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Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Blended with Rice Husk Ash and Para Rubber
Wood Fly Ash

Conference Paper · November 2013

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Abideng Hawa Danupon Tonnayopas


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Paper ID 17

Lightweight Aggregate Concrete Blended with Rice Husk Ash and


Para Rubber Wood Fly Ash
A. Hawa 1, D. Tonnayopas 2*
1
Department of Civil Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand
2
Department of Mining and Materials Engineering, Prince of Songkla University, Thailand
* e-mail: danupon.t@psu.ac.th
ABSTRACT
This experimental program was undertaken binary and ternary combinations of rice husk ash (RHA)
and Para rubber wood fly ash (PRWFA) were investigated for their effects on the compressive strength of
pumice aggregate concrete (PAC). Binary and ternary of mixtures were partial Portland cement (PC)
replacement in different batches from 0-60wt.% cured in water for 7 and 28 days. The properties of the PAC
regarded bulk density, water absorption, drying shrinkage, compressive strength, and also Scanning Electron
Microscope (SEM) analysis of interfacial transition zone between pumic aggregate and paste. The results
showed that the compressive strength decreased significantly with increasing PRWFA and RHA contents.
Binary and ternary can be possible to produce the PAC with 28 days compressive strength of about 9 to 22
MPa and bulk density of about 1,610 to 1,730 kg/m3. However, with 7 and 28 days curing, all of the binary
and ternary mixtures yielded PAC with a compressive strength higher than that of uncured sample. The 28-
day cured binary combination of 10-20% RHA and 90-80% PC showed the highest compressive strength. It
is possible to use PRWFA content at 10% incorporating the 10% RHA, and 80% PC displayed strength
approach to the control sample.

KEY WORDS: Lightweight concrete / Rice husk ash / Para rubber wood fly ash / Pumice aggregate

1. INTRODUCTION and also the lumber and other waste is used in the
Rice husk is by product of rice mill around the biomass power plant, rubber glove factories and
world, particulary in Asean Economic Community seafood factories. Rubberwood is become ash about
(AEC) countries and China. In Thailand, each the 25% which collected at the bottom of the boiler and
annual output in 2003 Year from 29.474 to 36.175 the remaining 75% is blown out efflux as fly ash is
million tons in 2012 Year [1]. Nowaday, benefication called Para rubber wood fly ash (PRWFA) and
of rice husk is used as an energy source for biomass extracted by electrostatic precipitators and filler bags.
power plants and rice mills. After burning, rice husk Pumice aggregate (PA) can be found largely in
ash (RHA) with approximately one-fifth of the Lopburi province, Thailand. Moreover, neighbour
original weight is obtained as a by-product. RHA contries such as Phillippines and Indonesia are
contains over 80% of silica and small amounts of important exported it. It is glass volcanic rock and
impurities such as K2O, Na2O and Fe2O3 [2]. The chatacterised light and plain porosity [6].
RHA has been used as a highly reactive pozzolanic Development of non-expensive and environmentally
material to improve the microstructure of the friendly PA concrete (PAC) with acceptable strength
interfacial transition zone between the cement paste and durability characteristics can be extremely
and the aggregate in high-performance concrete. helpful for the sustainable construction and
Mechanical experiments of RHA blended Portland rehabilitation of volcanic disaster areas around the
cement concretes revealed that in addition to the world. The aim of this research work was to explore
pozzolanic reactivity of RHA [3], the particle grading the effects of binary and ternary mixtures of RHA
of cement and RHA mixtures also exerted significant and PRWFA on some fresh and hardened PAC
influences on the blending efficiency [4]. The properties.
strength development increase (relative to the
concrete made with plain cement, expressed in %) is 2. EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM
higher for gap-graded cement [5]. 2.1 Materials
Moreover, Para rubber tree plantations are an
Ordinary Portland cement (OPC), Type I was
important economic crops especially in the south of
used. Its chemical compositions and physical
Thailand. The economic life cycle of the tree, which
is generally 25–30 years. After its yields become properties are given in Tab. 1 and particle size
extremely low latex, the Para rubber trees were distributions of cementitious materials as shown in
carried out cutting and replantation. The rubberwood Fig 1.
RHA and PRWFA ashes were collected waste
log is usually supplied to fabrict in furniture industry
biomass fuel from the electrical power plants. There

