employee trust

and OCB.

In comparing the research study conducted by the researcher on employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior, it can be seen that the statistical figures that are shown
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 41

in both statistical charts herein show a stronger relationship between employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior. This supports the researcher’s findings.

Summary and Conclusion

The results of this study as presented through statistical charts clearly support the

hypothesis of this research study. There is a positive relationship between employee trust

and organizational citizenship behavior. The researcher was able to compare relationships

between the variables, employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior and the

demographics to find that there is a positive relationship amongst them. The linear

regression was used and the relationship between the two variables, employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior is strong. The research study used causation, by

comparing the linear regression results to the correlation results and found that there were

no inconsistencies.

This research is able to support its findings with statistics from other researchers

relating to the same variables, employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior. This

gives the researcher greater support to its research study. After the researcher scored the

data collected, it was found that the results clearly show a positive relationship between

employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 42

Chapter V: Discussion and Conclusion

Purpose Statement

The purpose of this chapter is to discuss the hypothesis and research question,

summarize the previous chapters as well as provide explanations for significant

observations in Chapter IV. Furthermore, strengths and limitations will be discussed and

recommendations for future research will be made.

Interpretation of Findings

The results of the study were analyzed by the researcher and adopted because

research literature defines organizational citizenship behavior as a voluntary behavior of an

employee which is not required as part of the job. Research writer, Organ (1988) confirms

that assessing organizational citizenship behavior requires looking at all five dimensions

used within the organization. The interpretations of the findings were viewed within the

results of the research study.

Hypothesis of the Study

The hypothesis for the study states there is a positive relationship between employee

trust and organizational citizenship behavior. In order to test this hypothesis the Pearson

Correlation was performed to understand the strength in the relationship between employee

trust and organizational citizenship behavior. These results indicate an acceptable strength

in the relationship between the two variables, employee trust and organizational citizenship

behavior. Additionally, “from a practical perspective, the findings support the notions of

trust as the factor that positively affects the work-related outcome including employee trust

and OCBs” (Pratoom, 2011 p. 7158).


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 43

The findings of the study confirmed a relationship between employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior. The study showed a significant difference between the

demographics of the study and OCB. The male to female ratio that participated in the

research study, differed greatly. There was also a significant difference in the age group

that participated in the research study. A study conducted by researchers in 2011, showed

that employee trust in organizations “all three indicator had factors looking” (Pratoom,

2011 p. 7155).

There has been further prior research to investigate how trust affects group

performance and the performance of interorganizational relationships, little research has

been done relating to employee trust within organizations. The examination of the process

that trust affected the performance of employee within organizations was beyond the scope

of some of the research conducted.

It was detected by the research study conducted by the researcher that

organizational citizenship behavior was used by the majority of the participants as most of

the participants selected to answer “extremely meaningful” to many of the organizational

citizenship behavior questions posed. The organizational citizenship behavior questions

within the research study measured how participants assisted within their organization,

communicate with co-workers and supervisor and the participant’s dedication to the

organization. The results of these survey questions allowed the researcher to gain a better

assessment of the use of organizational citizenship behavior within each participant which

in turn provided a measurable study of the research conducted in the scoring of the data

collected.
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 44

The second area of significance discussed in the research study was the relationship

between employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior. The study showed an

acceptable strength in the relationship between the two variables, employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior. The research study proved that the hypothesis was

proven and that there is a positive relationship between employee trust and organizational

citizenship behavior.

Research Question

The research question is: Why some employees are able to demonstrate

organizational citizenship behavior and others do not? Organizational citizenship

behaviors are a special type of work behaviors that individuals perform that are beneficial

to the organization and are discretionary, not directly or explicitly recognized by the reward

system within organizations. These behaviors are rather a matter of personal choice.

The researcher was able to see that the research question posed was true by doing the

linear regression on the data collection. In the linear regression, the researcher compared

the two variables and the results showed that many of the participants demonstrated

organizational citizenship behavior and some of the participants did not demonstrate much

use of organizational citizenship behavior within their organization. This is so because

many of the participants selected “extremely meaningful” for questions relating to

organizational citizenship behavior.

