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Power System Analysis EEE - 4901

Introduction
Power System

Power system may be broadly defined as a network of conductors and associated


equipments over which energy is transmitted from the generating stations to the load
centers. It comprises of (i ) Generators which produce electric energy from mechanical
energy developed in steam, water or gas turbines., (ii) Power transformers which step up
the generating voltage to an economic level for transmission and also step down the
voltage to a suitable level at load centers, (iii) Transmission lines which deliver bulk
supplies of electric power at high voltage to major load centers or sub-stations and (iv)
Distribution lines which deliver electric power to industrial areas, urban and rural
consumers. `
Power System Engineering is concerned with the technology of generation, transmission
and distribution of electric energy.

The generating station can be anyone of the following;


 Thermal station
 Hydro-electric station
 Nuclear station

Power System Analysis

In order that a power system may be designed and operated satisfactorily, one should
have the means (data and solution techniques) to determine the performance of the system
when it is operating under given conditions and supplying given loads. It becomes
necessary to calculate the currents in the various branches of the system and the voltage at
various interconnecting loads. A power system consists of a number of components i.e.
generators, transformers, overhead lines and cables each of which has resistance and
reactance.
Following steps will usually be necessary to arrive at a solution to the problems
which arise

 Develop a single line diagram on which all the relevant circuits and equipment
appear. For balanced systems it is necessary to consider only one phase of the
network. Special techniques are required if the system is unbalanced.
 Relevant data of each item is to be marked on the diagram. Examples: Impedances of
circuit elements, power and power factor load, generator voltage magnitude etc.
 Solve the network for the various currents and voltages using the theorems and
techniques available.

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
The Single Line Diagram

The power system is extremely complicated electrical network. Usually the


construction of a conventional circuit diagram is impractical. The single line diagram is one
that shows the relative electrical inter connections and locations of generators, transformers,
transmission line, static load, rotating loads(motors), circuit breakers, reactors and various
types of switches. Sometimes peripheral equipment such as instrument transformers,
lighting arrestors and protective relays are also shown. The symbols used in one line
diagram are shown in figure 1.2.

Y- Y
Generator
Line

Figure 1.2. A Single Line Diagram of a Power System

The Per Unit System


The per unit value of a quantity is defined as the ratio of the actual value to the base
value of that particular quantity. Both actual and base value must have same units.
Per unit value = Actual value / Base Value
The base value is always a real number, whereas the actual may be real or complex.

According to the definition:


Zpu = Zact / Zbase
Ipu = Iact / Ibase
Vpu = Vact / Vbase
Ppu = Pact / Pbase
Qpu = Qact / Qbase

As we know that the complex power S = P + j Q or S2 = P2 + Q2, it is essential to consider


that all power bases are same. Accordingly, Pbase = Qbase = Sbase .
Therefore,
Ppu = Pact / Sbase
Qpu = Qact / Sbase

Also in the case of resistance and reactance (capacitive or inductive), the base is Zbase. For
example,
Rpu = Ract / Zbase
Xpu = Xact / Xbase

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901

Sometimes the generator, motor and transformer impedances are given in pu or percent
(pu  100) form in the name plate. These percent impedance or reactance values are
calculated from their respective rated values of voltage, currents. The rated values given in
the nameplate are always considered as the base values. For example, a 10 MVA, 11 kV, 3-
phase generator has a subtransient reactance 5%. It means that the given reactance is 0.05
pu and it has been calculated from Sbase = 10 MVA and Vbase = 11kV. Of course, the Vbase is
the line to line voltage.

All bases can be calculated if MVA base and kV bases are given.
For a single phase system,
Ibase(kA) = Sbase (MVA) / Vbase (kV)
Zbase(ohm) = Vbase (kV) / Ibase (kA) = {Vbase (kV)}2 / Sbase (MVA)

The same is true for 3-phase system. Remember that in the 3-phase system Sbase is the total
3-phase power and the voltage is the line to line voltage.

Vp base = VLLbase /3

VLLpu = VLL / VLLbase


Vp pu =Vp / Vp base = (VLL /3) / (VLLbase /3) = VLL / VLLbase = VLLpu
S1 pu = S1 / S1base = (S3 /3) / ( S3base/3) = S3 / S3base = S3 pu

Changing the base in pu system

The percent impedance of generator, motor and transformer are normally given in the
nameplate data. Sometimes it is required to express the actual value with respect to other
bases which is different from the name plate ratings. Therefore it is necessary to have a
means of converting impedances from one base to another.