Material Sciences and Technology 1


Tab. 2 Physical properties of river sand and pumice
aggregate used in this study.
Physical Properties NS PA
Loose dry bulk density
1,485 389
(kg/m3)
Compact dry bulk density
1,587 424
(kg/m3)
Specific gravity 2.51 0.60
Water absorption 24 h (%) 1.48 56.69
Fineness modulus 3.12 6.26

Fig. 1 Particle size distributions of OPC, RHA and or called Control, total sixteen binary and tertary
PRWFA. mixtures carried out with proportion of 10, 20, and
30%RHA and 10, 20, and 30%PRWFA by mass,
Tab. 1 Chemical compositions and physical whole replacements consisting from 0 to 60% were
properties of materials used. performed with water:binder:sand = 0.55:1:1.80 by
mass, for each test property. The amount of fine
Compositions
OPC PA RHA PRWFA aggregate (river sand) was 700 kg/m3 and to maintain
(%)
the PA content at 230 kg/m3. In order to prevent the
SiO2 21.2 60.70 87.48 2.57
mixing water being absorbed by the PA, therefore
Al2O3 5.22 18.36 - 0.53 minimizing the slump loss during pumping [11],
Fe2O3 3.08 4.61 0.11 0.56 prewetting or pre-soaking method was adopted on
CaO 64.73 5.09 0.70 41.19 PA. The water-to-binder ratio was constant at 0.55
MgO 1.04 1.07 - 4.52 throughout this study. Tab. 3 shown the masses of
K2O 0.42 2.92 1.65 16.11 materials used for each of the binder mixtures.
Na2O - 0.67 - -
P2O5 - - 0.72 3.06 Tab. 3 Ingradient of the PAC batches (kg/m3)
SO3 2.01 - 0.22 5.54 Batch OPC RHA PRWFA
MnO2 - - 0.32 1.36 Control 390 0 0
LOI 1.45 6.47 8.34 23.28 PRWFA10 350 0 40
Specific gravity 3.15 0.60 2.05 2.15 PRWFA20 310 0 80
Specific surface PRWFA30 270 0 120
1.63 - 33.13 9.23
area-SSA (m2/g) RHA10 350 40 0
Pore porosity RHA10PRWFA10 310 40 40
0 - 30.66 17.72
(m2/g) RHA10PRWFA20 270 40 80
RHA10PRWFA30 230 40 120
are several physical properties that are important to RHA20 310 80 0
know about for RHA and PRWFA before that ashes RHA20PRWFA10 270 80 40
can be used to reach its highest potential. The RHA20PRWFA20 230 80 80
chemical compositions and physical properties of are RHA20PRWFA30 190 80 120
given in Tab. 1. It was found LOI of both ashes be
RHA30 270 120 0
high due to unburnt carbon content in residue mixed
RHA30PRWFA10 230 120 40
with amorphous SiO2 content. It can be less effective
RHA30PRWFA20 190 120 80
pozolanic reaction in concrete [7].
Locally available natural sand with 4.75 mm RHA30PRWFA30 150 120 120
maximum size was used as fine aggregate according
to ASTM C136 [8], and PA as coarse aggregate with 2.3. Testing procedures
12.5 mm maximum size satisfied the ASTM C330
grading requirement for lightweight aggregate [9] as The electrical resistivity of the concrete mixes
shown in Fig 2. The fine and coarse aggregates had was determined using the McOhm meter. In this
specific gravity of 2.51 and 0.6, water absorptions of method, two electrodes are inserted in the concrete
1.48% and 56.69% which tested according ASTM after demolding the casting of the test specimens. An
C127 [10] and compact oven dry bulk density 1,587 AC current source is aligned and placed at each sides
and 424 kg/m3, respectively. Summary of physical of concrete. and the voltage difference between the
properties of aggregates are tabulated in Tab. 2. inner electrodes is measured [12]. Setting time of
paste was tested as ASTM C191 [13].
2.2 Mixture proportions
Six binary mixtures and nine ternary were 3. RESULT AND DISCUSSION
tested in this work, a reference mixture of 100%OPC 3.1 Fresh concrete properties
The initial and final setting times of blended

