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Hydrology is that branch of physical geography that deals with waters of the earth.
Parts of hydrology that concern highway engineers are:
6-1. DRAINAGE 1. The frequency and intensity of precipitation
Drainage is defined as the means of collecting, transporting and disposing of surface 2. The frequency that this precipitation brings the highest run-off that are equal or
water originating in or near the right of the way, or flowing stream crossings or bordering the exceed certain critical values.
right of way. 3. The distribution of precipitation through the seasons that influence the water
behaviour and affect the highway surfaces.
*Approximately, about 25% of roadway funds are being spent for culverts, bridges and other 4. The prediction regarding future rainfall or run-off from gathered statistical
drainage structures. Bigger appropriations are also allotted for ditches, dikes, channels and approaches, formula or simulated methods which are all based on the laws of
erosion control structures of rural roads. Likewise, major capital investments are channelled probability.
to urban areas for storm drains and other appurtenances plus the routine clearing of drainage
facilities. Run-off is predicted based on the following methods:
1. By the Rational Methods
*Surface drainage is only one among the many problems to be considered in establishing 2. By the Imperical Formula
the location and construction of roads. 3. By the Unit Hydrography
4. By Statistical Approaches
*The most favourable location of a roadway as far as drainage is concerned is the division 5. By Simulation
between large drainage areas.
*all streams must flow away from the right of way to reduce the drainage problem. 1. Usually, highway construction disrupt existing natural drainage pattern. Water
which are passing the natural right of ways are often intercepted by road cuts. The
*roadway locations which are parallel with large streams should be avoided because they flow of several streams are collected to pass under the highway through a single
will cross every tributary canal. channel diverting streams to a canal or culverts that differ in size and length,
including the flow characteristics from the previous one.
*steep grades and heavy cuts and fill should be avoided for it will only contribute to the 2. Construction operation may disturb the ground cover and loosen the soil creating
problem of erosions. muddy streams as a result of erosion.
3. Erosions create debris that are carried downstream and deposited at points where
Surface drainage problem follows three basic considerations, namely: the velocity shakens. Record shows that almost every drainage installations
1. Hydraulic design which deals with estimating the highest rate of run-off to be disturb the ecological balance of nature.
handled. 4. Any change in the land use may alter the historical run-off or un-gauged rural
2. Hydraulic design which deals with the selection of the kind and size of the water shed which could be disastrous on wide scale basis.
drainage facilities which is the most economical to accommodate the estimated
3. To ascertain that the design will not create erosion or other unacceptable 1. As much as possible, any existing drainage system patterns and soil cover should
environmental conditions. not be disturbed.
2. Necessary changes in the drainage patterns should not in any manner bring
velocities that may create new erosion problems.
6-3. DRAINAGE ECONOMIC CONSIDERATIONS 2. Water flowing across the roadway down the road slope must be thin enough in a sheet
Economy in drainage simply mean finding the solution to a problem that is cheapest form like so that the erosion on the shoulder will be minimized.
in the long run under the following approach: 3. Unprotected slope could be badly washed-out if irregularities in the pavement or
1. Determine the estimated initial investment cost shoulder accumulates water into small streams. Another point of water accumulation
2. Consider the maintenance cost or outlay that endanger the shoulder is the low portion of sagged vertical curves.
3. Consider the anticipated loss and damage for each solution 4. One way of preventing washout of the side slope is to retain the water at the outer
edge of the shoulder.
*The annual appropriation for possible damage or economic loss is equal to the estimated 5. A crown ditch or intercepting channel may be employed at the top of the cut slope.
losses from floods of various magnitude, multiplied by the probability that these flood will This will prevent erosion of the cut slope surface runoff from the hillside above.
occur in any one year. 6. The surface should not be disturbed in any matter where the natural ground is already
For example, if the drainage loss from any flood exceeding the design flow is covered with grass or other ground cover.
P200,000 and according to the hydraulic computations such floods will occur once in every 5 7. The channel or canal should be formed making the original ground as its bed and a
years, then the annual loss of flood damage is P200,000 divided by 5 years or P40,000 per small dike if topsoil or imported materials to serve as its bank.
year. 8. Scouring must be controlled. If possible, the waterflow must be limited to a safer
*Drainage problem is varied and there is no single set of assumption or rule to economic amount of diverting the flow at intervals. The water should be dropped down to the
problem in drainage considering the uncertainty of flood frequency where the design is roadside ditch by means of a specially designed conduits or channels.

*To major highways with large volume of traffic, losses to motorists and to the economy is
tremendously high if the road will be closed frequently due to flood and washout.

*For major highways, projections might prove that drainage facilities should accommodate a
50 year flood, whereas the design based on a 5 year flood is reasonable for a low volume
rural roads.

*where drainage problems of any magnitude has an alternative solution, economic studies
based on reasonable estimated costs and possible damages represent the best approach. Flood
frequencies and some of the costs must be roughly approximated and let catastrophic
occurrences pervert our perspective on cost risks.


