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AN INTRODUCTION TO

GREEK

BY
HENRΥ LAMAR CR0sBY
P△ 0PⅡ玲oR OF G蚺 K,^IID DzAII OF tHB CRADⅡ ΛTE sCⅡ oo△ ;

AND
JoHN NEVIN sCHAEFFER
PR0PEss【 ,R OF CRE口 q pR^Ⅱ KL∶ 、 ▲RsⅡ ▲LL Co△ LBCE
^lID泌

— —

ALLYN AND BACoN,INC。


B0s0ION R0CKLEI0Ⅱ ,NJ
AIrLANTA BELMONT,CALI卫 。 DALLAs
AN INTRODUCTION TO
GREEK

BY
HENRΥ LAMAR CR0sBY
P△ 0PⅡ玲oR OF G蚺 K,^IID DzAII OF tHB CRADⅡ ΛTE sCⅡ oo△ ;

AND
JoHN NEVIN sCHAEFFER
PR0PEss【 ,R OF CRE口 q pR^Ⅱ KL∶ 、 ▲RsⅡ ▲LL Co△ LBCE
^lID泌

— —

ALLYN AND BACoN,INC。


B0s0ION R0CKLEI0Ⅱ ,NJ
AIrLANTA BELMONT,CALI卫 。 DALLAs
PREFΔ CⅡ

‘ ’
TⅡ E glory that w灬 Greece’ means litue t。 a student
whoso iirst Greek book presents only grammar This
r91饣 ro‘ 氵c矽 oon饣 o Cree`o giveg hi【 n an iilsigh1in1o1he bri1li画 nt
1‘

ach四 emeIl1s of ancient Greece,and a11ho same11me,in a


logical,thorough,and in1eresting rnanner,it develops in him
1Le power to read Greek
AppⅡ pnate Gr∞ k mottoes砒 the head of each lesson
indioa1e1he u“ ver8ality of Greek though1 sdected pas-
sageg for transla】 oll, with challenglng 1itleg,【 n1roduCe the
COPVItI0Ht,19朗 gtudent1o many no1able w⒒ ters and Ie1Ⅱ m see how h-an
BY AL△ YN AND BACoN
and how muoh斑 ivo tho anoient GreelIg retllly were Exe⒈

T珊犯晒扣咒社
cis∞ on deriva住 on and wor山 forma1ion, together铺 乇 h 七he
:嬲 嘿 J‘
de⒒ ved EngLgh words that occur h the leggon vocabdanes,
曲 ow Ⅱ血 howˇ ital a part Greek sdl plays h our Engli曲
language and 1hought, Numerous beau1iful piotures add
1o hig in1eres1and undergtan山 ng of Greek aohievement and
lnnuen。 e
Ⅱ l the madlngs ar° oarefull,・ adapted1o the grOwhg
powerg of1be student, The vocabulary1o be memo⒒ zed ig
li」 nited to stltl words,chosen from those mos1often used iIl

1he iirgt four books of XenophoIl’ s J mCb0跖 s,from岫 most
ugeful in undeⅡtan山 ng EnE灬sh termg,and from cognat∞
All these wOrd1, ex¢ ept a few iIil th。 Iast group of】 essong,
appo凸 r at least four times in the exerciseg,
speoial omph猁 8k荭 ven to gyntao1icIll∞ nsGruc贫 ons of
mogt froquent occurrenoe in 且饥rb函 s, I-IV To ingure
PBIlITED:I】 TEE VⅡ IT巴 Ds・ r▲ △Eg op▲ ⅢERI0▲ greater ooIlc∞ 贫aΙ on upon wbat k访 1al,cert包 c1forms noti】

22 23 24 25 95 94 93 lleeded in the mrly gtage of Greek gtudy are relegated to the


Appendix Every pon1of syntax to be m凼 tered k uged a1
PREFΔ CⅡ

‘ ’
TⅡ E glory that w灬 Greece’ means litue t。 a student
whoso iirst Greek book presents only grammar This
r91饣 ro‘ 氵c矽 oon饣 o Cree`o giveg hi【 n an iilsigh1in1o1he bri1li画 nt
1‘

ach四 emeIl1s of ancient Greece,and a11ho same11me,in a


logical,thorough,and in1eresting rnanner,it develops in him
1Le power to read Greek
AppⅡ pnate Gr∞ k mottoes砒 the head of each lesson
indioa1e1he u“ ver8ality of Greek though1 sdected pas-
sageg for transla】 oll, with challenglng 1itleg,【 n1roduCe the
COPVItI0Ht,19朗 gtudent1o many no1able w⒒ ters and Ie1Ⅱ m see how h-an
BY AL△ YN AND BACoN
and how muoh斑 ivo tho anoient GreelIg retllly were Exe⒈

T珊犯晒扣咒社
cis∞ on deriva住 on and wor山 forma1ion, together铺 乇 h 七he
:嬲 嘿 J‘
de⒒ ved EngLgh words that occur h the leggon vocabdanes,
曲 ow Ⅱ血 howˇ ital a part Greek sdl plays h our Engli曲
language and 1hought, Numerous beau1iful piotures add
1o hig in1eres1and undergtan山 ng of Greek aohievement and
lnnuen。 e
Ⅱ l the madlngs ar° oarefull,・ adapted1o the grOwhg
powerg of1be student, The vocabulary1o be memo⒒ zed ig
li」 nited to stltl words,chosen from those mos1often used iIl

1he iirgt four books of XenophoIl’ s J mCb0跖 s,from岫 most
ugeful in undeⅡtan山 ng EnE灬sh termg,and from cognat∞
All these wOrd1, ex¢ ept a few iIil th。 Iast group of】 essong,
appo凸 r at least four times in the exerciseg,
speoial omph猁 8k荭 ven to gyntao1icIll∞ nsGruc贫 ons of
mogt froquent occurrenoe in 且饥rb函 s, I-IV To ingure
PBIlITED:I】 TEE VⅡ IT巴 Ds・ r▲ △Eg op▲ ⅢERI0▲ greater ooIlc∞ 贫aΙ on upon wbat k访 1al,cert包 c1forms noti】

22 23 24 25 95 94 93 lleeded in the mrly gtage of Greek gtudy are relegated to the


Appendix Every pon1of syntax to be m凼 tered k uged a1
IV PREpAcE PREFACE v
least£ ve Jmeg The rules for the most part盯 e phrased in Gr∞ n and Co); H G Wells,r@勿 ⅡB幽 邴 J(Du伍 dd and
9。

1he order in which1he phenomena】 nee1the eye of1he reader Co);A F West,/。 肠 or漉 cC‰ s晚 cs(PⅡ nceton U凶 ver
of Greek and no1 as ins1ruc1ions for one 1ransla1ing from

槲蟪扌

蔡摹嬲濉辙
Engllsh in七 o Greek
PartIcular a11en伉 on ig called to 1he sen1ences for缸 ans-
la饪 on into Greek These ded wi1h1he vocabulary,fo.1Ι :s,
l蔡
西nd syn1ax of1ho previoug lesson sin。 es1uden1s consider Kennedy,of sm⒒ hC° llege; and1江 r Ge° rge R swain,of
1he EngⅡ sh sen乇 enoes1he hardes1 and乇 he Ieas1 posθ ible °f 1he Ulllversi1y of1压 i° hlgan
improvigation, they of1en1urn to1hem before nnishing1he
neoessBry prdiminary work The prcsent plall prevents this
alld咽 sures adequate preparation
sys乇 ematio reviews have been placed a1intervals1o foll。 w
盹 ooessive groups of in丑 eo1ions They have b∞ Il go handled
as1o necessitate a rethinking° f 1he ma1ters under review
and1o preven1mere reol1a1ion by rote Toward1he end
of the book ^ number of lessons are in par七 devo1ed 七 o a
r。view of cosc and mood forms and uses,so that1he s1uden1

may properly organize his knOwledge into usable form.


All through1he book azl efolt has been made to stlmu】 ate
oonsecu1ive1hinking as agains1mere rote mem° ry
The色 uthors acknowledge their indebtednesg乇 o1he repor1
of the Classical Inves1igation, whose findings and recomˉ
menda1ions have been of great hdp, whe1her they °o】 l° ern

‘ιⅠ
Greek or LaJn '
Thanks are due also Professor shirley H Weber, of

;●
P⒒ nceton Univelslty,and Dr lV F D甜 eg,of`V猢 hington,

ΙⅡ
D~C,for readiⅡg1he manuscrip1of1his book and for:nakˉ
ing valuable sugges岱 ons Acknowledgmen1is due for pe⒈ J,r”
” ι 订忄

mis茁 on1o quote from the fo⒒ owing: F G Al1inson,G彬 e饴


ers(Houghton1压 mh Co); J° hn H Finley,
L@勿 Js@勿 Jz^c饣 饣
r无 ePra钞 纩 。r socrtrJes(The Ouuook C° 〉; T R Glover,
¨

Jrer。 d。 饣
灬(U“ versi1y of Califor“ a PⅡ ss); James Rugsell
l∴

Lowell,左 d洳 @ss o勿 Boo1so%J△ b'@rz@s(Houghton ⅣIlmln


刂 哕 豇 口 IⅡ 口 刀 彡 〓

Co);EsM° Car1ney,Ⅰ 9′or/cre b钞 z^@刀 d@刀 dsec(Lon驷 ans氵



IV PREpAcE PREFACE v
least£ ve Jmeg The rules for the most part盯 e phrased in Gr∞ n and Co); H G Wells,r@勿 ⅡB幽 邴 J(Du伍 dd and
9。

1he order in which1he phenomena】 nee1the eye of1he reader Co);A F West,/。 肠 or漉 cC‰ s晚 cs(PⅡ nceton U凶 ver
of Greek and no1 as ins1ruc1ions for one 1ransla1ing from

槲蟪扌

蔡摹嬲濉辙
Engllsh in七 o Greek
PartIcular a11en伉 on ig called to 1he sen1ences for缸 ans-
la饪 on into Greek These ded wi1h1he vocabulary,fo.1Ι :s,
l蔡
西nd syn1ax of1ho previoug lesson sin。 es1uden1s consider Kennedy,of sm⒒ hC° llege; and1江 r Ge° rge R swain,of
1he EngⅡ sh sen乇 enoes1he hardes1 and乇 he Ieas1 posθ ible °f 1he Ulllversi1y of1压 i° hlgan
improvigation, they of1en1urn to1hem before nnishing1he
neoessBry prdiminary work The prcsent plall prevents this
alld咽 sures adequate preparation
sys乇 ematio reviews have been placed a1intervals1o foll。 w
盹 ooessive groups of in丑 eo1ions They have b∞ Il go handled
as1o necessitate a rethinking° f 1he ma1ters under review
and1o preven1mere reol1a1ion by rote Toward1he end
of the book ^ number of lessons are in par七 devo1ed 七 o a
r。view of cosc and mood forms and uses,so that1he s1uden1

may properly organize his knOwledge into usable form.


All through1he book azl efolt has been made to stlmu】 ate
oonsecu1ive1hinking as agains1mere rote mem° ry
The色 uthors acknowledge their indebtednesg乇 o1he repor1
of the Classical Inves1igation, whose findings and recomˉ
menda1ions have been of great hdp, whe1her they °o】 l° ern

‘ιⅠ
Greek or LaJn '
Thanks are due also Professor shirley H Weber, of

;●
P⒒ nceton Univelslty,and Dr lV F D甜 eg,of`V猢 hington,

ΙⅡ
D~C,for readiⅡg1he manuscrip1of1his book and for:nakˉ
ing valuable sugges岱 ons Acknowledgmen1is due for pe⒈ J,r”
” ι 订忄

mis茁 on1o quote from the fo⒒ owing: F G Al1inson,G彬 e饴


ers(Houghton1压 mh Co); J° hn H Finley,
L@勿 Js@勿 Jz^c饣 饣
r无 ePra钞 纩 。r socrtrJes(The Ouuook C° 〉; T R Glover,
¨

Jrer。 d。 饣
灬(U“ versi1y of Califor“ a PⅡ ss); James Rugsell
l∴

Lowell,左 d洳 @ss o勿 Boo1so%J△ b'@rz@s(Houghton ⅣIlmln


刂 哕 豇 口 IⅡ 口 刀 彡 〓

Co);EsM° Car1ney,Ⅰ 9′or/cre b钞 z^@刀 d@刀 dsec(Lon驷 ans氵



coN【 rENTs
P^oD
RE^DIlfo sELEcTI0Ns ● ● ● ● ● ● X】

usTRrTIoNs
I△ △ XV
INTRoI,vcTi0N X】 X
LF8sON
I DEcLEⅡ gIOIr op Oˉ slEMs . . 1
II DDcI,ElIsI【 ,N zz诩
Oi’ 0ˉ ksTnM8-— εα汜’ . . 4
III PREsENT 】NDIC^Tli/E ^WD IⅣ mITIvn Λ cTIvB OF
、 VnRBs
Ωˉ . 7
IV DEc△ EIJ8I0lr op O-sTEM NEVTERs 10
V REⅦ Ew 13
VI D¤ c△ I9NsIoN 0F Λˉ
st¤ Ms . 15
VII D¤ ¤△ENgI0N 0F z%谰
ΛˉsTF。 Ms-— Cσ叼饣 19
VI【 I IMPEIlFECrr INDIcATIvη ACrIVl,oi, o VERB8 夕
IX FvTuRD INDIcATIV¤ ΛWD IⅣ FIwmIvE Λ c,:vE oF Ω-V刀 RBs 26
X FIllsT ΛIfI,s¤ ColID AOR】 sT IWI,IcATIvE厶 ltD INFIWI91Iˇ o
AcTIvB OF OVERBs. 80
XI R¤ vIEw 34
XII RD^DIN¤ 86
><III PRoNouN8 如
XIV DEMolIso・ RΛTIV¤ PRONOuNs 43
却 F¤ mNINE NoI,N8oF frIIn ΛˉDI9oLI wsI0lT PERsoN^L
PnoNouNs 46
Ⅻ I MΛ sctiLINE N0LiNs oIl tIiE Aˉ DEC△ElfsloN 晌 pLE莎
Iv¤ PIiowoIIlts 49
XVII PnEsEN, ^ND IMPEllPEcT IlIDIcAT:vE 厶ITD PnnsEw91
INⅡ NHIv¤ oF Cz/t‘ E,Ic△ ITIos ~ . ,
XVII【 Cow$oNΛ wIl DEoLnⅣ s:oⅡ (Kˉ sT】9iΙ s) 56
Ⅺ X Cow8oN^IcT DE0△ EⅣ 8I°Ⅱ (Δ ˉoR t-sT¤ △
fs) 50
XX R¤ vIEw 62
XX1 PΛ nTIcIPL曰 s 64
XXn t tt9 REΛ I,】 N0 68
XXIII ColIlrIl^cT VE兄 Bs IIt,氵 ω 71
VⅡ
coN【 rENTs
P^oD
RE^DIlfo sELEcTI0Ns ● ● ● ● ● ● X】

usTRrTIoNs
I△ △ XV
INTRoI,vcTi0N X】 X
LF8sON
I DEcLEⅡ gIOIr op Oˉ slEMs . . 1
II DDcI,ElIsI【 ,N zz诩
Oi’ 0ˉ ksTnM8-— εα汜’ . . 4
III PREsENT 】NDIC^Tli/E ^WD IⅣ mITIvn Λ cTIvB OF
、 VnRBs
Ωˉ . 7
IV DEc△ EIJ8I0lr op O-sTEM NEVTERs 10
V REⅦ Ew 13
VI D¤ c△ I9NsIoN 0F Λˉ
st¤ Ms . 15
VII D¤ ¤△ENgI0N 0F z%谰
ΛˉsTF。 Ms-— Cσ叼饣 19
VI【 I IMPEIlFECrr INDIcATIvη ACrIVl,oi, o VERB8 夕
IX FvTuRD INDIcATIV¤ ΛWD IⅣ FIwmIvE Λ c,:vE oF Ω-V刀 RBs 26
X FIllsT ΛIfI,s¤ ColID AOR】 sT IWI,IcATIvE厶 ltD INFIWI91Iˇ o
AcTIvB OF OVERBs. 80
XI R¤ vIEw 34
XII RD^DIN¤ 86
><III PRoNouN8 如
XIV DEMolIso・ RΛTIV¤ PRONOuNs 43
却 F¤ mNINE NoI,N8oF frIIn ΛˉDI9oLI wsI0lT PERsoN^L
PnoNouNs 46
Ⅻ I MΛ sctiLINE N0LiNs oIl tIiE Aˉ DEC△ElfsloN 晌 pLE莎
Iv¤ PIiowoIIlts 49
XVII PnEsEN, ^ND IMPEllPEcT IlIDIcAT:vE 厶ITD PnnsEw91
INⅡ NHIv¤ oF Cz/t‘ E,Ic△ ITIos ~ . ,
XVII【 Cow$oNΛ wIl DEoLnⅣ s:oⅡ (Kˉ sT】9iΙ s) 56
Ⅺ X Cow8oN^IcT DE0△ EⅣ 8I°Ⅱ (Δ ˉoR t-sT¤ △
fs) 50
XX R¤ vIEw 62
XX1 PΛ nTIcIPL曰 s 64
XXn t tt9 REΛ I,】 N0 68
XXIII ColIlrIl^cT VE兄 Bs IIt,氵 ω 71
VⅡ


CoNTENTs CoNq・ ENTs
Vl11

P^oD LI9ggoIf P▲ oE
IJEsgoⅣ
LII PERF口 oT ACTI硒 , , , 173
γ口【IV, PREs¤ NT ^ND IMpERFEcT IND:0Λ TIvE, PIiEsENT
LIII PBIIIl¤ 0T MIDD△ 乃 s8:v9 . 177
INFIN:I.IvE, AIIp PΛ RTIcIPLD Op π色涉ω :N MII,DLE ^ND PΛ
75 uv Fm¤ RL JlND^oBIsT PΛ 邸 Π叨 ~ , 181
ΛwD P^8s:γ η V0I0¤
LV pIlINo:p^L PAIlTg . 185
XXV l、 ‘ID D△ E ΛND PΛ ssIvE OF VEIlBs IN -‘ ω 79 。

XXVI FIlTuIl口 ΛND AOnIgr卜 DDL】


哎】 :〗 82 LVI NoMn瓦 ALs 。 19o
XXVH REvlEw 86 LVⅡ RE"EW , 。 。 194
XXVHI woRD st¤ DΥ REAo:lrC 88 LVIII R汩 c . . , . 196
^IlIⅣ
△ IX PII¤8ENT OF 防 氵勿△‘ 198
XXIX INTEnRoo^TIVE ΛND INDEpINIT如 PR0NoVNg 91
LX sEcoND AonIgT AoTIvE oΓ 201
XXX sLiBJIJ,foTIVE Λ c÷ fIVE 9< jCt刀 u‘ ・ ・

XXX【 PltEsEwT sIJBJvNCTIVE MII’ D△ E P^ssIvE LXI om● hDΙ mm DIscoIlR枷


j饣
⒛4
Λ oRIs● suBJvⅣ cT:VE MIDD△ E 98 LXII PnEsElIlr oF t助 u‘ ⒛ 8
^ND toJI‘
XXXII OPTATIvE AcTIvE lOl LXIII AoIlIgT AcTIvE^wD MIDDLE oF tΙ 夕,u‘ 212
^ND1i,m‘
XXXIII PREsENir OPT^TIVD MIDDL¤ 0sIvE FuTlJIlE LXIV PIi¤ s屉 NT0Fδ ‘
氵。,u‘ 216
^ND PΛ LXV AoRIsT Λ cTIvI ^ND Mt,DIE Or 0‘ Ot,w 220
ΛⅣD Λ onIsr OpTΛ TIvE MI9D△ ¤ 105
XXXIV CoitDITIolf^L R¤ △ vE CLΛVsEs 109 LXVI ItEvIEw 224
^t∶ LXVII tIudω
XXXV IND:IlEcT DIscoIiIlsE 113 R¤ VI¤ w Op TⅡ ¤ GENI,lIv⒒ 226
XXXVI REvIEw 1【 7 LXVIII o扮 “ R刀 ⅥEw op9IIE DΛ TIv¤ zao
XXXVⅡ REΛ DIN0 110 LXIX cIHt REmEw OF frnE Accu队 TIvE 2B4
X)Ⅸ VIII CoNsoⅣ ANT DEoL¤ NsI0N 122 LXX sIMI△ ΛIlITIEs W P0Π Ivi一 咖 ‘ c‰ ‘
,助u 238
XXXIX CoNsoNΛ liT DE¤ △EⅣ sION— — C0叼 历乃tted 126 LXXI INF△ EoirIoN O1| 0c‘ κv亍 241
X△ Λ DJECTIvEs oF CoNsON^wT ^ND Λ-DECLENsIoⅡ s LXXII AoRIslr OF γ‘ γv山 ctω
^“
244
CoMBINED IRR¤ CuLΛ R ADJE∞ IvEs 【29 LXXIII INpL¤ cTIOW 【 ε”Xbo ,I’ z|17
XLI REG口 I/AIi CoMP人 Rls0N OF ADJECTIvIiq 133 LXXIV s¤ MM^Ry oF P^RTIcIPIAL F0RMs厶 ND UsEs 251
XLII IItREoo△ AR CoMP^RlsoN 137 LXXV sIrMlI^RY oF INIiIwITIvE F0IiMs^NI,U8Es 254
xLnI FoRM^TIolI ΛWD CoMP^RIsolI OF ADVEI1Bs l41 LXXVL sI,MlIΛ IlY OF s口 BJI,IICTIVE FoR△ is^NIl UsDs 258
X△ IV CoNsoNAIlrr DEc△ i9NsI0N l45 LXXVII sI,MMΛ Ry OF OPql厶 TI~,F0RMs^lID UsEs 2够
X△ V sYN¤ opwTEIl NoVWs oF THE C0NSo N人 N・ r DEc△ EN- L~XXVIII sI,MMΛ nY oF I涎 pERΛ TIˇ 卫 FoR硒 s ΛNIl UsEs 265
sIOW 149 △ XXIX s【 JMM^IlY OF IⅣ DIo‘ rIvE FoIIMs^NI,UsEs 2?o
XLVI REvIEw 【52 CRA△ iⅡ

c▲ L APPENDⅨ 275
XLVII REΛ DIw0 154 N。 ullg , ~ 275
XLV】 II IMPERATIvE ΛCTIVE 157 AdjectIveg r 280
X△ IX IMpERATIvE MIDD△ E ΛND P^sslV¤ 161 ParticIples . 285
L FuTIlRn oF LIQ¤ ID VERBs 165 Nu【 lerals , . 2Qo
△I AoIi【 st OF LIQ¤ II,s , ・ 169 Tho De钪 i1o Ar1ido , , , . , ・ ● ● ’92


CoNTENTs CoNq・ ENTs
Vl11

P^oD LI9ggoIf P▲ oE
IJEsgoⅣ
LII PERF口 oT ACTI硒 , , , 173
γ口【IV, PREs¤ NT ^ND IMpERFEcT IND:0Λ TIvE, PIiEsENT
LIII PBIIIl¤ 0T MIDD△ 乃 s8:v9 . 177
INFIN:I.IvE, AIIp PΛ RTIcIPLD Op π色涉ω :N MII,DLE ^ND PΛ
75 uv Fm¤ RL JlND^oBIsT PΛ 邸 Π叨 ~ , 181
ΛwD P^8s:γ η V0I0¤
LV pIlINo:p^L PAIlTg . 185
XXV l、 ‘ID D△ E ΛND PΛ ssIvE OF VEIlBs IN -‘ ω 79 。

XXVI FIlTuIl口 ΛND AOnIgr卜 DDL】


哎】 :〗 82 LVI NoMn瓦 ALs 。 19o
XXVH REvlEw 86 LVⅡ RE"EW , 。 。 194
XXVHI woRD st¤ DΥ REAo:lrC 88 LVIII R汩 c . . , . 196
^IlIⅣ
△ IX PII¤8ENT OF 防 氵勿△‘ 198
XXIX INTEnRoo^TIVE ΛND INDEpINIT如 PR0NoVNg 91
LX sEcoND AonIgT AoTIvE oΓ 201
XXX sLiBJIJ,foTIVE Λ c÷ fIVE 9< jCt刀 u‘ ・ ・

XXX【 PltEsEwT sIJBJvNCTIVE MII’ D△ E P^ssIvE LXI om● hDΙ mm DIscoIlR枷


j饣
⒛4
Λ oRIs● suBJvⅣ cT:VE MIDD△ E 98 LXII PnEsElIlr oF t助 u‘ ⒛ 8
^ND toJI‘
XXXII OPTATIvE AcTIvE lOl LXIII AoIlIgT AcTIvE^wD MIDDLE oF tΙ 夕,u‘ 212
^ND1i,m‘
XXXIII PREsENir OPT^TIVD MIDDL¤ 0sIvE FuTlJIlE LXIV PIi¤ s屉 NT0Fδ ‘
氵。,u‘ 216
^ND PΛ LXV AoRIsT Λ cTIvI ^ND Mt,DIE Or 0‘ Ot,w 220
ΛⅣD Λ onIsr OpTΛ TIvE MI9D△ ¤ 105
XXXIV CoitDITIolf^L R¤ △ vE CLΛVsEs 109 LXVI ItEvIEw 224
^t∶ LXVII tIudω
XXXV IND:IlEcT DIscoIiIlsE 113 R¤ VI¤ w Op TⅡ ¤ GENI,lIv⒒ 226
XXXVI REvIEw 1【 7 LXVIII o扮 “ R刀 ⅥEw op9IIE DΛ TIv¤ zao
XXXVⅡ REΛ DIN0 110 LXIX cIHt REmEw OF frnE Accu队 TIvE 2B4
X)Ⅸ VIII CoNsoⅣ ANT DEoL¤ NsI0N 122 LXX sIMI△ ΛIlITIEs W P0Π Ivi一 咖 ‘ c‰ ‘
,助u 238
XXXIX CoNsoNΛ liT DE¤ △EⅣ sION— — C0叼 历乃tted 126 LXXI INF△ EoirIoN O1| 0c‘ κv亍 241
X△ Λ DJECTIvEs oF CoNsON^wT ^ND Λ-DECLENsIoⅡ s LXXII AoRIslr OF γ‘ γv山 ctω
^“
244
CoMBINED IRR¤ CuLΛ R ADJE∞ IvEs 【29 LXXIII INpL¤ cTIOW 【 ε”Xbo ,I’ z|17
XLI REG口 I/AIi CoMP人 Rls0N OF ADJECTIvIiq 133 LXXIV s¤ MM^Ry oF P^RTIcIPIAL F0RMs厶 ND UsEs 251
XLII IItREoo△ AR CoMP^RlsoN 137 LXXV sIrMlI^RY oF INIiIwITIvE F0IiMs^NI,U8Es 254
xLnI FoRM^TIolI ΛWD CoMP^RIsolI OF ADVEI1Bs l41 LXXVL sI,MlIΛ IlY OF s口 BJI,IICTIVE FoR△ is^NIl UsDs 258
X△ IV CoNsoNAIlrr DEc△ i9NsI0N l45 LXXVII sI,MMΛ Ry OF OPql厶 TI~,F0RMs^lID UsEs 2够
X△ V sYN¤ opwTEIl NoVWs oF THE C0NSo N人 N・ r DEc△ EN- L~XXVIII sI,MMΛ nY oF I涎 pERΛ TIˇ 卫 FoR硒 s ΛNIl UsEs 265
sIOW 149 △ XXIX s【 JMM^IlY OF IⅣ DIo‘ rIvE FoIIMs^NI,UsEs 2?o
XLVI REvIEw 【52 CRA△ iⅡ

c▲ L APPENDⅨ 275
XLVII REΛ DIw0 154 N。 ullg , ~ 275
XLV】 II IMPERATIvE ΛCTIVE 157 AdjectIveg r 280
X△ IX IMpERATIvE MIDD△ E ΛND P^sslV¤ 161 ParticIples . 285
L FuTIlRn oF LIQ¤ ID VERBs 165 Nu【 lerals , . 2Qo
△I AoIi【 st OF LIQ¤ II,s , ・ 169 Tho De钪 i1o Ar1ido , , , . , ・ ● ● ’92
coNlrENTs

}
P^on
PtOIlouIlg ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 292
, 296
Verb臼
A Congpec1u8of1he Moo1Common CaBe V8e8

, 324
REΔ DING sELECTIONs
Λ Congpeotus ofthe Mogu C° mmt,nM∞ d UBeB 325
By△ ‰eIr Fru】 ts . s⒋ LⅡ K口 。 、 ⒛


A Congpe【,1ug of some Import巳 n1Tenso Ugeg , 327 卜Ιarathol1 , . H西 RODoTI,s 37-88
Λ Conspoc1u痧 of1ho Futlo1⒗ n oF PriIlcipal Partg, 跏 some Axlomg EI,cLID |I9
Remew Vocab"BrIm , ・ 3so In the Beglmllllg . . . ss, JoHli . 奶
DIotIoN^RY OI’ PRoPEB N^讧 p,s ・ ・ ・ 335 An Anclent Parndox , MEN^NDEn , , 48
1
More Anoms . . . E¤ °I,ID . 51
GIl乃 口K-ElrOL=g珏 V0CKBIlLtIlY , ・
In Hos1Ⅱ e Terrlt° ry XnN° PⅡ oN 54
Elr¤ I,Isn G⒒ ¤¤K VooΔ B¤ △ ・ ・ ・ 88
^IlY A Traitor Caugh1 ~ . X∞ NOpnolJ 。 Oz
】ND,rX , , ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ 鲳
The Review of凸 ll Army XnltOPⅡ olI

。 70
H~Iln Frailty . ~ . 踟 J碰Es . 73
A He⒏ vy sllo泖 fal1 Xl9NOPIIOw 78
A WIse Camel AmclP 8I
D砀 ma1ig Personao X乃 lcoPHolT 85
o氵 0po,rI9△ tπ oaiXCI0V HERODOTt,s . 8g~go
Time1he He81e1 △红¤lfΛ NDF.R 93
Tho Keyno1e of Greek GeIliu8 PLATo 93
The Be11er Pa此 of V巳 lor ΛEsoP 97
Philogopher and PrIend X9NOP且 0W 1rXl
△o° 8eL° gi。 AN^cn¤ oN△ I0 104
QE D DIoGEwEg L^¤ I1・ rII,s 104
Peace and War MBNANDEII 107
s1rallge Doo1⒒ ne for a Pagan PLATo 10B
A Trai1or%ugh1(Cσ 汜谚z砀 叼d) XDNoPIIoN 】o8
T器 矶 锔 玩 跏 ω 1he№ ah⒏
砦 蒜 :∶ }:∶ i∶ ; ∶ ∶ l∷
What Fool8Thege Mo⒒ als Be Ansop , 116
The Delphlc Oracle , X曰 NOPⅡ o刂 1】 ⒐ 121
on MIirg’ Hi⒒ sT P^vI, 2仁 1② 5