Material Sciences and Technology 2


cement mixes are presented in Tab. 4. The effects of 3.3 Water absorption
RHA and PRWFA on the setting time of the different
Water permeability as indicated by saturated
batch of tests were carried out on paste as displayed
water absorption of PAC blended RHA specimens
the trend of variation of setting times decreased with
after 28 days of curing as shown in Fig. 3. It can be
increasing amounts of waste biomass ashes content,
seen that at 28 days curing, the percentage of water
due to increase of specific surface area and as the
absorption increase from 16% to 21% with increase
same time decrease of specific gravity. Additional
binary RHA in PAC from 0% to 30% and same
the RHA and PRWFA in cement paste decreased in
manner of binary PRWFA in PAC. In the case of
both the initial and final setting times as tabulated in
ternary RHA and PRWFA the percentage of water
Tab 4.
absorption increase from 20% to 23% according with
increase ternary 10-30%RHA and 10-30%PRWFA.
Tab. 4 Paste and fresh concrete of PAC.
Due to open porosity in RHA and PRWFA textures
Setting time (min) Slump
Batch developed a lot of capillary water and lead to drop
Initial Final (cm) dry density. The tested results were also indicated
Control 310 355 9.5 that the water absorption values inversed proportiond
PRWFA10 250 310 7.0 with bulk density values (Fig 2).
PRWFA20 170 215 4.0
PRWFA30 120 155 1.0 25
RHA10 270 315 5.0

Water absorption (%)


28-day 7-day Uncured
23
RHA10PRWFA10 205 245 3.0
RHA10PRWFA20 160 195 1.0 21

RHA10PRWFA30 80 105 0.0 19


RHA20 240 280 2.5
17
RHA20PRWFA10 190 215 1.0
RHA20PRWFA20 25 60 0.0 15
A0 W 10
W 20
30

A RW A0
A RW 10

W 20
30

A RW A0
A2 RW 10

0
30

A RW A0
A RW 10

W 20
30
A W ol

RHA20PRWFA30 0 20 0.0

RW 2
RH 0PR ontr

PR FA
FA

RH 10P FA

PR FA

RH 20P FA

FA

PR FA
RH 0PR FA

FA

0P FA

RH 30P FA

FA
RH 0P F

RH 30P WF
RH 20P WF
W
A C

A R

A PR

A PR
P

RHA30 20 55 2.5
RH A10

RH 20

RH A30
10

30
1

A
RH
RH

RH

RH
RHA30PRWFA10 0 35 1.0 Type of PAC
RHA30PRWFA20 0 0 0.0
RHA30PRWFA30 0 0 0.0 Fig. 3 Water absorption of binary and ternary
mixtures of PAC.

3.2 Bulk density


3.4 Drying shrinkage
The bulk densities of PAC specimens are
The drying shrinkage of the PAC is presented in
exhibited in Fig. 2. These control PAC specimens
Fig. 4. The 28 days drying shrinkage of PAC blended
were greater than 1,687, 1,708 and 1,728 kg/m3 cured
at 1-, 7- and 28-day, respectively. On the other hand, 30%RHA increased from 47.710-3 to 89.410-3%
bulk density of PAC specimens decreased with comparison with control PAC. Regarding to binary
increasing RHA content from 1,728 to 1,640 kg/m3 30%PRWFA, the drying shrinkage also increased
with according to 0% to 30%RHA for 28 days. between 47.710-3 to 77.510-3%. These two ashes
Consequently, PRWFA replacement, the bulk played an important role in drying shrinkage
densities decreased with increasing PRWFA content evaluations in PAC owing to capillary water in pore
approximately 1.4-1.5%. It met requirement of of PAC matric released through outside and exerted
structural lightweight concrete of ACI 213R [14] capillary surface tension confining body decreased.