Discussion

This research study revealed demographic findings relating the two variables

employee trust and OCB. The results of the relationship between the variables, employee

trust and organizational citizenship behavior, and the demographics was scored by the
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 45

researcher using the Pearson Product Moment Correlation which was tested to see the

extent there of the relationship between employee trust and organizational citizenship

behavior. The Pearson correlation revealed there was a correlation between the two

variables, employee trust and OCB. The linear regression was performed and causation

existed. The table on linear regression of employee trust and OCB shows that the linear

regression on these two variables is a strong relationship between the two variables. The

linear regression was calculated to determine where the straight line between the two

variables, employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior was visible. The results

of the survey scores was calculated by using the sums of each participants’ total points for

questions listed related to employee trust and questions listed related to organizational

citizenship behavior. The R² was used to measure the impact of the demographics and the

participants taking the employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior surveys.

In this research study, the statistical charts show a strong relationship between

employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior. This supports the researcher’s

findings. In comparing the study of (Wong, 2006) it shows that the organizational

citizenship behaviors of employees is affected by their trust in organization, in both joint

ventures and state-owned enterprises sample. Whereas, trust in supervisors show there is

no influence on employees’ OCBs in state-owned enterprises sample.

Summary of the Literature Review

The strengths of the literature review, which the researcher was able to reveal, is that prior

research on organizational citizenship behavior indicates it is important to have

a positive impact on other outcomes, which increases productivity, enhances organizational

performance stability, attracts new employees and retains the old ones, and helps
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 46

coordinate activities within an organization. This all contributes to employee trust and

OCB.

The weaknesses of the literature review was seen when it was also said in prior

research study on these variables, employee trust and OCB, that the examination of trust

affected the performance of employee(s) within organizations and that it was beyond the

scope of some of the research conducted. This indicates that there is a weakness between

these two variables which is far more difficult than researchers are able to detect.

Summary of the Results

The results the researcher was able to present through statistical charts clearly

support the hypothesis of this research study. There is a positive relationship between

employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior. The researcher was able to

compare relationships between the variables, employee trust and organizational citizenship

behavior and the demographics to find that there is a positive relationship amongst them. In

order to test this hypothesis, the Pearson Correlation was performed to understand the

strength in the relationship between employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior.

These results indicate an acceptable strength in the relationship between the two variables,

employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior.

The researcher was also able to support its findings with statistics from other

researchers relating to the same variables, employee trust and organizational citizenship

behavior. This gave greater support to the research study. After the researcher scored the

data collected, it was found that the results clearly show a positive relationship between

employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 47

Limitations of the Study

An area that needed future attention was the work status questions. Participants were

asked whether they worked outside of the home which implies to the researcher that those

that were not employed outside of the home were unemployed. Yet, some participants may

have jobs within the confines of their own homes such as a babysitter or another home-

based business. The researcher may have obtained a better assessment by posing a more

direct question as to whether the participant was “employed” or “unemployed”. In this

way, the results of the work status question could be even more accurate.

Data Surprises and Statistical Significance

The research study shows that even though there was a relationship between

employee trust and organization citizenship behavior, surprisingly the scores were not as

high as other research conducted on these same two variables, employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior. Additionally, a study conducted by researchers in

2011, showed that employee trust in organizations “all three indicator had factors looking”

(Pratoom, 2011 p. 7155). The design of this research study does not contribute to hindering

a more significant result.

Recommendations for Future Research

The researcher’s recommendation to the leadership of the organization relating to

organizational citizenship behavior enhanced organizational change and gave significance

to the study. The organization should use the results presented from this research study to

gain a greater understanding of the kinds of people that come to the organization and what

the people’s needs are which relate to employee trust and organizational citizenship

behavior.
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 48

Attention needs to be given to the low rate in female participants as found from the

research study. The organization may want to promote more activities involving children

which may bring a greater amount of females to the organization. The female participants

may be home caring for their children wherein male participant may be free to come to the

organization to get involved in more of their events.

The results of the current study have shown that there was a relationship between

employee trust and organizational citizenship behavior. Recommendations from the study

moves leadership forward in defining organizational citizenship behavior throughout all

dimensions of the organization. The need for a next step was confirmed in the literature

written by Organ (1997) “Paying attention to organizational citizenship behavior helps to

support, sustain and enrich social and psychological contents, developing task

performance” (Organ, 1997 p. 89). This research study has assisted the organization’s

future.