1. Rain water flows literally or obliquely on the surface of the road pavement under the
influence of the cross section of the slope or super elevation in the pavement and Draining the urban streets
shoulders. If the water flow is controlled, then, the shoulder is in danger of erosion. 1. On city streets, rain water is guided by the road slope to the gutter and along with
However, the shoulder will have the minimal erosion damage if is already covered or them the curb and inlets designed to limit the spread of water over the traffic lanes.
protected by turf or grass.
2. AASHTO recommended that, for at grade materials, the water should not encroach on Material Requirements
the outer lane by more than 1.80 meters for a 10-year flood. A 50-year return period 1. Corrugated metal units – when bituminous coating is specified it shall conform with
is proposed for depressed facilities. ASTM D-1187, Asphalt Base Emulsion as protective coating for metal.
3. The design for water storm inlets and connections for gutters and depressed median 2. Sewer and manhole which are made of bricks from clay or shale must conform with
should be based on the same periods. Main storm drain for freeways has to AASHTO M-91 standard specifications. Building bricks of solid masonry units made
accumulate a 50 to 100 years storm. from clay or shale must conform with (AASHTO M-114).
4. For arterials, the return interval is 20 to 50 years. The flow estimate is based on the 3. Joint mortar mixture should be one part of Portland cement and two parts fine
Rational Formula using the value of the runoff coefficient between 0.8 to 0.9 for aggregates plus hydrated lime equal to 10% of the cement by weight.
pavements; 0.4 to 0.6 for gravel and 0.1 to 0.7 for grass. 4. Frames, gratings, covers and ladder rungs shall be assembled before shipment and
The Rational Formula: may be re-assembled readily in the same position when installed. The frame, rating,
Q = clAd or cover to be used must constitute one pair.
Where:  All castings should be uniformly coated with asphalt base emulsion meeting the
Q = quality of runoff in cubic foot per second requirements of ASTM D1187.
c = runoff coefficient expressing the ratio or rate of runoff to the rate of rain  Structural concrete for the purpose must attain a minimum 28 days compressive
fall. strength of 20.68 MPA (3000 psi).
l = Intensity of rainfall in inches per hour for a duration equal to the time of  Precast unit must be cured and the water absorption of individual cores must not
concentration. exceed 7 percent.
 A sufficient number of cylinders shall be cast from the concrete for each unit that will
Ad = Drainage Area in hectares.
permit compression tests for 7, 14 and 28 days and allow at least 3 cylinders for each
Table 6-1. SUGGESTED VALUE OF COEFFICIENT OF RUNOFF C, FOR USE IN  If the strength requirement is met at 7 or 14 days, the units will be certified for used
THE RATIONAL FORMULA 14 days from the date of casting
Type of Drainage Area Coefficiency of Runoff  If the strength is not met at 28 days, all units made form that batch will be rejected.
Concrete or Bituminous pavement 0.8 – 0.9
Gravel Roadways, open 0.4 – 0.6 Construction Requirements
Bare Earth (high value for steep slope) 0.2 – 0.8 1. Concrete construction must conform with the requirements for Item 405 – Structural
Turf meadows 0.1 – 0.4 Concrete. Metal frames should be set in full mortar bed and pipe sections flushed on
Cultivated fields 0.2 – 0.4 the inside of the structure wall projected outside sufficiently for proper connection
Forested areas 0.1 – 0.2 with the next pipe section.
2. Masonry shall fit neatly and tightly around the pipe.
6-5 MANHOLE, INLETS AND CATCH BASINS 3. When grade adjustments or existing structure is specified, the frames, covers and
Manhole, inlets and catch basins are classified under Item 502 of the DPWH standard gratings are removed and the wall is reconstructed as required. The cleaned frame
specifications which includes construction, reconstruction or adjustment of manholes, inlets shall be reset to the specified elevation.
4. Upon completion, each structure shall be cleaned of any accumulation of silts, debris,
and catch basins.
or foreign matters of any kind until final acceptance of the work.
Standard manhole, inlets and catch basins both new and reconstructed will be VARIOUS CHANNEL LININGS
measured by units.
 Any authorized additional concrete, reinforcing bars, masonry or labor required will Type of Lining Value of n
be measured and paid for under Item 404 and 405. Ordinary Earth, smooth gravel 0.02
 Junction Box structure is measured for payment as a manhole. Rough Rubble or Jagged rock 0.04
Rough Concrete 0.02
Bituminous Lining 0.02
Smooth Rubble 0.02
The purpose of a channel is to determine the cross section that will be cheapest to WELL MAINTAINED GRASS – depth of flow 0.04
construct and maintain. over 15 cm
Side slope of the ratio 2:1 or even flatter is most favorable, except on rocks or other WELL MAINTAINED GRASS – depth of flow 0.06
hard materials where channels are lined. under 15 cm
For unlined or unfinished channel surface, the best cross section requires the least Heavy Grass 0.10
total excavation.
The design of crown ditches, gutters stream channel and culverts flowing partially or The solution to various channel problems rest on the following distinctions:
fully are based on the principles of flow in an open canal. For uniform flow, the relationship a) Water flowing down a mild slope in an open canal is in sub-critical flow.
is expressed in the Manning Formula. b)Water flowing on steep slope is in super critical flow.
Q = VA
Subcritical Flow exists when the depth of water in the channel is greater than the critical
𝟏 𝟐 𝟏/𝟐
Q = 𝒏 AR 𝟑 𝑺 depth.
Supercritical Flow exists when the depth is less than the critical level.
Where: Critical Depth occurs when the velocity head is one half the average depth.
Average Depth or Mean Depth is the cross-sectional area of the flow divided by its width at
Q = quantity of discharge in meter per second
the liquid surface.
R = Hydraulic radius in meter. This is the area of the flow across section divided by
the wetted perimeter. Unless the possibility of erosion is eliminated within a reasonable limit, channel
design is considered not a complete unit, thus:
A = Area of the flow across section in square meter 1. The actual velocity must be checked against the maximum values for unprotected
S = slope of the channel earth.
2. Where channel scouring is indicated, reduction of velocity should be adopted to a
n = manning roughness coefficient safe level.
3. To reduce the velocity is to reduce the flow of water by diversion.
4. Where diversion is not possible, the channel is widened, or as an alternative, it is
lengthened or the slope of the channel is decreased.
5. Baffles, checks or drops are introduced to reduce the slope in the channel. 2. The stress calculation for pipe culverts are based on the assumptions regarding the
method of under pipe support, soil support at its side and loading distribution
over it.
3. Corrugated metal pipes are more flexible that could tolerate greater deformations.
Allowable velocity in ft. per The side of the corrugated metal pipes deform laterally against the adjacent
Type of Lining backfill under vertical load and the horizontal earth pressure increases the load
carrying ability of the pipe.
Well established grass on any good soil 6
Meadow type of grass, such as blue grass or
bermuda 5
Bunch grasses, exposed soil between plants 2-4
Grains, stiff stemmed grasses that do not bend
over under shallow flow 2-3