The given quantities for a component are Zpu old, Base MVAold and Base kVold . Then the
actual value of the component can be calculated as
Zact = Zpu old  Base Impedance (old)
= Zpu old  {Vbase old (kV)}2 / Sbase old (MVA) -----------------(A)
Again, Zact can be calculated from new bases as
Zact = Zpu new  Base Impedance (new)
= Zpu new  {Vbase new (kV)}2 / Sbase new (MVA) ---------------(B)
Now from (A) and (B),
Zpu new  {Vbase new (kV)}2 / Sbase new (MVA) = Zpu old  {Vbase old (kV)}2 / Sbase old (MVA)

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
Zpu new = Zpu old  [{Vbase old (kV)}2 / Sbase old (MVA) ] / [{Vbase new (kV)}2 / Sbase new (MVA)]
= Zpu old  [Vbase old / Vbase new ]2  [Sbase new / Sbase old ] ---- ----------- (C)

The advantages of pu system

 Simplifies numerical calculations that were done by hand.


 Device parameters tend to fall in a relatively narrow range. For example, voltages at
different buses are close to 1.0 pu.
 An ideal transformer can be represented by a simple reactance.
 The per unit impedance referred to either side of a single phase transformer is same.
 The per unit impedance referred to either side of a three phase transformer is same
regardless of three phase connections whether they are  -  , Y -Y or Y - .
 Per unit values provide more meaningful information.
 The impedances of machines are specified by manufacturers in terms of per unit
values.

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
The equivalent circuit of a practical transformer

I1 I2
r1 x1 r2 x2
Im
V1 N1 N2 V2
E2
E1

Fig. 1.3 Transformer equivalent circuit

Let the ratio primary to secondary turns is N1/N2 = a


Here, E1/E2 = N1/N2 = I2/I1 = a
For the secondary circuit,
E2 = I2 ( r2 + jx2 ) + V2

or, E1/a = aI1( r2 + jx2 ) + V2


or, E1 = a2 I1( r2 + jx2 ) + aV2
or, E1 = I1(a2 r2 + ja2 x2 ) + aV2

The magnetizing current is very small compared to load current. By neglecting the
magnetizing current Im, the above circuit becomes

I1 I1
r1 x1 a2r2 a2x2
V1
E1 = aE2 aV2

Fig. 1.4a Transformer equivalent circuit referred to primary

Let R1 = r1 + a2r2 and X1 = x1 + a2x2 .

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
I1

R1 X1
V1
aV2

Fig. 1.4b Transformer equivalent circuit referred to primary

The total series impedance of the two windings referred to primary is Ze1.
Therefore, Ze1 = R1 + jX1 = V1/I1 .

Now, V1 = I1 (R1 + jX1 ) + aV2 = I1 Ze1 + aV2


or, V2 = V1/a – (I1/a) Ze1
or, V2 = V1/a – (I2/a2) Ze1
or, V2 = V1/a – I2 (Ze1/a2)
or, V2 = V1/a – I2 Ze2 = V1/a – I2 (R1/a2 +jX1/a2)

I2

R1/a2 X1/a2
V1/a
V2

Fig. 1.5 Transformer equivalent circuit referred to secondary

The total series impedance of the two windings referred to secondary


Ze2 = Ze1/a2 = Ze1(N2/N1)2

If N1 > N2 , Ze1 > Ze2 .

The equivalent circuit of a practical transformer

Let the base current of the primary = I1


and the base voltage of the primary = V1
Then, the primary base impedance, Zb1 = V1/I1
Per unit impedance of the transformer referred to the primary,
Z e1 Z e1 Z I
Ze1 pu =   e1 1
Z b1 V1 / I 1 V1
Md. Mijanur Rahman
Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
The total series impedance of the two windings referred to secondary
2
N 
Z e2  Z e1  2 
 N1 

where N1 and N2 represents primary and secondary turns respectively. On the secondary
side, the base quantities are as follows:
Base current = I2
Base voltage = V2
Base impedance, Zb2 = V2/I2
Per unit impedance of the transformer referred to the secondary,
Z e2 Z e2 Z I
Ze2 pu =   e2 2
Z b 2 V2 / I 2 V2