A Practlcal Politi° ian P△ I,rrAItcⅡ 128
Eros WiⅡ AlI^cn曰 owllIo 132
WIBcg1of All AIIcIEm OR^cLE IaC
AriBto1Ie on FriendBhip DIo° ENE8 L^BIlrrII,s 136
Ese Qunm VI(1eIi AEgoIrLI,8 1,Bg
op1imiBm , E¤ nIpIDnβ 1B9
M⒏在lllg M灬 AwDm 【40
Rlgh1I8如 ⒋εh1 DI° °ElIns△ ΛEIlTIIls 140

coNlrENTs

}
P^on
PtOIlouIlg ● ● ● ● ● ● ● ● 292
, 296
Verb臼
A Congpec1u8of1he Moo1Common CaBe V8e8

, 324
REΔ DING sELECTIONs
Λ Congpeotus ofthe Mogu C° mmt,nM∞ d UBeB 325
By△ ‰eIr Fru】 ts . s⒋ LⅡ K口 。 、 ⒛


A Congpe【,1ug of some Import巳 n1Tenso Ugeg , 327 卜Ιarathol1 , . H西 RODoTI,s 37-88
Λ Conspoc1u痧 of1ho Futlo1⒗ n oF PriIlcipal Partg, 跏 some Axlomg EI,cLID |I9
Remew Vocab"BrIm , ・ 3so In the Beglmllllg . . . ss, JoHli . 奶
DIotIoN^RY OI’ PRoPEB N^讧 p,s ・ ・ ・ 335 An Anclent Parndox , MEN^NDEn , , 48
1
More Anoms . . . E¤ °I,ID . 51
GIl乃 口K-ElrOL=g珏 V0CKBIlLtIlY , ・
In Hos1Ⅱ e Terrlt° ry XnN° PⅡ oN 54
Elr¤ I,Isn G⒒ ¤¤K VooΔ B¤ △ ・ ・ ・ 88
^IlY A Traitor Caugh1 ~ . X∞ NOpnolJ 。 Oz
】ND,rX , , ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ 鲳
The Review of凸 ll Army XnltOPⅡ olI

。 70
H~Iln Frailty . ~ . 踟 J碰Es . 73
A He⒏ vy sllo泖 fal1 Xl9NOPIIOw 78
A WIse Camel AmclP 8I
D砀 ma1ig Personao X乃 lcoPHolT 85
o氵 0po,rI9△ tπ oaiXCI0V HERODOTt,s . 8g~go
Time1he He81e1 △红¤lfΛ NDF.R 93
Tho Keyno1e of Greek GeIliu8 PLATo 93
The Be11er Pa此 of V巳 lor ΛEsoP 97
Philogopher and PrIend X9NOP且 0W 1rXl
△o° 8eL° gi。 AN^cn¤ oN△ I0 104
QE D DIoGEwEg L^¤ I1・ rII,s 104
Peace and War MBNANDEII 107
s1rallge Doo1⒒ ne for a Pagan PLATo 10B
A Trai1or%ugh1(Cσ 汜谚z砀 叼d) XDNoPIIoN 】o8
T器 矶 锔 玩 跏 ω 1he№ ah⒏
砦 蒜 :∶ }:∶ i∶ ; ∶ ∶ l∷
What Fool8Thege Mo⒒ als Be Ansop , 116
The Delphlc Oracle , X曰 NOPⅡ o刂 1】 ⒐ 121
on MIirg’ Hi⒒ sT P^vI, 2仁 1② 5

A Practlcal Politi° ian P△ I,rrAItcⅡ 128
Eros WiⅡ AlI^cn曰 owllIo 132
WIBcg1of All AIIcIEm OR^cLE IaC
AriBto1Ie on FriendBhip DIo° ENE8 L^BIlrrII,s 136
Ese Qunm VI(1eIi AEgoIrLI,8 1,Bg
op1imiBm , E¤ nIpIDnβ 1B9
M⒏在lllg M灬 AwDm 【40
Rlgh1I8如 ⒋εh1 DI° °ElIns△ ΛEIlTIIls 140

XIl READINo锏 LECTIoNs READING sELECTIoNs X】 lI

A supemative ch色 raC1er 跏 opⅡ t,W I44 In P癫 ge of Er【 ks EI,nIPIDEs 232


A He⒏ dstr° ng You1h PI,IlTΛ Rcn 147-】 48 Love〗 y lVom⒏ n , , ANΛ cIl¤ oNTIC 233
A FearlesB s协 tesman DEM【 ,BFHEIrEs 151 A Good Losor XENoPⅡ oII 936
Th∝ mopylae , HERoDoT¤ s 154-155 one Λdven1ure among⒈‘any LIIcl^W 236
salamis AEsoHYLtls 159 Poetw Pa,s P△ uTAIlcH 239
Poet aⅡ d Pa1⒒ o1 AEsCⅡ YLIls 100 In Vino Ve^1a8 E° RIPIDEs z40
Drink1o Me Only GnEnK ANTHoLooˇ 1θ o No Ma1oh for socra1es XENoPHoN 242-24a
Pro PntrIa TY灬 ΛEI】 s 163-164 Caˉ y OIl! GIlI9EK ANTHoLocy 243
Tho Almlgh1y Dou巳 r MEN^NDEIl 167 sound Advice 卜ΙnNANI,ER 244
PerBlIln Treachery XEIIoPⅡ olJ 168 The si和 Hour Day GREEK ANTHoLOGY 245
Poor se五 phog! P△ vTΛRc且 171 A8a Flower° f1he Field LITcIΛ lI 2么 5-246
sang pr° id LuoIΛ N 172 The sea! The seaI XENoPIIoN 249-250
A Cynical Thrug1 PLIJTΛ RCII 176 shadow or substance ~ AEsop 250
Ch⒒ gt and1he Tempter sT 小江村咖 ¤w 180 A CTrlunbler shamed XENoI.noN 252-253
A NarrOw I、 capc XElrOPnoⅡ 180 Headg,IV丙 n; TaIls,You L。 se XElfopHoN 256
A Narrow F。 scape(Co%lom铋 cd) XEwoP肛 oN 183-184 The Marriago bΙ arket HEIt【 lI,。 TIls 250-z57
The JeaIouB Lover sΛ ppHo 189 A Fn。 nd h Need MEw^NDEIt 259
PL^To 192 The Beam Tha1Isin Thine Own Eye MBN^NDEn 2so
Greek Viewg on Dea1h ( EuRIPIDEs 193 The Oa1ho£ 1he Ephebi sTl,BΛ EIJs z01
The oigln耐 Rα⒑arch Man HERODoTVs 196-197 The ForglvIng spⅡ i1 sT △IlKn 2X⒌ 1
BusineB8ond Religion rⅡ nw
sT MA△ ・ 197 During th° Terror LYsI^旬 263-264
Fond Paron18 PL¤ TΛ IicⅡ 19θ The LoRVs Prnyer so lVIΛ TTHEW 266-26?
A FlBh in the Hand AEsop 200 Fa1her⒏ nd son HoM¤ It 267968
A Fi8her of Men sT M^TTHEW 200 △oarning Is bu1Reco11ec1i° n PL^To 272
o Wad some Power AEsoP zOz Wha1Is Tru1h 273
At1io saⅡ XENoPHoN 206 ^nIsTCyr田
N。 1Au Dend Ye1 TH¤ oPHRA8TIls 210
Ab Hoste Doceri AEIsTOpIIΛ NEs 214
A Pat⒒ ot sIItIolIIDEs 214
Undying F⒏ me , sIMoNIDns 214
Lif矿 s Tragedy CΛ △△IM^oIIIIs 214
Play1he G岔 me GIlnEK ANTⅡ oLooY 214
The sober second Thought lVI¤ NΛ NDP.R 2】 5

ou1of the FryingPan AEsOP 217


The PersI巳 n Co,1“ er Pog1 HEIiODo・ ru8 ` 218
AH⒏ rd Cug1° mor L¤ CI^N 221-228
The EarlieBt Explorat∶ on Party
θ

Record HERoDoTvs
22

The Prayer of socrIlteg PL^To


The Re1or1Cour1eousl DIooENEs LAERTIIls
XIl READINo锏 LECTIoNs READING sELECTIoNs X】 lI

A supemative ch色 raC1er 跏 opⅡ t,W I44 In P癫 ge of Er【 ks EI,nIPIDEs 232


A He⒏ dstr° ng You1h PI,IlTΛ Rcn 147-】 48 Love〗 y lVom⒏ n , , ANΛ cIl¤ oNTIC 233
A FearlesB s协 tesman DEM【 ,BFHEIrEs 151 A Good Losor XENoPⅡ oII 936
Th∝ mopylae , HERoDoT¤ s 154-155 one Λdven1ure among⒈‘any LIIcl^W 236
salamis AEsoHYLtls 159 Poetw Pa,s P△ uTAIlcH 239
Poet aⅡ d Pa1⒒ o1 AEsCⅡ YLIls 100 In Vino Ve^1a8 E° RIPIDEs z40
Drink1o Me Only GnEnK ANTHoLooˇ 1θ o No Ma1oh for socra1es XENoPHoN 242-24a
Pro PntrIa TY灬 ΛEI】 s 163-164 Caˉ y OIl! GIlI9EK ANTHoLocy 243
Tho Almlgh1y Dou巳 r MEN^NDEIl 167 sound Advice 卜ΙnNANI,ER 244
PerBlIln Treachery XEIIoPⅡ olJ 168 The si和 Hour Day GREEK ANTHoLOGY 245
Poor se五 phog! P△ vTΛRc且 171 A8a Flower° f1he Field LITcIΛ lI 2么 5-246
sang pr° id LuoIΛ N 172 The sea! The seaI XENoPIIoN 249-250
A Cynical Thrug1 PLIJTΛ RCII 176 shadow or substance ~ AEsop 250
Ch⒒ gt and1he Tempter sT 小江村咖 ¤w 180 A CTrlunbler shamed XENoI.noN 252-253
A NarrOw I、 capc XElrOPnoⅡ 180 Headg,IV丙 n; TaIls,You L。 se XElfopHoN 256
A Narrow F。 scape(Co%lom铋 cd) XEwoP肛 oN 183-184 The Marriago bΙ arket HEIt【 lI,。 TIls 250-z57
The JeaIouB Lover sΛ ppHo 189 A Fn。 nd h Need MEw^NDEIt 259
PL^To 192 The Beam Tha1Isin Thine Own Eye MBN^NDEn 2so
Greek Viewg on Dea1h ( EuRIPIDEs 193 The Oa1ho£ 1he Ephebi sTl,BΛ EIJs z01
The oigln耐 Rα⒑arch Man HERODoTVs 196-197 The ForglvIng spⅡ i1 sT △IlKn 2X⒌ 1
BusineB8ond Religion rⅡ nw
sT MA△ ・ 197 During th° Terror LYsI^旬 263-264
Fond Paron18 PL¤ TΛ IicⅡ 19θ The LoRVs Prnyer so lVIΛ TTHEW 266-26?
A FlBh in the Hand AEsop 200 Fa1her⒏ nd son HoM¤ It 267968
A Fi8her of Men sT M^TTHEW 200 △oarning Is bu1Reco11ec1i° n PL^To 272
o Wad some Power AEsoP zOz Wha1Is Tru1h 273
At1io saⅡ XENoPHoN 206 ^nIsTCyr田
N。 1Au Dend Ye1 TH¤ oPHRA8TIls 210
Ab Hoste Doceri AEIsTOpIIΛ NEs 214
A Pat⒒ ot sIItIolIIDEs 214
Undying F⒏ me , sIMoNIDns 214
Lif矿 s Tragedy CΛ △△IM^oIIIIs 214
Play1he G岔 me GIlnEK ANTⅡ oLooY 214
The sober second Thought lVI¤ NΛ NDP.R 2】 5

ou1of the FryingPan AEsOP 217


The PersI巳 n Co,1“ er Pog1 HEIiODo・ ru8 ` 218
AH⒏ rd Cug1° mor L¤ CI^N 221-228
The EarlieBt Explorat∶ on Party
θ

Record HERoDoTvs
22

The Prayer of socrIlteg PL^To


The Re1or1Cour1eousl DIooENEs LAERTIIls
ILLUsIrBΔ TIoNs

PAQE
m。 lt。 red w tho PamheooI1 . . 。 。 . r。。9ng 肛
qlll。 。bolu臼
D、。 , . , , . . XlX
咖 TheBfd at” 曲 咖 ・ ・ ・ . . , , , 剧

Tho PIunge P∞ l nt Delph , , 柳 ll

The咖 洫 of st.JohIl’ 臼Go0peI rdow 1


Eagor to Go 1

B TOrcJ】 Js 3
The Arcad;° ∽ GntΘ 5
Penoleo 6
An II】 llnortnl Horge 9
‘The gcrBt。 h”
‘ 】】
ra‘ v Ac№ 咖 σTJ0⒑ v 12
A Greok Boy咱 Tablet 。 . . . . . . , 。 】4
The D咖 洳 °Thmter 。 . . . 。 . 。 ・ 17
The Theaie,of E珏 onv,u臼 . . , , , ● I8
Gato of AtbenB Arcb唧 1囟 ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ⒛

纽 ⒛ ⒛ ″ ⒛
The Aoropolh
Au碱 Column
9” σ己upb8to`^矽 。诟l。 v 。 . , . , , ,
‰ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・

J00f dpxo猛 。 , , , , ・ ・ ・

,弱
rhe A岫 。f助曲 谥 , . . . . ● ● ● ●
rhe△ hc。 hM。morla1 , , , ,

鸽 ⒛ 夕 焖
‰ FunemI Mound Bt MarathoIl
Bron勿 o Boy Ⅱonl MarathoⅡ
h1T咖
An An^讠 。 ⒅
‰ gea God’ Bsh血 e
ILLUsIrBΔ TIoNs

PAQE
m。 lt。 red w tho PamheooI1 . . 。 。 . r。。9ng 肛
qlll。 。bolu臼
D、。 , . , , . . XlX
咖 TheBfd at” 曲 咖 ・ ・ ・ . . , , , 剧

Tho PIunge P∞ l nt Delph , , 柳 ll

The咖 洫 of st.JohIl’ 臼Go0peI rdow 1


Eagor to Go 1

B TOrcJ】 Js 3
The Arcad;° ∽ GntΘ 5
Penoleo 6
An II】 llnortnl Horge 9
‘The gcrBt。 h”
‘ 】】
ra‘ v Ac№ 咖 σTJ0⒑ v 12
A Greok Boy咱 Tablet 。 . . . . . . , 。 】4
The D咖 洳 °Thmter 。 . . . 。 . 。 ・ 17
The Theaie,of E珏 onv,u臼 . . , , , ● I8
Gato of AtbenB Arcb唧 1囟 ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ⒛

纽 ⒛ ⒛ ″ ⒛
The Aoropolh
Au碱 Column
9” σ己upb8to`^矽 。诟l。 v 。 . , . , , ,
‰ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・ ・

J00f dpxo猛 。 , , , , ・ ・ ・

,弱
rhe A岫 。f助曲 谥 , . . . . ● ● ● ●
rhe△ hc。 hM。morla1 , , , ,

鸽 ⒛ 夕 焖
‰ FunemI Mound Bt MarathoIl
Bron勿 o Boy Ⅱonl MarathoⅡ
h1T咖
An An^讠 。 ⒅
‰ gea God’ Bsh血 e
XⅥ I△ △σslpRAIrIoNs ILLUgrRAIPIONs XVu

P
m弱

pΛ ¤n

The gtadlum Bt AtheⅡ Δ Groek V帅 。 。 . 。 。 . . 1do

弱 ⒍
llew of A1hen8from1he AcropoIIs 0【 p曲 T‘ σtos , , 1‘ “
;

A Hool【 ey MB1ob If,cOs’ △p。 ,。 Ⅱs , 。 . 1镭


亻⒍λδJ,tδ iI‘ t:}vρ
⑿ Demogthou∞ 1弓 1

t‘ ,rG口 Xov 臼 GeuernJ V△ Ow of olympIa , 1t*B

血 ev喝 iB eo h MGmory of PlBtmn 1tn5

TorcheB fiom Eleusi‘ 宵 67 The En1ra noo1o1ho s1⒏ dlum毗 olympl巳 , ∫o跏 日 1(“ )

The Great G° d Pao 69 ‘‘Iollow hoedEmon” 16g


Λ Pana1henIli。 Amphora /o Acrooo戒 n1h 168
orpheug nnd Emvdi∞ zs ‘‘s-on汕 跏 钾 . . . . . 171
The Erech1heum 74 Tho Hermo白 °f Pr匈 疝1e【 eB 丿谝 匆 17C
A De1ail from the ErechIheuIL . . z|l The Porch of tho M讯 泥咽 扣吻 1go

Ⅱhe Alexandor sarcophagug zB 叽 θⅥ otory of Pmoniug , , . , 1ε 04

ttIXtl氵 d JPxo氵 ″ v“ ‘ . 。 81 snppho and Alc∞ ug I89


Boy8WIⅡ Be Boys , ~ . . 85 socrateg 。 , . 。 , 192
“Ar1emls” of Gabli 87 Hogogo , . 1θ a
【,rcheB1ra ChairII at Atheng Qo Phl Betn Kappa Key. . . 10s
sophoclog 93 M画 rcug Aurelius , . Iθ 7
TLe Mosclloph° ros 96 IXoTΣ . . ~ ⒛
Tho Pn虬 henon oz The Foun1ain of Are0hug⒏ . 203
HadrIan’ s△ 1brary 100 or∞ k Temple8at PeBtum , 207
Golden Aphrt,dⅡ e . ˉ 103 z画 s . . . ~ , , 2Io
Cupbe⒏ rer8to BJⅡ g Minog ・ 107 Con of Elig 211
Mou【 ning AtheIlB . ~ ~ . ˉ 110 In old stBmbo讧 . ~ , 215
The Rocky Ito⒏ d1o0orin1h 111 The‘ ‘
Thegoum” 218
The△ lonB’ Gate ~ . ~ ~ 116 HerIIleg PMentlIlg a Woman to ChaKln 222
Columng oF1ho oIympiel1m 118 ‰ HerE-at C"ympla ~ 225
Whore Onco ApoⅡ o Rt】 Ied guprelne 1⒛ Appleg of1he Hegperld粥. 228
Tho Aret,pagu8 124 ●he Ⅵ ctory of samothrnce , 231
’Horge‰ ce
The south0olonI⒙ do °f1he Pa此 henon 丿α
c1n口 128 Boy心 , 23a
Apo△ o访 1h blB Lyre 181 DaBgerg noavat。 d凸 1MycenlP . 23刂
Frigh1ful△ Ιedusa 13θ 瓯 乱 豇 oIl1of the Prop,l锄 2ao

Ap‘ σ7‘ 口v 188 Eunp汕 凼 . . . . ⒛o
λ:矽 o‘ u幻 1σ to‘ ・ ・ ・ 139 Th。 gkeIeton nt tho Feam 245
XⅥ I△ △σslpRAIrIoNs ILLUgrRAIPIONs XVu

P
m弱

pΛ ¤n

The gtadlum Bt AtheⅡ Δ Groek V帅 。 。 . 。 。 . . 1do

弱 ⒍
llew of A1hen8from1he AcropoIIs 0【 p曲 T‘ σtos , , 1‘ “
;

A Hool【 ey MB1ob If,cOs’ △p。 ,。 Ⅱs , 。 . 1镭


亻⒍λδJ,tδ iI‘ t:}vρ
⑿ Demogthou∞ 1弓 1

t‘ ,rG口 Xov 臼 GeuernJ V△ Ow of olympIa , 1t*B

血 ev喝 iB eo h MGmory of PlBtmn 1tn5

TorcheB fiom Eleusi‘ 宵 67 The En1ra noo1o1ho s1⒏ dlum毗 olympl巳 , ∫o跏 日 1(“ )

The Great G° d Pao 69 ‘‘Iollow hoedEmon” 16g


Λ Pana1henIli。 Amphora /o Acrooo戒 n1h 168
orpheug nnd Emvdi∞ zs ‘‘s-on汕 跏 钾 . . . . . 171
The Erech1heum 74 Tho Hermo白 °f Pr匈 疝1e【 eB 丿谝 匆 17C
A De1ail from the ErechIheuIL . . z|l The Porch of tho M讯 泥咽 扣吻 1go

Ⅱhe Alexandor sarcophagug zB 叽 θⅥ otory of Pmoniug , , . , 1ε 04

ttIXtl氵 d JPxo氵 ″ v“ ‘ . 。 81 snppho and Alc∞ ug I89


Boy8WIⅡ Be Boys , ~ . . 85 socrateg 。 , . 。 , 192
“Ar1emls” of Gabli 87 Hogogo , . 1θ a
【,rcheB1ra ChairII at Atheng Qo Phl Betn Kappa Key. . . 10s
sophoclog 93 M画 rcug Aurelius , . Iθ 7
TLe Mosclloph° ros 96 IXoTΣ . . ~ ⒛
Tho Pn虬 henon oz The Foun1ain of Are0hug⒏ . 203
HadrIan’ s△ 1brary 100 or∞ k Temple8at PeBtum , 207
Golden Aphrt,dⅡ e . ˉ 103 z画 s . . . ~ , , 2Io
Cupbe⒏ rer8to BJⅡ g Minog ・ 107 Con of Elig 211
Mou【 ning AtheIlB . ~ ~ . ˉ 110 In old stBmbo讧 . ~ , 215
The Rocky Ito⒏ d1o0orin1h 111 The‘ ‘
Thegoum” 218
The△ lonB’ Gate ~ . ~ ~ 116 HerIIleg PMentlIlg a Woman to ChaKln 222
Columng oF1ho oIympiel1m 118 ‰ HerE-at C"ympla ~ 225
Whore Onco ApoⅡ o Rt】 Ied guprelne 1⒛ Appleg of1he Hegperld粥. 228
Tho Aret,pagu8 124 ●he Ⅵ ctory of samothrnce , 231
’Horge‰ ce
The south0olonI⒙ do °f1he Pa此 henon 丿α
c1n口 128 Boy心 , 23a
Apo△ o访 1h blB Lyre 181 DaBgerg noavat。 d凸 1MycenlP . 23刂
Frigh1ful△ Ιedusa 13θ 瓯 乱 豇 oIl1of the Prop,l锄 2ao

Ap‘ σ7‘ 口v 188 Eunp汕 凼 . . . . ⒛o
λ:矽 o‘ u幻 1σ to‘ ・ ・ ・ 139 Th。 gkeIeton nt tho Feam 245
AN INTRODUCTIoN TO GREEK
AN INTRODUCTIoN TO GREEK
INTRODUCTIoN

α α
″ rrr/,eis Olll勋 rl,s,ou'Jlu召 /cullr6out re山
Vtun,o“ 'α ″ ,

``εu/召 扌
乃αt;召 r to0氵 氵
刀 r,″ 召Ce l

If s。 me magic carpet could whisk us back tw°


thousand
years or more to anoent Athens,how surpr、 ed we should
be to see those earˇ Greeks丘 nding曲 or chief dd唿 h七 ,泗 st
as we do, in sports,
fraternities, the theater,
music,art,and Ⅱterature!
In any of the city’ s
pIaygrounds we should
£nd keenⅡ yedyoung
men runnlng, ]umpIng,
b° xing,wrestlhg,throw-
ing the discus and the
javelh with as much zest
as ourseIves,and perhaps
with mr,re s⒗ ll Here
they s(,Ⅱ ght diversi° n
after the b1.siness of the
day Here they trained
for the great oIympic
Games Anolympicvic~
9加 nf茁 饣″佗Ⅲ 铋s谬 〃,,a/,/彳 ″
tor was welcomed home 'o9oΙ
tHE D【 scoBoLUs
with all the enthu⒍ asm
and festivity that attends the winning of a Wo⒒ d series,and
sHELTERED BY tHE PAR丁 HEN0N his fame、 vas even more enduring
g1eaming white of the fami"ar Ereohtheum seen through these nob!e ∶shelley
Doric oolumns rovcals thc brnhance of‘ he At“ c sun
INTRODUCTIoN

α α
″ rrr/,eis Olll勋 rl,s,ou'Jlu召 /cullr6out re山
Vtun,o“ 'α ″ ,

``εu/召 扌
乃αt;召 r to0氵 氵
刀 r,″ 召Ce l

If s。 me magic carpet could whisk us back tw°


thousand
years or more to anoent Athens,how surpr、 ed we should
be to see those earˇ Greeks丘 nding曲 or chief dd唿 h七 ,泗 st
as we do, in sports,
fraternities, the theater,
music,art,and Ⅱterature!
In any of the city’ s
pIaygrounds we should
£nd keenⅡ yedyoung
men runnlng, ]umpIng,
b° xing,wrestlhg,throw-
ing the discus and the
javelh with as much zest
as ourseIves,and perhaps
with mr,re s⒗ ll Here
they s(,Ⅱ ght diversi° n
after the b1.siness of the
day Here they trained
for the great oIympic
Games Anolympicvic~
9加 nf茁 饣″佗Ⅲ 铋s谬 〃,,a/,/彳 ″
tor was welcomed home 'o9oΙ
tHE D【 scoBoLUs
with all the enthu⒍ asm
and festivity that attends the winning of a Wo⒒ d series,and
sHELTERED BY tHE PAR丁 HEN0N his fame、 vas even more enduring
g1eaming white of the fami"ar Ereohtheum seen through these nob!e ∶shelley
Doric oolumns rovcals thc brnhance of‘ he At“ c sun
XX AN INTRODVCTION TO GRaEK INTRODUCrrIoN xx1

The Athenian dd notfed"necessary to label his fraternity If he did n° t devote muoh time to reading,it was because
with Greek letters,as we do,but its interes七 s and activities of his love of tlle open air。 He took tbe keenest ddight
seemed to him quite as important. He was notably Il social in ⅡterIlture,but it was a literature intonded to be heard
“ rather than to be read in private, The Greek seems to
nnimal and held to the motto,‘ Js乙 功ρ o沅 ‘
:s茳 v诤 ρ, one
man no man” have inven七 ed neady every form oF composition and in none
If our visit to Athens coinoded、 vith either of the two great
dramauc festivals,we shodd£ Ild the whde c⒒ y hdding
hdiday The great D:onysiac Theater seated about17,000
spectators,and it wag thronged甜 l day long for the duration
of the theater season Here wσ e performod some of the
丑nest tragedies and comedies the world has ever known
But plays were not con£ ned to Athens Wherever Greeks
were wont to congregate, they buⅡ t the乳 ters, even at
Epidaurus, whkh was n° tOwn at all, but only a sana-
t° rium

Mu血 was not only insq而 rabˇ bound up witL drama,⒒


accompanied ever,thhg a Greek might do As a schodb吖 ,

he studied singing and the I,te As a man,he honored his


gods with song and dan∞ . He sang at 由 e banquet
board,about the camp Ece,° r when about to charge the foe
Tlle a吐 s of aⅡ Ⅱ tecture,sculpture,alld p缸 n刂 ng were no
ztol,If0四 勿幽
less honored Even in their ruins,bis pubhc buildings and tHE TH琳 tε R^t EPlDAuRus '

statues are the insp△ ati° n and the despair of modern artists This is genora"y regarded ns the mos1beautiful Creok theater now oxtaot
If his home was humble in comparison and but meagerly
equippod when measured by present standards, ill∶ was
has he been surpassed The roll of the imm° rtals in the
1vhat
becau$e he found his keenest pleasure in publio lre。
neld 。f 】 iterature indudes Homer in epic; sappho and
furnishings he had were beautifuⅡ y made 岛nd tastefuⅡ y
AlcEeu$ in 】 yric; in drama the great triad, '弓 schylus, [】

adorned “
sophodeg, and Euripides; Herodotus, the Father of
Indeed, good taste was tbe mint mark of both work钆 nd
“ Hotory” ; Demosthenes, whose n包 me k syη onymous
pla弘 M饣 δ 冫 a・ y已 订 notⅡ ng too much,” was the rule of△ fe,
with eloquence; Plato and 犭disto11e in phⅡ osophy and
which kept Ⅱm from the vulgariψ of the“ ba曲 arialls” all
sclence.
about him,as well as from their extravagances in art,
XX AN INTRODVCTION TO GRaEK INTRODUCrrIoN xx1

The Athenian dd notfed"necessary to label his fraternity If he did n° t devote muoh time to reading,it was because
with Greek letters,as we do,but its interes七 s and activities of his love of tlle open air。 He took tbe keenest ddight
seemed to him quite as important. He was notably Il social in ⅡterIlture,but it was a literature intonded to be heard
“ rather than to be read in private, The Greek seems to
nnimal and held to the motto,‘ Js乙 功ρ o沅 ‘
:s茳 v诤 ρ, one
man no man” have inven七 ed neady every form oF composition and in none
If our visit to Athens coinoded、 vith either of the two great
dramauc festivals,we shodd£ Ild the whde c⒒ y hdding
hdiday The great D:onysiac Theater seated about17,000
spectators,and it wag thronged甜 l day long for the duration
of the theater season Here wσ e performod some of the
丑nest tragedies and comedies the world has ever known
But plays were not con£ ned to Athens Wherever Greeks
were wont to congregate, they buⅡ t the乳 ters, even at
Epidaurus, whkh was n° tOwn at all, but only a sana-
t° rium

Mu血 was not only insq而 rabˇ bound up witL drama,⒒


accompanied ever,thhg a Greek might do As a schodb吖 ,

he studied singing and the I,te As a man,he honored his


gods with song and dan∞ . He sang at 由 e banquet
board,about the camp Ece,° r when about to charge the foe
Tlle a吐 s of aⅡ Ⅱ tecture,sculpture,alld p缸 n刂 ng were no
ztol,If0四 勿幽
less honored Even in their ruins,bis pubhc buildings and tHE TH琳 tε R^t EPlDAuRus '

statues are the insp△ ati° n and the despair of modern artists This is genora"y regarded ns the mos1beautiful Creok theater now oxtaot
If his home was humble in comparison and but meagerly
equippod when measured by present standards, ill∶ was
has he been surpassed The roll of the imm° rtals in the
1vhat
becau$e he found his keenest pleasure in publio lre。
neld 。f 】 iterature indudes Homer in epic; sappho and
furnishings he had were beautifuⅡ y made 岛nd tastefuⅡ y
AlcEeu$ in 】 yric; in drama the great triad, '弓 schylus, [】

adorned “
sophodeg, and Euripides; Herodotus, the Father of
Indeed, good taste was tbe mint mark of both work钆 nd
“ Hotory” ; Demosthenes, whose n包 me k syη onymous
pla弘 M饣 δ 冫 a・ y已 订 notⅡ ng too much,” was the rule of△ fe,
with eloquence; Plato and 犭disto11e in phⅡ osophy and
which kept Ⅱm from the vulgariψ of the“ ba曲 arialls” all
sclence.
about him,as well as from their extravagances in art,
XX11 AN INTRODVCTIoN TO GRJijEK 1NTRODUCTION XXlI】