Earth without vegetation

Fine sand or silt, little or no clay 1-2
Ordinary firm loam 2-3
Stiff clay, highly colloidal 4
Coarse gravel 4
Clay and gravel 4
Soft shale 5

6.7 CULVERTS 4. Highway engineers rarely make structural design for pipes
With the exception of the floor drain, culverts includes all closed conduits used for 5. and culverts because of the difficulties and uncertainties involved thereon, they
drainage. Culverts are classified as readymade products and that standard design are used passed experience and records as guide, then develop standard plans to fit all
repeatedly used. normal situations.
1. Culvert is loaded vertically by the wheel load of vehicles, the earthfill covering 6. For concrete, vitrified clay and cast iron pipe, what is specified is the strength or
the culvert and the horizontal passive or active earth pressure. The magnitude of class of pipe to be used in each condition. For corrugated metal pipe, highway
this load are uncertain as they are influenced by: engineers prescribe plate thickness for different pipe size and the heights of fill.
a.) Depth of the cover 7. It is now the practice of relying much on the recommendations of the various
b.) Nature and density of the overlapping and adjacent soils manufacturer who prepared all the design data and computations etc.
c.) Trench width and depth 8. Highway agency has standard drawings of various culvert designs appropriate for
d.) Deformation of the pipe under load the more common heights and widths of openings, heights of fill, including skew
e.) Field construction procedure angles.
CULVERT INSTALLATION 4. Culvert on a skewed channel is relatively longer and more costly. But channel
1. In order to safeguard the culvert and to prevent subsequent settlement in the roadway changes and erosion protection are provided with the structures at one or both ends to
surface, standard procedures for culvert installation are given special attention reduce the skews.
particularly on the bedding and backfilling. 5. Inverted siphons should be avoided whenever the water carries sediments of debris.
2. Culverts are installed in the original stream bed with their grades and flow line 6. Stagnant water trapped inside the culvert sag is highly objectionable and should be
confirming with the natural channel or canal. The stream flow is not disturbed, avoided.
thereby minimizing the tendency of erosion. 7. Most culverts start upstream with the headwalls and terminate downstream with
3. In mountains or rolling terrain, departure from channel alignment, either upstream or endwalls. The headwalls direct the flow of the culvert proper, while the enwalls
downstream, may divert the current flow to one side of the channel. This is dangerous provide transition from the culvert back to the regular channel.
to create erosion and deposition on the opposite side. 8. Hydraulically, the headwalls and endwalls functions separately but both retain the
embankment and protect it from washout.
9. In most cases, cutoff wall is extended to the level of expected scour. Sometimes a
paved apron or energy dissipator is extended beyond the cutoff of the wall.
10. The use of small pipe endwall and sometimes headwall is being discourage because
they are hydraulically inefficient as entrances. The pipe is extended beyond the toe of
the embankment.
11. The L type headwalls create a serious accident hazard, thus, a gutter inlet with the
grate cover is recommended.
12. A wing type wall is recommended for large culverts. The flared U and warped walls
are used in special applications.
Under item 500 of the DPWH standard specifications, the construction or
reconstruction of pipe culverts and storm drains are classified as Conduits.

Conduits are laid on the bedding that confirm with the following standard
1. Conduit Bedding is classified into Class A, B, and C.
2. In laying pipe culverts, the requirements for Class C bedding is applied if no
bedding class is specified.
3. Class A bedding shall consist of continuous concrete cradle conforming to the
plan details.
4. Class B bedding is extended to a depth not less than 30% of the vertical outside
diameter of the conduit pipe.
5. The minimum thickness of the bedding materials beneath the pipe is 10 cm 2. The lower segment of the conduit pipe should be in contact with the shape
composed of sand passing a 9.5mm sieve but not more than 10% passes a 0.075 throughout its full length.
mm sieve. 3. The bell or groove ends of rigid conduits and outside circumferential laps or
6. The layer of bedding material is shaped to fit in the conduit for at least 15% of its flexible conduits are placed with longitudinal laps or scams at the side.
total height. 4. Paved or partially lined conduits pipes are laid with the longitudinal center line of
7. When a bell and spigot type is used, the recesses in the bottom trench are shaped the paved segment coincides with the flow line.
to accommodate the bell. 5. Elliptical and elliptically reinforced conduits are placed with the major axis of 5
8. Class C bedding extended to a depth of not less than 10% of its total height. degrees of a vertical plan through the longitudinal axis of conduit.
9. Flexible pipes, the bed is roughly shaped and a bedding blanket of sand is
specified as follows: Joining the Conduit Pipes
1. The rigid conduit pipe is either bell and spigot or tongue and groove type unless
Pipe corrugation on depth Minimum bedding depth other type is specified.
10mm 25mm 2. In joining conduit pipes the ends are fully entered and the inner surface evenly
25mm 50mm flushed. Joints are connected with :
50mm 75mm a. Portland cement mortar or grout
For large diameter structural plate pipes, the shape bed need not exceed the width b. Rubber gaskets
of the bottom plate. c. Oakum and mortar or joint compound
d. Plastic sealing compound
Laying the Conduit Pipe e. A combination of these types or any other types as may be specified.
1. The laying of conduit should start at the downstream end of the conduit line. 3. Joint mortar for concrete pipes consists of 1 part by volume of Portland cement
and 2 parts of approved sand with water necessary to obtain a refined consistency.
Mortar should be used within 30 minutes after its preparation.
4. Mortar joint is made with an excess of mortar to form a continuous bead around
the outside joint of the pipe but it shall be finished smooth on the side.
5. Rubber gaskets are installed to form a flexible water tight seal. When Portland
cement mixture is used, the completed joints are protected against rapid drying by
any suitable covering materials.
6. Flexible conduits are firmly joined by coupling bands.

