Gas well deliverability by Hazzaz Yousuf

© All Rights Reserved

4 tayangan

Gas well deliverability by Hazzaz Yousuf

© All Rights Reserved

- Air Systems Design
- PHYSICS AND ANAESTHESIA
- _1963.-Deterministic Nonperiodic Flow - Lorenz
- 9503
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- Applied Mathematics of Fluid Flow in Porous Media
- Viscosity
- Van Everdingen, A. F. the Skin Effect and Its Influence on the Productive Capacity of a Well
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- Predicting Corrosion Sand
- SnoeijerAJP14
- 10-01
- Amoo
- Well data

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What is deliverability

• Deliverability refers to the testing of a gas well to measure its production

capabilities under specific conditions of reservoir and bottomhole flowing

pressures (BHFP).

• The change of flow capacity with average pressure change must be

considered.

• The stabilized flow capacity or deliverability of a gas well is required for

planning the operation of the gas field.

• Deliverability tests are conducted on new wells and periodically old wells.

• Under the relatively short time tests, the reservoir or well behavior is

often transient, on the other hand the desired characteristics for long

term predictions (one to two years should essentially be non transient

(PSS or SS).

• Deliverability tests have been conventionally called back pressure test,

because wells are tested by flowing against particular back pressures

greater than atmospheric pressure.

Purposes of Deliverability Test

• A common productivity indicator obtained from these tests is the absolute

open flow potential (AOF).

• The important application of deliverability testing is to generate a

reservoir inflow performance relationship (IPR) or gas backpressure curve.

• The study on deliverability test consists of-

– Production forecasting

– Determining the number of wells and the location for the

development of the field.

– Sizing tubing, gathering lines, trunk lines.

– Designing compression requirements

– Determining the necessity for the stimulation

– Correctly evaluating damage

– Establishing the base performance curves for future comparison

Physical meaning of AOF

• It is the maximum rate at which a well could flow against a theoretical

atmospheric backpressure at the sand face.

• Although in practice the well can not produce at this rate, regulatory

agencies often use the AOF to establish field proration schedules or to set

maximum allowable production rates for individual wells.

Physical meaning of IPR

• It curves the relationship between surface production rate and BHFP for a

specific value of reservoir pressure (i.e. either the original pressure or the

current average value).

variety of surface conditions such as production against a fixed

backpressure.

reservoir's life.

Practical Applications and Useful Engineering Practices

Theory of Deliverability Test Analysis

Assumptions

isotropic with respect to permeability.

b. The producing well is completed across the entire formation thickness to

ensure radial flow

c. The formation is completely saturated with a single fluid.

d. Isothermal conditions.

e. One-dimensional.

f. Pressure independent rock and fluid properties

g. Small pressure gradients

h. Radial flow

i. Applicability of Darcy's law

j. Negligible gravity effect

Basic Step

Flow equations for flow in porous materials are based on-

• Conservation of mass

• Conservation of momentum

• Conservation of energy

• Constitutive equations for the fluids and

• Constitutive equations for the porous material.

Diffusivity Equation For Gas Flow

In the following discussion the diffusivity equation for gas flow would be

derived in terms of-

1. Pseudo-pressure and time.

2. Pseudo-pressure and pseudo-time.

3. Pressure and time.

4. Pressure squared and time.

Consider the flow through a volume element of thickness dr situated at a distance r from the centre of

the radial cell.

Which simplifies to

Which gives

1 ∂ k ∂P ∂ρ

⋅ ρ ⋅ r =φ ⋅ ii

r ∂r µ ∂r ∂t

From the real gas law

pM

ρ=

zRT

⋅ ρ ⋅ r =

r ∂r µ ∂r ∂t equation of motion and EOS

Now expanding the differential on the right side

Gas compressibility cg

Total compressibility ct

(2)

Combining equation 1 and 2 and converting in field unit

•This is the generalized diffusivity equation for radial flow of a real gas through a

homogeneous, isotropic porous medium.

of the gas properties.

Typical plot of the gas

Pressure function p/µgz

curve is linear and

intercepts at the origin,

This is equivalent to the

observation that 1/µgz is

constant at low pressure

Psia the p/µgz shows distinct

curvature.

is linearly constant.

Linearization of nonlinear partial

differential diffusion equation

Diffusivity equation in terms of Pseudo-pressure and pseudo-time

Assumption:

i. µgct can be evaluated at average pressure.

Assumption:

i. p/µgz is constant with respect to pressure

ii. µgct can be evaluated at average pressure.

Assumption:

i. µgz is constant with respect to pressure

ii. µgcg can be evaluated at average pressure and

treated as constant.