The study of Greek. Not eve叩 body£ nds it conve耐 ent TⅡ E GREEK A△ PIIΛ BET
to vⅡt Gree∞ and to admire with ho own eyes the visible TR^N⒏
Folt△ i‘ Nˉ E souND’ CRε ε【 Ex^泌 p△E
remnants of Gr∞ k art Too often we must get巾 hat we can
from photographs。 r from the imitations all about us But A口 a】 pha Aa drama Ⅱ⒍u。
B卩 beta Bb bible βⅡρ
λ‘ˉ

those of us who wish a Iirstlland acquaintance wit△ 、 ˇhat '
rγ gamma G g, ng gangⅡ on ˉ
the Greeks thought and said may£ nd our magic carpet in γztγ γλ v 1ˉ<’

the study of the language, Translations are but a poor Δ δ deIta Dd decalog δ‘“c

substitute at best and n° where more disappointing than in


E ‘ ePsilon Ee eplc 拦-,ros

z r zeta θ %z adze ‘山ˉ


the case of poetry,in Whi山 the Greek most ex∞ l1ed. '刀
H″ eta Ee they 钅
1-δ η
Greek and h砂 sh・ ⒒ e best Greek o marked lt)∶ ,`a sense
θ a theta :rh th atheist θc与 s
of proportion,by a strivhg for just klle right word to convey
I ‘ iota Ii intr兔 uc πtω
⒊戒π‘
the thought,and by a sⅡ npⅡ city and directness of expression
lVs`idl tllese qualities of good st〗 KK kappa Kk,Cc Crlsls κρ‘ -σ ‘
s

`le we sllall become familiar


he fundamental meaning
Λ λ lambda Ll logic λ⒍ °s

lΙ orethan that, we shall learn 七
Mu mu Mm meter ˉ 9,
u‘ tρ °
of a host of words that othen访 se w° uld seem strange and
N' nu Nn anti 茳t,t:
forbidding in tbe teohnicaI terminology of many fields of
Ξ苫 Ⅱ Xx axiom 凌h-utl

interest-ˉ in art, in science,in poⅡ tics, and in the church

In an experience of
0o omlcron oo obey 左ˇ
π6
A distinguished scientist states that
∏π Ⅱ Pp poet π01ˉ 饣-t叼 s
more than fortv years as a teacher °f medical students I
P p rho Rll dl,r catar曲 κc~t茳 ρˉ po os
easily distinguish among my aud托 ors those wh° lmow G而 ek
Σ σ,ss咕 ma ss spore σ祜 -ρ os
and those who do n°t,espeCially when I use scientific terms,
pathognomonic svInptom’
T t tau Tt tone to¨
such as‘ toxiCogenic bacⅡ lus’ or a‘ '碲
T v upsilon Yy,u abyss 扛卩犭Ⅱσos,K⒍ pos
I see the ey∞ of the ft,rmer iill with the Igllt of comprehenˉ
Φ φ phI Ph ph Philip Φtλ △π-π os
he latter are closed in ignorance and
vhⅡ e those of 乜
n, 、
si。
Xx chi Ch ch character X¢
ˉρtlˉ Kt叩 ρ
mystiⅡ cation” 1
Ψ Ψ psi Ps Ps apse 汪ψ∶
s
I The Greek AIphabet,that k,蕊 λ¢α沼刀tlc),Englisll Ω ω omega oo ocean ¢ ‘← C-`os

‘ js n。 七the smallest iten△ in our indebtedness to
a-bˉ c’ s`’

Greece It was adopted by the Romans from thor Greek =p。 r centuries only capi1a11e11ers Were u3ed by the Greek8 A11hough1he
n0ghbors at Cum∞ ,west of Naples,and handed c,n,with sⅢ all le1ters1ha1!⒏ 1er caInc in1o use are1e$s like the La1in~EngIisl1,we can
easⅡ y1r⒏ ce their development from the c⒏ pitals The direr【 ・ nce betWeen the
but sⅡ ght modifications, to general European use two1ypesi3no grea1er than th⒏ 1between capltals and smm11e1tersin English
】Victor C VaughBn・ Dean of1he卜 Ι 9The words usod as ilIustra1ions repre8en1as falthfully as i8possIue in
edical school,LIIlivorglty of MichigIIn,
Enghsh1he be81u8age of modern δcholar8 a Compare English zod
郇 Feported ln σ诋 or lnε cJcssm.page59.
XX11 AN INTRODVCTIoN TO GRJijEK 1NTRODUCTION XXlI】

The study of Greek. Not eve叩 body£ nds it conve耐 ent TⅡ E GREEK A△ PIIΛ BET
to vⅡt Gree∞ and to admire with ho own eyes the visible TR^N⒏
Folt△ i‘ Nˉ E souND’ CRε ε【 Ex^泌 p△E
remnants of Gr∞ k art Too often we must get巾 hat we can
from photographs。 r from the imitations all about us But A口 a】 pha Aa drama Ⅱ⒍u。
B卩 beta Bb bible βⅡρ
λ‘ˉ

those of us who wish a Iirstlland acquaintance wit△ 、 ˇhat '
rγ gamma G g, ng gangⅡ on ˉ
the Greeks thought and said may£ nd our magic carpet in γztγ γλ v 1ˉ<’

the study of the language, Translations are but a poor Δ δ deIta Dd decalog δ‘“c

substitute at best and n° where more disappointing than in


E ‘ ePsilon Ee eplc 拦-,ros

z r zeta θ %z adze ‘山ˉ


the case of poetry,in Whi山 the Greek most ex∞ l1ed. '刀
H″ eta Ee they 钅
1-δ η
Greek and h砂 sh・ ⒒ e best Greek o marked lt)∶ ,`a sense
θ a theta :rh th atheist θc与 s
of proportion,by a strivhg for just klle right word to convey
I ‘ iota Ii intr兔 uc πtω
⒊戒π‘
the thought,and by a sⅡ npⅡ city and directness of expression
lVs`idl tllese qualities of good st〗 KK kappa Kk,Cc Crlsls κρ‘ -σ ‘
s

`le we sllall become familiar


he fundamental meaning
Λ λ lambda Ll logic λ⒍ °s

lΙ orethan that, we shall learn 七
Mu mu Mm meter ˉ 9,
u‘ tρ °
of a host of words that othen访 se w° uld seem strange and
N' nu Nn anti 茳t,t:
forbidding in tbe teohnicaI terminology of many fields of
Ξ苫 Ⅱ Xx axiom 凌h-utl

interest-ˉ in art, in science,in poⅡ tics, and in the church

In an experience of
0o omlcron oo obey 左ˇ
π6
A distinguished scientist states that
∏π Ⅱ Pp poet π01ˉ 饣-t叼 s
more than fortv years as a teacher °f medical students I
P p rho Rll dl,r catar曲 κc~t茳 ρˉ po os
easily distinguish among my aud托 ors those wh° lmow G而 ek
Σ σ,ss咕 ma ss spore σ祜 -ρ os
and those who do n°t,espeCially when I use scientific terms,
pathognomonic svInptom’
T t tau Tt tone to¨
such as‘ toxiCogenic bacⅡ lus’ or a‘ '碲
T v upsilon Yy,u abyss 扛卩犭Ⅱσos,K⒍ pos
I see the ey∞ of the ft,rmer iill with the Igllt of comprehenˉ
Φ φ phI Ph ph Philip Φtλ △π-π os
he latter are closed in ignorance and
vhⅡ e those of 乜
n, 、
si。
Xx chi Ch ch character X¢
ˉρtlˉ Kt叩 ρ
mystiⅡ cation” 1
Ψ Ψ psi Ps Ps apse 汪ψ∶
s
I The Greek AIphabet,that k,蕊 λ¢α沼刀tlc),Englisll Ω ω omega oo ocean ¢ ‘← C-`os

‘ js n。 七the smallest iten△ in our indebtedness to
a-bˉ c’ s`’

Greece It was adopted by the Romans from thor Greek =p。 r centuries only capi1a11e11ers Were u3ed by the Greek8 A11hough1he
n0ghbors at Cum∞ ,west of Naples,and handed c,n,with sⅢ all le1ters1ha1!⒏ 1er caInc in1o use are1e$s like the La1in~EngIisl1,we can
easⅡ y1r⒏ ce their development from the c⒏ pitals The direr【 ・ nce betWeen the
but sⅡ ght modifications, to general European use two1ypesi3no grea1er than th⒏ 1between capltals and smm11e1tersin English
】Victor C VaughBn・ Dean of1he卜 Ι 9The words usod as ilIustra1ions repre8en1as falthfully as i8possIue in
edical school,LIIlivorglty of MichigIIn,
Enghsh1he be81u8age of modern δcholar8 a Compare English zod
郇 Feported ln σ诋 or lnε cJcssm.page59.
XX【 V AN INfrRODUcT1oN To oREEK Nq・ RODUCTIoN

Note that(o“ ,1,v are s0mefmes long and sometim∞ II DⅡ h也 ⒑则∮ lyⅡ 倪〃〃o。 )represent the u“ on of two
short, ll’ hen Iong,they will be marked a,=,t,unless七 hey vOMreIs in one syl】 able The∞ cond vOwel is always e∶ ther
bear the circum丑 ex accent(^),Which in itself indicates a ‘ or v.
long vowel:cTpGTt汔 σTpaTjt:‘ , D】 pnTHt,iio TIl^lrBL1Tε itATED sooiiD 0ilEIiK ExAⅡ PLo

lb)Gamma is always h凸 rd Before κ,v,or x,it:$pro- 色‘ ae,e 砬 in aisle φ。△v⒍ u0,,ov


nounced9⒎‘
冫: γ它
1γ γλ‘
ov. c‘ e1i,e 。in freight 送‘k1ψ 1s
(¢ )sigma is written s at曲 e end of words;elsewhere σ∶ o‘ oe,i,e oiin toⅡ ΔtX φd
×
ptcts. V1 We v1犭 s
(o Consonants aⅡ commollly das⒍ £
ed as folIows: cv au Ow ln c° w ¢j-仂 s
I勤 Jes; 1 1abial— π,β ,φ ;2 guttural or palat也 l-— v
ξ eu 首h-ˉ oo Ej屮 ⒎π仁δ7s
|r,γ 9X; 3 denta】 or lingual-ˉ t,δ ,θ 。 饣v eu eh-ˉ oo η芍ˉ
卩忄κ口
Ⅰ幻祝凼 Jλ ,u,v,ρ ・ ov u ou∶ n group oi,p已 -v诌s
扌 c,s,
s讠 b讠 Jc田 氵

′】
dphtll凇 拣 丨
∶琵1糠 哏挠咿 ∶ 1雠
D° 叨J扬 Co91ε o刀 o/l匆 :ξ ,g,W・
|l丨 l∶
:}〃
◇)The following table will be k)un【 lu出 fu】 for refereI1cc.
:∶ i|{∶ {丨

vowel tO which it is attached is a capitaI,the iota i8placed


沈礼
voˉ

on the game line; otherw,ise it is p】


Volcε △E8; aced beneath the letter


MvtEa ⅡRoVcH”
^BpiR^tE to which⒒ belt,rlgs and o called切 Jr,嘁砥 r9pJf H1,m,Ω △,Q,

hbials III Brea曲 k喀 s. (⑺ The Athenhns° ri妒 ndly employed


卩 φ
Ⅱ as in English When dhey adopted七 he Ionic alphabet,in
which H was er。 ,⒒ bec⒏ me necessary to inven七 a new sym~
PalataIs γ X
s巍
Dentals δ 矽
槭 麟 摸 熹 愆
(b)Tbe⒍ gn。 f breathing pr∞ edes a capital but o placed
In this table the mute., are grouped horiz‘ ontally into above a small letter In七 he Case of a dⅡ hthong,the brea曲 -
cJ⒃ 矽
朗 (cognates)according to the orgall of speech most ing is placed above the second member, unless the diph-
pr° minent in their production, and vertically into o″ d纟 r,9 thong o improper:・ H,1,‘ 1;bu1g,Φ Atsη s。
(c° 。rdinates) according to the amount of force involved 0)Wσ dsbe蛮 nnhgwihr/lo Cp)ha趵 the roughbreathing
in their utterance The signifIcance of this grouping wil】 (o ηk rough breatⅡ ng or咕 haIˇ accompaoed φ ,X,and
become manifest in the study of in丑 ec1ion,each group havˉ θ,M,llich are therefore called the“ rough” forlIls of π,ρ ;Ic,
ing distinctive habits, γ;掏 nd t,δ ,respective】 y, see above I,口 .
XX【 V AN INfrRODUcT1oN To oREEK Nq・ RODUCTIoN

Note that(o“ ,1,v are s0mefmes long and sometim∞ II DⅡ h也 ⒑则∮ lyⅡ 倪〃〃o。 )represent the u“ on of two
short, ll’ hen Iong,they will be marked a,=,t,unless七 hey vOMreIs in one syl】 able The∞ cond vOwel is always e∶ ther
bear the circum丑 ex accent(^),Which in itself indicates a ‘ or v.
long vowel:cTpGTt汔 σTpaTjt:‘ , D】 pnTHt,iio TIl^lrBL1Tε itATED sooiiD 0ilEIiK ExAⅡ PLo

lb)Gamma is always h凸 rd Before κ,v,or x,it:$pro- 色‘ ae,e 砬 in aisle φ。△v⒍ u0,,ov


nounced9⒎‘
冫: γ它
1γ γλ‘
ov. c‘ e1i,e 。in freight 送‘k1ψ 1s
(¢ )sigma is written s at曲 e end of words;elsewhere σ∶ o‘ oe,i,e oiin toⅡ ΔtX φd
×
ptcts. V1 We v1犭 s
(o Consonants aⅡ commollly das⒍ £
ed as folIows: cv au Ow ln c° w ¢j-仂 s
I勤 Jes; 1 1abial— π,β ,φ ;2 guttural or palat也 l-— v
ξ eu 首h-ˉ oo Ej屮 ⒎π仁δ7s
|r,γ 9X; 3 denta】 or lingual-ˉ t,δ ,θ 。 饣v eu eh-ˉ oo η芍ˉ
卩忄κ口
Ⅰ幻祝凼 Jλ ,u,v,ρ ・ ov u ou∶ n group oi,p已 -v诌s
扌 c,s,
s讠 b讠 Jc田 氵

′】
dphtll凇 拣 丨
∶琵1糠 哏挠咿 ∶ 1雠
D° 叨J扬 Co91ε o刀 o/l匆 :ξ ,g,W・
|l丨 l∶
:}〃
◇)The following table will be k)un【 lu出 fu】 for refereI1cc.
:∶ i|{∶ {丨

vowel tO which it is attached is a capitaI,the iota i8placed


沈礼
voˉ

on the game line; otherw,ise it is p】


Volcε △E8; aced beneath the letter


MvtEa ⅡRoVcH”
^BpiR^tE to which⒒ belt,rlgs and o called切 Jr,嘁砥 r9pJf H1,m,Ω △,Q,

hbials III Brea曲 k喀 s. (⑺ The Athenhns° ri妒 ndly employed


卩 φ
Ⅱ as in English When dhey adopted七 he Ionic alphabet,in
which H was er。 ,⒒ bec⒏ me necessary to inven七 a new sym~
PalataIs γ X
s巍
Dentals δ 矽
槭 麟 摸 熹 愆
(b)Tbe⒍ gn。 f breathing pr∞ edes a capital but o placed
In this table the mute., are grouped horiz‘ ontally into above a small letter In七 he Case of a dⅡ hthong,the brea曲 -
cJ⒃ 矽
朗 (cognates)according to the orgall of speech most ing is placed above the second member, unless the diph-
pr° minent in their production, and vertically into o″ d纟 r,9 thong o improper:・ H,1,‘ 1;bu1g,Φ Atsη s。
(c° 。rdinates) according to the amount of force involved 0)Wσ dsbe蛮 nnhgwihr/lo Cp)ha趵 the roughbreathing
in their utterance The signifIcance of this grouping wil】 (o ηk rough breatⅡ ng or咕 haIˇ accompaoed φ ,X,and
become manifest in the study of in丑 ec1ion,each group havˉ θ,M,llich are therefore called the“ rough” forlIls of π,ρ ;Ic,
ing distinctive habits, γ;掏 nd t,δ ,respective】 y, see above I,口 .
xxvi AN1NIrRODuCT10N TO GREEK INTRODUCT10N XXVii

臼)When in in犰 ctI【 ,n a voced or vokdess laual。 r ld) The。 rcumnex may stand ollly on a long voweI op a
palatal!immedIatdy precedes the aspirate θof tLe ending, diphthong Therefore,if a、 `o、veI has the circumnex accent,
’ no othep mark is needed t° sho、ˇ that the vowel is long:
it is“ roughened’ to its correspondhg aspirate
K助 Ⅱ 「
IV syuables. (o) Every Greek word has as many sy⒈
(:I‘
1‘ 19,bt】 t Ki。 阝 丿(:I:`rtt.,
,ot’ (⒎

laues as it hIls voWels or diphthongs There are no s⒒ ent @)An犯 `9。


cC11ted mtepentllt takes the acttte;bllt it mtlst

letters other than讠 ofo8n/bsct讠 p饣


not have an accent if thc 】
ast syⅡ ab】 e is k)ng by naturc
t,r ellds in ξ or ψ ∶ 苗v助 ω,ros″ 口″,扌 v即 由rov r矿 口 ″ ″″

ceI?gl:f:土 f刂 :茹:扌 、虏饣楞:秽 11品 1亡〖 J、::::gl毳 (∫ ) An acccnted penult takes thc circunl付 cx if it is k)〗 】
g
by nature and the last syll凸 b】 e is short;otherWisc,the flcute:
penult is ca1led ttm勿 2e庀 ttlf,
wi七 h the fd- δap。 J,`咖 ,btlt δ ‘bv,ou r,fo夕 lr/,λ 幻os r。 rJ
lc) In divming words into s泅 lables,pla∞
m- 臼) An ac∞ ntcd ultima,if sh°rt,takes the acute;if Io!lg,
lowing趵 △
/el or dⅡ hthong a singIe consonant or such∞
the acute or the circumnex: π。 t¢ u6s r南 Fr, π
°t¢ uav 亻
binations of consonants a.s can be pronounced together at
rs,π °
the beginning of a word; 扛σtpov,π ⅡπTo,δ C‘ ryI,-u氵 ・ But tα u° bs rjv召 s r【

'Jv口

compound wOrds,the£ rst e1ement of which is a preposition


(尼 ) An uItima that nor】 nally has an acute cha!lges tlle
π¢″氵 v,δ ‘
σ-nro pos。 acute to七 he grave when another Wortl immediately follows
or δ
uoˉ ,are divided at the point of union:
without intervening punctuation: π。tα 卩
诲s r刂 勿 π
℃卜
V.Accent,o)A hl⒅ ledge of quan恍 y o essential in
亍C~凼 κ¢λbs,b矽 @trf¢ ″J rj化 r.
', but
determining accent A sy1lable is long by nature when it
has a long vOwel or a diphthong %e vOwels η and Φ are
C)A pro曲 t△ 。 a monos∶ /llable tht・ tt h灬 no accent and is
pronounced with the word that foll。 、 vs:♂ 茳刃ρωπos扌 乃c9,lα ″
ˇays long; ‘and o are aIwflys short; the others are someˉ
(J) An end“⒔
al、
ois a w° rd that is pr° n° unced with the
tim∞ sh【 ,rt吼 nd sometim∞ long(§ I,cl The dⅡ hthongs
preceding word and usually lacks an accent of its °、 vn:
‘1and o1,when£ nal,except in the optative and in the one
芭veρ ω9r。 ‘t‘ (Lath乃 o仳 纟sg勿 0 EncⅡ tks are treated m° re
j汜
wOrd o】 κo1, are regarded as short in de七 ermiⅡ ing accenC.
fuⅡ y in § 95
tb)Tllere are three accents一 硼幽 C),σ r@Ⅱ C),|lnd ⅤI IIlnecti。 n:
Greek is a highly innectcd language It
cm?辽 Ⅱ
叨口冫 冫
〃v(^) The闸
V田
has three σ ¢″d纟 Ⅱ (ma~RclIline,feminhe,anri neuterl,threc
they obQy very strict`do notandafFect
laws are atthe pronunchton,but
times the sole means
9tz″ ⒉
b纟r,,〈 singular,duall,and plural),and three dccJ纟 r,9a,,
of distinguishing between wOrds otherη ˇ ise identical in apˉ
(called from theIr stems the⒍ dedenson,tlle Ⅱdeden∮ `s讠 on,
pearance:ε cp JJbs杨 诊 u1Ⅰ ¢o,‘ :ut r α掘
,JJp Jjos D口 @冗 ,‘ ε
ree
and the consonant declension)
lc)The acute may stand ollly on one of the last小 %e Greek ve1・b has thⅡ e v沅 ces (acthe,mddle,and
syllables of a word, the circltm£ ex only on one of the Iast
passivel, four 9,loods (indicajve, subjunctlVe, optative,
two, and the grave only on the last
’Common° nly in poo1r△
〗A den1aI before⒏ noth0r dOntst al△ ay8becoⅢ θB σ
xxvi AN1NIrRODuCT10N TO GREEK INTRODUCT10N XXVii

臼)When in in犰 ctI【 ,n a voced or vokdess laual。 r ld) The。 rcumnex may stand ollly on a long voweI op a
palatal!immedIatdy precedes the aspirate θof tLe ending, diphthong Therefore,if a、 `o、veI has the circumnex accent,
’ no othep mark is needed t° sho、ˇ that the vowel is long:
it is“ roughened’ to its correspondhg aspirate
K助 Ⅱ 「
IV syuables. (o) Every Greek word has as many sy⒈
(:I‘
1‘ 19,bt】 t Ki。 阝 丿(:I:`rtt.,
,ot’ (⒎

laues as it hIls voWels or diphthongs There are no s⒒ ent @)An犯 `9。


cC11ted mtepentllt takes the acttte;bllt it mtlst

letters other than讠 ofo8n/bsct讠 p饣


not have an accent if thc 】
ast syⅡ ab】 e is k)ng by naturc
t,r ellds in ξ or ψ ∶ 苗v助 ω,ros″ 口″,扌 v即 由rov r矿 口 ″ ″″

ceI?gl:f:土 f刂 :茹:扌 、虏饣楞:秽 11品 1亡〖 J、::::gl毳 (∫ ) An acccnted penult takes thc circunl付 cx if it is k)〗 】
g
by nature and the last syll凸 b】 e is short;otherWisc,the flcute:
penult is ca1led ttm勿 2e庀 ttlf,
wi七 h the fd- δap。 J,`咖 ,btlt δ ‘bv,ou r,fo夕 lr/,λ 幻os r。 rJ
lc) In divming words into s泅 lables,pla∞
m- 臼) An ac∞ ntcd ultima,if sh°rt,takes the acute;if Io!lg,
lowing趵 △
/el or dⅡ hthong a singIe consonant or such∞
the acute or the circumnex: π。 t¢ u6s r南 Fr, π
°t¢ uav 亻
binations of consonants a.s can be pronounced together at
rs,π °
the beginning of a word; 扛σtpov,π ⅡπTo,δ C‘ ryI,-u氵 ・ But tα u° bs rjv召 s r【

'Jv口

compound wOrds,the£ rst e1ement of which is a preposition


(尼 ) An uItima that nor】 nally has an acute cha!lges tlle
π¢″氵 v,δ ‘
σ-nro pos。 acute to七 he grave when another Wortl immediately follows
or δ
uoˉ ,are divided at the point of union:
without intervening punctuation: π。tα 卩
诲s r刂 勿 π
℃卜
V.Accent,o)A hl⒅ ledge of quan恍 y o essential in
亍C~凼 κ¢λbs,b矽 @trf¢ ″J rj化 r.
', but
determining accent A sy1lable is long by nature when it
has a long vOwel or a diphthong %e vOwels η and Φ are
C)A pro曲 t△ 。 a monos∶ /llable tht・ tt h灬 no accent and is
pronounced with the word that foll。 、 vs:♂ 茳刃ρωπos扌 乃c9,lα ″
ˇays long; ‘and o are aIwflys short; the others are someˉ
(J) An end“⒔
al、
ois a w° rd that is pr° n° unced with the
tim∞ sh【 ,rt吼 nd sometim∞ long(§ I,cl The dⅡ hthongs
preceding word and usually lacks an accent of its °、 vn:
‘1and o1,when£ nal,except in the optative and in the one
芭veρ ω9r。 ‘t‘ (Lath乃 o仳 纟sg勿 0 EncⅡ tks are treated m° re
j汜
wOrd o】 κo1, are regarded as short in de七 ermiⅡ ing accenC.
fuⅡ y in § 95
tb)Tllere are three accents一 硼幽 C),σ r@Ⅱ C),|lnd ⅤI IIlnecti。 n:
Greek is a highly innectcd language It
cm?辽 Ⅱ
叨口冫 冫
〃v(^) The闸
V田
has three σ ¢″d纟 Ⅱ (ma~RclIline,feminhe,anri neuterl,threc
they obQy very strict`do notandafFect
laws are atthe pronunchton,but
times the sole means
9tz″ ⒉
b纟r,,〈 singular,duall,and plural),and three dccJ纟 r,9a,,
of distinguishing between wOrds otherη ˇ ise identical in apˉ
(called from theIr stems the⒍ dedenson,tlle Ⅱdeden∮ `s讠 on,
pearance:ε cp JJbs杨 诊 u1Ⅰ ¢o,‘ :ut r α掘
,JJp Jjos D口 @冗 ,‘ ε
ree
and the consonant declension)
lc)The acute may stand ollly on one of the last小 %e Greek ve1・b has thⅡ e v沅 ces (acthe,mddle,and
syllables of a word, the circltm£ ex only on one of the Iast
passivel, four 9,loods (indicajve, subjunctlVe, optative,
two, and the grave only on the last
’Common° nly in poo1r△
〗A den1aI before⒏ noth0r dOntst al△ ay8becoⅢ θB σ
Xxvn1 AN INTRODuCTIoN lrO GREI口 K INlrRODucTIoN xxix
and imperaJvel and seven沏 m,9纟 J(present,imperfect,future, tte邗 :l△ em函 ¢
o)wme h Greek⒗ a曲 estos,l chaos,2
aorist, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfectI) The rhododendron,1 hydr° phobia,2 diploma,1・ 8 zδ nδ ,2 Dδ mos-
present, future, perfect, and future perfect are called the thenOs,2 0riδ n,2 XerXOs,2 Iδ ni尻
2

po`oni彳1¢
'〃
tenses; the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect are lc) Accent the penult∶ ∑ .‘ ρ α
ct” s, M° vσ G,δ cκ c,γ ρφot
caⅡ ed the s纟 cr,nd色
'ty tenses The tenses are aIso divided loptative m° od),KOJ,os,Mouσ G1,κ ωJ/o‘
ln0unl Accent the
into c】 asses °r s〃s彦 纟 , according 七
9’ z,・ o their stems Each antepenuIt,if the quantity of the ultima permits: δ‘
cγ vω σ‘
9,
卧stem is composerI of the tenses which havc a c()mmon ‘ 芭,9pω π°
‘(n° un), J‘pcπ‘
v° 。(optative mood),
Jρ rω v, ¢αⅡ
steIu
u‘ 9,o″ .

ld)Mark the length of the ultima:γ 亻
vζ cJs,茳 Vε p由 π
.v,
v‘ Kpo9roλ ‘
s, γvuv在 σ‘
tI, K0pos, aρ ¢‘

】Acu1e° n巳 ntepenul1 ⒓Acutc on penuIt


;Λ Iong mark,弼 c/o冗 ,oVer j or εindicBtes1ha1 tllθ G田 ek has o orη ;

o1he「 wise, o and εare o and ε

tHE PLuNGE PooL At DELPH1


This bath is a part o£ the equlpment ofthe anCieIlt gymnasium (For a picture
of the gymnaslum,sec Ⅱ ge匆 5)

E区 ERCIsI9s

(lr) Pr。 n。 unce the Greek words of §I-II,


§ stressing
each s卩 lable that bears an accent; then w⒒ te in English
letters

】I1are
Xxvn1 AN INTRODuCTIoN lrO GREI口 K INlrRODucTIoN xxix
and imperaJvel and seven沏 m,9纟 J(present,imperfect,future, tte邗 :l△ em函 ¢
o)wme h Greek⒗ a曲 estos,l chaos,2
aorist, perfect, pluperfect, and future perfectI) The rhododendron,1 hydr° phobia,2 diploma,1・ 8 zδ nδ ,2 Dδ mos-
present, future, perfect, and future perfect are called the thenOs,2 0riδ n,2 XerXOs,2 Iδ ni尻
2

po`oni彳1¢
'〃
tenses; the imperfect, aorist, and pluperfect are lc) Accent the penult∶ ∑ .‘ ρ α
ct” s, M° vσ G,δ cκ c,γ ρφot
caⅡ ed the s纟 cr,nd色
'ty tenses The tenses are aIso divided loptative m° od),KOJ,os,Mouσ G1,κ ωJ/o‘
ln0unl Accent the
into c】 asses °r s〃s彦 纟 , according 七
9’ z,・ o their stems Each antepenuIt,if the quantity of the ultima permits: δ‘
cγ vω σ‘
9,
卧stem is composerI of the tenses which havc a c()mmon ‘ 芭,9pω π°
‘(n° un), J‘pcπ‘
v° 。(optative mood),
Jρ rω v, ¢αⅡ
steIu
u‘ 9,o″ .

ld)Mark the length of the ultima:γ 亻
vζ cJs,茳 Vε p由 π
.v,
v‘ Kpo9roλ ‘
s, γvuv在 σ‘
tI, K0pos, aρ ¢‘

】Acu1e° n巳 ntepenul1 ⒓Acutc on penuIt


;Λ Iong mark,弼 c/o冗 ,oVer j or εindicBtes1ha1 tllθ G田 ek has o orη ;

o1he「 wise, o and εare o and ε

tHE PLuNGE PooL At DELPH1


This bath is a part o£ the equlpment ofthe anCieIlt gymnasium (For a picture
of the gymnaslum,sec Ⅱ ge匆 5)