After the laying of conduit pipes, backfilling follows under the following
1. Materials for backfill should be fine, readily compacted soil or granular material
selected from approved sources. It should be placed on each side of the conduit
for the fill trench width and to an elevation of 30 cm. above the top of the pipe.
2. Backfill materials should neither contain stones that would be retained on a 50 2. The measurement will also include all backfill materials above the original
mm sieve, nor chunks of highly plastic clay and other objectionable materials. ground line adjacent to the pipe for a height of 30 cm. above the top of the pipe
3. At least 95% of the granular backfill materials, passes 12.5 mm sieve and not less and for a distance on each side of the pipe not greater than the widest horizontal
than 95% of it are retained on a 4.75 mm sieve. dimension of the pipe if the original ground line is less than 30 centimeters.
4. Oversized materials, if present shall be removed. 3. The measurement include the placing of backfill materials in all trenches.
5. When the top of the conduit is flushed with or below the top of the trench, backfill
materials are place at or near optimum moisture content and compacted in layers 6.8 DESIGN OF UNDERDRAIN
not exceeding 15 cm. (compacted) on both sides to an elevation of 30 cm. above Underdrain is categorized under Item 501 of DPWH standard specification, which
the conduit. Care should be exercised thoroughly compact the backfill under the provides that:
haunches of the conduit.
6. For the portion above the top of the trench on each side of the conduit, the width This item shall consist of constructing underdrain, using pipes and granular filter
of the backfill is equal to twice the diameter of the conduit or 3.5 meters material underdrain pipe outlets and blind drains using granular material in accordance
whichever is less. with the specifications and in reasonably close conformity with the lines and grades shown
7. After being bedded and backfilled, all conduits are protected by one meter cover on the plans or as established by the engineer.
of fill before any heavy equipment is permitted to cross during the construction of
1. The pipe is used to carry away the collected water. The size and number of pipes and
the roadway.
its locations of opening should be studied carefully to prevent excessive entrance
Field Strutting velocity that will cause silting to the pipe.
2. Filter materials with which the trench is backfilled or the opening in the filter should
Whenever required by the plan and specifications, vertical diameter of rounded
be fine enough so that the adjacent soil will not be washed-out into the darn.
flexible conduits is increased by 5% through shop elongation or by means of jacks applied 3. The top of the underdrain should be sealed with impervious soil to prevent the
after the entire line of conduit installed on the bedding but before backfilling. The vertical entrance of surface area.
elongation should be maintained by means of sills and struts, or by horizontal ties used on 4. Intercepting drains must extend into the impervious zone.
paved invert pipe. 5. The pipes are laid with the flow line at least 1.20 meters below the finished grade and
Pipes and struts should be 30 cm. in-place until embankment is completed and carefully bedded in gravel or filter materials.
Method of Measurement Materials shall conform to the requirements specified as follows:
1. Zinc coated (galvanized) corrugated iron or steel for culverts and underdrain
Conduit pipe of different types and sizes, both new and relayed, will be measured
linear meter in place. Conduit with slope or skewed ends will be measured along the invert. 2. Extra strength and standard strength clay pipe and perforated clay pipe (AASHTO
Each section will be measured by the number of units installed. Class B bedding materials M-165)
placed and approved will be measured by cubic meter in place. 3. Porous concrete (AASHTO M-176)
1. Measurement include backfill materials up to the top of the original ground line 4. Perforated concrete (AASHTO M-175)
but will not include any material placed outside of the vertical planes 45 cm. up 5. Bituminized fiber non-pressure sewer drain and underdrainage pipe system
outside of and parallel to the side of the wall of the pipe at its widest horizontal (AASHTO M-177)
dimension. 6. Asbestos cement perforated underdrain pipes (AASHTO M-189)
Granular Backfill Filter Materials 6.9 DEBRIS CONTROL
Granular backfill filter materials shall be permeable meeting the requirements of  Flood water usually carries objectionable objects like; brushes, banana trunks, tree
AASHTO M-6 specifications except that soundness tests will not be required and minor branches etc.
variation in grading and content of deleterious substances may be approved by the  Culverts should be designed to allow debris to pass.
engineering. All materials are subject to inspection before acceptance.  On a stream that carry large floating objects, a single large span box culverts is
preferred than a multi-span culvert with the same area of openings. Another
Construction Requirements alternative is to extend the curtain wall separating the barrels of the multi-span
1. Pipe Insulation- Trenches are excavated to the dimensions and grades required by the culverts upstream, with its top slanting downward so that in time of flood, debris
plans. A minimum of 15 cm. bedding layer of granular backfill materials are placed carried by floodwater will ride up on this wall or turn to pass easily through the
and compacted at the bottom of the trench. Sub-drainage pipe are embedded firmly on opening.
the bedding.  Another method which have been proven to be effective is to install an upstream
2. Perforated pipes are placed with the perforations downward securely joined with an debris racks or wire, steel rail or piling. Some design provides trap for the sand or
appropriate fittings or bands. gravel carried by the stream rather than having it pass through the structure.
3. Non-perforated pipes are laid with the bell end upgrade and with open joints wrapped  However, design of debris control devices depends upon the kind of debris to be
with suitable material to permit entry of water, or unwrapped as may be specified. handled, the volume of the water and the site conditions.
4. Upgrade end sections of all sub-drainage pipe installation are closed with suitable
plugs to prevent entry of soil materials.
5. After the pipe installation; granular backfill materials are placed to a height of 30 6.10 THE LEGAL ASPECTS OF DRAINAGE
centimeters above the top of the pipe. The pipe should not be displaced of the
covering at open joints. The highway agency is legally responsible for any damage to private property
6. The remainder of the granular backfiller are placed and compacted at every after 15 affected by changes it make in natural drainage pattern within the limit that must flow.
cm. layers up to the required height. Any remaining portion of the trench above the
granular backfill shall be filled with either granular or impervious material and Damage claim against the Department could be established if:
thoroughly compacted. 1. When as a result of the agency’s project, the flow of the several streams or creeks
were concentrated into a single channel resulting to erosion, silting or flooding of
Underdrain Outlets private property.
Trench for underdrain outlets are excavated to the depth and width as planned. Pipes 2. When due to poor design or inadequate maintenance, water backed up against a
are laid in the trench with all ends firmly joined and backfilled after inspection and approval highway or embankment, resulting to inundation of land or property, or caused injury
of the pipe installation. or death.
3. Liabilities however, are limited only to those who are in direct consequences of the
Blind Drain improvement. The agency would not be liable if an unprecedented storm causes the
Trenches for blind drains are excavated to the width and depth as shown on plans. stream to overflow a newly constructed channel, provide that this channel has a
The trench is then filled with granular backfill material to the required depth. Any remaining capacity equal to the natural volume of water flow.
upper portions of trench should be filled with either granular or impervious material in 4. Engineering decisions if based on an accepted practice, do not provide for a cause of
accordance with the requirements for excavations. action. In any case, the responsibility of the highway agency would be determined
through negotiations or court proceedings, thus, design of a drainage system must
satisfy the various requirements of the environment laws and regulations.
SOIL CONDITIONS Capillarity is the tendency of water to seek its own level as if in an open channel
Problems encountered in the design and construction of roadways are: flows through the pores and fine channels of the soil. It is the force which pull free water
1. The stability of fill and slope through the voids of the soils in all directions.
2. The drainage
3. Capillarity and frost leave 1. In roadway construction, moisture has to be controlled. Over saturation of the soil in
4. Permafrost
road structure reduces its strength and the differential expansion of the soil due to
5. Elasticity and rutting
uncontrolled moisture may lead to a very serious problems.
STABILITY OF FILL AND SLOPE 2. Moisture in the roadway is brought about by changes in weather or seasons and by
1. Slides may happen during construction or at later date after the road is in service. It is capillary action of water. Capillary action is most common in permeable materials
advisable to risk some sliding or adjustments of large slope than to flatten them all, such as dirty gravel and soils composed mainly of fine sand, silts or clayey silts.
thus, increasing pay yardage. However, capillary flow is less common in impermeable materials such as clay and
2. During the location surveys, areas which are threatened by frequent slide should be colloidal soils.
avoided if possible. Minor slope adjustment slides and ledge falls that occur during 3. Water movement due to capillarity action take place in any direction and an upward
construction must be removed to widen fill or to flatten their slope. movement may create an undesirable problem.
3. Slides may be caused either by mud flows, slope adjustment or movement due to If the surface of the soil is open, evaporation is faster and no damage may
underground water or undercut rock strata. Slides happened when an underlying result, but, if the surface is covered with pavement or other impervious blanket, the
inclined surface of shale, soapstone or the like is lubricated by seepage water. capillarity water may accumulate and saturate the subsurface layers which usually
4. Slides may be controlled by removing large portion of the material above the slippage result to pavement failure.
surface or by some drainage device that keeps water off the surface of weakness. 4. Consistency of soil varies from semisolid to plastic liquid if moisture content is
5. Water must always be intercepted before it lubricates the critical slip surface. increased. The behaviour of the material used is directly correlated with changes and
percentages of moisture content.
5. Voids in soil are of the same order of magnitude as the particle sizes. Thus, the height
of capillary rise would be greater in fine grained soils than in coarse grained soils.
Likewise, temperature plays an important role in the capillary rise of water in soils.
The height of rise is greater at low temperature than at high temperature.
Table 6-4. REPRESENTATIVE HEIGHTS OF CAPILLARY RISE IN SOILS into the space between the dual tires on a truck wheel, deflection rate of travel of a
shock wave is recorded.
Approximate Capillary Heights
Centimeters Feet
An existing earth slope that have been stable can experience significant movement
Small Gravel 2-10 0.1 – 0.4
called slope failure or landslide due to:
Coarse Sand 15 0.5
Fine Sand 30-100 1-3 1. Change of natural conditions
Silt 100-1000 3-30 2. Man induced changes
Clay 1000-3000 30-90
Change in natural conditions may be the result of the following:
a. Occurrence of earthquake
b. Subsidence of underground cavern
Compressive Stress d. Slope weakening due to the development of cracks or shrinkage cracks that are
Soil Type followed by water intrusions
pcf kg./ kn./ sq. m
e. Variations in the elevation of ground water or a change in the slope subsurface
flow which create new seepage forces
Silt 200-2000 0.1-1.0 10-100
f. Weakening of buried soil or rock seams due to ground water flow or chemical
Clay 2000-6000 1.0-3.0 100-300