200
Drying shrinkage x10 (%)

1740
180 7-day 28-day
-3
Bulk density (kg/m )

1720 28-day 160


3

1700 7-day 140


120
1680 Uncured
100
1660 80
60
1640
40
1620 20
0
1600
l 0 0 0 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30
l 0 0 0 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 ro 1 2 3 FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA FA
ro 1 2 3 FA A A A FA A A A FA A A A nt FA FA FA
nt FA FA FA W F WF F W F F F W F F WF Co RW RW RW RW RW RW RW RW RW RW RW RW RW RW RW
Co RW RW RW PR PRW PR PRW PR PRW PRW PRW PR PRW PRW PR
P P P
P P P 0 0 0 0P 0P 0P 0 P P P
A1 A10 A10 A10
0 P P P
A2 A20 A20 A20
0 P P P
A3 A30 A30 A30
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 A A A
A0 A0 A0 A A1 A1 A 1 A2 A2 A2 A2 A3 A3 A3 A 3 RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH
R H R H RH RH RH RH RH R H RH RH RH RH RH RH RH
Type of PAC Type of PAC

Fig. 2 Bulk density of binary and ternary mixtures of Fig. 4 Drying shrinkage of binary and ternary
PAC. mixtures of PAC.

Material Sciences and Technology 3


3.5 Electrical resistivity The compressive strength of the PAC
containing all formulation of PPRWFA was less than
The electrical resistivity of PAC values at
the control PAC about 50-80% at 28-day. However,
different ages for binary and ternary mixtures are
the compressive strength of PAC indicated a trend of
varied and shown in Fig. 5. Influence of varied
increase with extended curing ages at 10%PRWFA.
substitution of OPC with RHA and PRWFA on
On the other hand, the lower compressive strength of
electrical resisitivity are in the range of 800 to 1,350
PAC with PRWFA gained due to contaiu high CaO
MegaΩ-cm. While effect of curing periods on
only and poor pozzolanic materials (SiO2, Al2O3).
electrical resistivity of PAC blended RHA and
The relative strength or strength activity index of
PRWFA was much clearly. This observation has
binary PAC with PRWFA at 28 days compared with
been also refered by other previous works [12,15].
the control PAC was 82% for 10%PRWFA. Also, the
relative compressive strength of PAC with ternary of
Electrical resistivity (MΩ-cm)

1600
20%RHA and 20%PRWFA (RHA20PRWFA20) was
1400 Uncured 7-day 28-day
1200
about 77% of the control strength.
1000
3.7 Microstructural characterization
800
600 The common constituents of the ITZ
400
microstructure in ternary mixture of specimens were
200
0
clear to different distinguish [20,21,22]. All of the
l 0 0 0
ro 1 2 3
0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 0 10 20 30 examined ITZ sections, the polymineralic such as
nt FA FA FA FA A A A FA A A A FA A A A
Co RW RW RW W WF F F W F F F W F WF F
P P P 0 PR PR PRW PRW 0PR PRW PRW PRW 0 PR PRW PR PRW calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) calcium hydroxide
0 0 0 1 0 0 0 A2 A20 A20 A20 A3 A30 A30 A30
A A A A A1 A1 A1
RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH RH and ettringite formed around micropore of PA in Fig
Type of PAC 7a). Furthermore, bonding strength of ITZ decreased
Fig. 5 Electrical resistivity of binary and ternary causing of failure microcracks after compression test
mixtures of PAC. between boundary of past and the PA (Fig. 7 b).
Effects of the hydration and pozzolanic reactions
supported ITZ hardening.
3.6 Compressive strength
The compressive strength of PAC blended
binary and ternay of RHA and PRWFA as illustrated a)
in Fig 6. Comparison of the compressive strength
among curing for 1, 7 and 28 days. It was observed
that compressive strength increase gradually with
their increasing with RHA up to 20% and then gain a
tendency to decrease. A 28-day highest compressive
PA
strength was obtained 22.55 MPa from 20%RHA.
Thus, in order to meet ensuring the optimum level ITZ
may be restricted with about a 20% RHA
replacement of OPC. The characterization of
compressive strength reduction has been often found
in a lot of the previous literatures [16,17,18]. Most
rely reason of the pozzolanic reaction is responsible
high strength as well as high specific surface area
and the existing a lot of reactive silica content in
RHA. It is discussed in lots of previous works [19] . PA b)
Compressive strength (MPa)