E区 ERCIsI9s

(lr) Pr。 n。 unce the Greek words of §I-II,


§ stressing
each s卩 lable that bears an accent; then w⒒ te in English
letters

】I1are
EAGER To Co

LEssON I
DE0△ 〓田sIoⅡ oF o-sT口 Ms

勘 Ⅱ 脯 9v♂ Myos_zB汤 召 3印 r,lm扌 ,Qr/v¤ s而 召 vo,rJ,=

Iro K厶 IrA InANNHN厶 rI0N EΥ ArrEΛION 1 Ther° are 1hree declensi° ns in Greek,
DeC1enβions,
9Ev aPγ iIls1ead of£ vo agin Latin. To1hese,because of1heir g° n~
绍 0v。 λdγ o⒐ ,rtI)J λdγ oq氵 v
orp泌 t♂ v弼 v,钅 犹 免δ q氵 voλ 卸 oq・ eral uniformi1y,the oˉ g1° ms gerVo as a good in七 roduC1ion,
°
掘 ro。 忉 dv J幻 呖 9rp泌 诧 v‘ 1:Jv. 2. 0-stem lΙ ascuⅡ Iles。 Nouns of the o-declensi° ll
π苗I,Tc9δ ″
‘σo,钅 c1 wbose nomina1ives end in Ⅱs t1re usually masculi11e.
`cJtoO dγ
/op入 t9Jto0dγ 函cto o氵 δ 忿洁 vε
0iOTo u犭 s 漉纟石v纟 9
γ句°
I,c⒉ 扣 @J币 枷氵氵%‘ 狨 ・・・
BIWGV△ PLVRAL
2 ^R ˉ
亚 δ torcJt0s -ug B oi t0了αu° ‘ ∶:
C, to09rot勹 ∞°o ˉ! t ωV πtlrau δv ˉoru"
tHE HOLY G0sPEL ACC0RD【 NG t0J0HN D t0π orGP§ ∞ t ols TOTG/t° Is ˉ
lg

彳, tav t。 TG/t‘ v ˉuln t0Vs πoTGP0v9 ˉ°g


h tho be凼 n白 ng wasthe Wotd,and the Wotd was
with God,and the Wotd wos God。 h Iiko manner i⒒ nec1δ dδ 适
λφos
thc sanlc was in tbc begtnnhg、 滋th God。 s。 Accentβ , (@) In n°uns of1he o-declen$i° n an acu乇 e
AlI th白 :lε rs`呙 「
e1∶ e made by him; and (′ )° n the ulJma in1ho Ⅱominatlve is oh巳 nged1oa
w1tLo‘‘t hifn was not anything made that was oircumnex(^)in1he genitive and da七 iVe of bo1h numbers.
m・ ・f。 h hhn wasⅡ J△ ; and . 。. :gt J。 h.,I1
£TⅡ o lettorB Jr¤ D z pm汛 d to tLO Varioug forⅢ 8ind1cato rθ sp° ctively


嚣智罗
品吝¢
、审:谳诋黼 毛
扌Ι
琚号 i樊
a?默 type
ⅡoⅡ iⅡ a刂 Vo,goni1:vo,dIl“ vo,aCCus⒏ tlˇ o I口 asⅢ ucb as this w!ll bo thθ inˉ
VBrlBblo ord6r of progentat,on,i1 i80hough1uⅡ ⅡeCe癸 ary to prin1tⅡ esθ letters
ln succeθ d:ng lll8goug thθ v° cIl1!vO is Ⅱo1induded in tho forⅡ gto bo ⅡeⅢ oˉ

::∶ 皆
f`菇 P;∶ :eI七%∶ l酊 。 Ⅰ
l苜 芾黑乙h丑 ?亭
:£ s:潆
nzed; n。 r Is‘ ho du8〗 ,

0IIndings of Ⅲagcul!nθ s of tho o△ oC〗 eIlsloll iIl I,atin


1
EAGER To Co

LEssON I
DE0△ 〓田sIoⅡ oF o-sT口 Ms

勘 Ⅱ 脯 9v♂ Myos_zB汤 召 3印 r,lm扌 ,Qr/v¤ s而 召 vo,rJ,=

Iro K厶 IrA InANNHN厶 rI0N EΥ ArrEΛION 1 Ther° are 1hree declensi° ns in Greek,
DeC1enβions,
9Ev aPγ iIls1ead of£ vo agin Latin. To1hese,because of1heir g° n~
绍 0v。 λdγ o⒐ ,rtI)J λdγ oq氵 v
orp泌 t♂ v弼 v,钅 犹 免δ q氵 voλ 卸 oq・ eral uniformi1y,the oˉ g1° ms gerVo as a good in七 roduC1ion,
°
掘 ro。 忉 dv J幻 呖 9rp泌 诧 v‘ 1:Jv. 2. 0-stem lΙ ascuⅡ Iles。 Nouns of the o-declensi° ll
π苗I,Tc9δ ″
‘σo,钅 c1 wbose nomina1ives end in Ⅱs t1re usually masculi11e.
`cJtoO dγ
/op入 t9Jto0dγ 函cto o氵 δ 忿洁 vε
0iOTo u犭 s 漉纟石v纟 9
γ句°
I,c⒉ 扣 @J币 枷氵氵%‘ 狨 ・・・
BIWGV△ PLVRAL
2 ^R ˉ
亚 δ torcJt0s -ug B oi t0了αu° ‘ ∶:
C, to09rot勹 ∞°o ˉ! t ωV πtlrau δv ˉoru"
tHE HOLY G0sPEL ACC0RD【 NG t0J0HN D t0π orGP§ ∞ t ols TOTG/t° Is ˉ
lg

彳, tav t。 TG/t‘ v ˉuln t0Vs πoTGP0v9 ˉ°g


h tho be凼 n白 ng wasthe Wotd,and the Wotd was
with God,and the Wotd wos God。 h Iiko manner i⒒ nec1δ dδ 适
λφos
thc sanlc was in tbc begtnnhg、 滋th God。 s。 Accentβ , (@) In n°uns of1he o-declen$i° n an acu乇 e
AlI th白 :lε rs`呙 「
e1∶ e made by him; and (′ )° n the ulJma in1ho Ⅱominatlve is oh巳 nged1oa
w1tLo‘‘t hifn was not anything made that was oircumnex(^)in1he genitive and da七 iVe of bo1h numbers.
m・ ・f。 h hhn wasⅡ J△ ; and . 。. :gt J。 h.,I1
£TⅡ o lettorB Jr¤ D z pm汛 d to tLO Varioug forⅢ 8ind1cato rθ sp° ctively


嚣智罗
品吝¢
、审:谳诋黼 毛
扌Ι
琚号 i樊
a?默 type
ⅡoⅡ iⅡ a刂 Vo,goni1:vo,dIl“ vo,aCCus⒏ tlˇ o I口 asⅢ ucb as this w!ll bo thθ inˉ
VBrlBblo ord6r of progentat,on,i1 i80hough1uⅡ ⅡeCe癸 ary to prin1tⅡ esθ letters
ln succeθ d:ng lll8goug thθ v° cIl1!vO is Ⅱo1induded in tho forⅡ gto bo ⅡeⅢ oˉ

::∶ 皆
f`菇 P;∶ :eI七%∶ l酊 。 Ⅰ
l苜 芾黑乙h丑 ?亭
:£ s:潆
nzed; n。 r Is‘ ho du8〗 ,

0IIndings of Ⅲagcul!nθ s of tho o△ oC〗 eIlsloll iIl I,atin


1

^ ¨| l '

AN INTRODUCTIoN TO GREEK DECLENsIoN oP OisTEl△ Fs

7 I9:FR0IsEs

w溜 羝J韫 蕊找l器 氓J罂 :瑟 孟


)
f:∶lⅠ:Ⅱ f′ ・◇
Ⅱ)Wbatuse ofthe nt,lln do the heavy typoondhgg sugges1?
v钬 包 无e乃 @s αrlr。 枕
沦0λ φδ t,9 aδ cλ ,。 9 crTp。 t叼 γo‘ s πot色 ″o1s π° t。 ud0

么, Cases The endings o£ an° un1e11i1g oaso and uso,


aδ cλ ,。 ‘ aδ cλ ,‘ s σTP色 T9,γ av σTPGt,,γ 衤

(¢ )The。 omina贫 ve k1he case o£


1h° s%耵 ec沙 J
@)Road altlud in Greek aIld1ranslute lllto Engllsh:
r召 0ru`几 召

o:σ rρ αt” γo1叩 σav dδ cλ φ°o t乃 c〃 召nerc丙 2
^ 肖x“ aδ 。、0。 衫s 8・

另v σTPGT” γ泌 ・

1・ π已衫ouc。 tδ v

J1茗
:0嬲钴谢
d
咖 谳 。
♀丿⒘ 器踹F⒄
呷哉i:嬲 混找扌 于
箔 ;亻 :;;;;1苫 .5{,鲆 Jj £
to0s σηo舀 ,,γoJq. 8. π‘
uπ ol,cJ tδ V tq氵 σTptITn,γ o’ 1
λ,JI,.

”q揽 掠∷考 卩贯 冤
F胥 】
「混岁
庞t税 芦

属T茗 J恳 据砣 e虎

δ
(c) C° mple1e七 heg° 8° 讧tences,adding endings and a。 cell1s:

∶t哏 拶嬲笆%罴年 夥氵a&λ φ— (s血 gula◇ 2。 和 口v


1.J cTPaTn,γ 一 肖

1群 r∶:∶ I;Ⅰ
rb: aδ
;∶
v π
cXφ δ ‘
e钅
α乃 ∴
?oz乃 召
e 9rottIu_・ 8, t泳 σ叩ot刀 γ-π c/Iπ ° λφ~,
vσ 0to氵 q aδ ε

v° uπ c1 Zl召 sgllds

挠f:∶ st拣 f⒐ 槛:哳:s菟 烈l:Jr\1招 ⒒


ki七

乩 舄T抗 T∶∶∶
⒊:揣:弑喙%∫ J£ l骂 勤 F1:’ ;∶

(∶


∶。磔丨 lt扌 ℃ ∶Υ 导甘lshav~
i∶ l∶ J:∶ :f四
i:拧
:Ⅱ ;茁 :l∶
α0ro`肠 ∴
烀1扰 tXφ 函 ,lg” αs

6, cΔ BⅡ △ AR9
λφ。
‘ roΙ 无
犭 纟
嬲 诏‰ 芳皙动

l∶ r,
dδ s,ˉ ot,δ
pⅡ IL^D乃 LPⅡ ΙΔ 2

烀 n6s屁 。or订 乃
ω ′ δ πota/I缶

骝 、 甘 叩
:‰ this Iovoly pass,the Vale° f Tempo,beh/een M1os.sa and Mt09mpus,

氍 :黟 l笞 讯 嘤 r¢
硝 袱诮 夕 冗
¢召 :∶ rα J
might have provcn more troublesome to lhe Persians than Thermopyl窍
1hey not fo“ nd an eas】 er ontranCe into Creece tho Pe∏
,had
eus R】 Vor, which

噙:银沾笛筛 ("m⑴ TEGY8TRΔ


Mnds through it,is one of the few in Greoce that never go dry

=The possegBlve goui0iVe Ilrlm日 ll9fQu° wg tho artiC】 oo£ tLθ Iloun i1
口 jn汕 n。 s
;甙 翥韫乩品j盂 :;i诫 击e:狙 dc。 gnate8aro p“ tod lIl sⅡ aIl Capl1als

丿f t

^ ¨| l '

AN INTRODUCTIoN TO GREEK DECLENsIoN oP OisTEl△ Fs

7 I9:FR0IsEs

w溜 羝J韫 蕊找l器 氓J罂 :瑟 孟


)
f:∶lⅠ:Ⅱ f′ ・◇
Ⅱ)Wbatuse ofthe nt,lln do the heavy typoondhgg sugges1?
v钬 包 无e乃 @s αrlr。 枕
沦0λ φδ t,9 aδ cλ ,。 9 crTp。 t叼 γo‘ s πot色 ″o1s π° t。 ud0

么, Cases The endings o£ an° un1e11i1g oaso and uso,


aδ cλ ,。 ‘ aδ cλ ,‘ s σTP色 T9,γ av σTPGt,,γ 衤

(¢ )The。 omina贫 ve k1he case o£


1h° s%耵 ec沙 J
@)Road altlud in Greek aIld1ranslute lllto Engllsh:
r召 0ru`几 召

o:σ rρ αt” γo1叩 σav dδ cλ φ°o t乃 c〃 召nerc丙 2
^ 肖x“ aδ 。、0。 衫s 8・

另v σTPGT” γ泌 ・

1・ π已衫ouc。 tδ v

J1茗
:0嬲钴谢
d
咖 谳 。
♀丿⒘ 器踹F⒄
呷哉i:嬲 混找扌 于
箔 ;亻 :;;;;1苫 .5{,鲆 Jj £
to0s σηo舀 ,,γoJq. 8. π‘
uπ ol,cJ tδ V tq氵 σTptITn,γ o’ 1
λ,JI,.

”q揽 掠∷考 卩贯 冤
F胥 】
「混岁
庞t税 芦

属T茗 J恳 据砣 e虎

δ
(c) C° mple1e七 heg° 8° 讧tences,adding endings and a。 cell1s:

∶t哏 拶嬲笆%罴年 夥氵a&λ φ— (s血 gula◇ 2。 和 口v


1.J cTPaTn,γ 一 肖

1群 r∶:∶ I;Ⅰ
rb: aδ
;∶
v π
cXφ δ ‘
e钅
α乃 ∴
?oz乃 召
e 9rottIu_・ 8, t泳 σ叩ot刀 γ-π c/Iπ ° λφ~,
vσ 0to氵 q aδ ε

v° uπ c1 Zl召 sgllds

挠f:∶ st拣 f⒐ 槛:哳:s菟 烈l:Jr\1招 ⒒


ki七

乩 舄T抗 T∶∶∶
⒊:揣:弑喙%∫ J£ l骂 勤 F1:’ ;∶

(∶


∶。磔丨 lt扌 ℃ ∶Υ 导甘lshav~
i∶ l∶ J:∶ :f四
i:拧
:Ⅱ ;茁 :l∶
α0ro`肠 ∴
烀1扰 tXφ 函 ,lg” αs

6, cΔ BⅡ △ AR9
λφ。
‘ roΙ 无
犭 纟
嬲 诏‰ 芳皙动

l∶ r,
dδ s,ˉ ot,δ
pⅡ IL^D乃 LPⅡ ΙΔ 2

烀 n6s屁 。or订 乃
ω ′ δ πota/I缶

骝 、 甘 叩
:‰ this Iovoly pass,the Vale° f Tempo,beh/een M1os.sa and Mt09mpus,

氍 :黟 l笞 讯 嘤 r¢
硝 袱诮 夕 冗
¢召 :∶ rα J
might have provcn more troublesome to lhe Persians than Thermopyl窍
1hey not fo“ nd an eas】 er ontranCe into Creece tho Pe∏
,had
eus R】 Vor, which

噙:银沾笛筛 ("m⑴ TEGY8TRΔ


Mnds through it,is one of the few in Greoce that never go dry

=The possegBlve goui0iVe Ilrlm日 ll9fQu° wg tho artiC】 oo£ tLθ Iloun i1
口 jn汕 n。 s
;甙 翥韫乩品j盂 :;i诫 击e:狙 dc。 gnate8aro p“ tod lIl sⅡ aIl Capl1als

丿f t
m垦 y∴ ∶
∶∶旯
朵£
;∶氍&;氵 凡
%九 漱
;报 ;芦
e山 Jve.vlth

LESSoN II 诧 v dvepoπ ov π伽 “ d穹 9Fl° 叼 历e砌 et丿


琚 :湍 绍 rs{;:帑 钌谬
DEcmNsIoN OI0 o— slrEMs~c。 n‘ InIIed

t0yos γ泣ρ,击 s λFγ °vσ ‘ κ


y,‘ 氵λ(汔 sπ △t犭 ρ
7b氵 印 sα 弘 沁 fjlcyh油 er犭 7h,,l召 1

`,sv r乃

8 Persistent Acoent Tho accen七 of tlle nomin巳 tive


must bo learned by observa1ion It will remain °n the
salne syllable in乇 he o1her cases i£ possible, ,ln acu1o on
1he P° nul1of a nouil of the o-declension remains oll tha1
syllable throughout An aoute on the antepentJ1is drawn
to111e pellult wllen the ultima is long(§ v,e) 「inal~° 1

Of tl〗 e nomi】 latlVe lDlural is co⒒ sl(1ered刂 l° r1(§ V,¤ )・ tHE ARc^DlAN G人 TE

δφ
‘λs 古
° 乃召丿 冗
%鞴 磔琶n泔 肼f苷 茹
J
rt砦 愚睨毖粼砜 t赞 t絮 苕
rf纟

62,rλ 。 °1 φJλ °‘ r恙
s
t° 。 φfλ °v t⒗ v φJλ ω v
t0 φJλ 申 t° :s φrλ 。1s 10 ΨoCΔ BIl△
t δv ∮rλ 。v t° 1s∮ rλ 。
” ‘^R?
洳印岍 os,∞ ”δ:″ c汜 Lat乃 o″ o Eλ λ犭σt° y了 0s,-剑 , 0: rrPztr,s/9o″ ,

丿″s舌 姒曰″
召 ncl`es
o δoκ ¢1os3芑 vθ ρωπos t/l〃
`乃 '9rJ吖 `,△

。 δfK己 1os αv矽 ρω70s2 o; δ汶α1° 1 。v汐ρωt01


dv%苗 ⒎。
t° o&KGrov l, tω v δ ‘ K⒍ ‘ °v αV矽 ρ0r ωv
t0δ “α
丫申 洳%。 π申 to:sδ 1κ α f° 鸣洳%苗 t os

tδ v δ丫
κu1ov 0V汐 ρωπov to,l,.:lδ 1K【 trol,s。 v%苗 t Qt,s

In like I】 laⅡ uer inncc1δ π犭λcFlos


o〃 F,o9″ Lat召 扌 ∮9⒑ s, ov,δ :/l″ ″ ″
l Euripide8, f△ aglneI1t `匹 C
ECLECTΙ l’ HlLAlfT【 Ι〗
tO PIsT
zI11 the previo11・ , lesson y。 u fouⅡ d singular and plural labeled From
nolV on you are given llo labCls,bl11you ca,l rθ adny tell whicb is Xs hich 1Thi8i8° ur8ecoud u8e of th8geni1ive (§
aAsi,l△ a1:i1,adjec1ives agreo with tbeir v° uⅡ s iα geⅡ der, Ⅱumber, and |l) Tl、 el1se lx・ re give∶ l is like
1h【,La1in abla1ive in i1s/Jo″ 1relati。 n8
2AdjeCtiˇ e8in-ρ os u8ualIy have the ac111e on the las1syllab】
e
4
m垦 y∴ ∶
∶∶旯
朵£
;∶氍&;氵 凡
%九 漱
;报 ;芦
e山 Jve.vlth

LESSoN II 诧 v dvepoπ ov π伽 “ d穹 9Fl° 叼 历e砌 et丿


琚 :湍 绍 rs{;:帑 钌谬
DEcmNsIoN OI0 o— slrEMs~c。 n‘ InIIed

t0yos γ泣ρ,击 s λFγ °vσ ‘ κ


y,‘ 氵λ(汔 sπ △t犭 ρ
7b氵 印 sα 弘 沁 fjlcyh油 er犭 7h,,l召 1

`,sv r乃

8 Persistent Acoent Tho accen七 of tlle nomin巳 tive


must bo learned by observa1ion It will remain °n the
salne syllable in乇 he o1her cases i£ possible, ,ln acu1o on
1he P° nul1of a nouil of the o-declension remains oll tha1
syllable throughout An aoute on the antepentJ1is drawn
to111e pellult wllen the ultima is long(§ v,e) 「inal~° 1

Of tl〗 e nomi】 latlVe lDlural is co⒒ sl(1ered刂 l° r1(§ V,¤ )・ tHE ARc^DlAN G人 TE

δφ
‘λs 古
° 乃召丿 冗
%鞴 磔琶n泔 肼f苷 茹
J
rt砦 愚睨毖粼砜 t赞 t絮 苕
rf纟

62,rλ 。 °1 φJλ °‘ r恙
s
t° 。 φfλ °v t⒗ v φJλ ω v
t0 φJλ 申 t° :s φrλ 。1s 10 ΨoCΔ BIl△
t δv ∮rλ 。v t° 1s∮ rλ 。
” ‘^R?
洳印岍 os,∞ ”δ:″ c汜 Lat乃 o″ o Eλ λ犭σt° y了 0s,-剑 , 0: rrPztr,s/9o″ ,

丿″s舌 姒曰″
召 ncl`es
o δoκ ¢1os3芑 vθ ρωπos t/l〃
`乃 '9rJ吖 `,△

。 δfK己 1os αv矽 ρω70s2 o; δ汶α1° 1 。v汐ρωt01


dv%苗 ⒎。
t° o&KGrov l, tω v δ ‘ K⒍ ‘ °v αV矽 ρ0r ωv
t0δ “α
丫申 洳%。 π申 to:sδ 1κ α f° 鸣洳%苗 t os

tδ v δ丫
κu1ov 0V汐 ρωπov to,l,.:lδ 1K【 trol,s。 v%苗 t Qt,s

In like I】 laⅡ uer inncc1δ π犭λcFlos


o〃 F,o9″ Lat召 扌 ∮9⒑ s, ov,δ :/l″ ″ ″
l Euripide8, f△ aglneI1t `匹 C
ECLECTΙ l’ HlLAlfT【 Ι〗
tO PIsT
zI11 the previo11・ , lesson y。 u fouⅡ d singular and plural labeled From
nolV on you are given llo labCls,bl11you ca,l rθ adny tell whicb is Xs hich 1Thi8i8° ur8ecoud u8e of th8geni1ive (§
aAsi,l△ a1:i1,adjec1ives agreo with tbeir v° uⅡ s iα geⅡ der, Ⅱumber, and |l) Tl、 el1se lx・ re give∶ l is like
1h【,La1in abla1ive in i1s/Jo″ 1relati。 n8
2AdjeCtiˇ e8in-ρ os u8ualIy have the ac111e on the las1syllab】
e
4
AN INTRODVCTIoN TO GRIIlEK
1I, IR厶 Irs△ Δo・ 【
oⅡ Ⅱn吖 rs
1, Learn a⒒ words given in vo。 abularieg
2. Learn all forms灬 1hey are presen1ed.
LEssoN III
8. No1ed1e signific包 no° 。£1he varioug£ orms PREsElrT IⅣ Dェ cATWE厶 ND mmWIlIw日 厶cT‘ ˇ山 oF
4, Reaa the Greek aloud,notIng Word groups。 Ω-VERBs
6. Translate.
沅枷 7枷 α t湘 vα t冫 v¤ 一 乙lrl
伽 ∴ r,J切 枷 s洲 汕 栅 u
I2 DXERClsEs 协

艹¨ ’

∶’
;揣
x~|3・
幽 r四 绍
The Present Tonse, This tens° donotes ao1ion ″
or co%fⅡ %z彬 or″ ‘ 囫 氵召Jin pⅡ ・
,en1⒍ me:
σ

V° I;|1’

παvω '。
∶ 10冫

α″}s`o/lP氵 刀〃,f灭 r,〃 丿8//vlf’ 氵


”〃,``/r)`//″
πqut钐 aπ δt。 氵tEλ ,t9,σ πdJ’ `r/`,丿
,

tov, 8, o犭 aδ cλ ,。 讠氵σ口v PREgENT INDIc^TIVE Λ CTIvE〈 〉


r π ooΦ r$莎 /,P ∵∶∷
4.To诉 ¢众o”

u9rpo‘
t铲 8INGUI'^l1 rL Ci∶
^I



‰ 鼷骚
l∶

':∶
πα长ω παt△ Il△ CV
f勹 ^ παv△ ‘
、J`‘ s
6.耐 π流 私‘ α a苫 汔uq σrp口 ~ ti∷ ,rtltI(1 9rtt南 uc‘ (o
T’ ,fyo泌
莺 v.I 7J σrp弘
丫 ,σ ‘ o】 PREsENT I、 FINITΙ VE A0TIvE πα讠
仁‘1V

T9,书 q To泌 av9p氵 hΓ °


凼 π中π⒏ Ill hko maⅡⅡor inⅡ ec1扌 矽铷
t。 aδ晶,¢ 8,。 J苈 v即 @π o。
句oI/c。 v aε 南】
,s扌 δ
扒oo贲 1‘ Verb structure (@)In tlle in且 °。Jon of a v° rb
1he s比 饥 is of fundamental impor1ance. On i1are bu⒒ 1
:钅
tho various forms. π。v~is七 be s1em of π△‘.
屮 椤 掳 拦 ,画 v Pr,rPˉ (Φ %9tse Is denoted by巳 pproprlate su伍 xe,s or pre丘 xes,
2.诧 v汾cλ φ-π 咖9rc‘ ε r t~ Tho tonse suiFlx of1he Prexsen1诣 cdled the v咿竞α3扬 v@m/・ 召
πoT0″_(singdar) 8・ 0 厶
writ1en° /ε ,o boing uged bef° re u° rv,‘ else、 ȟere
The most brn"ant perlod in Atheˉ σTpoT,a叩 )To泌 φ趴o吟 πcrot—
0)⒕ P@r:。 ∞¢Jε 磁 饨 7i:attached to complete1oe ve・ ・
Ⅱ 加 @π —・
nian hlsto,is justly called the Age b・

of Perlcles His home wasthe haunt In 七


ho Presen1 indica1ive ac1ive 1he personal °nding is
of sculp1or and arch"co1 poet 0nd lˉ vi8ugua11y
added to Ⅰ
⒘ord母 θ
phntsopher. To hin Ψe Owe above
`ρ ndˉ
olear1y geen only in1h° firg1and seoond Person8plura1.
iⅡ g in c1before a平 oId
begiⅡ n:mg
an th。 planntng and constmc"° n of with8⒘owel or巳 1the θnd of民 8θ nˉ
the malchIess P食 rthenon,
I5, Verb▲ ∞ent. In§ 8we saw乇 ha1the a° °en1of
tonCo, Thiθ i3called vˉ ⅡoΨ nble
nouIls、 ⒘as porgis1en1, Tha1of v° rbo ig '口 饣
es筋 钞@,1hat is,

’Euripidθ g,‘ ragmell1 Lltθ raⅡ y: 刀V俨 氵


o犭 zs be日 ε
氵V↓ αη屁oo饣

AN INTRODVCTIoN TO GRIIlEK
1I, IR厶 Irs△ Δo・ 【
oⅡ Ⅱn吖 rs
1, Learn a⒒ words given in vo。 abularieg
2. Learn all forms灬 1hey are presen1ed.
LEssoN III
8. No1ed1e signific包 no° 。£1he varioug£ orms PREsElrT IⅣ Dェ cATWE厶 ND mmWIlIw日 厶cT‘ ˇ山 oF
4, Reaa the Greek aloud,notIng Word groups。 Ω-VERBs
6. Translate.
沅枷 7枷 α t湘 vα t冫 v¤ 一 乙lrl
伽 ∴ r,J切 枷 s洲 汕 栅 u
I2 DXERClsEs 协

艹¨ ’

∶’
;揣
x~|3・
幽 r四 绍
The Present Tonse, This tens° donotes ao1ion ″
or co%fⅡ %z彬 or″ ‘ 囫 氵召Jin pⅡ ・
,en1⒍ me:
σ

V° I;|1’

παvω '。
∶ 10冫

α″}s`o/lP氵 刀〃,f灭 r,〃 丿8//vlf’ 氵


”〃,``/r)`//″
πqut钐 aπ δt。 氵tEλ ,t9,σ πdJ’ `r/`,丿
,

tov, 8, o犭 aδ cλ ,。 讠氵σ口v PREgENT INDIc^TIVE Λ CTIvE〈 〉


r π ooΦ r$莎 /,P ∵∶∷
4.To诉 ¢众o”

u9rpo‘
t铲 8INGUI'^l1 rL Ci∶
^I



‰ 鼷骚
l∶

':∶
πα长ω παt△ Il△ CV
f勹 ^ παv△ ‘
、J`‘ s
6.耐 π流 私‘ α a苫 汔uq σrp口 ~ ti∷ ,rtltI(1 9rtt南 uc‘ (o
T’ ,fyo泌
莺 v.I 7J σrp弘
丫 ,σ ‘ o】 PREsENT I、 FINITΙ VE A0TIvE πα讠
仁‘1V

T9,书 q To泌 av9p氵 hΓ °


凼 π中π⒏ Ill hko maⅡⅡor inⅡ ec1扌 矽铷
t。 aδ晶,¢ 8,。 J苈 v即 @π o。
句oI/c。 v aε 南】
,s扌 δ
扒oo贲 1‘ Verb structure (@)In tlle in且 °。Jon of a v° rb
1he s比 饥 is of fundamental impor1ance. On i1are bu⒒ 1
:钅
tho various forms. π。v~is七 be s1em of π△‘.
屮 椤 掳 拦 ,画 v Pr,rPˉ (Φ %9tse Is denoted by巳 pproprlate su伍 xe,s or pre丘 xes,
2.诧 v汾cλ φ-π 咖9rc‘ ε r t~ Tho tonse suiFlx of1he Prexsen1诣 cdled the v咿竞α3扬 v@m/・ 召
πoT0″_(singdar) 8・ 0 厶
writ1en° /ε ,o boing uged bef° re u° rv,‘ else、 ȟere
The most brn"ant perlod in Atheˉ σTpoT,a叩 )To泌 φ趴o吟 πcrot—
0)⒕ P@r:。 ∞¢Jε 磁 饨 7i:attached to complete1oe ve・ ・
Ⅱ 加 @π —・
nian hlsto,is justly called the Age b・

of Perlcles His home wasthe haunt In 七


ho Presen1 indica1ive ac1ive 1he personal °nding is
of sculp1or and arch"co1 poet 0nd lˉ vi8ugua11y
added to Ⅰ
⒘ord母 θ
phntsopher. To hin Ψe Owe above
`ρ ndˉ
olear1y geen only in1h° firg1and seoond Person8plura1.
iⅡ g in c1before a平 oId
begiⅡ n:mg
an th。 planntng and constmc"° n of with8⒘owel or巳 1the θnd of民 8θ nˉ
the malchIess P食 rthenon,
I5, Verb▲ ∞ent. In§ 8we saw乇 ha1the a° °en1of
tonCo, Thiθ i3called vˉ ⅡoΨ nble
nouIls、 ⒘as porgis1en1, Tha1of v° rbo ig '口 饣
es筋 钞@,1hat is,