Man Induced Changes are:

ELASTICITY AND RUTTING a. Increased loading on a slope or near its crest
Elasticity is common in soils whose fines consist mainly of flat and flaky particles b. Removal of earth below the toe of a slope
This kind of soil has a rubberized characteristics that rebound under heavy loads. c. Removal of materials from a slope making it steeper
d. Topographic modification such as earth moving, excavation change in elevation
1. Highly plastic soils should not be placed close to the roadway surface where heavy from one area to another that may create slope failure
loads are expected. Early cracking of the pavement may happen due to deformations e. Landslide or other conditions caused by man
caused by the rebound of the soil. SLIDES
Slides refer to the occurrence where the moving mass is defined and separated from
2. Tests have proven that when heavy loads passes on a plastic soils, compression and
the underlying and adjacent earth by plane, comprising a number of adjacent planes where
rebound occurs to at least 6 meters below the surface. 80 percent of the load is seepage result. The seepage plane represents the continuous surface where the maximum
concentrated at the top 90 centimeters. The design therefore, is to sum up the total shear strength of the earth material has been reached with the result that large displacement
expected load and rebound in the pavement to be sure that it does nit produces fatigue occurs.
and failure in the pavement.
3. Deflection of the pavement surface as the wheel slowly rolls past the reference point Slide is classified into:
is measured by a measuring device called Bankelman Beam. A long slender bar slips 1. Rotational 3. Block or wedge failure
2. Translational 4. Flows and spread
Rational Slide Flows and Spread Failure is the most complex type of soil mass movement. A flow
- is associated with natural slopes and constructed embankment of homogeneous involves a lateral movement of soil having a characteristics of viscous fluid, although the
materials possessing cohesion. actual consistency of the moving mass may vary from wet to dry.
Spread refers to the occurrence of multi-directional lateral movement by a fractured soil
mass. Earthquake is a typical causes of lateral spreads.