Now I2 = (N1/N2) I1 and V2 = (N2/N1) V1 . Using these relations and also the relation
between Ze1 and Ze2 gives us

2
Z I N  N N 1 Z e1 Z
Z e 2 pu  e 2 2  Z e1   2   1  I 1  1    e1  Z e1 pu
V2  N1  N2 N 2 V1 V1 / I 1 Z b1

Thus, if the rated primary voltage is used as base with pri

Examples

Example 1
Suppose that a 100V(rms) ac source is in series with a 3 resistor, 8 inductor and 4
capacitor. Find the current I flowing through the circuit both in pu and amperes. Also
calculate the voltage and power consumed by resistor. Given Sbase = 500 VA and Vbase =
100V.
Solution:
I

R L C

Fig. 1.6 Example 1 illustration

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901

S base 500
I base    5A
Vbase 100
Vbase 100
Z base    20.; Z baSE can also bec alculated directly from S base and Vbase as
I base 5
2
Vbase 100 2
Z base    20
S base 500

Converting the circuit parameters into p.u.


V 100 0 0
V    10 0
Vbase 100
R 3
R pu    0.15
Z base 20
XL 8
X L pu    0 .4
Z base 20
XC 4
X C pu    0 .2
Z base 20

The total impedance of the circuit is


Zpu = 0.15 + j(0.4 – 0.2)= 0.15 + j0.2 = 0.2553.1
Current and power in p.u. are obtained as follows:
V pu 10 0
I pu    4  53.10
Z pu 0.2553.10


S pu  V pu I *pu  10 0  4  53.10 
*
 
 10 0  453.10  453.10
V R pu  I pu R pu  4  53.10  0.15  0.6  53.10
PR  I pu
2
R pu  16  0.15  2.4 pu

Actual values can be calculated as


Z = 0.25  20 = 5
I = 4.0  5 = 20 A
S = 4  500 = 2000 VA
VR = 0.6  100 = 60 V
PR = 2.4  500 = 1200 W

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
Checking
From the circuit,
100 0 0 100 0 0 100 0 0
I    20  53.10 A
3  j (8  4) 3  j 4 553.1 0

PR  I 2 R  20 2  3  1200 W

Example 2
A 10 MVA, 11kV/110kV transformer has a reactance of 1.21 referred to primary. Draw
the equivalent circuits of the transformer referred to both primary and secondary sides.
Convert the equivalent circuits to the pu system.
Solution:

The reactance of the transformer referred to secondary


2 2
N  V 
2
 110 
= 1.21   2   1.21   2   1.21     121 
 N1   V1   11 

The equivalent circuits of the transformer referred to both primary and secondary sides are
shown below:
I1

1.21
11 kV
aV2

Fig.1.7a Referred to primary

I2

121
V1/a
110 kV

Fig. 1.7b Referred to secondary

The base impedance Referred to primary, Z b1 


2
Vbase 1

11  10 
3 2
 12.1 
S base 10  10 6
Similarly, the base impedance Referred to secondary,
Z b2 
2
Vbase 2

110  10 
3 2
 1210 
S base 10  10 6
Md. Mijanur Rahman
Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
1.21
Z 1 pu   0.1 pu
12.1
121
Z 2 pu   0.1 pu
1210
Pr imary voltage
V1 pu   1.0 pu
Vbase1
Secondary voltage
V2 pu   1.0 pu
Vbase2
The equivalent circuit is same both referred to primary and secondary in the case of pu
system.

0.1 pu
1 pu

Fig. 1.8 Final representation

Example 3
The reactance of a generator is given as 0.25 pu on a base of 18 kV and 500 MVA. Find
the pu reactance of the generator on a new base of 20 kV and 100 MVA.
Solution:
2
 Vbase old  S
We know, Z pu new  Z pu old    base new
V  S base old
 base new 
2
 Vbase old  S
 X pu new  X pu old    base new
V  S base old
 base new 
2
 18  100
X pu new  0.25      0.0405 pu
 20  500
X act  0.25 
18  10 3  2  0.162 
500  10 6