’Euripidθ g,‘ ragmell1 Lltθ raⅡ y: 刀V俨 氵


o犭 zs be日 ε
氵V↓ αη屁oo饣

8 AN INTltODUCTloN TO GREEK ⒐ VERBs
i1goes back七 o、 Vard tho beginning o£ 1he、 v。 rd as f乙 r ag ″。 λ妇 ‘Ⅱ λ衫ovcr T。 泌 tav
1he quan1i1y° f1he ul1ima ll,nl I)ermi1 This nleans 1hat σTP。 t?γ av rπ π。t,q 8 J
the ac。 en1stand8。 n11Ie antepenult if1h° ul1ima is8h° rt; σtρ 巴t?γ ♂s π 。
oλ u厶 os 氵v toλ
on tl】 c pel】 u1t if1he ul1ima is long: 讠γγ苫λo99

ec・ kω , 启
矽诌λo/ttv
‘cl complete:
I6 Dative w狁 h Adjectives The dative is used wi111 1. 。J aδ cλ ,。 ) 。矽 。λovσ ‘
,11a】 ly adjeo1ives exp!essing∫ r犭r,氵 ‘
氵J扌 龙c‘ s,1口 s氵 zJ饣 ,四 ε
〃 犭
B° ⒍a- VP色 ● 2 0夕 苫λoucv7oLs・
。%,/r``诏 、s,and tlle like:l ‰π。 吟 aγ ~ˉ &to氵 π。 tcu— ・ AN IMM° RtAL HoRsE
`丿
〃″ 8 oJ Jγ γcλ 。 9π °λ肖 Tllis is °ne of the prec9° us b9ts of
πoλ 。
utos0y tf σtρ α 币乃
t” γ r`、 //″ 、
″ c〃 c″ craJ u‘ o氵
氵σ色V sculptvrc from the eastern pcdinnent
`¢
`r,`乃
t-ˉ σTp色 t9,γ _ˉ (sillgu1ar) of tbc Parthen° n
VoCAB¤ L^RY
。γ∝锚 s: 〃″rl″ , Jl’ kI r/, ΛGATⅡ 人 κu0col刂 :〃 ″〃,祝 so,c肥 呢 I9 (o) tR厶 Ⅱs△ Δ’IoⅡ II【 IITs
λos,门 v,0: ″7Css召 ″r/‘
。γγξ καλos∶ ″ 〃c〃 、‘ εn。 氵′ r,/冖 召 z冫
1. Re∶ 1d the en1ire Enghs】 l sen1eⅡ ce, notillg how tlle
`
`冫 `,乃 `i‘

L
ΛNC】 ∶ k南 δu9・ os,ˉ oV,δ ∶r氵 on.``r
words aro related
r`
。γω :′ c′ ′ La1 n〃 ″ λ矽os,0v,♂ :sh饣 B
2.Call10miⅡ d Greek wor(ls wi1h me:1nlilgs lik° tl1()、 e
γρ溢φω∶〃 `'″ 〃 TE】 Ⅱ GRAPⅡ LITII(X:I1APⅡ
:9。 λω∶ 乃 ,乃 ε1ot’ λoω :lr os6乙 c△ d召 s″ o` in Engli8h
"态 'ε
‰tos,-四 ,o∶ 乃o氵 召 `J,lr/
l、 Λ△ ALY8Is 8 Consider the changes in f° rnl Ι
leedcd to exPrcss 1he
ⅡIppopOTΛ M us rela1i° ns8ugge8七 ed by the ηnglish

EXERC【 sEs
4 Forn△ 七 he Greek sentence men1ally and8ay i1aloud
bo£ oro star1ing to wri1e
凼 )wha1do1he Por1icl【 ls iⅡ llea了 y订 Pe tell as to the person 5. 、Vrlte tl)e sen1ence,、 ˇi1h acoen1s alld brea1hings,
and nulnl)er of1ho subjoct?
苗 vσ 1 λ。
°u‘ v 它
矽 lb)`vh1e ill Greek;
γ° cxc t‘ 。λω PJφ ξ
γ 1s
1, The bro1hers wero smal1 2 q`hey ar° sending
(r/l Tnllslate:
1h° man to the gelleral, 8. The generaI i8sending七 he
1 莒xoucv t° 氵 ttλ o认 λ
q ‘ ″ovs 2 o汐 苫 λωto aγ 画ε 0 °nemy away fr° m1hO river 4 He sends t】 le man ou1
av矽 0苗 πp γρ犭φ v2 3 r战
c‘ 。 σTP研 刀γδs tδ v犭 γγoλ ov of1he river 5 They、 vere 1ro1hers of the general。
‘ σπJvt° v 4 ° 。
苗γ 由 c‘πδt° 0 Eλ λ” f aδ cλ φ 讠Fε ‘
λovσ ‘
t° 氵9‰ πov9π 色衫 V 5 。 犭γ丫 洳 s肖胙 ‘ aγ 耐 δv纭 π
C‘ l,I/.

6 t° 泌 φ亻λ°l,sε 9亻 λ°uc,’ 茁γ vo钅 to氵 钅。 6v。 u c‘ 7, oJ ,/δ


岳‰ 栋 ::iⅠ ;:ur° f熙 浣 pl∶ 扌:∶ rs∶ ∶∶∶e留 :;扌 :∶ :;;∶ 1∶
In unison △
,,i1h 乇
his unceasing chaIlt DioIlysu,s r。 ll/s
l TIlis is our seco〗 1d use o〖 tlle da1ive(§ 4) Correspouding nngli:h adjθ cˉ
Charon’ s boat acro8s 1he s1yx I1is th° basiθ °f Yal° ’
1iVes are II8ed、 Vith`o or丿 %'and for the same rea8on8 s
2CoⅡ pleⅡ eⅡ tary in丘 nitive,the object of‘ 口‘λo, Wel⒈ known ye⒒ 。
8 AN INTltODUCTloN TO GREEK ⒐ VERBs
i1goes back七 o、 Vard tho beginning o£ 1he、 v。 rd as f乙 r ag ″。 λ妇 ‘Ⅱ λ衫ovcr T。 泌 tav
1he quan1i1y° f1he ul1ima ll,nl I)ermi1 This nleans 1hat σTP。 t?γ av rπ π。t,q 8 J
the ac。 en1stand8。 n11Ie antepenult if1h° ul1ima is8h° rt; σtρ 巴t?γ ♂s π 。
oλ u厶 os 氵v toλ
on tl】 c pel】 u1t if1he ul1ima is long: 讠γγ苫λo99

ec・ kω , 启
矽诌λo/ttv
‘cl complete:
I6 Dative w狁 h Adjectives The dative is used wi111 1. 。J aδ cλ ,。 ) 。矽 。λovσ ‘
,11a】 ly adjeo1ives exp!essing∫ r犭r,氵 ‘
氵J扌 龙c‘ s,1口 s氵 zJ饣 ,四 ε
〃 犭
B° ⒍a- VP色 ● 2 0夕 苫λoucv7oLs・
。%,/r``诏 、s,and tlle like:l ‰π。 吟 aγ ~ˉ &to氵 π。 tcu— ・ AN IMM° RtAL HoRsE
`丿
〃″ 8 oJ Jγ γcλ 。 9π °λ肖 Tllis is °ne of the prec9° us b9ts of
πoλ 。
utos0y tf σtρ α 币乃
t” γ r`、 //″ 、
″ c〃 c″ craJ u‘ o氵
氵σ色V sculptvrc from the eastern pcdinnent
`¢
`r,`乃
t-ˉ σTp色 t9,γ _ˉ (sillgu1ar) of tbc Parthen° n
VoCAB¤ L^RY
。γ∝锚 s: 〃″rl″ , Jl’ kI r/, ΛGATⅡ 人 κu0col刂 :〃 ″〃,祝 so,c肥 呢 I9 (o) tR厶 Ⅱs△ Δ’IoⅡ II【 IITs
λos,门 v,0: ″7Css召 ″r/‘
。γγξ καλos∶ ″ 〃c〃 、‘ εn。 氵′ r,/冖 召 z冫
1. Re∶ 1d the en1ire Enghs】 l sen1eⅡ ce, notillg how tlle
`
`冫 `,乃 `i‘

L
ΛNC】 ∶ k南 δu9・ os,ˉ oV,δ ∶r氵 on.``r
words aro related
r`
。γω :′ c′ ′ La1 n〃 ″ λ矽os,0v,♂ :sh饣 B
2.Call10miⅡ d Greek wor(ls wi1h me:1nlilgs lik° tl1()、 e
γρ溢φω∶〃 `'″ 〃 TE】 Ⅱ GRAPⅡ LITII(X:I1APⅡ
:9。 λω∶ 乃 ,乃 ε1ot’ λoω :lr os6乙 c△ d召 s″ o` in Engli8h
"态 'ε
‰tos,-四 ,o∶ 乃o氵 召 `J,lr/
l、 Λ△ ALY8Is 8 Consider the changes in f° rnl Ι
leedcd to exPrcss 1he
ⅡIppopOTΛ M us rela1i° ns8ugge8七 ed by the ηnglish

EXERC【 sEs
4 Forn△ 七 he Greek sentence men1ally and8ay i1aloud
bo£ oro star1ing to wri1e
凼 )wha1do1he Por1icl【 ls iⅡ llea了 y订 Pe tell as to the person 5. 、Vrlte tl)e sen1ence,、 ˇi1h acoen1s alld brea1hings,
and nulnl)er of1ho subjoct?
苗 vσ 1 λ。
°u‘ v 它
矽 lb)`vh1e ill Greek;
γ° cxc t‘ 。λω PJφ ξ
γ 1s
1, The bro1hers wero smal1 2 q`hey ar° sending
(r/l Tnllslate:
1h° man to the gelleral, 8. The generaI i8sending七 he
1 莒xoucv t° 氵 ttλ o认 λ
q ‘ ″ovs 2 o汐 苫 λωto aγ 画ε 0 °nemy away fr° m1hO river 4 He sends t】 le man ou1
av矽 0苗 πp γρ犭φ v2 3 r战
c‘ 。 σTP研 刀γδs tδ v犭 γγoλ ov of1he river 5 They、 vere 1ro1hers of the general。
‘ σπJvt° v 4 ° 。
苗γ 由 c‘πδt° 0 Eλ λ” f aδ cλ φ 讠Fε ‘
λovσ ‘
t° 氵9‰ πov9π 色衫 V 5 。 犭γ丫 洳 s肖胙 ‘ aγ 耐 δv纭 π
C‘ l,I/.

6 t° 泌 φ亻λ°l,sε 9亻 λ°uc,’ 茁γ vo钅 to氵 钅。 6v。 u c‘ 7, oJ ,/δ


岳‰ 栋 ::iⅠ ;:ur° f熙 浣 pl∶ 扌:∶ rs∶ ∶∶∶e留 :;扌 :∶ :;;∶ 1∶
In unison △
,,i1h 乇
his unceasing chaIlt DioIlysu,s r。 ll/s
l TIlis is our seco〗 1d use o〖 tlle da1ive(§ 4) Correspouding nngli:h adjθ cˉ
Charon’ s boat acro8s 1he s1yx I1is th° basiθ °f Yal° ’
1iVes are II8ed、 Vith`o or丿 %'and for the same rea8on8 s
2CoⅡ pleⅡ eⅡ tary in丘 nitive,the object of‘ 口‘λo, Wel⒈ known ye⒒ 。
DEcLaNsION OF O sq。 EM NEUTERs

24, 厶ocuga谊 vo of P1ace tO Wh】 ch, Tho aoousa贫 Vθ

wi1h many prepositiong aelloteg`J舀 c纟 ‘


@zo无 杨几f1
LEssoN IV c:s tδ ,rcδ 0v 饣
。 nJo l/ue pzcz91(Latln:in° ppldum 扌
n`ol/u″ o叨 %);
:吣 t洳 四 paTmy函 沏 汤 召 s记 纟 旷 汤 ¢ 夕em″ α′・

DzomFsェ oW °F o-slrEM W〓 0IERs


25. VoCABI,△ ▲R:

盔甥哕饣
:嬲 嬲‰铺筋 !
δ。【
a9bef。 ro vowels),po:tpo$”
conJ:3t’ 1。 ,ad,
包 Pr° cⅡ △prep wi1bD.:犰
切) ¤No△ ITIc・
(△ at

δ
铖岬 ,ˉ t,u,柘 :Jrc已 T。 Pa,Prep:mth G・ ,/ro狃 屁εstfJc
吮 Πith n,勿 扬 sItfe q丿
RⅡ oIlOI,EWI,Iio∮ r`


抒⒕碰嚣
.

带Ⅶ博
l蓝 盅
屐磷F∶咭
诩Xos;P氵 o饣 %ev记 em饣 , w⒒ hA,〃 o汤 召strt召 qG沏 ,α 沏ηoz
lv,t0:‘ ⒎I/l
执 ρoy,ˉ【 THEOIlORE ide
召 P^R ΛLIjEL.
dg,Prodlt, Prep,W⒒ hA:讠 91Jo Tcδ f吗 ∞” t。 :P忆 Pn.
(La△ 惋〉
・ σt‘ 抚o,/, 。0” tJ: s`Gd犭 u屁 (raCo
(600£ 1)卩
捃」f∶ E茹 1犭
oourse); s`@cJ召

i蚀 i虫 絷 :m:l「 紫捕
塬盂 ∶
罗 :∶
2C. EXFRCIsEs
tb呜 10,δ δρo,2漉 %
口 叨 口砒 矽
(ow】 at probable use
: :}蛋 `矽

⒈⒈
ot the wOrd ig denoted by

∶l骼l茸
}露 静 :艹

δ
δ亻ov
πε
Dλ 已
lleavy1ype endiugg?
犭ε
δ
‘° v
匆ap。 v
δ∮ρ。1s σt口 δ亻Q
of Verb。 A nou妯 r Plura18u丬 e∞
reg⒈
22 Agr∞me,t
(吵 Irran:1ate:
1色 ny has⒒ s verb in1h°
⒍ngular:
论 况严 和 搀 £ 姒 乡I/rJ ωerc v。 rJ无 弘 1・ Jv Ⅱ πs彳P助 洫
加 氵 讠斌 u・ 2・ 砑Jˉ ‘‘
2g. DatlVe of P【 ace Where. The a色 伉Ve WIth mog1

THB scRATcH”
sJo″ 氵 v π。pa Ⅱ° πⅡ △he Delphl° stad"m lpage19l stm re.
田P’ 无e'叼 f4
岱oIlg denoteg PJ口 矽
Pr° po茁 Ta/I0 8・ 钅 ε:亦 讠σ
丨 to卜 talns the row of nal stones whose donblo
uo钞 彳

劣兜氵
犰扬

gr∞ ves,c扪 ed by tho Creeks匀 妒 α

写湍锣畲
‰£驻 揣
); HJtJ
ε
1ov Jγ °vcI δap¢ r。 ,1苗 。 “
,
’aδ ε
4 oJ δ λ∮。
冫d夕 晶°
v-
the scratoh`’
the runnors’ foet
detornined the positi° n of

1Th!s IB Our go∞ nd u‘o of aCCugat:Vθ 〈


§9 I“ g tb。 :aIIle in△ at血

poBtpoBi"v° πord never stallds众 rgt !n itg c〗 ause It uguany conθ s
:缁 黼 搬 黼 泔 f羝 。。s。 。:ro出 m剐 № BOcond
rola△ oⅡ 8
:Uged皿0stIy ln1he plural,Whe⒑ Ⅱk° ‘,9pt,T。 s
that of tbO Intin ab∶ auvo l・ lt,,0乃
"Ig lnnoCtod
lo
DEcLaNsION OF O sq。 EM NEUTERs

24, 厶ocuga谊 vo of P1ace tO Wh】 ch, Tho aoousa贫 Vθ

wi1h many prepositiong aelloteg`J舀 c纟 ‘


@zo无 杨几f1
LEssoN IV c:s tδ ,rcδ 0v 饣
。 nJo l/ue pzcz91(Latln:in° ppldum 扌
n`ol/u″ o叨 %);
:吣 t洳 四 paTmy函 沏 汤 召 s记 纟 旷 汤 ¢ 夕em″ α′・

DzomFsェ oW °F o-slrEM W〓 0IERs


25. VoCABI,△ ▲R:

盔甥哕饣
:嬲 嬲‰铺筋 !
δ。【
a9bef。 ro vowels),po:tpo$”
conJ:3t’ 1。 ,ad,
包 Pr° cⅡ △prep wi1bD.:犰
切) ¤No△ ITIc・
(△ at

δ
铖岬 ,ˉ t,u,柘 :Jrc已 T。 Pa,Prep:mth G・ ,/ro狃 屁εstfJc
吮 Πith n,勿 扬 sItfe q丿
RⅡ oIlOI,EWI,Iio∮ r`


抒⒕碰嚣
.

带Ⅶ博
l蓝 盅
屐磷F∶咭
诩Xos;P氵 o饣 %ev记 em饣 , w⒒ hA,〃 o汤 召strt召 qG沏 ,α 沏ηoz
lv,t0:‘ ⒎I/l
执 ρoy,ˉ【 THEOIlORE ide
召 P^R ΛLIjEL.
dg,Prodlt, Prep,W⒒ hA:讠 91Jo Tcδ f吗 ∞” t。 :P忆 Pn.
(La△ 惋〉
・ σt‘ 抚o,/, 。0” tJ: s`Gd犭 u屁 (raCo
(600£ 1)卩
捃」f∶ E茹 1犭
oourse); s`@cJ召

i蚀 i虫 絷 :m:l「 紫捕
塬盂 ∶
罗 :∶
2C. EXFRCIsEs
tb呜 10,δ δρo,2漉 %
口 叨 口砒 矽
(ow】 at probable use
: :}蛋 `矽

⒈⒈
ot the wOrd ig denoted by

∶l骼l茸
}露 静 :艹

δ
δ亻ov
πε
Dλ 已
lleavy1ype endiugg?
犭ε
δ
‘° v
匆ap。 v
δ∮ρ。1s σt口 δ亻Q
of Verb。 A nou妯 r Plura18u丬 e∞
reg⒈
22 Agr∞me,t
(吵 Irran:1ate:
1色 ny has⒒ s verb in1h°
⒍ngular:
论 况严 和 搀 £ 姒 乡I/rJ ωerc v。 rJ无 弘 1・ Jv Ⅱ πs彳P助 洫
加 氵 讠斌 u・ 2・ 砑Jˉ ‘‘
2g. DatlVe of P【 ace Where. The a色 伉Ve WIth mog1

THB scRATcH”
sJo″ 氵 v π。pa Ⅱ° πⅡ △he Delphl° stad"m lpage19l stm re.
田P’ 无e'叼 f4
岱oIlg denoteg PJ口 矽
Pr° po茁 Ta/I0 8・ 钅 ε:亦 讠σ
丨 to卜 talns the row of nal stones whose donblo
uo钞 彳

劣兜氵
犰扬

gr∞ ves,c扪 ed by tho Creeks匀 妒 α

写湍锣畲
‰£驻 揣
); HJtJ
ε
1ov Jγ °vcI δap¢ r。 ,1苗 。 “
,
’aδ ε
4 oJ δ λ∮。
冫d夕 晶°
v-
the scratoh`’
the runnors’ foet
detornined the positi° n of

1Th!s IB Our go∞ nd u‘o of aCCugat:Vθ 〈


§9 I“ g tb。 :aIIle in△ at血

poBtpoBi"v° πord never stallds众 rgt !n itg c〗 ause It uguany conθ s
:缁 黼 搬 黼 泔 f羝 。。s。 。:ro出 m剐 № BOcond
rola△ oⅡ 8
:Uged皿0stIy ln1he plural,Whe⒑ Ⅱk° ‘,9pt,T。 s
that of tbO Intin ab∶ auvo l・ lt,,0乃
"Ig lnnoCtod
lo
妾按:醣猸尸
镪 F伴弼务 LEssoN V
|BEVIEW
吧硭
yh里 土 觜榭P唧 气f鲳茳
λ ・
(singuhr)加 口 犭 ‘ v° aδ ,~ˉ φ 肋
δ
Ⅱ 箩 吊utru Tt・ 】/t话 一 Ⅱ ′纟 lu,J茵 无αJrdon召 1
`J/J叩
d)′Vrite h Greek:

2 ThΘ brave m0ssenger 27 ImpOrtance Of Vocabu1ary。 If you wish to suoceed
1 trLe gton。 旬Wero beautlfu1,
in the g1uay。 f any languago,you mug1havo ab° ve all olse
wag ho8tlle 1o tLo gΘ Ilora1, 3 Thθ £riellds have Iino
horgeg, 4. Ho wighes to lead the men ou1 of dangor. 凸g° od working vooabulary. The、 ⒘ordg asgigned for g1udy
5 Tho brotherg wore hostⅡ e1o tho mossenger in thig book have beon chouen for their rela1ivo frequency
and general uiⅡ 1y, If you learn1hem,you8Lould be able
1o figurθ out1ho moaning of many o1her words,and ag a
rogd1be able to read wi1h grea1er eago and Pleagure,

Δss⒑ ⅡmIⅢ !s

(@)Rθ view a11w° rds七 hus far presen七 ed,obgorvhg臼 pOlling


(hcludlngaooelltl,in丑 eOtlon,mean血 g,alld pogglblo pooulIarl伉 os
of uge, study egpec诳 ˇ aIly words that θ
eem llIlhmil讫 r
Tes1your kIlOwledge by referenCo to the lis1山o§ 5四 .
(bl Name and de£ ne七 he Greek words gugges七 ed by:叩 oJo妣
2乃 “uoα γu1饣e,t9e乃 drolog饬 z,otOJ无 e¢ ,e。 c@nfr饣 C,@vmgez话 么p¢
`,无
J,⒑ 9,le,Ife9opo汕 饥扪,冫 △佗rocos肠 ,叨 J&刀 m饣 乃roPel%no,1o氵 仍/o,p@rα ⒎

JJIs,pIomogrcp△ Wbat othor Engl厶 h de⒒ va1hog oail you
add1h巳 1be】 ong to1hig group?
(cl Ⅵ没 nt are七 he p° ssIblo meanings suggogtod by tLe ond~
illgs。 ・
v,P,ov,ovs,o△
,c9? oJ】

tδ 扣Δ扒φ亦 σ
ro&°
' ⑷ Give1be Groek for:ho k9叼 ingu】 ar,
ed of all.is!ocated on "1ing,you (θ
load,wo旬 top,they have,I am looBhg,you(plural)wkL,
Thls ancient Creek stadiurn,pC:haps the best prescrˇ
veˇ valley H¨ ¨…W ye盯 s

指虫芷
be8endg,
塄 捕挠锶甜吕

1吝 eξ !n honor o【
^pollo
=Orook naxiⅡ Li18raⅡ y: (口1c) 0ε 夕讠乃/Jf%夕 lIs) 无口J/or evε 〃 g
1seo§ 0,△ 3Cen10ve of” rICo o:vaIoe Noto me:o deriva0Ves∶ △IC,Ⅱ EⅡ IgPⅡ iFBII,P△ lITo9CmJI `ht乃
^RoⅡ
18
妾按:醣猸尸
镪 F伴弼务 LEssoN V
|BEVIEW
吧硭
yh里 土 觜榭P唧 气f鲳茳
λ ・
(singuhr)加 口 犭 ‘ v° aδ ,~ˉ φ 肋
δ
Ⅱ 箩 吊utru Tt・ 】/t话 一 Ⅱ ′纟 lu,J茵 无αJrdon召 1
`J/J叩
d)′Vrite h Greek:

2 ThΘ brave m0ssenger 27 ImpOrtance Of Vocabu1ary。 If you wish to suoceed
1 trLe gton。 旬Wero beautlfu1,
in the g1uay。 f any languago,you mug1havo ab° ve all olse
wag ho8tlle 1o tLo gΘ Ilora1, 3 Thθ £riellds have Iino
horgeg, 4. Ho wighes to lead the men ou1 of dangor. 凸g° od working vooabulary. The、 ⒘ordg asgigned for g1udy
5 Tho brotherg wore hostⅡ e1o tho mossenger in thig book have beon chouen for their rela1ivo frequency
and general uiⅡ 1y, If you learn1hem,you8Lould be able
1o figurθ out1ho moaning of many o1her words,and ag a
rogd1be able to read wi1h grea1er eago and Pleagure,

Δss⒑ ⅡmIⅢ !s

(@)Rθ view a11w° rds七 hus far presen七 ed,obgorvhg臼 pOlling


(hcludlngaooelltl,in丑 eOtlon,mean血 g,alld pogglblo pooulIarl伉 os
of uge, study egpec诳 ˇ aIly words that θ
eem llIlhmil讫 r
Tes1your kIlOwledge by referenCo to the lis1山o§ 5四 .
(bl Name and de£ ne七 he Greek words gugges七 ed by:叩 oJo妣
2乃 “uoα γu1饣e,t9e乃 drolog饬 z,otOJ无 e¢ ,e。 c@nfr饣 C,@vmgez话 么p¢
`,无
J,⒑ 9,le,Ife9opo汕 饥扪,冫 △佗rocos肠 ,叨 J&刀 m饣 乃roPel%no,1o氵 仍/o,p@rα ⒎

JJIs,pIomogrcp△ Wbat othor Engl厶 h de⒒ va1hog oail you
add1h巳 1be】 ong to1hig group?
(cl Ⅵ没 nt are七 he p° ssIblo meanings suggogtod by tLe ond~
illgs。 ・
v,P,ov,ovs,o△
,c9? oJ】

tδ 扣Δ扒φ亦 σ
ro&°
' ⑷ Give1be Groek for:ho k9叼 ingu】 ar,
ed of all.is!ocated on "1ing,you (θ
load,wo旬 top,they have,I am looBhg,you(plural)wkL,
Thls ancient Creek stadiurn,pC:haps the best prescrˇ
veˇ valley H¨ ¨…W ye盯 s

指虫芷
be8endg,
塄 捕挠锶甜吕

1吝 eξ !n honor o【
^pollo
=Orook naxiⅡ Li18raⅡ y: (口1c) 0ε 夕讠乃/Jf%夕 lIs) 无口J/or evε 〃 g
1seo§ 0,△ 3Cen10ve of” rICo o:vaIoe Noto me:o deriva0Ves∶ △IC,Ⅱ EⅡ IgPⅡ iFBII,P△ lITo9CmJI `ht乃
^RoⅡ
18
14 AN INTRODUcTIoN lro oREEK

28. EXERC:sEs LEssoN VI


DECLElrsIOw oF厶 ~sTEMs

σκ
”妨 韬sδ s— “ 汤e ttr,r″ ・
scˇ ct/e” ・
'″
`南
29. A-stem FominiBes A~de° lensi° n n。 uns whos°
9omhatlves end in c or η are丿%,,zz|渤 诏 Becauge111e
eminine ar1i° le shows η in 1he singular, 】
£ louns and ad~
jeo1ives inηare present° d£ rs1, B° th types are1he8am°
in1he plurkl1.

呐Im t zJ砌 '


κ勺‘ ‘ 孓
au刂 吖
κωu`1η
ηs K吗 山 δv ``'・
κωu】 l κω艹 G1s
κωu△ v Kω u Gs

j黛 i罪 述 搬
A GREEK B0Y’ s tAB△ ET m踯 :、 丨
扌 镪器嘿飘盅

:丨 :fjI∶ }丨

斟竿揽紫莒甓
踯 烩 芏:⒒ :篇 :∫ 骺 :,瀹 .・
°讧e幻 r eaoh姿 nde马 I如 the

】0:∞ k厶 ntbologv LlteraIlv:z″ zzre Is G功 m`(seθ Ik,)


§
2For tIlθ aCCθ n1of”
,,rα λ”,and σ亻
,,v” ,θ eo§ V,r/,乃
,alld犭
8IIndings ot fominine8of1he C0ecIen8i° Iliu L8tin

Ⅱθ占 ∵ 埔 :T拣 ;;::iT茌 骢 g蛋


⒈ 器 篾 揽 猡 l;rip岍 l
砣 rIJ,,△ Thereforo,甲 ords of th】 s decIens!on regular〗 y circum⒔ eX the ul1ima
oF the gθ ni1ivθ ptural beCau8eo:c° ¤trac0° Ⅱo£ vOw° ls
】5
14 AN INTRODUcTIoN lro oREEK

28. EXERC:sEs LEssoN VI


DECLElrsIOw oF厶 ~sTEMs

σκ
”妨 韬sδ s— “ 汤e ttr,r″ ・
scˇ ct/e” ・
'″
`南
29. A-stem FominiBes A~de° lensi° n n。 uns whos°
9omhatlves end in c or η are丿%,,zz|渤 诏 Becauge111e
eminine ar1i° le shows η in 1he singular, 】
£ louns and ad~
jeo1ives inηare present° d£ rs1, B° th types are1he8am°
in1he plurkl1.