25
28-day
20 7-day
Uncured
15
E
10

5
ITZ
0
A W 10
0
30

A RW A0
A RW 1 0

30

A RW A0
A RW 1 0

W 20

A RW A0
A RW 10

W 20
30
W 20

30
A W ol

RW 2
RH 0PR ontr
RH 0PR FA
0P F A
FA

RH 10P FA

FA

RH 20P FA

PR FA
FA

RH 3 0 P F A

PR FA
FA
PR FA
RH 10P WF

RH 20P WF

RH 0 P F W
A C

A PR

A PR

A PR
RH 10

RH 2 0

RH 3 0
10

20

30
A

A
3
RH

RH
RH

RH

Type of PAC
Fig, 7 SEM microphotograph of 20RHA10PRWFA
Fig. 6 Compressive strength of binary and ternary mixture cured 28 days a) ITZ between cementitious
mixtures of PAC. and PA and b) microcrack propagation (dot line).

Material Sciences and Technology 4


4. CONCLUSIONS [4] V.Saraswathy, and H.W.Song (2007), Corrosion
The investigation of binary and ternary using Performance of Rice Husk Ash Blended
RHA and PRWFA in pumice aggregate concrete, the Concrete. Constr Build Mater, 2007, Vol. 21,
conclusions can be drawn following: Issue 8, pp. 1779-1784.
1. Partially replacing Portland cement with
RHA or PRWFA results in early compressive [5] D.D.Bui, J.Hu, and P.Stroeven (2005), Particle
strengths that are lower than that of the control. Size Effect on the Strength of Rice Husk Ash
However, up to 20%RHA replacements give Blended Gap-Graded Portland Cement Concrete,
strengths at 7 and 28 days that are the same as or Cem Concr Compos; 2005, Vol. 27, Issue 3, pp.
greater than that of the control. 357–366.
2. Relative strength of PAC decreased as the
level of PRWFA replacement increased. Although [6] S.Dermirdag, and L.Gunduz (2008), Strength
RHA gave relative strengths at early ages that are Properties of Volcanic Slag Aggregate
higher than those of PRWFA, the latter provide Lightweight Concrete for High Performance
better performance at extended ages. This is Masonry Units, Constr Build Mater, 2008, Vol.
attributed to the higher silica content of ground RHA. 22, Issue 3, pp.135–142.
Binary and ternary mixtures of each RHA and
PRWFA provided up to 20%, and relative strength [7] B.Felekoglu, S.Turkel, and H.Kalyoncu (2009),
values at all curing periods were higher than 75%. Optimization of Fineness to Maximize the
3. The substitution of OPC by RHA and Strength Activity of High-Calcium Ground Fly
PRWFA resulted in an increase in the PAC’s Ash –Portland, Cement Composites, Constr
electrical resistivity and a reduction in the pore Build Mater, 2009, Vol. 23, pp. 2053–2061.
solution of PA. These changes were enhanced by
increasing the percentage of the substitution,
[8] ASTM C136 Standard Test Method for Sieve
particularly at replacement levels of 10% and
Analysis of Fine and Coarse Aggregates; 1996.
20%RHA.
4. Effectivness of RHA on PAC in reducing the
[9] ASTM C330 Standard Specification for
expansion due to silica active content in RHA. At
Lightweight Aggregates for Structural Concrete;
10% and 20% replacements the RHA lightweight
1997.
concretes give expansion at early exposure that are
considerably lower than those of the PRWFA
lightweight concretes. [10] ASTM C127 Standard Test Method for Specific
5. No synergistic effect was observed when Gravity and Absorption of Coarse Aggregate;
both RHA and PRWFA were incorporated into the 1993.
PAC. However, effects of their partial replace by
mass of OPC on the compressive strength, bulk [11] N.Kabay, and F.Akoz (2012), Effect of
density and drying shrinkage are met ASTM C330 Prewetting Methods on Some Fresh and
requirment. Hardened Properties of Concrete with Pumice
Aggregate, Cem Concr Comp, 2012, Vol. 34, pp.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS 503–507.
Some part of this research was financially
supported by the Graduate School, Prince of Songkla [12] A.Lubeck, A.L.G.Gastaldini, D.S.Barin, and
University, Thailand. H.C.Siqueira (2012), Compressive Strength and
Electrical Properties of Concrete with White
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Material Sciences and Technology 5


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Material Sciences and Technology 6

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