Analytical Solutions of Gas Flow Equations

Case-01:

Constant Production Rate, Radial Cylindrical Flow, Infinite-Acting Reservoir

(Transient)

Case-02:

Radial-Cylindrical Flow, Finite Reservoir, Constant Production Rate, with

No Flow at Outer Boundary (Pseudo-Steady-State)

Case-03:

Radial-Cylindrical Flow, Finite Circular Reservoir, Constant Production Rate with

Constant Pressure at Outer Boundary (Steady-State Conditions)

The early time or transient solution for diffusivity

equation in terms of Pseudo-pressure and pseudo-time

The early time or transient solution for constant rate production from a well in a

reservoir with closed outer boundaries is-

Where, Ps is the stabilized shut in BHP measured before the deliverability test.

In new reservoirs with little or no pressure depletion this shut in pressure equals

the initial Pressure (Ps=Pi)), while in developed reservoirs, Ps< Pi

The coefficient of q (at for transient flow and a for pseudo-steady state flow)

include the Darcy flow and skin effects and are measured in psia2-cp/MMscf-D

when q is in MMscf/D.

The coefficient of q2 represents the inertial and turbulent flow effects and is

measured in psia2-cp/(MMscf-D)2 when q is in MMscf/D. Commonly called

non-Darcy effect.

The non-Darcy flow coefficient D is defined in terms of a turbulence factor β

which has been correlated with rock properties, permeability and porosity.

The late time or pseudo-steady state solution for diffusivity

equation in terms of Pseudo-pressure and pseudo-time

Where p= current drainage area pressure. Gas wells can not reach true pseudo-

steady state, because µg(p)ct(p) changes as p decreases.

The early time or transient solution for diffusivity

equation in terms of pressure squared and time

Empirical Deliverability Equation

In terms of pressure squared which is only applicable at low pressures

Stabilization Time

Analysis of Gas Well Deliverability Test

Types of Deliverability Test

• Isochronal test.

• Modified isochronal test.

Flow After Flow Test

Flow after flow test some times called gas back pressure test or four point test.

It is conducted by producing wells at a series of four different stabilized flow rates and

measuring the stabilized BHFP at the sand face.

It is conducted with a sequence of increasing flow rates.

If the stabilized flow rates are attained the rate sequence does not affect the test.

The shut in and flowing periods be continued until the stabilization is a major

limitation of the flow after flow test especially in low permeability formations that take

long time to reach stabilized flowing conditions.

How Flow After Flow Test Conducted

• The well is flowed at a selected rate until the pressure stabilizes.

• The rate is then changed and the process is repeated.

• After a suitable number of rate changes the well is shut in.

• The back pressure curve is developed from the stabilized flowing pressure values.

• Average reservoir pressure in the drained volume determined from the final

build up pressure or the stabilized average pressure before the test started.

Note:

The flow rates need not be constant during the flow periods.

The flow rates start from a shut in condition.

The flowing condition may be in increasing or decreasing mode.

No or very small shut in periods occur between each of the flow.

Flow times are usually arbitrary or can be set by a regulatory body.

Pressure and flow rate history of flow after flow test

Performance curve

Analysis Procedure

Analysis Procedure

The theoretical equation for PSS derived from the gas diffusivity equation

Comparison of results from the

and

Isochronal Test

• The isochronal test method does not attempt to yield a stabilized back pressure

curve directly.

conditions prevail.

• An isochronal test involves flowing the well at several rates, interspersed with

periods in which the well is shut in.

• Shut in times should be long enough for pressure in the drained volume to return

to average pressure condition, PR.

• Flowing bottom hole pressures are measured at several elapsed times after the

well is opened.

Limitation

PSS solution to the real gas equation in terms of pseudo-pressure

Substituting effective drainage radius

Analysis Procedure

Analysis Procedure

The theoretical equation for PSS derived from the gas diffusivity equation

Modified Isochronal Test

Advantages:

1. This method requires less work and time to obtain useable result than any of the

two methods.

3. The most low permeability wells where the modified isochronal test would be

practically applied require stimulation to be commercial.

Deliverability Plot

In low permeability reservoir , the rate of gas

production during relatively short periods decreases

with time at a fixed flowing well head pressure.

High permeability gas wells that stabilize rapidly, C

does not change significantly with time.

to stabilize, the rate of gas production during relatively

short periods decreases with time at a fixed flowing

well head pressure and so C decreases with time.

If the shift is large , further testing would

be required to predict well performance

more accurately.

n>1 indicates removing liquid from the well

during testing or by cleaning the formation

around the well such as removing drilling

fluid or stimulation fluids.

Laminar flow

Turbulent flow

of liquid in the well bore.

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