呐Im t zJ砌 '


κ勺‘ ‘ 孓
au刂 吖
κωu`1η
ηs K吗 山 δv ``'・
κωu】 l κω艹 G1s
κωu△ v Kω u Gs

j黛 i罪 述 搬
A GREEK B0Y’ s tAB△ ET m踯 :、 丨
扌 镪器嘿飘盅

:丨 :fjI∶ }丨

斟竿揽紫莒甓
踯 烩 芏:⒒ :篇 :∫ 骺 :,瀹 .・
°讧e幻 r eaoh姿 nde马 I如 the

】0:∞ k厶 ntbologv LlteraIlv:z″ zzre Is G功 m`(seθ Ik,)


§
2For tIlθ aCCθ n1of”
,,rα λ”,and σ亻
,,v” ,θ eo§ V,r/,乃
,alld犭
8IIndings ot fominine8of1he C0ecIen8i° Iliu L8tin

Ⅱθ占 ∵ 埔 :T拣 ;;::iT茌 骢 g蛋


⒈ 器 篾 揽 猡 l;rip岍 l
砣 rIJ,,△ Thereforo,甲 ords of th】 s decIens!on regular〗 y circum⒔ eX the ul1ima
oF the gθ ni1ivθ ptural beCau8eo:c° ¤trac0° Ⅱo£ vOw° ls
】5
16 AN NTRODUCTIoN
】 TO GREEK DECL口 NsIoN Op A sIP口 △∝s 17
(b)suoh ad刂 °
c岱 ves accen1the femhine geni伉 ve plurd 88. voc厶 :口 .0R:
lik。 1Le geni1ive P1ural° f七 he o-declension.
跏,品嘏 ζc。 Ⅱ 肛 四彻% ˉ
Ds, Ⅱ 渤G汤 %丿 pl,
Inn。 ct in aIl three gonderB Ⅱ JV。 Ilnd δ,洳⒐ Compare讯 讪 para ‘ |Jt’s氵 :v蚴 么
。 9,ˉ ″ JrcC″ , frlJc召 BPOIIDnE
digm8,§ 510,c JlGX0,刁 s,叩 :乃 α′
|Je,
φc6⒑ :`″ Lnt v铴
L0oo△I^oⅡ Y. FIIGITIVn `Io
aI,PⅡ itio。 Of^d卜 c山 Ⅱ

鞲 鞯槭 嬲 缸
@)Whe。

笋了
an a内 ood雨 °


s・ r
n ad刂 ec1ivo phr。 ge acoomp巳 nios a nouIl wi1h a deIini1e

art屺 le,1he a句 ∞Jve ugually s1andg between tllo ar1ide
and the noun,ag h Engligh: σκ刀形 ,讠 s,氵 :勿 ,j|, gJi犭 E ,漩 tω :乡 ut’ 汩 【
Verb,,
6δ 疏tl,s dv%ω π
°s 汤召
加 仇 s氵 ttJl
EX0RCIsI9s
Note1ha1(unlike Engligh)ev° n a prepogi1ional PhrDge 。l
【 WLntu:e oF业 e word d。 por贫 【lIlsin heEbvy tyPo guggog1?
may g1alld in thi8Poθ ion:
σ
π°
i七

忒 扣 石 κ咖 扣 饣 扁 即 】 沥饣狃即 枷 漉召v讹 卿
vδ av
φ
vγ 嚣 uJxη v F凼 u‘ 1s :w,,V芑 s
∮。
F ns
t,λ
c9rovδ d0r刀 v咱
`dyJp~l,,or济
The a哟 °。伍v° IIlay包 ho£ o11ow七 he noun and have1ho (bl TIlan:l/at° :

a讯 ide repeatod with i1:


1・°氵Oc勾 ° u″ 山 TtIλ
δ dv%oTOs♂ δ‘n“ ∞ s 泷 εJ Iq饣 叼 Gn
〃|γ 劬 2.吻 γⅡ
q・

In1ho日 bovo 七
ins乇 anoeg
he adje° 1ivo or phr巳 go ig gaid10 ∮l,Ic砀 氵v cr,,妨 r@λ 夺
havθ
(3〉
1he tr氵 柳犭沅氵 彳
饣¢po崩 渤‘
;t丿 9.

lVhen an ad刂 eo饫 ve preoodeg乇 h° ariole or fdlows 抵凵:o飞礅


4 °
氵r9σ 色v σπ0Vδ 0:t0氵 q
~

1hθ ar1iole aIld 1he 】loun wi1h° ut tho artiole being re~
poa1ed,i1ig gaid1oβ 1and in1he F0J犭 。四氵
纟Po丬 仿α功J
扣 t09rcδ 幼. 5.t^
δ ˉ
e,t,N。 钅 π轴πε
矽δδ甲色
畹 δ o″ ρ 弼 °r6dv%ω ,ros δ。mI【 ,s汾 纟 9Bc允 【hs)丿 凼 △
钅ti△ J. ~ 6。 饣tov cTP口 -
82. Dative of p。 sges⒍ OIl。 In Eng△ sh we say吼 @r@ 标 t?γ o氵 φvγ 氵 。氵钅另v Jr四 λ犭.
9ao J饣 ‘
弓Jo饣,1纟 扬酝 Tho Laun say:Pnter。 e抚 乡J@J刂 ⒅ ,tl纟 7. c¨饣, ro/。 99q @γ c0
3o〃 几¢矽劭 J叻 ° to诉 9roλ ε″奶v,, 8, t9J
'J, so in Groek the da1ive is u8ed1o denot° δ忿cF9a珈犭诩 洳 氵和 彬 .
the Po鲫 Je@h wh山 the tbing poggegged k m丬 eo1of the
verb饣 o3e:2 (cl C° mplete: THE DELPHlc THEAˉ R

黼碣
0k和 oH哪 cd,o仞 ″ 钅酝 1.t一 淀 r@u一 易v

dyop芑 咬 泷ct,rPuy乃

l Wlth nn exprθ 幽lon Ⅱkθ th18‘ POpt9,ro‘ 嘀 implIOd φvλ r“ 彳 2. o氵 钅氵


σtI v
’Thig iB Our fourth ugo° fthQ do"ve wnBt wOrc tho otⅡ r1Lmo? σ钅9v_ t-ˉ ¢vλ tIr
16 AN NTRODUCTIoN
】 TO GREEK DECL口 NsIoN Op A sIP口 △∝s 17
(b)suoh ad刂 °
c岱 ves accen1the femhine geni伉 ve plurd 88. voc厶 :口 .0R:
lik。 1Le geni1ive P1ural° f七 he o-declension.
跏,品嘏 ζc。 Ⅱ 肛 四彻% ˉ
Ds, Ⅱ 渤G汤 %丿 pl,
Inn。 ct in aIl three gonderB Ⅱ JV。 Ilnd δ,洳⒐ Compare讯 讪 para ‘ |Jt’s氵 :v蚴 么
。 9,ˉ ″ JrcC″ , frlJc召 BPOIIDnE
digm8,§ 510,c JlGX0,刁 s,叩 :乃 α′
|Je,
φc6⒑ :`″ Lnt v铴
L0oo△I^oⅡ Y. FIIGITIVn `Io
aI,PⅡ itio。 Of^d卜 c山 Ⅱ

鞲 鞯槭 嬲 缸
@)Whe。

笋了
an a内 ood雨 °


s・ r
n ad刂 ec1ivo phr。 ge acoomp巳 nios a nouIl wi1h a deIini1e

art屺 le,1he a句 ∞Jve ugually s1andg between tllo ar1ide
and the noun,ag h Engligh: σκ刀形 ,讠 s,氵 :勿 ,j|, gJi犭 E ,漩 tω :乡 ut’ 汩 【
Verb,,
6δ 疏tl,s dv%ω π
°s 汤召
加 仇 s氵 ttJl
EX0RCIsI9s
Note1ha1(unlike Engligh)ev° n a prepogi1ional PhrDge 。l
【 WLntu:e oF业 e word d。 por贫 【lIlsin heEbvy tyPo guggog1?
may g1alld in thi8Poθ ion:
σ
π°
i七

忒 扣 石 κ咖 扣 饣 扁 即 】 沥饣狃即 枷 漉召v讹 卿
vδ av
φ
vγ 嚣 uJxη v F凼 u‘ 1s :w,,V芑 s
∮。
F ns
t,λ
c9rovδ d0r刀 v咱
`dyJp~l,,or济
The a哟 °。伍v° IIlay包 ho£ o11ow七 he noun and have1ho (bl TIlan:l/at° :

a讯 ide repeatod with i1:


1・°氵Oc勾 ° u″ 山 TtIλ
δ dv%oTOs♂ δ‘n“ ∞ s 泷 εJ Iq饣 叼 Gn
〃|γ 劬 2.吻 γⅡ
q・

In1ho日 bovo 七
ins乇 anoeg
he adje° 1ivo or phr巳 go ig gaid10 ∮l,Ic砀 氵v cr,,妨 r@λ 夺
havθ
(3〉
1he tr氵 柳犭沅氵 彳
饣¢po崩 渤‘
;t丿 9.

lVhen an ad刂 eo饫 ve preoodeg乇 h° ariole or fdlows 抵凵:o飞礅


4 °
氵r9σ 色v σπ0Vδ 0:t0氵 q
~

1hθ ar1iole aIld 1he 】loun wi1h° ut tho artiole being re~
poa1ed,i1ig gaid1oβ 1and in1he F0J犭 。四氵
纟Po丬 仿α功J
扣 t09rcδ 幼. 5.t^
δ ˉ
e,t,N。 钅 π轴πε
矽δδ甲色
畹 δ o″ ρ 弼 °r6dv%ω ,ros δ。mI【 ,s汾 纟 9Bc允 【hs)丿 凼 △
钅ti△ J. ~ 6。 饣tov cTP口 -
82. Dative of p。 sges⒍ OIl。 In Eng△ sh we say吼 @r@ 标 t?γ o氵 φvγ 氵 。氵钅另v Jr四 λ犭.
9ao J饣 ‘
弓Jo饣,1纟 扬酝 Tho Laun say:Pnter。 e抚 乡J@J刂 ⒅ ,tl纟 7. c¨饣, ro/。 99q @γ c0
3o〃 几¢矽劭 J叻 ° to诉 9roλ ε″奶v,, 8, t9J
'J, so in Groek the da1ive is u8ed1o denot° δ忿cF9a珈犭诩 洳 氵和 彬 .
the Po鲫 Je@h wh山 the tbing poggegged k m丬 eo1of the
verb饣 o3e:2 (cl C° mplete: THE DELPHlc THEAˉ R

黼碣
0k和 oH哪 cd,o仞 ″ 钅酝 1.t一 淀 r@u一 易v

dyop芑 咬 泷ct,rPuy乃

l Wlth nn exprθ 幽lon Ⅱkθ th18‘ POpt9,ro‘ 嘀 implIOd φvλ r“ 彳 2. o氵 钅氵


σtI v
’Thig iB Our fourth ugo° fthQ do"ve wnBt wOrc tho otⅡ r1Lmo? σ钅9v_ t-ˉ ¢vλ tIr
K
18 AN IN・ rRODVCTIoN TO GRE四

。 π
。°~— 贫
ve

㈤细vl原 拣甘氵
lrle驷

漶盅

L【

::∶ H∶ 寸
;∶IⅠ
;苜 :}t蒜 :lhyl:iI∶ 芒
丨∶∶
£ :∫ |l∶
LEssoN VII
DECLFWsI0N 0F A-sTEMs-ˉ JnⅡ ed
CoⅡ ‘

淌 π刀s妲rpos打 TJv洳 %苗 toJs肫 yos


J冂 P乃 〃slt Jα n丿 ・r`乃 召氵r〃 r氵 //I
rcrt、 r,n氵 ″〃

`1`″
'″

86 Feminines i,lE I£ ‘,1,or ρilulllodi扎 1ely preoedes


he s1em,、 v。 rds o£
1he f△ nal vo、 vel()£ 七 1h° 色-deClension have
已,llo七 η,1hroug】 lollt the singular2

a σtρ 。 氵
,tc`″ 氵 氵
1’
ˇ!
ηu=κ ρ T1笸 rr″ rr,冫
〃 J′

严:κ ρ忒 σtρ αt‘ 芑 。1 u:κ ρm σ pα t1。 ‘


t "
ns utKρ己s σtρ ttt1as tω v u1× ρωv σTpat1ω v
tη u1Kρ q σ了Pα t1q t。 ‘ utKp Ⅱs σTpat1‘ ‘
tη v u1Kρ Gv σTpα t1ov t芑 s u∶ Kp抵 σtρ αt【 芑s

In like maⅡ ⅡeriⅡ nec1诤 ,Ix缸 x苗 ρ汪


Innec1 uEKp8s alld dsctos hl all genders (coll1pare 、
ˇi1b por扯
digⅡ l$,§ 51° ,a)

ξ哕 Gr贫 拊 1萎 l∶ ∶
:;∶ ::m找基 含:1∶ 111丿 l安
帮赀 裉 溜 旯:∶ 丨
;挠
殳 87. Acc‘ sative of Extent Thet1。 ous扎 1ivo den° 1es衫 rfc扎 ‘

〃 口。rJ"'舀 f杨 r/″ ,ll召 J3


佤l;1cg and new ap伉 tudeg a8they乙
dlugt tllemsdve,s10neW `sf,rt″
`氵

lXcu俩 sδ 蔽α σraδ 汔t9(δ 。Kα 氵uoρ is)


δ1oζ t1to氵 s,・ 【 ″e vlzl P"rs“ e
。oIldi1iong. 召me△ 浞夕 氵召″ s′ α 冫)dCjrk)
`^召 `es(`召
l小 Ιe】 lallder, £
ragn】 en1 Li1cr。 tlly∶ `eGso,t 讠
s `or 尼 c p九 v召 犭
9汜 ε c氵 α冗 o/
〃r讠 eF
2人 £ ew feminine・ ,havo8hort o in the Ilo1Ilina1iVo and accusatiVe singuIar
They wil1bθ trea1ed1ater
8Th18is our1bird use o£ 1bo巴 ccusatiVe `Vh巳 1we:e1he other two?
19
K
18 AN IN・ rRODVCTIoN TO GRE四

。 π
。°~— 贫
ve

㈤细vl原 拣甘氵
lrle驷

漶盅

L【

::∶ H∶ 寸
;∶IⅠ
;苜 :}t蒜 :lhyl:iI∶ 芒
丨∶∶
£ :∫ |l∶
LEssoN VII
DECLFWsI0N 0F A-sTEMs-ˉ JnⅡ ed
CoⅡ ‘

淌 π刀s妲rpos打 TJv洳 %苗 toJs肫 yos


J冂 P乃 〃slt Jα n丿 ・r`乃 召氵r〃 r氵 //I
rcrt、 r,n氵 ″〃

`1`″
'″

86 Feminines i,lE I£ ‘,1,or ρilulllodi扎 1ely preoedes


he s1em,、 v。 rds o£
1he f△ nal vo、 vel()£ 七 1h° 色-deClension have
已,llo七 η,1hroug】 lollt the singular2

a σtρ 。 氵
,tc`″ 氵 氵
1’
ˇ!
ηu=κ ρ T1笸 rr″ rr,冫
〃 J′

严:κ ρ忒 σtρ αt‘ 芑 。1 u:κ ρm σ pα t1。 ‘


t "
ns utKρ己s σtρ ttt1as tω v u1× ρωv σTpat1ω v
tη u1Kρ q σ了Pα t1q t。 ‘ utKp Ⅱs σTpat1‘ ‘
tη v u1Kρ Gv σTpα t1ov t芑 s u∶ Kp抵 σtρ αt【 芑s

In like maⅡ ⅡeriⅡ nec1诤 ,Ix缸 x苗 ρ汪


Innec1 uEKp8s alld dsctos hl all genders (coll1pare 、
ˇi1b por扯
digⅡ l$,§ 51° ,a)

ξ哕 Gr贫 拊 1萎 l∶ ∶
:;∶ ::m找基 含:1∶ 111丿 l安
帮赀 裉 溜 旯:∶ 丨
;挠
殳 87. Acc‘ sative of Extent Thet1。 ous扎 1ivo den° 1es衫 rfc扎 ‘

〃 口。rJ"'舀 f杨 r/″ ,ll召 J3


佤l;1cg and new ap伉 tudeg a8they乙
dlugt tllemsdve,s10neW `sf,rt″
`氵

lXcu俩 sδ 蔽α σraδ 汔t9(δ 。Kα 氵uoρ is)


δ1oζ t1to氵 s,・ 【 ″e vlzl P"rs“ e
。oIldi1iong. 召me△ 浞夕 氵召″ s′ α 冫)dCjrk)
`^召 `es(`召
l小 Ιe】 lallder, £
ragn】 en1 Li1cr。 tlly∶ `eGso,t 讠
s `or 尼 c p九 v召 犭
9汜 ε c氵 α冗 o/
〃r讠 eF
2人 £ ew feminine・ ,havo8hort o in the Ilo1Ilina1iVo and accusatiVe singuIar
They wil1bθ trea1ed1ater
8Th18is our1bird use o£ 1bo巴 ccusatiVe `Vh巳 1we:e1he other two?
19
DEOLENsIoN oP A-sTEMs 21
20 AN INq・ RODUCIp】 oN q・ o GREEK
dv t_a叩 P~(⒍ ngular)。 3 π妇 πco δ忿t-ˉ 。
π‘t叼 δf0—
88. o° ΔBu△ 厶ItY t-ˉ φ‘
λ-ˉ (plural),
扌y叩 d广 缶,仔 1私 σ切vJcc° (cl Write iIl Greek∶
:罗 ::沱 努 羧 茅玄 俨 1r虏 ;FTWl
1 The messtl△ gor had(use另 I,,a horse 2 【rhe1ru。 o was
卸 %氵 :拓 汹 nr/,r记 6P¨
貂 ,J【 :f\,氵 ;〃 幽讷无泓 ∝ long 3 The meIli】 l the village are no1guardi〗 lg1【le1ell18.
缸己:饣 Bn I,ECΛ L0GuE, φ‘ ∠ Tlle 且ight was n° 1eviden1 1。 the genera1 5 Tlle ga⒈

Xo。
δ

lξ 罂
\∵::∶ J:找 缸气Ⅳ ∴钅
g蕊
:∶ 亻
f廷 孑 【
;钅 筠
ris° n did llo1haˇ e(use另 v) l)r° visions

:t`茚 &tos,尼 ,勺 v;彡 丿


t汪 ε ‘
Ttt犭 δ姒:P'° v拓`,sItlla3勿

)9ls
i∶

Bg EZERCIsEs

5. ‘t9犭 σtρ 口t‘ av犭 γ°


t氵 v ^

uε v δ。a t氵 q aγ 。 卩aq
6,δ汾 t)v φt,v亿 v劫 ° v”
THE ACRoPoLIs
σ氵v aγ 。
PJhv ra ta虐 T:弼 ~
AIthough many Creek cities had a fo‘ 1ified hill,or acrop°
δ @。
c氵 7。 犭 δ 忿 ση° r9ˉ associate that w° rd w“ h thc famous h"lin the heart° f Athens"s,most peoplc
At first the
home of1he early kings, it came to be devoted to the gods and heroes of thc
Ⅱ涝 φ‘ λ汔 泽v t氵 a卩 z氵 ・ state Its glori° us temples were Visible‘ rom the ag° ra, as indeed for m!les
8.tδ v y aδ oλ ,δ v π‘u,rc。 around in all direcuons
c^t氵 v XtDp画 v
40 WOrd~fOrmatio⒒ (α )A very° ommon nleaⅡ s of
(Θ C° Inplete: orminbc aclJeo1iveg is by adding1o乇 he s七 em o£
£ a noun
1 诤δ t印 ˉ
忿 ″凼u,, :π ‘ the sumx~1° s,~1Ξ ,-1oV,WhiCh appears freqllen11y in Eng-
δ 一 9vt— σ-P舀 T’,γ _
c氵
lish E1s~氵 lIJz O~ste!ns drop七 he o boforo this sumx,‘ 灬1emg

(singular)・ 2・ δ舀 庀色 retaii1th。 ‘ 1o forlu1he diPhthong‘ Ⅱ


CATE 0I, ATHENA ARCHE0饣 t]s 刁 ″ 卩^ 叼 σrp色 t‘ 色 9,v ¢ Xos户 J″ rJ, φrλ ‘
°s/,JP,l`rll/∫
bu1 △⒇ya1 △历pI、 △J,ll/G£ os 彳汤¢ Ω

1ives Ⅲhe】 、preCeded by the artic1e arθ u8ed as nouns `订

ˇ
ˇ
=Many Cireek adj∝
九C0Ⅱ ηa,aw° rd t0饣 hε V氵 ε
o° Ⅱpare English,彦
e;and the Gre6k,ol toλ 扣 o‘ , (3)Fr。 m δ q and πoλ 苜
拓c‘ ° u‘ o9 oonstruc1 1he Corre-
;石 ⅠⅠ荭lⅡ ,Grθ ek qΙ estl。 ns are80me1imesintroducod by an interrog⒏ gponding nouns; frolll了 ππos and aγ 。
搬黜 钳
占岛
显 c。 nstruc11he cor-
i。
P犭

:j∶嚣
甘 扌 1浼 i击 :扌 Jl丨 l轼 芦
;S扌 f:∫ :J挠 responding a哟 eo1ive:
DEOLENsIoN oP A-sTEMs 21
20 AN INq・ RODUCIp】 oN q・ o GREEK
dv t_a叩 P~(⒍ ngular)。 3 π妇 πco δ忿t-ˉ 。
π‘t叼 δf0—
88. o° ΔBu△ 厶ItY t-ˉ φ‘
λ-ˉ (plural),
扌y叩 d广 缶,仔 1私 σ切vJcc° (cl Write iIl Greek∶
:罗 ::沱 努 羧 茅玄 俨 1r虏 ;FTWl
1 The messtl△ gor had(use另 I,,a horse 2 【rhe1ru。 o was
卸 %氵 :拓 汹 nr/,r记 6P¨
貂 ,J【 :f\,氵 ;〃 幽讷无泓 ∝ long 3 The meIli】 l the village are no1guardi〗 lg1【le1ell18.
缸己:饣 Bn I,ECΛ L0GuE, φ‘ ∠ Tlle 且ight was n° 1eviden1 1。 the genera1 5 Tlle ga⒈

Xo。
δ

lξ 罂
\∵::∶ J:找 缸气Ⅳ ∴钅
g蕊
:∶ 亻
f廷 孑 【
;钅 筠
ris° n did llo1haˇ e(use另 v) l)r° visions

:t`茚 &tos,尼 ,勺 v;彡 丿


t汪 ε ‘
Ttt犭 δ姒:P'° v拓`,sItlla3勿

)9ls
i∶

Bg EZERCIsEs

5. ‘t9犭 σtρ 口t‘ av犭 γ°


t氵 v ^

uε v δ。a t氵 q aγ 。 卩aq
6,δ汾 t)v φt,v亿 v劫 ° v”
THE ACRoPoLIs
σ氵v aγ 。
PJhv ra ta虐 T:弼 ~
AIthough many Creek cities had a fo‘ 1ified hill,or acrop°
δ @。
c氵 7。 犭 δ 忿 ση° r9ˉ associate that w° rd w“ h thc famous h"lin the heart° f Athens"s,most peoplc
At first the
home of1he early kings, it came to be devoted to the gods and heroes of thc
Ⅱ涝 φ‘ λ汔 泽v t氵 a卩 z氵 ・ state Its glori° us temples were Visible‘ rom the ag° ra, as indeed for m!les
8.tδ v y aδ oλ ,δ v π‘u,rc。 around in all direcuons
c^t氵 v XtDp画 v
40 WOrd~fOrmatio⒒ (α )A very° ommon nleaⅡ s of
(Θ C° Inplete: orminbc aclJeo1iveg is by adding1o乇 he s七 em o£
£ a noun
1 诤δ t印 ˉ
忿 ″凼u,, :π ‘ the sumx~1° s,~1Ξ ,-1oV,WhiCh appears freqllen11y in Eng-
δ 一 9vt— σ-P舀 T’,γ _
c氵
lish E1s~氵 lIJz O~ste!ns drop七 he o boforo this sumx,‘ 灬1emg

(singular)・ 2・ δ舀 庀色 retaii1th。 ‘ 1o forlu1he diPhthong‘ Ⅱ


CATE 0I, ATHENA ARCHE0饣 t]s 刁 ″ 卩^ 叼 σrp色 t‘ 色 9,v ¢ Xos户 J″ rJ, φrλ ‘
°s/,JP,l`rll/∫
bu1 △⒇ya1 △历pI、 △J,ll/G£ os 彳汤¢ Ω

1ives Ⅲhe】 、preCeded by the artic1e arθ u8ed as nouns `订

ˇ
ˇ
=Many Cireek adj∝
九C0Ⅱ ηa,aw° rd t0饣 hε V氵 ε
o° Ⅱpare English,彦
e;and the Gre6k,ol toλ 扣 o‘ , (3)Fr。 m δ q and πoλ 苜
拓c‘ ° u‘ o9 oonstruc1 1he Corre-
;石 ⅠⅠ荭lⅡ ,Grθ ek qΙ estl。 ns are80me1imesintroducod by an interrog⒏ gponding nouns; frolll了 ππos and aγ 。
搬黜 钳
占岛
显 c。 nstruc11he cor-
i。
P犭

:j∶嚣
甘 扌 1浼 i击 :扌 Jl丨 l轼 芦
;S扌 f:∫ :J挠 responding a哟 eo1ive:
o-VERBs 28

2, %卿 P@'¢ J 、%rbg wi1h an ini1ial vowel °r diphˉ


LEssoN VIII dhong long1hen1he ini1ial vowe1. In g° doing,
¢ become8 ,, ‘ becomes 彐
ΔC咖
1‘

⒅ 咖 ¤t mDIc厶 咖 0F Ω -B日
ε “ ’ 0
,I 刀
o ‘‘
@ 0V ’
,v
ργo,,护
芎 o氵 掖v dyc伦 os,dtP,犭 叼δ。t’ δv‘ tso⒐ ‘ “ ; ‘V ’
,v
Vl,砧 缶 ⒃ ″闯″臼C6乃 耐 IrJJε m洲 铷】 “
V t, o‘

IⅡ nect the iullierfect△ ndlcative ac贫 ve of t白 旰ωand泣 %“细 ,

吐1. The lmperfect Tense, This 1ense deno1es ao1ion


σo%饣 氵
勿钥眵叱 p@溺 口J,砌 溺 0锕 or拥 切 昭 Jh`掘 伍me: ‘‘. Dative of lEan,ler The dativ° rnay deno1° 7刀 口%″ 谄″f2
'迢 '弘
勤吧uv J咖 8src/,P::仍 f乃 e.’ r sfof,pjmg, /vscrJ `切
zo εIoP, Ι″切d uo8uop. 0cJyoUtr‘ ct历 历 叼 搀 召 ”ls氵 ″mc召

IMp面 RFEoT INDIcΛ TIVE AcTIvn ‘5. Balalloed struoture,


““。 r砧 叩 I;【

∫Φ r扬 lIJ 矽 ・・・s拦 扎re u∞ d wiJl
o 、ˇords or phrages or
l丨

1、 ˇ
‰ v◆ v 妒
枷 v`s ˉ
1`‘ g
clau$es 1ha1 are compared
Muc0沪 0y-E(D2 or oontrasted:J(历 ,访 )呼 v
・・・J (犭 , tδ ) δ
‘矽竞
纟o仍 ¢
婉 抑 v 咱 uv
△卩滩 ‘rf 吁。
η`∞
γ rt 。… 氵
杨 。ε
乃口 d(口 J,诧 )
'丿
‰ 呼 v 吊γov “v・ ・・oJ(色 J,tD δ ds° 伽侈
, . , o氵 尼
ε δ4 扌δ 4
‘2。 FOrmat】 On。 The imperfect 七 eⅡ se is buil1 oxl 1he '8' J
r.t.λ .8 虹‘(四9"氵 ) F。 彡, 矽
无 6
preson1gte】 Il ghowing1he v巴 riaue v。 wel(o or c)・ B° ing
etc,, indi° a1ing obange °f
a ∞condary3tense, ⒒ (lIrFer,s fr。 m 1he presen1 in having AⅣ IoNIc CoLuMN
gu丬 ec1・ E,is rarely to be

(1) augm° n△ (2) gec° ndary endings。 I1iθ £ ound only The deh° ate w° rkmanship of the
1ranglab。 d bu1i§ a valuable Erechtheum, t° Ψh!ch this o。 !umn
in1he indioa1ivo.
warning1ha1ac° mparis° n belongs,aw^kens unive阝 al曰 dmiraˉ
‘8. A△ gment. AⅡ gecondary tenses o£ the indica1ivo or oon1rag1 ig ooming. I1 "on
may be rocognized by wha1is oalled m饣 耐・ This ig of is one of 1h° many li1tle、 ˇ°rdθ ,° f乇 en un乇 ransla1t。 blo,1ha1
`,z纟
1wo kindg: m饧 ke Greek so efec1ive for °xpregging importan1shades
1.JsgJJ@沉 c。 Verbs with aIl iniJal oon.qonan1prenx a of meaning.
by way of augme且 1, !0er1aiⅡ verbε beginuin8with c th巴 llge(10‘ Ⅰ
when nugmentod∶ 苫xω ,
1noβ I° d, Ⅱ、Γ
乃εα诩 I,α vB,8】 1 C’ ×o冫 .
BTho v in 1hig form iε llo1a porgonBl ondi!〗 g Ⅱ is 巳ⅡotheF uso oⅠ vˉ 2Thisis our nim us:。 f the dat!ve Wha1were the o9llθ r£ our?
ⅡovB"o,pllgB6,note1 8soo page X¨ .
。亻,tλ =亻 “It^XOI,r茁 cn'砒 。resC Co皿 pBto c‘ cˉ e`cc功
2' "‘ `c
o-VERBs 28

2, %卿 P@'¢ J 、%rbg wi1h an ini1ial vowel °r diphˉ


LEssoN VIII dhong long1hen1he ini1ial vowe1. In g° doing,
¢ become8 ,, ‘ becomes 彐
ΔC咖
1‘

⒅ 咖 ¤t mDIc厶 咖 0F Ω -B日
ε “ ’ 0
,I 刀
o ‘‘
@ 0V ’
,v
ργo,,护
芎 o氵 掖v dyc伦 os,dtP,犭 叼δ。t’ δv‘ tso⒐ ‘ “ ; ‘V ’
,v
Vl,砧 缶 ⒃ ″闯″臼C6乃 耐 IrJJε m洲 铷】 “
V t, o‘

IⅡ nect the iullierfect△ ndlcative ac贫 ve of t白 旰ωand泣 %“细 ,

吐1. The lmperfect Tense, This 1ense deno1es ao1ion


σo%饣 氵
勿钥眵叱 p@溺 口J,砌 溺 0锕 or拥 切 昭 Jh`掘 伍me: ‘‘. Dative of lEan,ler The dativ° rnay deno1° 7刀 口%″ 谄″f2
'迢 '弘
勤吧uv J咖 8src/,P::仍 f乃 e.’ r sfof,pjmg, /vscrJ `切
zo εIoP, Ι″切d uo8uop. 0cJyoUtr‘ ct历 历 叼 搀 召 ”ls氵 ″mc召

IMp面 RFEoT INDIcΛ TIVE AcTIvn ‘5. Balalloed struoture,


““。 r砧 叩 I;【

∫Φ r扬 lIJ 矽 ・・・s拦 扎re u∞ d wiJl
o 、ˇords or phrages or
l丨

1、 ˇ
‰ v◆ v 妒
枷 v`s ˉ
1`‘ g
clau$es 1ha1 are compared
Muc0沪 0y-E(D2 or oontrasted:J(历 ,访 )呼 v
・・・J (犭 , tδ ) δ
‘矽竞
纟o仍 ¢
婉 抑 v 咱 uv
△卩滩 ‘rf 吁。
η`∞
γ rt 。… 氵
杨 。ε
乃口 d(口 J,诧 )
'丿
‰ 呼 v 吊γov “v・ ・・oJ(色 J,tD δ ds° 伽侈
, . , o氵 尼
ε δ4 扌δ 4
‘2。 FOrmat】 On。 The imperfect 七 eⅡ se is buil1 oxl 1he '8' J
r.t.λ .8 虹‘(四9"氵 ) F。 彡, 矽
无 6
preson1gte】 Il ghowing1he v巴 riaue v。 wel(o or c)・ B° ing
etc,, indi° a1ing obange °f
a ∞condary3tense, ⒒ (lIrFer,s fr。 m 1he presen1 in having AⅣ IoNIc CoLuMN
gu丬 ec1・ E,is rarely to be