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
Example 4
Following data reefer to the system shown in figure below. Find the fault current in pu and
amperes when a three phase to ground fault of zero impedance occurs at (i) point A and (ii)
point B. Choose a base power of 100 MVA.
Transformer T1 and T2 : 11/132 kV, 45 MVA, leakage reactance 0.1 pu
Generator: 11 kV, 50 MVA, source reactance 0.05 pu
Transmission line 132 kV, line reactance 70 

T1 T2
G
Line
A B

Fig. 1.9 One line diagram for example 4

Solution:
Base power is 100 MVA and it is applicable to everywhere in the system. Since,
transformers are present in the system, so base voltages will not be the same everywhere. In
the above figure, there are three sections and each section has its own voltage base. If we
consider the voltage base of the generator section is 11 kV which also includes primary side
of T1, then the base voltage of the secondary of T1 (step-up transformer) will be 132 kV.
The base for the transmission line and primary of T2 must 132 kV. Because these three
things are in the same section. The last section includes secondary of T 2, load etc. Since it is
a step down transformer used for distribution purpose, the voltage base at the secondary
side of T2 will be 11 kV. Once voltage bases and power bases are calculated, other bases
can be determined from these.

Generator G: In this section, base voltage is 11 kV and power base is 100 MVA. But the
given source reactance value in pu is calculated with the voltage base 11 kV and power
base 50 MVA which are the rating of the generator. Therefore, with the new base, the new
pu source reactance value is
2
 Vbase old  S
X pu new  X pu old    base new
V  S base old
 base new 

2
 11  100
X pu new  0.05      0.1 pu
 11  50
The generator voltage, Vs = 11/11 = 1pu.

Transformer T1 and T2 : Transformer reactance in pu can be calculated either from primary


side or from secondary side. Both cases pu value will be same. So consider the 2nd section
which will cover both T1(secondary) and T2 (primary).
2
 132  100
For T1: X pu new  0.1      0.2222 pu
 132  45
Md. Mijanur Rahman
Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
2

For T2: X pu new  0.1  


132  100
   0.2222 pu
 132  45
For Transmission line Base voltage is 132 kV and power base is 100MVA.
2
kVbase 132 2
Z base    174 .24 
 MVA 100
70
X pu   0.4017 pu
174 .24

Equivalent of the given circuit (reactance diagram) is shown in fig. below.

j0.2222 j0.4017 j0.2222


j0.1 I(pu

VS
1.0pu

Fig. 1.10a Reactance diagram of the given circuit

(i) For a three phase fault at point A, the circuit diagram is as shown in figure.

j0.2222 j0.2008
j0.1

VS
1.0pu

Fig. 1.10b Reactance diagram of the given circuit with a three phase fault at point A

1
Fault current =   j1.912 pu
j (0.1  0.2222  0.2008)
100
I base at po int A  Amp
3  132

 Fault current in amperes = 1.912  Ibase = 0.8363 kA.

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901

(ii) Fault occurs at B:


B

j0.2222 j0.4017 j0.2222


j0.1 I(pu

VS
1.0pu

Fig. 1.10c Reactance diagram of the given circuit with a three phase fault at point B

1
Fault current =   j1.0569 pu
j (0.1  0.2222  0.4017  0.2222 )
100
I base at po int B  Amp
3 11

 Fault current in amperes = 1.0569  Ibase = 5.5476 kA.

Example 5
A 100 MVA, 10kV, 50 Hz, three phase alternator supplies power to a load of 400 
through transformer and a short line as shown in figure. The source reactance and the
leakage reactance of the transformer are respectively 0.2 pu and 0.1 pu on a base of 100
MVA. The impedance of the short line is j40 . Determine the load current and voltage
both in pu and actual units.
10/200kV
G
Short Line 400
j40 load
Transformer

Fig. 1.11a One line diagram of example 5

Solution:
We shall have to draw a single phase equivalent circuit because transmission line reactance
and load resistance are per phase quantities.
Now there are two sections in the one line diagram separated by transformer. The first
section contains transformer primary and generator. The second section contains
transformer secondary, the transmission line and the load.
Md. Mijanur Rahman
Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
The base MVA throughout the system is 100 MVA (given).
We have to assume base voltage either in first section or in second section.
Remember, the per phase voltages of generator is 10/3, the primary per phase voltage is
also 10/3, but the secondary per phase voltage is 200/3. If we consider 10/3 volts as
the base voltage in the first section, then the base voltage of the second section can be
calculated by just multiplying the turns ratio of the transformer. Since it is a step up
transformer, the base voltage of the secondary side will be 20 times of primary base voltage
i.e. 20  10/3 = 200/3 volts.