Conclusion of Study

The conclusion section examines the literature study, findings and interpretation of

findings which draw the conclusion for the study. Research on organizational citizenship

behavior confirmed that there is a relationship between the variables, employee trust and

organizational citizenship behavior. The results were positive in that 80% of the responses

scored “extremely meaningful” which indicated overall strength in organizational

citizenship behavior amongst the participants.

The literature spoke on the importance of organizational citizenship behavior in the

workplace. The researcher agreed that organizational citizenship behavior is the behavior
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 49

of individuals that is discretionary, not expressed explicitly or recognized by any of the

official system expected on an employees’ job description.

Prior research on organizational citizenship behavior indicates it is important to have

a positive impact on other outcomes, which increases productivity, enhances organizational

performance stability, attracts new employees and retains the old ones, and helps

coordinate activities within an organization.

The researcher also discussed how the importance of trust in organizational

relationships has grown rapidly in recent years. It was also said that the examination of

trust affected the performance of employee(s) within organizations and that it was beyond

the scope of some of the research conducted.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 50

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Appendix A

COVER LETTER OF CONSENT

November 30, 2012

Dear Research Participant:

My name is Olga Piedra. I am a student at Nyack College School of Business and


Leadership. I am studying for a Master of Science degree in Organizational Leadership. I
would like to request your assistance and participation in a research study for my thesis
proposal project.

I have the prior approval of the Director of the organization allowing me to conduct
this research and administer the survey to you, as the participant. In any event, I am using
this opportunity to seek your consent in participating in the research. My research advisor
is Prof. Cynthia Dorsey of Nyack College School of Business and Leadership. There will
be no anticipated risk or costs to you. The participants must be at least 18 yrs of age. This
survey is being used for an academic study. The confidentiality of this survey will protect
each participant and you are not required to put your name anywhere in the survey.

Your individual response will not be disclosed to anyone or in anyway. The attached
survey will take approximately 30 minutes to be completed. You will have as much time as
you need to complete it. This research is voluntary and you do not have to participate in it
if you choose not to. Even though we ask for demographic information about each
participant who chooses to take this survey, none of the demographic information will be
personally applied to you. The completed survey form should be returned to the front desk
in the envelope provided. Please make sure that the envelope is sealed, by you, before you
place it in the yellow manila envelope located on the front desk.

Thank you for participating in this survey.

Sincerely yours,

Olga Piedra, Researcher


olgapiedra2010@hotmail.com
646-345-7489
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 59

Appendix B

Survey Instructions

1. Make sure you read the cover letter before you start your survey.

2. You will have as much time as you need to complete the 35 Question Survey.

3. Once you complete the survey, please put your completed survey in the attached
white envelope and seal the envelope.

4. Put your sealed envelope inside the large yellow manila envelope located on the
front desk.

5. The Researcher administering the survey will let you know when you can begin
answering the survey questions.

6. Once the Researcher starts the survey, you will have as much time as you need
to complete the survey.

7. Thank you for participating in this survey.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 60

Appendix C - Survey for Organizational Citizenship Behavior

1. I am willing to assist new colleagues to adjust to the work environment


__ 1. strongly agree
__2. moderately agree
__3. neutral
__4. strongly disagree
__5. slightly disagree

2. I am willing to stand up to protect the reputation of the institution.


__1. strongly agree
__2. moderately agree
__3. neutral
__4. strongly disagree
__5. slightly disagree

3. I am willing to help colleagues solve work related problems.


__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree

4. I often arrive early and start to work immediately.


__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree

5. I am eager to tell outsiders good news about the institution.


__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 61

6. I am willing to coordinate and communicate with colleagues.


__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5.slightly disagree

7. I actively attend institution meetings.


__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree

8. I take one’s job seriously and rarely make mistakes.


__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2.moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__4. strongly disagree
__5. slightly disagree

9. I make constructive suggestions that can improve the operations of the institution.
__ 1. strongly agree
__2. moderately agree
__3. neutral
__4. strongly disagree
__5. slightly disagree

10. I am willing to cover work assignment for colleagues when needed.


__1. strongly agree
__2. moderately agree
__3 .neutral
__4. strongly disagree
__5. slightly disagree
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 62