(1) augm° n△ (2) gec° ndary endings。 I1iθ £ ound only The deh° ate w° rkmanship of the
1ranglab。 d bu1i§ a valuable Erechtheum, t° Ψh!ch this o。 !umn
in1he indioa1ivo.
warning1ha1ac° mparis° n belongs,aw^kens unive阝 al曰 dmiraˉ
‘8. A△ gment. AⅡ gecondary tenses o£ the indica1ivo or oon1rag1 ig ooming. I1 "on
may be rocognized by wha1is oalled m饣 耐・ This ig of is one of 1h° many li1tle、 ˇ°rdθ ,° f乇 en un乇 ransla1t。 blo,1ha1
`,z纟
1wo kindg: m饧 ke Greek so efec1ive for °xpregging importan1shades
1.JsgJJ@沉 c。 Verbs with aIl iniJal oon.qonan1prenx a of meaning.
by way of augme且 1, !0er1aiⅡ verbε beginuin8with c th巴 llge(10‘ Ⅰ
when nugmentod∶ 苫xω ,
1noβ I° d, Ⅱ、Γ
乃εα诩 I,α vB,8】 1 C’ ×o冫 .
BTho v in 1hig form iε llo1a porgonBl ondi!〗 g Ⅱ is 巳ⅡotheF uso oⅠ vˉ 2Thisis our nim us:。 f the dat!ve Wha1were the o9llθ r£ our?
ⅡovB"o,pllgB6,note1 8soo page X¨ .
。亻,tλ =亻 “It^XOI,r茁 cn'砒 。resC Co皿 pBto c‘ cˉ e`cc功
2' "‘ `c
24 AN INTRODUCTIoN TO GItEEK ⒐ VERBs 25

‘6. Vo0厶 BOL厶 R! 4θ , Groek as a Wond L日 nguage (@) The interna1iondl


o矽 ρo踟 :c0″ 召“ 卩Ⅱ 卩叩 os,门 ” ⒍
/rJ〃 irJn召 6乃 cr阢 r lz″ lallguage of the £rs1 oen1ury of our er乙 was Greek,
dλ λ苗,coni∶ 1il`,几 rl ll召 v召 Ⅱ γw,勺 v,t。
:ω 0r订 ,″ Bg″ To oarry i1s message to the world,therefor° , the NeW
'
s1ronger1han δo ENERGY Testament was Wrltten l且
Final己 is often clidcd κ
pGty犭 ,9s,和 r/iI妒 ry,s乃 o″
Greek Thθ fo11owing pas-
`

s`氵 :` ⅡAltPY λoγ os,⒑ v, 。∶ ″:0rrf,、 ,・,`r/l


dρ toζ ω∶
″n`,α ″c氵 c″ PROL0GUE ago
旬 is from st Luke,
dρ xo氵 os,尼 ,门 v 0r匆 扌
σ:γ 犭,ˉ Ds,衤 VI,吐 5:
Cf 已px1 AllcHAIc : `i′
`nc`

47 xERc【 sEs
o ucv己 γ s苗 v印 ωπ
@汐 。 os&
t。 O aγ c汐 。ε 彐9,σ rIIlp° 氵 (氵 ,叼 c:ˉ
(ct) 、
Vha1 do 1he por1ions il1 he(1vy1ypo 1ell a8 1o persoll
,llld nun】 1)。 r of111e subioc1?
%r衫 ) t氵 9钅 己ρδ佤9(c° lllpklI e

CARDiAC) π poφ 串 劬 r/,'氵 勿 r/s


cγ PGφ °u‘ v ,,矽 P° ‘ 9,汐 Jλ c t‘
,γ o v 苔λll‘ bPc s
力r‘ 无)tδ aγ ¤9J%1。 δ 亡π° v刀 ˉ

Ⅵrhi。 h persollal endings o£ 1h。 imperFec1 are iden1ical? ρδq1(ev氵 O。 钅T【 l氵 π°v刀 Poε
1tδ
XVhich re$elnble endings of the I)resen1? πov叼 pov.l


〉 T/p'J扌。
r勿 耐 P/,勿 The `{

Chris1ian reugion n。 t 。nly 1


Wag transmit1ed through ’
|

evσ αvρ δs tδ v ωv
A矽 刀vα 了
Greek I1s 1heol° gy was
There was more wealth at Delphi
shaped by Greek ph⒒ osoPhy than anywhere el$e in CreCce
and its language tlnd 小犭any states maintained‘ ‘treasuriCs’

1hough1by(1reok飞 ⒘ords to house1heir offcrings to Apollo and


to0`2卩 @λ J,of 忿λJγ o氵 φrλ ‘
δ 。u to display thcir o、vn power
Hundred$of ecclesias1i。 al
(Oc°`Jpov
mple七 nv钅
e∶ terms n° w in u∞ 。ame from Greek: C丙 冖¢,B仂 rr,,乃 ,sr/,
^灬
‘ uP琅 P@历 四% @勿 钅
1ε 仞, 凡扬rru'c乃 〃, 卩
曰诊尼召rJ'舀 J, J馆 9tr〃 〃, P召 91诊 ¢氵
ettr无

亏 钳 空 沸氵r铲 ℃ 絮品 Ξ
,

⒉ 訾 @诊 无@犭 8厶
卩P口 B诊 @氵 纟, z,l色 r氵 〃 pP,l〃 ‘
e, 无up口 ¢r扌 氵
矽, Jr湘 〃, ca9to9I,
', %纟
钅已 ˉˉdφ cvγ ˉ-c沁 tˉ ^rω u-ˉ (singular) and the like
ρ vγ

`c卩
° H° ll/many similar deriva1ives can you supply from t11e
Greek words1ha乇 you have already had? Try1hese:

扌 iil扌
Btades
ji!甘
Fi扌{lll∶ 侧瑕菩
堇 佬 :【
r甘
5 There were proVisi° 且s in the1eⅡ 七
λ勾oq(t lnlll)ine widl φ亻
bine wi1h Jδ
λos,and δ
d。 Ⅱ@J),π oPJ,犭 γ λ。
γ‘
&凸 ),aπ d,。 ξ (cr,ln
9,δ 1J.

l Pag° 20,⒒ o1o1


l Page23,note1
24 AN INTRODUCTIoN TO GItEEK ⒐ VERBs 25

‘6. Vo0厶 BOL厶 R! 4θ , Groek as a Wond L日 nguage (@) The interna1iondl


o矽 ρo踟 :c0″ 召“ 卩Ⅱ 卩叩 os,门 ” ⒍
/rJ〃 irJn召 6乃 cr阢 r lz″ lallguage of the £rs1 oen1ury of our er乙 was Greek,
dλ λ苗,coni∶ 1il`,几 rl ll召 v召 Ⅱ γw,勺 v,t。
:ω 0r订 ,″ Bg″ To oarry i1s message to the world,therefor° , the NeW
'
s1ronger1han δo ENERGY Testament was Wrltten l且
Final己 is often clidcd κ
pGty犭 ,9s,和 r/iI妒 ry,s乃 o″
Greek Thθ fo11owing pas-
`

s`氵 :` ⅡAltPY λoγ os,⒑ v, 。∶ ″:0rrf,、 ,・,`r/l


dρ toζ ω∶
″n`,α ″c氵 c″ PROL0GUE ago
旬 is from st Luke,
dρ xo氵 os,尼 ,门 v 0r匆 扌
σ:γ 犭,ˉ Ds,衤 VI,吐 5:
Cf 已px1 AllcHAIc : `i′
`nc`

47 xERc【 sEs
o ucv己 γ s苗 v印 ωπ
@汐 。 os&
t。 O aγ c汐 。ε 彐9,σ rIIlp° 氵 (氵 ,叼 c:ˉ
(ct) 、
Vha1 do 1he por1ions il1 he(1vy1ypo 1ell a8 1o persoll
,llld nun】 1)。 r of111e subioc1?
%r衫 ) t氵 9钅 己ρδ佤9(c° lllpklI e

CARDiAC) π poφ 串 劬 r/,'氵 勿 r/s


cγ PGφ °u‘ v ,,矽 P° ‘ 9,汐 Jλ c t‘
,γ o v 苔λll‘ bPc s
力r‘ 无)tδ aγ ¤9J%1。 δ 亡π° v刀 ˉ

Ⅵrhi。 h persollal endings o£ 1h。 imperFec1 are iden1ical? ρδq1(ev氵 O。 钅T【 l氵 π°v刀 Poε
1tδ
XVhich re$elnble endings of the I)resen1? πov叼 pov.l


〉 T/p'J扌。
r勿 耐 P/,勿 The `{

Chris1ian reugion n。 t 。nly 1


Wag transmit1ed through ’
|

evσ αvρ δs tδ v ωv
A矽 刀vα 了
Greek I1s 1heol° gy was
There was more wealth at Delphi
shaped by Greek ph⒒ osoPhy than anywhere el$e in CreCce
and its language tlnd 小犭any states maintained‘ ‘treasuriCs’

1hough1by(1reok飞 ⒘ords to house1heir offcrings to Apollo and


to0`2卩 @λ J,of 忿λJγ o氵 φrλ ‘
δ 。u to display thcir o、vn power
Hundred$of ecclesias1i。 al
(Oc°`Jpov
mple七 nv钅
e∶ terms n° w in u∞ 。ame from Greek: C丙 冖¢,B仂 rr,,乃 ,sr/,
^灬
‘ uP琅 P@历 四% @勿 钅
1ε 仞, 凡扬rru'c乃 〃, 卩
曰诊尼召rJ'舀 J, J馆 9tr〃 〃, P召 91诊 ¢氵
ettr无

亏 钳 空 沸氵r铲 ℃ 絮品 Ξ
,

⒉ 訾 @诊 无@犭 8厶
卩P口 B诊 @氵 纟, z,l色 r氵 〃 pP,l〃 ‘
e, 无up口 ¢r扌 氵
矽, Jr湘 〃, ca9to9I,
', %纟
钅已 ˉˉdφ cvγ ˉ-c沁 tˉ ^rω u-ˉ (singular) and the like
ρ vγ

`c卩
° H° ll/many similar deriva1ives can you supply from t11e
Greek words1ha乇 you have already had? Try1hese:

扌 iil扌
Btades
ji!甘
Fi扌{lll∶ 侧瑕菩
堇 佬 :【
r甘
5 There were proVisi° 且s in the1eⅡ 七
λ勾oq(t lnlll)ine widl φ亻
bine wi1h Jδ
λos,and δ
d。 Ⅱ@J),π oPJ,犭 γ λ。
γ‘
&凸 ),aπ d,。 ξ (cr,ln
9,δ 1J.

l Pag° 20,⒒ o1o1


l Page23,note1
o‘
,‘
Ω-VERBs

mIly bo g1ated indirectly r;e历 侈 v侈 诊


无@夕 @%纟 r@J矽 o犭 e召 纟
仍J拓 哆
(矽 o几 仰 ε :@%‘ ),or r3纟 JJ@ve诊 无潴 ‘‰ 乡e勿 e彻 J锸 s幽 历 昭
LEssoN IX
(:¢ %‘ )・

¤ D=c厶 ,m厶 m口 日-m 厶Clrm oF Ω -Bs


Fσ 咖 (δ )In Latin the main verb in the quoted s1atemen1
ig alway8innni1ive. Tho sam° cons1ructi° n is frequently
岫 氵σ咖 一 z油 u″ 凼 c丿 n侈 汤 氵叩
1
found in Greek,1
(c’
,In Latin,the subˉ
I】

r擀 indir° ct disoour心 e is al-

笞窘至 耀扯耋
弘璀
cusatlve. The
lFf槲 岬
same is 1rue for Greek,
unless the inrini1ive has
1he σ ig廿 le ocoagion of oer1ain changes:
tlle game sut刂 ec1as1h°

;宝 ℃
%℃ 。
嬲:f⒎ s,%哏冤σ 枉 碰㈤∶ g茸
ill七

whio⒈ °
roduotory
as° tlle subjec1
vorb, in

3 A dental(t,δ ,矽 )bef。 re ls dmpped: o£ 1he innni1ive ig omi1-

,菇 ω;a)濉ω
π伽 ω,t白 ψω;dγ ω G即 ol” ,d%° 衍ω 1ed and any word iIl
agreoment wi1h that un-
e叉 preg$ed subieo乇 h nom-
ina1ive:
uqΙ 谱ωtδ v v ato知 y
crpGT” γδ
J`乃 lrtt而 召 n纟 臼
o氵 tt tJ`P,〃 rstI饣 ;

FVTIyRE芯 c厶 TwE OF π ¢ 0Φ r8氵 。 `召 Iy f `


l,Ι f, vOJ・ 菇ω ⒊占 知 汤I9a乃

tα V<「 0uv
s乃 t,″ p罚sv召
9rlIl・<,Ⅱ ‘0
tHE PRoPYL盾
Ta△ ,J-C1s 犯 ¨
(J) The 1ense of 1he ^
,ra跏 σ1(v) The gateway t° the A。 ropolis


π n饣 <1
i1.nlli伉 ve in 1he quo1ed
FVTuRE INFmITIvE π V町 △1V gta1emen1,regardlogg of the tenge of1he in1roductory verb,
IⅡ ⒒ko manner血 殂ec1λ ‘o,,/p。 φo,dρ Xω ,π ‘
″ω is the same as tha1used in1ho original s1atemen1:

岩罟髑嘿喘i
ct z/I召 εn召 m〃 @r召 p切 钌 z19Ir/;

,弘 湍
uoI&苗

遐宝搬瑙鞯荔扬
机 仙 ˇ xl,△

vv卩 .gc1r。 l,s,roλ Cu南 vs aJ苗 KcI,, 乃召 /,lam1・ s//r召 饣m召 ,,zv αr纟 pv阝 动J叼
滢诮 uIgc碱 照 趴 cJto述 δ溺 κ⒋ v 九召碗 o够 汤 α‘汤 纟召n臼 饣 v召 饣 P△ rsv1唧
'
侈r四 J彬 %J8(幽 晓 )
1o introauo。 an ln山 恕 d硐 P山 斑 珀 n:t’J侈 `加
1Bu1!Il CrOQk otltor collgtructioIl8appoar,dependiⅡ g oⅡ th° ;ntrodt△ ctory
`e勿
IP。 naⅡ der Vθ rb8mplovod
20
o‘
,‘
Ω-VERBs

mIly bo g1ated indirectly r;e历 侈 v侈 诊


无@夕 @%纟 r@J矽 o犭 e召 纟
仍J拓 哆
(矽 o几 仰 ε :@%‘ ),or r3纟 JJ@ve诊 无潴 ‘‰ 乡e勿 e彻 J锸 s幽 历 昭
LEssoN IX
(:¢ %‘ )・

¤ D=c厶 ,m厶 m口 日-m 厶Clrm oF Ω -Bs


Fσ 咖 (δ )In Latin the main verb in the quoted s1atemen1
ig alway8innni1ive. Tho sam° cons1ructi° n is frequently
岫 氵σ咖 一 z油 u″ 凼 c丿 n侈 汤 氵叩
1
found in Greek,1
(c’
,In Latin,the subˉ
I】

r擀 indir° ct disoour心 e is al-

笞窘至 耀扯耋
弘璀
cusatlve. The
lFf槲 岬
same is 1rue for Greek,
unless the inrini1ive has
1he σ ig廿 le ocoagion of oer1ain changes:
tlle game sut刂 ec1as1h°

;宝 ℃
%℃ 。
嬲:f⒎ s,%哏冤σ 枉 碰㈤∶ g茸
ill七

whio⒈ °
roduotory
as° tlle subjec1
vorb, in

3 A dental(t,δ ,矽 )bef。 re ls dmpped: o£ 1he innni1ive ig omi1-

,菇 ω;a)濉ω
π伽 ω,t白 ψω;dγ ω G即 ol” ,d%° 衍ω 1ed and any word iIl
agreoment wi1h that un-
e叉 preg$ed subieo乇 h nom-
ina1ive:
uqΙ 谱ωtδ v v ato知 y
crpGT” γδ
J`乃 lrtt而 召 n纟 臼
o氵 tt tJ`P,〃 rstI饣 ;

FVTIyRE芯 c厶 TwE OF π ¢ 0Φ r8氵 。 `召 Iy f `


l,Ι f, vOJ・ 菇ω ⒊占 知 汤I9a乃

tα V<「 0uv
s乃 t,″ p罚sv召
9rlIl・<,Ⅱ ‘0
tHE PRoPYL盾
Ta△ ,J-C1s 犯 ¨
(J) The 1ense of 1he ^
,ra跏 σ1(v) The gateway t° the A。 ropolis


π n饣 <1
i1.nlli伉 ve in 1he quo1ed
FVTuRE INFmITIvE π V町 △1V gta1emen1,regardlogg of the tenge of1he in1roductory verb,
IⅡ ⒒ko manner血 殂ec1λ ‘o,,/p。 φo,dρ Xω ,π ‘
″ω is the same as tha1used in1ho original s1atemen1:

岩罟髑嘿喘i
ct z/I召 εn召 m〃 @r召 p切 钌 z19Ir/;

,弘 湍
uoI&苗

遐宝搬瑙鞯荔扬
机 仙 ˇ xl,△

vv卩 .gc1r。 l,s,roλ Cu南 vs aJ苗 KcI,, 乃召 /,lam1・ s//r召 饣m召 ,,zv αr纟 pv阝 动J叼
滢诮 uIgc碱 照 趴 cJto述 δ溺 κ⒋ v 九召碗 o够 汤 α‘汤 纟召n臼 饣 v召 饣 P△ rsv1唧
'
侈r四 J彬 %J8(幽 晓 )
1o introauo。 an ln山 恕 d硐 P山 斑 珀 n:t’J侈 `加
1Bu1!Il CrOQk otltor collgtructioIl8appoar,dependiⅡ g oⅡ th° ;ntrodt△ ctory
`e勿
IP。 naⅡ der Vθ rb8mplovod
20
28 AN INTRODUCrpIoN TO GREEK ⒐ VERBs 29

〓υ
Vo0厶 BI,I・ 厶RY 【
J〉 Wri七 θin Groek:
。ρXω ,dPg。 l:。 〃 ω, uc・ VNfσ ω: 枷 ,nd, dP犰 饬
u余 λ
1. Bu1tho barbor0沮 8were oo11ectillg七 ho horse8iil g⒒ ence,
〃氵m,rtI氵 6co```″
`c彳
rJ, l・

lvi1hG ARcⅡ 】 ;IsⅡ oP usually wi1h fu1 inf 2 wiu・ a:h。 ut we were seizing七 he proˇ isiong 3 【 rhe man

瀹 ζ ′ ∶乩矽 9眢 vor1ζ ω::忉 ′ JevzI zJt抗 【,Ⅲ i1h ln£

ed of
oft° n
伽uδ
%∶ 1饣:∫
″tJllrlr〃 乃ε α汪 tc矽 ω

oδos, tl△ ,氵 :r。 ad,ro9t饣 e Σ

,π cJσ ω;p纟 rsuα ″



x0Ilσ s

♀ rs °r of 疏召 拓讠
ttl,r扌 召 m`’ s covr犭 ●「 ntCvω , VT-0π tCVσ ω: sllotpeC‘
-【

0° mpare subhme Porte, (氵 t。 tI91der+oTr‘ 。 ω, ′oo乃 ),

TⅡ YltOID wlth inf IIYPOi,ER獗 I0



σxup犭 s,~d,~。 v2; s′ l9
0PTIC
'o叼

EXI9R0】 sns

doⅡti圩 tho pers。 n and number o£ the£ ollowIng form8


al△ d give1be c°rrosP0nding£ orms o£ tho Pre8en1:
q,a印 。沦 ω,卸 舞 Tc,λ 钫
帅 °vct,犭 扣 〃c巧 叩 涝Ψ c%φ vλ J垂 ‘
π叁 c‘ v

(乙 )Transla七 e:
1・ π-oπ tcJσ 0Vσ ‘ta肖ρ
oJ`Jρ /3¢ Po‘ 氵 γ。 , 2 。 °
v° u‘ 昏ucv

δδδs咖 缸
This fine roadw0y,bordered w"h clevated sidewalks, led fro〖 n1he agora

m泌 °
叩黟ρ
at Corinth to the harb° r Tho anoiont0Ⅱ eks did most of thc】 r trave1by sea

叩 务妫 “ £:c砻 ;猡1觞
and so had few good r° ads

&l掰 Jv穷 uged to write七 o his1brotbor 4 Irhe w° rks were aIloiontl


oδ 犭 v唧 cJv δ‘a而 s@ρ X叩 ’ 1
bll七 beau七 ifu1. 5 They were brave in8Dee。 h
(OC° lnple1e: 53 WOrdˉ fOrmation Many verbg wi1h εin 1ho s1em
1,jπ Ⅱπtcoσ _oJ πoλ 串‘ o‘ t♂ v σTp@叨 γ~λ J_t六 σπoI,ˉ have oogna1e nouns or adjec1ives wi1h o ins七 ead of c:
δ尔. —
2,udλ λc19λ u t氵 v Jδ ; 8・ ° 氵u仑 v— —ˉ(wi11 λc伤 tω Jecvel λ°πJs
‘ 氵
咖丿
— wi11seize)ta Jπ ‘
t犭 δ @
u南 t,s,° Jδ 它-—
pursue)to氵 9π oλ £ 〈 c‘
λ句@ ・ qpe¤ 跆
,λ 句os ω° rd c,r鹦 ec,o丿
I【 lronl 1hig poin1 the futur° πi11regularly bθ liBted in 10e V0CabuI巳 ry, π肖uπ ω :e%d le・ qcorr),π 。
uπ 犭pro。 ess枥 a丿
bθ cause it consti1uto8one o£ the priⅡ CipaI parts σπ J9δ ω po锣 b(1氵 |o饧 ,σ π oVδ 犭
氵 J扔 α氵Io%
'c氵
CoIYlparo L・ dtiIl tego rcover,七 og巳 czo¢ 无丿 Engli8h'捌 咖咿,so%弘
眢 拈 褓 亻 黻 搔 弦 嚅 骢 紧 褓 指 胝 £

the m° s1common
l see§ δ,α ・
28 AN INTRODUCrpIoN TO GREEK ⒐ VERBs 29

〓υ
Vo0厶 BI,I・ 厶RY 【
J〉 Wri七 θin Groek:
。ρXω ,dPg。 l:。 〃 ω, uc・ VNfσ ω: 枷 ,nd, dP犰 饬
u余 λ
1. Bu1tho barbor0沮 8were oo11ectillg七 ho horse8iil g⒒ ence,
〃氵m,rtI氵 6co```″
`c彳
rJ, l・

lvi1hG ARcⅡ 】 ;IsⅡ oP usually wi1h fu1 inf 2 wiu・ a:h。 ut we were seizing七 he proˇ isiong 3 【 rhe man

瀹 ζ ′ ∶乩矽 9眢 vor1ζ ω::忉 ′ JevzI zJt抗 【,Ⅲ i1h ln£

ed of
oft° n
伽uδ
%∶ 1饣:∫
″tJllrlr〃 乃ε α汪 tc矽 ω

oδos, tl△ ,氵 :r。 ad,ro9t饣 e Σ

,π cJσ ω;p纟 rsuα ″



x0Ilσ s

♀ rs °r of 疏召 拓讠
ttl,r扌 召 m`’ s covr犭 ●「 ntCvω , VT-0π tCVσ ω: sllotpeC‘
-【

0° mpare subhme Porte, (氵 t。 tI91der+oTr‘ 。 ω, ′oo乃 ),

TⅡ YltOID wlth inf IIYPOi,ER獗 I0



σxup犭 s,~d,~。 v2; s′ l9
0PTIC
'o叼

EXI9R0】 sns

doⅡti圩 tho pers。 n and number o£ the£ ollowIng form8


al△ d give1be c°rrosP0nding£ orms o£ tho Pre8en1:
q,a印 。沦 ω,卸 舞 Tc,λ 钫
帅 °vct,犭 扣 〃c巧 叩 涝Ψ c%φ vλ J垂 ‘
π叁 c‘ v

(乙 )Transla七 e:
1・ π-oπ tcJσ 0Vσ ‘ta肖ρ
oJ`Jρ /3¢ Po‘ 氵 γ。 , 2 。 °
v° u‘ 昏ucv

δδδs咖 缸
This fine roadw0y,bordered w"h clevated sidewalks, led fro〖 n1he agora

m泌 °
叩黟ρ
at Corinth to the harb° r Tho anoiont0Ⅱ eks did most of thc】 r trave1by sea

叩 务妫 “ £:c砻 ;猡1觞
and so had few good r° ads

&l掰 Jv穷 uged to write七 o his1brotbor 4 Irhe w° rks were aIloiontl


oδ 犭 v唧 cJv δ‘a而 s@ρ X叩 ’ 1
bll七 beau七 ifu1. 5 They were brave in8Dee。 h
(OC° lnple1e: 53 WOrdˉ fOrmation Many verbg wi1h εin 1ho s1em
1,jπ Ⅱπtcoσ _oJ πoλ 串‘ o‘ t♂ v σTp@叨 γ~λ J_t六 σπoI,ˉ have oogna1e nouns or adjec1ives wi1h o ins七 ead of c:
δ尔. —
2,udλ λc19λ u t氵 v Jδ ; 8・ ° 氵u仑 v— —ˉ(wi11 λc伤 tω Jecvel λ°πJs
‘ 氵
咖丿
— wi11seize)ta Jπ ‘
t犭 δ @
u南 t,s,° Jδ 它-—
pursue)to氵 9π oλ £ 〈 c‘
λ句@ ・ qpe¤ 跆
,λ 句os ω° rd c,r鹦 ec,o丿
I【 lronl 1hig poin1 the futur° πi11regularly bθ liBted in 10e V0CabuI巳 ry, π肖uπ ω :e%d le・ qcorr),π 。
uπ 犭pro。 ess枥 a丿
bθ cause it consti1uto8one o£ the priⅡ CipaI parts σπ J9δ ω po锣 b(1氵 |o饧 ,σ π oVδ 犭
氵 J扔 α氵Io%
'c氵
CoIYlparo L・ dtiIl tego rcover,七 og巳 czo¢ 无丿 Engli8h'捌 咖咿,so%弘
眢 拈 褓 亻 黻 搔 弦 嚅 骢 紧 褓 指 胝 £

the m° s1common
l see§ δ,α ・
ΩuVERBs 81
(3)Th° distinguisLing featuro of the£ rs1aorist k the
LEssoN X gu岱 区σ ‘(cc h the th△ d⒍ ngular),which obeyg tho same
phone1io laws ag1he σof1he future(§ ± 9)
msT AWD sEcoWD厶 oRIsT IuDェ c厶 TWE厶 ⅡD n叮 Ⅱ NITⅢ △ (矽 )Th。 nrgt a。rigt innni1ive a° Glvo i$always a° °
onted
Δc啷 0F Ω mms on the penult:1 。
‘ⅡCσα,Ⅱ流σ

8Ⅱ xll沁 vφ 铷 v dε ∴ -⒕ 漉枷 Gv馏 由 c`o'力 ~vch!
ε (J) s° me v° rbg lack a flr心 1aorig1, suoh verbs o£ 1en
`o/沙 havo a seoond aoris1,a dig1inguishing feature of whi° h is a

sC. The▲ orist. Aorig1ig Ghe namo of B tense of tbe weakening of1he vOw° l elemon1of1he s1om。 The seoond
Greek vorb, The nameig no1 uged ill the innec1i。 n of aoris七 i【 ldicative i,q in且 eotod like 1he imperfec1, and the
Latln or EngⅡ (;h verbs, bu1 maIly of i1s func1ions are corregPouding inflni1ive hag aⅡ endiug like 1ha1 o£ 1he
en1irely£ nmiⅡ ar。 presen1 iIlnni1ive, bu1 it ig accen1ed irrogularly on 1he
The aorigt in由 ca悦 v⒑ in Greek expresges c仞 峪 o¢ 溺 (tha乇 ul1ima: λ‘。
Γω, 召 )Ⅱπ 1λ ‘ :Φ ;
`”
i%no1。 ° nGlnuΘ a or repea乇 od〉 in P劭 :矽 time. I1giveg,a8 0c卸 ω,氵 苷
},I)vyo乃
φl,y枷

i1were,a gnapsho1of pas1aotion,9rhile the iI【 lperfec1gives (纟 )The thlrd forIrl in1he prinopal partg of a normal
色 moti0n pio1ure: verb ghows by tho presenoe of co(ˉ o,2t,r~o,whe1her tlle
παvov `tc臼 ‘s‘ l,,,P,氵 叼
芒 mv,a zsr/JP,沼 亻
滗 aoris1ig firgt or geCond.
`丿 `
FIR8T AoRIsT I.・ II,Ic^tIVE OF Ton,Φ rBur,P Inne。 1淌 ω and● c私 血 th° a血 乱 ind芘 atlvo and in仓 Ⅱ⒒加e,

铴 t・ ctl I・ ,“ 9。 c⒍ uv 56, There ig usually no diferenoe of"eaIliIlg be1woen


eTGt,ˉ σ os ‘π。v饣 G TC
firs1孔 nd g° cond
aoris1,1he1ermg signifying merely diIfer~
△πv cf(yl2 ‰ 艹σⅡv
enoo in forma1ion:
FIRgT Ao〗 ‘Ιs|r厶 FIwΙ TΙ VE π色uσ 01
J,ti,ctl CL茹 咖 :t) 2s|opped丿 乩 π°
v【 second色 oost, `Je/l・
sEcoNI,AoRIθ T INrlIoAtIvE OF λ‘‘π ω rJ¢ oR,侈

|λ J,rol, △X忑卟 v 5?, Tonses Of thO Innni伍 ve The illnni1ive, excep1in
饿枷吓 indireo1 discourge,8has no time Value. The pregen1 in-
=hTc-s 域 t,ro, £niJvθ denote8¢ o勿 历%饧 劭砀∞ or r叩 矽历仂o%(am° 悦on piⅡ ure),
=XtT c(y,2
sEcolfD AOnIθ T INFINェ fr工 V¤ λcTˉ c” wh⒒ o1hθ ao⒒ g1infini1ive deno1og勿 吻 扬o汐 灬℃ @9。 幽(a gnapˉ

ghot》
Js.FOr衄 洫 of the Δor跽 t (o The ao⒒ g△ in° om- 泛“ k‘ 咖 伽 无ε ω茵乃凼 fo扬 印 o呢 搀 讪

mon wi1h o1ber gecondary teIlsog, in the indica伉 ve hag


:‘ )莒 ,1c‘
蚋 凼 屁e臼 娥 幽 勿J/;纟 已 `

augmen1ana se。 。 ndary endings(§ §‘ 2,48)・ l sθ °


§V,`
2Thθ 1ypo o‘ vorbB th巳 1havo onIy~0and noo Hroin tho nr:t aorigt will
】【,uripldog,刀 Gc岫,BB】 nternIly:η 呢α0et,or茵 bεctIulFtI氵 峦 et,er dCo, bo proθ ontod later
2” Ⅱo,0"e(page叼 ,note玢 B0∞ ・口
80
ΩuVERBs 81
(3)Th° distinguisLing featuro of the£ rs1aorist k the
LEssoN X gu岱 区σ ‘(cc h the th△ d⒍ ngular),which obeyg tho same
phone1io laws ag1he σof1he future(§ ± 9)
msT AWD sEcoWD厶 oRIsT IuDェ c厶 TWE厶 ⅡD n叮 Ⅱ NITⅢ △ (矽 )Th。 nrgt a。rigt innni1ive a° Glvo i$always a° °
onted
Δc啷 0F Ω mms on the penult:1 。
‘ⅡCσα,Ⅱ流σ