Enumerated are procedures adopted in the past which have been successful in
stabilizing slopes:
1. Corrective and preventive measures such as reducing the mass or loading have
successfully prevented further slides.
2. Improving the shear strength of the earth in the failure zone by constructing
Translational Slide structural elements that will provide resistance to movement.
- is associated with slope of layered materials where the mechanism of slippage 3. Consider the characteristics of the soil in the slope such as:
occurs along a weak plane that possesses a downward dip and in cohesionless soil slopes a) The thickness and depth of the materials involved in sliding.
where seepage occurs. b) The ground water conditions
c) The spaces available to undertake corrective changes
Block or Wedge Failure d) The topographical conditions at the vicinity of the slope and the tendency
- refers to the displacement of an intact mass of soil due to the action of an adjacent for changes such as the advent of the seismic and vibratory loading’s to
zone of earth. occur
4. Where area is available, flattening of the slope can be done to reduce the weight
of the mass that tends to slide.
5. If base failure is anticipated, placement of beam below the toe of the slope will
increase movement resistance
6. If the zone below the toe is susceptible to severe erosion, a protective rock fill
blanket and rip-rap can be installed at the toe area.
7. To prevent infiltration and erosion to reduce seepage force, the stone subsurface
water and intercept surface water should be lowered.
8. If the soil is cohesionless, the shear strength of the slope material can be improved *The settlement and distortion of a retaining wall due to compression of the foundation soil
through densification by using explosives or vibroflotation or terra probe must be limited to a tolerable value.
9. For cohesive soils, shear strength could be improved by consolidation and water *The combined effect of soil and water pressure causes overturning moments and sliding
content reduction through surcharging which may include wick drains, electro forces which are greater than the condition where there is no water.
osmosis and thermal drying.
10. Where the weak condition is critical to the stability of the slope, grouting and *To avoid the rise of water that is building up behind the retaining wall, a weep hole or
injection methods could be utilized to add cementing and bonding agent. collector drainage system or both are provided as part of the design construction.
11. Pile driving, sheet piling and retaining walls are utilized to provide lateral support
and increase resistance of slope tending to stocks. *Weep holes should be at least 3 inches in diameter and provided with a granular soil filter
12. Improvement and protective methods such as slope flattening and drainage fabric at the wall to prevent backfill erosion.
control are preferred for economical reasons.
*The horizontal spacing ranges from 120 to 300 centimeters.
*For taller walls, two or more rows of weep holes may be provided with a typical vertical
*The practical use of gravity retaining walls is controlled by height limitations. Thus, the spacings of 150 centimeters.
required wall cross section increases significantly with tall heights due to effect of the
triangular soil pressure distributed behind the retaining wall.

*If the ground water level rises into the backfill behind a retaining wall because of either
changing ground water condition or percolating water surface, the lateral pressure against the
wall is also changed.
A) Straight Sections *Stones for rip rap shall consists of rocks as nearly as rectangular in section as is practical
- used when tension valve of interlock except that rip rap of Class A may consists of round natural stones.
is cellular construction *The stones shall be sound, tough, durable, dense, resistance to the action of air and water
and suitable in all aspects for the purpose intended.
- piling ordered with required interlock
strength specified and type of structure
Class A – Stone ranging from 15 to 25 kilograms with at least 50% of the stones weighing
more than 20 kilograms.
B) Z Sections Class B - Stone ranging from 30 to 70 kilograms with at least 50% of the stones weighing
-high ratio of beam strength to weight more than 50 kilograms.
maximum economy in steel sheet piling. Class C - Stone ranging from 60 to 100 kilograms with at least 50% of the stones weighing
more than 80 kilograms.
-used primarily in filled bulkheads or
other walls requiring high beam strength. Class D - Stone ranging from 100 to 200 kilograms with at least 50% of the stones weighing
more than 150 kilograms.