11. I comply with the institution rules and procedures even when nobody watches and
no evidence can be traced.
__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree

12. I avoid consuming a lot a time complaining about trivial matters.


__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree

13. I do not mind taking on new challenging assignments.


__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree

14. I avoid taking actions that hurt others.


__1. strongly agree
__2. moderately agree
__3. neutral
__4. strongly disagree
__5. slightly disagree

15. I avoid hurting other people’s right to common/shared resources (including clerical
help, material etc.)
__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 63

16. I perform only required tasks.


__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree

17. I do not initiate actions before consulting with others that might be affected.
__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3.neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree

18. I try to avoid creating problems for colleagues.


__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree

19. I try hard to self – study to increase the quality of work outputs.
__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree

20. I avoid focusing on what’s wrong with his or her situation.


__ 1. strongly agree
__ 2. moderately agree
__ 3. neutral
__ 4. strongly disagree
__ 5. slightly disagree
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 64

Appendix D- Survey for Employee Trust

1. Are you currently employed outside of the home?


❑ 1. Yes
❑ 2. No

2. In general, how would you rate the trustworthiness of your organization’s leadership?
❑ 1. Extremely trustworthy
❑ 2. Moderately trustworthy
❑ 3. Mildly trustworthy
❑ 4. Not at all trustworthy

3. How would you rate your level of loyalty toward your current organization?
❑ 1. Extremely loyal
❑ 2. Moderately loyal
❑ 3. Mildly loyal
❑ 4. Not at all loyal

4. My organization provides enough information to its employees on the organization’s


financial standing.
❑ 1. Strongly agree
❑ 2. Agree
❑ 3. Disagree
❑ 4. Strongly disagree

5. My organization provides enough information to its employees on the organization’s


ethics and values.
❑ 1. Strongly agree
❑ 2. Agree
❑ 3. Disagree
❑ 4. Strongly disagree

6. My organization provides enough information to its employees on its corporate mission.


❑ 1. Strongly agree
❑ 2. Agree
❑ 3. Disagree
❑ 4. Strongly disagree

7. My organization provides enough information to its employees on its workplace


policies.
❑ 1. Strongly agree
❑ 2. Agree
❑ 3. Disagree
❑ 4. Strongly disagree

8. My organization’s leadership is ethical.


ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 65

❑ 1. Strongly agree
❑ 2. Agree
❑ 3. Disagree
❑ 4. Strongly disagree

9. In your opinion, how do you believe the employees at your organization would rate
their perceptions of the trustworthiness of your organization’s leadership?
❑ 1. Extremely trustworthy
❑ 2. Moderately trustworthy
❑ 3. Mildly trustworthy
❑ 4. Not at all trustworthy

10. In your opinion, how do you believe the employees at your organization would rate
their level of loyalty toward your organization?
❑ 1. Extremely loyal
❑ 2. Moderately loyal
❑ 3. Mildly loyal
❑ 4. Not at all loyal

11. Employees at my organization believe the organization’s leadership is ethical.


❑ 1. Strongly agree
❑ 2. Agree
❑ 3. Disagree
❑ 4. Strongly disagree

Demographic Questions
12. What is your gender?
❑ 1. Male
❑ 2. Female

13. Which category best describes your current age?


❑ 1. 35 and younger
❑ 2. 36 to 55
❑ 3. 56 and older

14. For approximately how many years have you been employed in the workforce?
(round up to the nearest year) ___________

15. What is your Ethnic background?


❑ 1. Black
❑ 2. Hispanic
❑ 3. White
❑ 4. Asian
❑ 5. Indian
ORGANIZATIONAL CITIZENSHIP BEHAVIOR 66

Appendix E

SAMPLE FLYER

SURVEY BEING CONDUCTED IN THIS

BRANCH!

ALL PARTICIPANTS WILL REMAIN

ANONYMOUS!!

COME HELP OUT THIS BRANCH

EVALUATE WAYS TO ASSIST YOU IN

SECURING EMPLOYMENT! HELP US HELP

YOU! THE SURVEY WILL BE CONDUCTED

ON TBA IN CLASSROOM TBA.

SEE YOU THERE!