Primary side base impedance =


V12 base

10 / 3  2

 1
S1 base 100 / 3

Secondary side base impedance =


V12 base

200 / 3  2

 400
S1 base 100 / 3
10 / 3
Generator per phase voltage in pu =  1 pu
10 / 3
The given pu source reactance of the generator is calculated from the rating of the generator
(100 MVA, 10/3 volts), which are also considered the corresponding bases, so there will
be no change in the pu value. Again, the pu value of transformer leakage reactance will
remain same for the same reason.
40
Transmission line reactance =  0.1 pu
400

400
Load resistance =  1 pu
400
The per phase reactance diagram using pu values is shown below:

j0.1 j0.1
j0.2
Load
1
VS
1.0pu

Fig. 1.11b Impedance diagram of example 5

1
Load current I   0.928  21.8 0 pu
1  j.2  j.1  j.1
Load voltage V L  I  Load resis tan ce  0.928  21.8 0  1  0.928  21.8 0 pu

Example 6
Md. Mijanur Rahman
Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
Prepare a per phase schematic of the system shown in figure below and show all the
impedances in pu on a 100 MVA, 132kVA base in the transmission line circuit. The
necessary data for the problem are as follows:

G1: 50 MVA, 12.2 kV, X = 0.15 pu


G2: 20 MVA, 13.8 kV, X = 0.15 pu
T1: 80 MVA, 12.2/161 kV, X = 0.10 pu
T2: 40 MVA, 13.8/161 kV, X = 0.10 pu
Load: 50MVA, 0.8 pf lagging, operating at 154 kV.

G1 T1 T2 G2
40 + j160
20 + j80 20 + j80
T1
Load

Fig. 1.12a One line diagram of example 6

Solution:
There are three sections in the system shown.
1st section: Generator G1 and primary of T1
2nd section: All transmission lines, secondary sides of T1 and T2
3rd section: Generator G2 and primary of T2

Given, Base MVA throughout the system = 100MVA


Base voltage in the transmission line = 132 kV.

Therefore, base voltages of section 1 and section 3 are to be calculated from this.
12.2
Base voltage in the generator section G1 = 132   10.02 kv
161
13.8
Base voltage in the generator section G1 = 132   11.31 kv
161
# Remember voltage steps up from generator to transmission line side.

Here conversion of the given pu value of G1, G2, T1, T2 are necessary, because base valuse
of voltages and MVA are different from their rated values.
2

G1: X  0.15  
12.2  100
   0.4463 pu
 10.02  50
2

G2: X  0.15  
13.8  100
   1.1166 pu
 11.31  20

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
2

T1: X  0.1  
12.2  100
   0.18596 pu Using Transformer primary side base voltage
 10.02  80
2

T1: X  0.1   
161 100
 0.18596 pu Using Transformer secondary side base voltage
 132  80

T2: X  0.1 
13.8  100
   0.3719 pu Using Transformer primary side base voltage
 11.31  40
2

T2: X  0.1    
161 100
 0.3719 pu Using Transformer secondary side base voltage
 132  40

Conversion of the transmission line impedances to corresponding pu values

132 2
The base impedance of the transmission line section =  174 .24 
100
40  j160
 Z 1  40  j160    0.2296  j.9183 pu
174.24
20  j80
and Z 1  20  j80    0.1148  j.4591 pu
174.24

Load modelling

Consider series R-L load

P + j Q = 50 (cos + jsin) = 50 (0.8 + j 0.6) = 40 +j 30 MVA


S S*
S  VI * ,  I *  or , I 
V V*
2
V VV * V 154 2 379.456  j 284.529
Z  *    379.456  j 284.529   pu  2.18  j1.63 pu
I S P  jQ 40  j30 174.24

The impedance diagram with per unit representation is given below.

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE
Power System Analysis EEE - 4901
j0.1859 0.2296 + j0.9183 j0.3719

j0.4463 j1.1166

0.1148 + j0.4591 0.1148 + j0.4591

Load

3.402 j1.1166

Fig. 1.12b Impedance diagram of example 5

Md. Mijanur Rahman


Assistant Professor
Dept. of EEE