C) Archweb Sections *the bed for rip-rap is excavated down to the required depth and properly compacted,
-designed for applications where a trimmed and shaped.
combination of beam strength and interlock
*the rip-rap foundation is dug below the depth of the scour.
tightness is required
*the toe trench is filled with stone of the same class as specified.
-used generally in light bulkheads *Stones placed below the water line are distributed properly and those above the water level
internally braced single wall cofferdams, cut- are placed by hand or individually laid by machine with close broken joints firmly bedded
off walls. into the slope against the adjoining stones.
*Each stone is laid with its longest axis perpendicular to the slope in close contact with
adjacent stone. The rip-rap is thoroughly rammed into place and the finished stone are laid to
A good retaining wall design must satisfy the following requirements: an even tight surface.
1. The base and stem of the retaining wall must be capable of resisting the internal shear *Intersections between stones are filled with small broken fragments firmly rammed into
and bending moments developing as a result of soil and other loading. place.
2. The wall must be safe against overturning.
3. The wall structure must be safe against sliding. GROUTING
4. The bearing capacity of the foundation material supporting the wall must not be *When grouted rip-rap is specified, stones are placed by hand or individually laid by
exceeded. machine.
*Spaces between stones are then filled with cement mortar sufficient enough to completely 3. Re tempering of mortar should not be allowed.
fill all the voids except the face surface of the stones which are left exposed.
*Cement grout are placed starting from the bottom to the top of the surface and then swept CONSTRUCTION REQUIREMENTS
with a stiff broom. 1. The foundation bed where the masonry is to be placed should be firm and normal to
*After grouting, the surface is cured like structural concrete for a period of atleast 3 days the face of the wall. Large stones are used in the corners. Bunching of small stones of
after the installation. the same size should be prevented.
2. All stones should be cleaned and wetted before being set. The bed that will receive
Masonry Stone the stone should be cleaned and moistened before the mortar is spread.
- is categorized under item 505 of the DPWH standard specifications. 3. Stones are laid with their longest faces horizontal in full beds of mortar. Joints are
- This Item consist of stone masonry in minor structures, in headwalls for culverts and flushed with mortar.
retaining walls at the toes of the slope. 4. The exposed face of individual stone should be parallel to the face of the wall in
which the stones are set.
MATERIAL REQUIREMENTS 5. The stones are handled carefully so as not to jar or displace the stones already set.
1. The stone should be clean, hard and durable. Adobe stone shall not be used unless Suitable equipment is required to set stones of larger size that cannot be handled by
specified. two men.
2. Stones shall have a thickness not less than 15 cm. and width not less than 1-1/2 times 6. The rolling or turning of stones on the walls should not be allowed. If the stone is
their respective width. Each stone shall be of good shape free of depressions and loosened after the mortar has taken initial set, it should be removed, the mortar
projections that might weaken or prevent it from being properly laid or bedded. cleaned off and the stone re-laid with fresh concrete mortar.
3. Stones are dressed to remove any thin or weak portions. Face stones are also dressed
to provide bed and joint lines that do not vary more than 2 cm. from the true lines and BEADS AND JOINTS
to ensure the meeting of bed and joint lines without the rounding of corners of the 1. Beads for face stones may vary from 2 cm. to 5 cm. in thickness. They should not
stone in excess of 3 cm. in radius. extend in unbroken line through more than 5 stones.
4. The bed surface of the face stone should be approximately normal to the face of the 2. Joints may vary from 2 to 5 centimetres in thickness. They should not extend in
stones for about 8 cm. and from this point may depart from a normal plane not to unbroken line through more than two stones. They may be at angle with the vertical
exceed 5 cm. in 30 centimeters. from 0˚ to 45˚.
5. Face stones are pitched to line along the bed and joints. The minimum projection of 3. Face stone should bond to at least 15 cm. longitudinally and 5 cm. vertically. At no
rock faces beyond the pitch lines should not be more than 5 centimeters. case corners of four stones be adjacent to each other.
4. Cross beads for vertical face should be level, and for battered walls may vary form
MORTAR REQUIREMENTS level to normal to the batter line of the face wall.
1. Stone masonry mortar proportion is one part portland cement and two parts cement HEADERS
by volume and sufficient water to make the mortar consistent to be handled easily and 1. Headers should be distributed uniformly throughout the walls of the structures to
spread with a trowel. form at least 1/5 of the exposed faces. It should extend from the front face of the wall
2. Mortar are mixed only in quantities required for immediate use. Mortar not used into the backing by 30 centimeters minimum.
within 90 minutes after water has been added should be discarded.
2. When the wall thickness is 45 cm. or less, the headers should extend entirely from the 2. Adobe stone should not be used unless otherwise specified.
front to the back face.
3. Backing are built chiefly of large stones. The individual stones of backing and Construction Requirements
hearting are well bonded with the face wall and with each other. 1. Excavation shall be sufficient enough to expose the foundation bed. Stones are laid
4. All openings and interstices in the backing are filled completely with cement mortar flat and securely placed with their broken joint lined.
or with spalls surrounded completely with mortar. 2. The larger stone should be generally located in the lower portion of the structure and
voids eliminated to possible extent.
POINTING AND COPING 3. Spall smaller than the minimum stone size are used to check the larger stones solidly
Cement mortar of joints on top of masonry surface are crowned slightly at the center in position to fill voids between the major stones laid in the embankment.
to provide drainage. If coping is required, it should be indicated in the plan. Where coping is 4. The exposed face of the rock mass should be uniform without projections of more
not required, the top of the wall is finished with stone wide enough to cover the top of the than 15 cm. beyond the neat lines indicate on plans.
wall from 45 cm to 100 cm. in length and of random heights of 15 cm. The stone is laid 5. Backfill adjacent to the hand laid rock embankment should be filled entirely with
where the top course is an integral part of the wall. The tops of the top course stone are acceptable materials coming from the excavation items and compacted.
pitched to line in both vertical and horizontal plane.
WEEPING HOLES This item consists of furnishing dividing and cutting-off of sheet piling covered by
All walls and abutments should be provided with weep holes placed at the lowest the specifications:
point where free outlets for water can be obtained and spaced not more than 2 meters center
to center. Material Requirements
1. Timber Sheet Pile
CLEANING AND CURING -may consists of any species which will satisfactorily stand driving.
Immediately after laying and while the mortar is still fresh, all face stones should be -it is sawn or hewn with square corners free from worn holes, loose knots, wind
thoroughly cleaned or mortar stains should be kept clean until the work is completed. If the shakes, decays or unsound portions or other defects which might impair its strength or
weather is hot or dry, the masonry should be protected from the sun and kept wet for a period tightness
of at least 3 days after completion. 2. Concrete Sheet Pile
-Concrete reinforcement and manufacture of concrete sheet piles should conform
ITEM 506 – HAND LAID ROCK EMBANKMENT to the requirements of Item 400 – Piling.
3. Steel Sheet Pile
Material Requirements -Should be of the type, weight and section modulus indicated on the plans or
Stones for hand laid rock embankment must be sound and durable furnished in a well special provisions and conform to the requirements of Item 400 – Piling.
balanced range of sizes meeting the requirements as follows: ITEM 509 – GABIONS
1. All stones should be more than 0.015 cubic meter in volume and not less than 75 Gabion is a wire mesh supplied in various width and length which is in multiple of
percent of the total volume should consist of stones at 0.03 cubic meter in volume. 2, 3 or 4 times its width. The height is equal to ½ or 1/3 of the horizontal width which is
Stones obtained from excavation performed under the contract may be used. equal to 100 centimeters with a tolerance limit of 3%.
*The wire mesh are made of galvanized steel or plastic having a minimum size of 3.05 mm 6-15. HIGHWAY BRIDGES
diameter. Its tensile strength should be in the range of 423.7 to 686 MPa (60,000 to 85,000
psi) Highway bridges are of two types:
*For galvanized wire mesh, the minimum zinc coating should be 22.7 grams per 0.0929 m2 1. Those that carry vehicular traffic and pedestrians over a large stream.
(0.80 oz. / sq. ft.) of uncoated wire surface as determined by tests conducted in accordance 2. Those that separate traffic movements as interchanges and street pedestrians over or
with AASHTO T-65. under crossings.
*Rocks used in gabions are hard, durable rock pieces that will not deteriorate when
submerged in water or exposed to severe weather conditions. Hydraulic Problems
*Rock pieces should be uniformly graded generally in sizes ranging from 10 to 20 1. There should be available stream records which provides the usual method of
centimeters. estimating water discharges under the bridge.
*Filled gabions shall have a minimum density of 1,400 kg/m3 and voids distributed evenly. 2. Analysis of the channel relationship to:
*The rock shall meet the requirements of AASHTO M-63 except that the sodium sulphate a. Peak flow
soundness loss should not exceed 9% after 5 cycles. b. Water way opening
c. Water surface elevation at the structure and upstream and flow velocity.
Construction Requirements 3. Degree of contraction of the flowing water in the channel approach.
1. The wire mesh is twisted to from hexagonal opening of uniform sizes. The maximum 4. Final structure proportions and required channel modifications based from the
linear dimensions of the mesh opening shall not exceed 11 mm and the area of the studies.
mesh opening do not exceed 51.6 square meters. 5. Effect of bridge openings and approaches that might cause flood to adjacent
2. The mesh should be non-ravelling which means the ability to resist pulling apart at properties. This is associated with hydraulic aspects of bridge design.
any of the twists or connection when a single wire strand in a section is cut. 6. Economic, legal and social implications where cooperative planning with all affected
3. That the Gabions sides, ends, lid and diaphragms can be assembled at the groups and agencies is necessary.
construction site into a rectangular baskets of the specified sizes. It should be of 7. Where the bridge is to rest on an erodable stream beds scouring should be the primary
single unit construction. The base, lids, ends and sides should be either woven into a concern. The problem of the designing engineer is if the estimate is over safe, the
single unit or one edge of those members connected to the base section of the gabion. foundation becomes very costly. But if scouring is under-estimated, the foundation
4. That gabions could be divided equally by diaphragms of the same gauge as the body might be undermined which may result to total destruction of the entire bridge.
of the gabions into cells the length of which does not exceed the horizontals width. 8. Recent findings showed that the least scours is when the pier has less resistance to
5. All perimeter of the edges of the mess forming the gabion should be securely flow. Meaning, that the piers are aligned with the flow with the smallest cross section
selvedged so that by typing the selvedges the joints should have at least the same which is best where scouring is a problem. Test results further showed that, scouring
strength as the body of the mesh. increases with depth of flow and becomes a problem in streams with high ratio
6. The tie and connection wire should be supplied in sufficient quantity to securely between flood and normal flow.
fasten all edges of the gabion and diaphragms and to provide for four cross
connecting wire in each cell whose height is 1/3 or ½ the width of the gabion and 8
connecting wires in each cell whose height equal the width of the gabion.
Highway Bridges are Designed to Resist Loads Brought by: *For design purposes AASHTO adopted standard vehicles that produce a representative
1. The weight of the structure itself called Dead Load. loading’s.
2. The weight and dynamic effect of moving load called “Live Load”. *The number 44 indicates a year in which the loading standard was adopted.
3. The centrifugal forces developed by moving vehicles on curved structure. *For minor highways, the standard vehicles are trucks weighing 20 tons (H-20) 15 tons (H-
4. The wind load and the stresses brought about by: 15) and 10 (H-10).
a) Temperature change e) Rib shortening
b) Earth pressure f) Erection 6-16. BRIDGE TYPES
c) Shrinkage g) Current pressure A bridge consist of substructure of abutments and piers that support superstructure
d) Buoyancy h) Earthquakes which carry the roadway between supports.

Bridge type includes:

For designing purposes, AASHTO has adopted standard vehicles as a representative
Slab, Girder, Truss, Arch, Cable stayed
Each suspension bridges has a distinctive form of structure, the selection of the kind
of bridge to be installed is governed by the length of individual span as follows:

1. Short span up to 18 meters which is either:

a. Reinforced concrete rigid frame with slab deck
b. T-Beam or Box Girders or Reinforced concrete
c. Steel or pre-stressed concrete I beam with reinforced concrete deck.
2. Bridges of Large Span
a. Girder type rigid frames of reinforced concrete
b. T-Beam or Box Girder or Reinforced concrete
c. Steel plate girders with reinforced concrete deck
3. Span that exceed 90 meters longs preferably use steel trusses of arches of steel or
reinforced concrete
4. Span that exceed 150 meters are generally of steel trusses, cable-stayed or suspension

*The HS 20-40 is for truck, semi-trailer combination having a total weight of 36 tons.
*Trucks and other heavy equipment that contribute to the larger live loads has a variety of
total weight, axle loads and axle spacings.