8Ⅱ xll沁 vφ 铷 v dε ∴ -⒕ 漉枷 Gv馏 由 c`o'力 ~vch!
ε (J) s° me v° rbg lack a flr心 1aorig1, suoh verbs o£ 1en
`o/沙 havo a seoond aoris1,a dig1inguishing feature of whi° h is a

sC. The▲ orist. Aorig1ig Ghe namo of B tense of tbe weakening of1he vOw° l elemon1of1he s1om。 The seoond
Greek vorb, The nameig no1 uged ill the innec1i。 n of aoris七 i【 ldicative i,q in且 eotod like 1he imperfec1, and the
Latln or EngⅡ (;h verbs, bu1 maIly of i1s func1ions are corregPouding inflni1ive hag aⅡ endiug like 1ha1 o£ 1he
en1irely£ nmiⅡ ar。 presen1 iIlnni1ive, bu1 it ig accen1ed irrogularly on 1he
The aorigt in由 ca悦 v⒑ in Greek expresges c仞 峪 o¢ 溺 (tha乇 ul1ima: λ‘。
Γω, 召 )Ⅱπ 1λ ‘ :Φ ;
`”
i%no1。 ° nGlnuΘ a or repea乇 od〉 in P劭 :矽 time. I1giveg,a8 0c卸 ω,氵 苷
},I)vyo乃
φl,y枷

i1were,a gnapsho1of pas1aotion,9rhile the iI【 lperfec1gives (纟 )The thlrd forIrl in1he prinopal partg of a normal
色 moti0n pio1ure: verb ghows by tho presenoe of co(ˉ o,2t,r~o,whe1her tlle
παvov `tc臼 ‘s‘ l,,,P,氵 叼
芒 mv,a zsr/JP,沼 亻
滗 aoris1ig firgt or geCond.
`丿 `
FIR8T AoRIsT I.・ II,Ic^tIVE OF Ton,Φ rBur,P Inne。 1淌 ω and● c私 血 th° a血 乱 ind芘 atlvo and in仓 Ⅱ⒒加e,

铴 t・ ctl I・ ,“ 9。 c⒍ uv 56, There ig usually no diferenoe of"eaIliIlg be1woen


eTGt,ˉ σ os ‘π。v饣 G TC
firs1孔 nd g° cond
aoris1,1he1ermg signifying merely diIfer~
△πv cf(yl2 ‰ 艹σⅡv
enoo in forma1ion:
FIRgT Ao〗 ‘Ιs|r厶 FIwΙ TΙ VE π色uσ 01
J,ti,ctl CL茹 咖 :t) 2s|opped丿 乩 π°
v【 second色 oost, `Je/l・
sEcoNI,AoRIθ T INrlIoAtIvE OF λ‘‘π ω rJ¢ oR,侈

|λ J,rol, △X忑卟 v 5?, Tonses Of thO Innni伍 ve The illnni1ive, excep1in
饿枷吓 indireo1 discourge,8has no time Value. The pregen1 in-
=hTc-s 域 t,ro, £niJvθ denote8¢ o勿 历%饧 劭砀∞ or r叩 矽历仂o%(am° 悦on piⅡ ure),
=XtT c(y,2
sEcolfD AOnIθ T INFINェ fr工 V¤ λcTˉ c” wh⒒ o1hθ ao⒒ g1infini1ive deno1og勿 吻 扬o汐 灬℃ @9。 幽(a gnapˉ

ghot》
Js.FOr衄 洫 of the Δor跽 t (o The ao⒒ g△ in° om- 泛“ k‘ 咖 伽 无ε ω茵乃凼 fo扬 印 o呢 搀 讪

mon wi1h o1ber gecondary teIlsog, in the indica伉 ve hag


:‘ )莒 ,1c‘
蚋 凼 屁e臼 娥 幽 勿J/;纟 已 `

augmen1ana se。 。 ndary endings(§ §‘ 2,48)・ l sθ °


§V,`
2Thθ 1ypo o‘ vorbB th巳 1havo onIy~0and noo Hroin tho nr:t aorigt will
】【,uripldog,刀 Gc岫,BB】 nternIly:η 呢α0et,or茵 bεctIulFtI氵 峦 et,er dCo, bo proθ ontod later
2” Ⅱo,0"e(page叼 ,note玢 B0∞ ・口
80
Ω -VERBs 33
58 Vo0厶 B口 L厶 RY
J叮 巴0仇 ,⒉ dv:汤 ″6cz/ac`p`α cc λotr犭 s,嘭 ,而 2:J。//,″ n臼 访
吻 丿
dyr(调cv,adv:/,o仞 庇e″ ,汤 召
mc召 λot,r弓 汤e`‰
t♂ rε 丿 Ktλ
J9rtσ 碣 、,叼 s,氵 :`e`Jg⒎
犭 (KG)ta λ':
°【
π茳): ε `仍
EPI8TLE o灰 纪 讠 s,o: 乃o乙 s纟 `cEooNoMY
Jxω ,诺 ω∶乃cσ 召
溺λ
丿ccxov l:〃 oⅡ 。,叼 s,o:夕 勿召
丿pl,po$
λ命ω,kt彳 、‘ ,召 λITOy:汤¤v¢ , PYLOlI TⅡ ERMoPYL刃

Ⅱ0LIp8E

59, E驷 RCIsEs

社1昆y‰ f谤垲罕驽hj弭努;%答Pv瑁 fξ袈


σ ° 亻v岔
γ
箩 廴

'`‖ 裟 拓 T‰ 召 ,l;:了

苫 色l :犭

`黯 Ⅱ

|(D)C° mplete:

瘛 e拒拙毖J卜 俨
⑼ Wri1ein Gr∞ k:

THE ARCH oF HADR【


Had了 ian, 0ne of the “g° od.’ emperors of ^N
Rome, shoWed his love for
Athens by bcau“ 灯ing1hc cily Thi$arch bea。 s on"s westem face the
legend, Ⅱthis i$the Athens of tbeseus, the for1】 er c∶
facc, ‘‘thi$ is the ci~y of Hadrian, n° 饣of Thcseus,”
ty`’ and on the eastern h亻:r∶
i∶i:∶ lj::暴 【

茔 孟
i社 甘
f蔼 :恣 :岛 rpkced bvbreathlng
8the prenX
32

l
Ω -VERBs 33
58 Vo0厶 B口 L厶 RY
J叮 巴0仇 ,⒉ dv:汤 ″6cz/ac`p`α cc λotr犭 s,嘭 ,而 2:J。//,″ n臼 访
吻 丿
dyr(调cv,adv:/,o仞 庇e″ ,汤 召
mc召 λot,r弓 汤e`‰
t♂ rε 丿 Ktλ
J9rtσ 碣 、,叼 s,氵 :`e`Jg⒎
犭 (KG)ta λ':
°【
π茳): ε `仍
EPI8TLE o灰 纪 讠 s,o: 乃o乙 s纟 `cEooNoMY
Jxω ,诺 ω∶乃cσ 召
溺λ
丿ccxov l:〃 oⅡ 。,叼 s,o:夕 勿召
丿pl,po$
λ命ω,kt彳 、‘ ,召 λITOy:汤¤v¢ , PYLOlI TⅡ ERMoPYL刃

Ⅱ0LIp8E

59, E驷 RCIsEs

社1昆y‰ f谤垲罕驽hj弭努;%答Pv瑁 fξ袈


σ ° 亻v岔
γ
箩 廴

'`‖ 裟 拓 T‰ 召 ,l;:了

苫 色l :犭

`黯 Ⅱ

|(D)C° mplete:

瘛 e拒拙毖J卜 俨
⑼ Wri1ein Gr∞ k:

THE ARCH oF HADR【


Had了 ian, 0ne of the “g° od.’ emperors of ^N
Rome, shoWed his love for
Athens by bcau“ 灯ing1hc cily Thi$arch bea。 s on"s westem face the
legend, Ⅱthis i$the Athens of tbeseus, the for1】 er c∶
facc, ‘‘thi$ is the ci~y of Hadrian, n° 饣of Thcseus,”
ty`’ and on the eastern h亻:r∶
i∶i:∶ lj::暴 【

茔 孟
i社 甘
f蔼 :恣 :岛 rpkced bvbreathlng
8the prenX
32

l
ItEVIEw

LEssON XI
REˇ mw


coo¢ np泣 σ
xρ 洳搀屮叩r苗 vα v
o mα 七e9lts饣 c砀 s1
P,s sJIo,ol旬 饧 J/or εtt芯 纟9nC乃 ‘

(Jl Write iⅡ Greek:1 Th;:甜


60. ^ssIoⅡ 胚BWts wou】 d no1 guard 1he pass
雀 l:l{;l∶ 楹锶 群
(四 )Rev№ w龃 l wordg in th° vo° abularieg of L° sgons

— ⅡⅣ
VI-X, Follow guggogtong givon in§ 27,色 ,

(b)Name乳 nd deⅡ ne the Grook words guggeg1ed by



8矽 口 0C,0Po勿J沉 矽,p'呷 无〃J四0。 B,Jq乡 o%呃 ¢c无 〃, 劭″c「J¢η夕eJ,p〃 J@‰
J饣 呷 几幽 呦 △ b‘ ’ 3耐 6 ″ 漉 e它 。

a・
;{1~’ 6 e够 ecJ忉 汤 , c¢ 氵
杨 J侈 ,

j1纟
6口 嘭 留 杨纟,‘ 91¢ o矽 口9,Ig.

ll州
9^。

(c) Add te】 l


``口 oth。 rd° riva贫 v° s1o1hig grouP。
@)ha。 ct π。 D,δ “
枷Φ,助 πJro,,and k命 ωin
i廴 all tenses

1≡
of indio色 1iVe and innni1ivo1hus fflr s1udied。 2

)Give1be forms of犭 知o。 and;γ c哆d01hat sbould be


(¢

uged with σtρ ¢


t叼 γ0购卩私δaρ @,,vγ 犭%φ ‘λ“西(gIngula◇

≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡
,

φ‘
λ彡丙 (plural),aγ y晶 Φ y,油u。 。 。・
ω What伉 me facts are indioated by the h咖 vy type?
‘πcJo,rc Jξ ° pcv 皂λ6σ oucv rypJψ ε oz, 苫λ r¢ t。

(夕 )、几
%a1u⒃ g of the geni1ivo have you thus far had?
of1he d动 1ive? of1he acous巳 1ive?

EXEI|σ sEs 黯T钭 &挨 跎
::黹 ε I:1:坛 ::;:甘 :丨 岁
、廿湍措甘P
1∶

c,C° mplo1o:

1.r σTp色 T,γ 一 臼 ngular)跖 ˉ
湘 t颐 。vλ 江 (pregenD Foreig∶ ∶ r刂 l Ⅱ 暴:|1胥r阝 ⒒』
。 另1朵 :%£ ‰ £
f
Taq σπ。IJδ 赤 . 2.π c饪 ‘ ,t心 卩印 卩妇 ol’ q诧 弼 δαo
打 ‘
l∶ 1:J↓ were brave in dΘ
:∶
ed, o111erg in
speecb
l獭 砂 u8,Pro,nε 饣 u,,10的
20on8ult 0ho △ ^ε 8r⒘ 8t 0he baεk of the book to geθ
rF cabu〗 甲hiCh of 1heso

l≡
II,’go nr11cIo,
ˇerbB llaVo nrgt B】 d wLiCh8θ Cond巳 0ri81
84

l丨

ItEVIEw

LEssON XI
REˇ mw


coo¢ np泣 σ
xρ 洳搀屮叩r苗 vα v
o mα 七e9lts饣 c砀 s1
P,s sJIo,ol旬 饧 J/or εtt芯 纟9nC乃 ‘

(Jl Write iⅡ Greek:1 Th;:甜


60. ^ssIoⅡ 胚BWts wou】 d no1 guard 1he pass
雀 l:l{;l∶ 楹锶 群
(四 )Rev№ w龃 l wordg in th° vo° abularieg of L° sgons

— ⅡⅣ
VI-X, Follow guggogtong givon in§ 27,色 ,

(b)Name乳 nd deⅡ ne the Grook words guggeg1ed by



8矽 口 0C,0Po勿J沉 矽,p'呷 无〃J四0。 B,Jq乡 o%呃 ¢c无 〃, 劭″c「J¢η夕eJ,p〃 J@‰
J饣 呷 几幽 呦 △ b‘ ’ 3耐 6 ″ 漉 e它 。

a・
;{1~’ 6 e够 ecJ忉 汤 , c¢ 氵
杨 J侈 ,

j1纟
6口 嘭 留 杨纟,‘ 91¢ o矽 口9,Ig.

ll州
9^。

(c) Add te】 l


``口 oth。 rd° riva贫 v° s1o1hig grouP。
@)ha。 ct π。 D,δ “
枷Φ,助 πJro,,and k命 ωin
i廴 all tenses

1≡
of indio色 1iVe and innni1ivo1hus fflr s1udied。 2

)Give1be forms of犭 知o。 and;γ c哆d01hat sbould be


(¢

uged with σtρ ¢


t叼 γ0购卩私δaρ @,,vγ 犭%φ ‘λ“西(gIngula◇

≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡ ≡
,

φ‘
λ彡丙 (plural),aγ y晶 Φ y,油u。 。 。・
ω What伉 me facts are indioated by the h咖 vy type?
‘πcJo,rc Jξ ° pcv 皂λ6σ oucv rypJψ ε oz, 苫λ r¢ t。

(夕 )、几
%a1u⒃ g of the geni1ivo have you thus far had?
of1he d动 1ive? of1he acous巳 1ive?

EXEI|σ sEs 黯T钭 &挨 跎
::黹 ε I:1:坛 ::;:甘 :丨 岁
、廿湍措甘P
1∶

c,C° mplo1o:

1.r σTp色 T,γ 一 臼 ngular)跖 ˉ
湘 t颐 。vλ 江 (pregenD Foreig∶ ∶ r刂 l Ⅱ 暴:|1胥r阝 ⒒』
。 另1朵 :%£ ‰ £
f
Taq σπ。IJδ 赤 . 2.π c饪 ‘ ,t心 卩印 卩妇 ol’ q诧 弼 δαo
打 ‘
l∶ 1:J↓ were brave in dΘ
:∶
ed, o111erg in
speecb
l獭 砂 u8,Pro,nε 饣 u,,10的
20on8ult 0ho △ ^ε 8r⒘ 8t 0he baεk of the book to geθ
rF cabu〗 甲hiCh of 1heso

l≡
II,’go nr11cIo,
ˇerbB llaVo nrgt B】 d wLiCh8θ Cond巳 0ri81
84

l丨

跏 ADINo 87
8, NoGO cairefdly word group9and rdati° ng of wOrdg ng u⒈
山嘣Od” h山 o抗吧l ohangeg
LEssoN XII ‘,Do Ilo1jump。 bout ln1hθ genteno° ,but1ry to grnsp tho
though七 g as thoy fdIow血 l° ∮cal soqllen∞ ,obge,rv△ ng th巳 1
IREADIltG ompLa1io wordg aro likely t。 。
∞ur at tho bθ gInnlng or ond oF
d岛 u8eB° r genteIl° eg
击 杭 λJ,rapa1R巛 △ ::ox,∴ r枷 四 to“ 9:缸 aJ.。 l, 5. If tho meanhg σ£any wOrd臼 iB臼 dl uIlkⅡ ow】 l,Con旬 d1tbe

E祀叱 品 s cpcocJ,n,Ic冫 、c1yt,1’ A矽 al/rI1 ⒘ooabul。 ry
G″ ″ ″///i6rlr/lm'rzr,JcJ cr。 r冯 切 /l,l.e饣 旷 汤召PoPls・ ,
6. I£ rel钆 tl°n8o£ w° rds aro B1⒒ 1ob8cure,roroad aloud ullti】
7%o“ α″ l/te加 tl l・ α 。 召c召 丿 △ t乃 εns,r,l〃 ,勿 l,t召 沁 yo,c冫 l
1Lo。 n廿 re th° ug△ t ig clear
'乃 'Cr召
7, Trangla七 °iIl七 o cloar凸 nd aooura七 o Engli8h,
62, Tho Value of Translation. “Thero is no be1ter w乙 y et. VoC▲ BtrLΔ R:
for1he s1uden1101rain bimsel£ in1ho choice of1ho very ・
A臼 wu,乇 y,α Ⅱ enB, mth D,° n,口 0DP/丿 Wlth A,,
word 1h山 1 will fit his 七hought than by trans1a1i° n from J恤 c吟 ,o,ˉ t,,|:彳
'汤沥e砀叼
1亠 . o’ 1,Jo,α
t!`’ I∶ PIDERMIg,
La1in and Greek Thus he developg habi七 s of analygis, d卩 钿 ω :犭 ed宙 勿 呢1切 a四 岬 :″茁 :s⒛ 召,l,`@,nBⅡ
Ⅱ EPTΛ GOW
habi1s of discrimina1ing ohoice of words,habits of aooura1o Ⅱ‘

Ⅱ” ou,δ :C rumn奶 卩,l, 扛o, 话ω:2 com6 乃
u1(〕
ttl召 c0勿 6
,

apprehensio11of1he meaning which another has sough11o rCC刀 ,rtlC饣 CotJrJC。 tlrnt,幺
HIPPt,I,RO△ IE dκ
conVey by、 ˇritten、 ˇords,、 vhich lead1° pos△,er of exProBsion l
t‘ : 纟讠灿 °°toPt】 :
~c论 o,σπ`c谕 ①,眉卯 cvσ 己:乃 口sre叼
筑 Prep: 讯 1hG, o,l, tIpo"丿
and 1o Po、ˇer of clear 1hinking, suo11habi1s孔 re wor1h
more to the la、 vyerthan a111ho informa1ion、 ˇhioh包 modern θJ 止ARΔ!∏ oF
2 ‘‘Tha1maIl is】 Ⅱ比le to be enned wh° ge pa1n。
$cllo° l mt1y hope to illlpart.” 1ism
wOuId Ilot g汕 force upoll1he Plam o£ Manthon” 8
68, The Process of Trans1aton From the very begin-
Δop钅 oc卩 0c。 k泌 4α咖
ning,cul1iva1e righ1habi1s Tho1ime1hus savod Wi11in Θ 氵v记汕 Π cPσav钅 砣 和 r πJPT° v
d、 e end r° Pay you for any1im。 1ha1may seem1o be los七 (¢ ″ )tav扣” △ σ幻 av9p苗 9ro” To诉 δ宝 φ亻 λot,。 芭Γc/t9rc
a1111° 心1t1rt
c印 。r9γ 。氵’σ切 (叨 溺 )crpr】 T氵 口 π诫 ” (切卿 e)仙 :π 沆 λ0,,ot,
rF苫
1. Read aloud aIld dis1i!1ctly each Greek sen1ence as Greek,
昭 鲁摞 铞 抚 扌 留 k蹴 f%洲 肥
withou1ooI〗 scious eJFor1a11raIlsla1ion
2 Noto familiar words;i〗 1un£ amiliar words look£ or famillar
认 助 voh‘ 私 o'.dv″ 09tI o犭 矿 v’ A助 I,c扔 氵δⅡ uP苔 σηΓeuσ ov亦
roo七 g° r sugges1ions劫 g1o moanillg contailled in1he oon1ex1 ro泌 /3‘ ρ卩u句
勹 °
ot,g・ a9rC哓 t,J,δ 忿σrtrδ 南v93r锚 。 耐 δ忿 Π 中 σ t,。

:Th° di仓 θrollco bθ 1wOen thθ


I Pindar, fragⅢ ent gell:tiV6,dB1:vo,Bnd8ccusativO Inay bθ i口 d:ˉ
Li1erany∶ O rc,lov9led 彳z丙 e屁 s, ¤r″ rIr】 拈6 V讠 oreⅡ CBtod by thoBe ph郎 每; o庀 horse0GC乃 ,tl伍 ‘v oz ‘九c召 Cα ,^e m口 ruIel9° 乃 |/Jε
cro忉 氵
lcd,“ ,lf氵 ”led讠 乃st mσ ,stoV oy creece foio,I ¤ompsrt,t。 p‘ 〈
2Roscoe Pouud.I,ean o【 1he Law schoo1.Ⅱ 8rv色 rd0nivα “o,8g reported §叨9・
`α a No aoriBt in u8o, εsamuθ l Johngon
:n l/o氵 uε o'`^e C叼 α ss氵 cε ,pago49 ‘predi。 ato Ⅱom血 uˇ e iⅡ agro° Ill° nt π:1h△ 己 ε
ρ Ⅱ£
86
跏 ADINo 87
8, NoGO cairefdly word group9and rdati° ng of wOrdg ng u⒈
山嘣Od” h山 o抗吧l ohangeg
LEssoN XII ‘,Do Ilo1jump。 bout ln1hθ genteno° ,but1ry to grnsp tho
though七 g as thoy fdIow血 l° ∮cal soqllen∞ ,obge,rv△ ng th巳 1
IREADIltG ompLa1io wordg aro likely t。 。
∞ur at tho bθ gInnlng or ond oF
d岛 u8eB° r genteIl° eg
击 杭 λJ,rapa1R巛 △ ::ox,∴ r枷 四 to“ 9:缸 aJ.。 l, 5. If tho meanhg σ£any wOrd臼 iB臼 dl uIlkⅡ ow】 l,Con旬 d1tbe

E祀叱 品 s cpcocJ,n,Ic冫 、c1yt,1’ A矽 al/rI1 ⒘ooabul。 ry
G″ ″ ″///i6rlr/lm'rzr,JcJ cr。 r冯 切 /l,l.e饣 旷 汤召PoPls・ ,
6. I£ rel钆 tl°n8o£ w° rds aro B1⒒ 1ob8cure,roroad aloud ullti】
7%o“ α″ l/te加 tl l・ α 。 召c召 丿 △ t乃 εns,r,l〃 ,勿 l,t召 沁 yo,c冫 l
1Lo。 n廿 re th° ug△ t ig clear
'乃 'Cr召
7, Trangla七 °iIl七 o cloar凸 nd aooura七 o Engli8h,
62, Tho Value of Translation. “Thero is no be1ter w乙 y et. VoC▲ BtrLΔ R:
for1he s1uden1101rain bimsel£ in1ho choice of1ho very ・
A臼 wu,乇 y,α Ⅱ enB, mth D,° n,口 0DP/丿 Wlth A,,
word 1h山 1 will fit his 七hought than by trans1a1i° n from J恤 c吟 ,o,ˉ t,,|:彳
'汤沥e砀叼
1亠 . o’ 1,Jo,α
t!`’ I∶ PIDERMIg,
La1in and Greek Thus he developg habi七 s of analygis, d卩 钿 ω :犭 ed宙 勿 呢1切 a四 岬 :″茁 :s⒛ 召,l,`@,nBⅡ
Ⅱ EPTΛ GOW
habi1s of discrimina1ing ohoice of words,habits of aooura1o Ⅱ‘

Ⅱ” ou,δ :C rumn奶 卩,l, 扛o, 话ω:2 com6 乃
u1(〕
ttl召 c0勿 6
,

apprehensio11of1he meaning which another has sough11o rCC刀 ,rtlC饣 CotJrJC。 tlrnt,幺
HIPPt,I,RO△ IE dκ
conVey by、 ˇritten、 ˇords,、 vhich lead1° pos△,er of exProBsion l
t‘ : 纟讠灿 °°toPt】 :
~c论 o,σπ`c谕 ①,眉卯 cvσ 己:乃 口sre叼
筑 Prep: 讯 1hG, o,l, tIpo"丿
and 1o Po、ˇer of clear 1hinking, suo11habi1s孔 re wor1h
more to the la、 vyerthan a111ho informa1ion、 ˇhioh包 modern θJ 止ARΔ!∏ oF
2 ‘‘Tha1maIl is】 Ⅱ比le to be enned wh° ge pa1n。
$cllo° l mt1y hope to illlpart.” 1ism
wOuId Ilot g汕 force upoll1he Plam o£ Manthon” 8
68, The Process of Trans1aton From the very begin-
Δop钅 oc卩 0c。 k泌 4α咖
ning,cul1iva1e righ1habi1s Tho1ime1hus savod Wi11in Θ 氵v记汕 Π cPσav钅 砣 和 r πJPT° v
d、 e end r° Pay you for any1im。 1ha1may seem1o be los七 (¢ ″ )tav扣” △ σ幻 av9p苗 9ro” To诉 δ宝 φ亻 λot,。 芭Γc/t9rc
a1111° 心1t1rt
c印 。r9γ 。氵’σ切 (叨 溺 )crpr】 T氵 口 π诫 ” (切卿 e)仙 :π 沆 λ0,,ot,
rF苫
1. Read aloud aIld dis1i!1ctly each Greek sen1ence as Greek,
昭 鲁摞 铞 抚 扌 留 k蹴 f%洲 肥
withou1ooI〗 scious eJFor1a11raIlsla1ion
2 Noto familiar words;i〗 1un£ amiliar words look£ or famillar
认 助 voh‘ 私 o'.dv″ 09tI o犭 矿 v’ A助 I,c扔 氵δⅡ uP苔 σηΓeuσ ov亦
roo七 g° r sugges1ions劫 g1o moanillg contailled in1he oon1ex1 ro泌 /3‘ ρ卩u句
勹 °
ot,g・ a9rC哓 t,J,δ 忿σrtrδ 南v93r锚 。 耐 δ忿 Π 中 σ t,。

:Th° di仓 θrollco bθ 1wOen thθ


I Pindar, fragⅢ ent gell:tiV6,dB1:vo,Bnd8ccusativO Inay bθ i口 d:ˉ
Li1erany∶ O rc,lov9led 彳z丙 e屁 s, ¤r″ rIr】 拈6 V讠 oreⅡ CBtod by thoBe ph郎 每; o庀 horse0GC乃 ,tl伍 ‘v oz ‘九c召 Cα ,^e m口 ruIel9° 乃 |/Jε
cro忉 氵
lcd,“ ,lf氵 ”led讠 乃st mσ ,stoV oy creece foio,I ¤ompsrt,t。 p‘ 〈
2Roscoe Pouud.I,ean o【 1he Law schoo1.Ⅱ 8rv色 rd0nivα “o,8g reported §叨9・
`α a No aoriBt in u8o, εsamuθ l Johngon
:n l/o氵 uε o'`^e C叼 α ss氵 cε ,pago49 ‘predi。 ato Ⅱom血 uˇ e iⅡ agro° Ill° nt π:1h△ 己 ε
ρ Ⅱ£
86
READING 39
88 AN INrrRODuCrPIoN TO GREEK
δe,-pzα c@db⒊ 切 s Theso can belearned F1・ om
1eJt兀 ru氵 l,l eglu扔 oze庀 氵
§§I and II,bu111o1e espeoially tha1o1passe8into oε or e,C1into
’° r巳 ° 1into四 or o(when全 na1o‘ becomes t),° v into t。 , v
illto v(e区 C0pt in diph1hongs),° s iIl1° lts J

us卩 Bo° k VI A犭 σxL,tos
'E、 c乃 /〃 s, A氵 仇oπ 蒎 rz/l"P拓 , σt‘ 俗刀s
Aρ ‘ 彳 汀s`l/Jgs,
Adap1ed from Herodc比
o叼 σc%v T/csgtt″ , ΦotBos P几 四δ乙s, Φo饣vtsc P乃 lr nzclrl n, Φ趴‘
tπ ot

J’ /tIⅡp1 E,r&。 vρ os刀 PJcurvs, K1而 【
λωv9(9,`cJoPJs

2 Use1he ordinary English sc,unds for1h° letter8,remem-


berlilg fh砒 c Cclr⑼ and¢ am“ s。 ft” befcll。 e or氵 sollnds
3 Name81hat have becomo
Very oolnlnoⅡ in EIlghsh are
likely七 o have lost or ohallged
their in丑 ec1ional endings∶

Dv⒍ 1 △而
△矽 召ns, Σtpdκ oLcll1
sy犯 c“s`,° oJt,,ρ os HrlllP,,Π λ茳tω y
PJα 协,′ λ
迦hv》 os`氵 e氵 α
n″ 弘

4 The ang1icized form is to


be acceIlted aCCording1o the
Latin rules; 1xvo-syllabled

捃昝℃
∶l庶 ::∫ 僬 ;Ⅰ:1⒉ 喙莒 ::盅 茹
l::扌 滥:絮 丨
mJk漶 絮刂
wOrds acoen1the Penul1; polyˉ
sy1lables aoceIl11he peIlu1t,i£
for the most herotC exp1° it in Athenian hist0!y BRoNzE BoY FRoM MARATHoN
long,° tllerwiso七 he an七 epenul1:
ⅣΔⅢ Es this head belong.s t0 a beautiful
66 PRoⅡ 0Ⅱ cIAIl【 oII0p ^Ⅱ 0L=0Iz,9D GmEK PRoPDIt Ath′ eIls,odyg′ seus,PeIle1′ opo! statuo found in aImost perfeCt oonˉ
(cl Transli1erato in七 o Eng~ dition by a fisherman in the Bay of
lish aIld pronounce; Marathon in t925

Aγ 画 KⅡ os
Kvε φc够 u私 vω v Bo卩 cⅡ
tH卩
dδ oto⒐
’ 拓″1 Θov钅 vδ 6” 9 ’
Aφp° δ Aπ 抚 λ。
,v

zc泌 XJρ ωv Σω钅pJt叼 , Λv″ o∞ γos

l娶 】 ∶七
Ⅰ 、 o七 her 七
haIl proper names have gu狂 ered 8tlu
i1∶ V° rdg


l∶ (rzl
o士 n⒏ grea1er changes乙 s七 o onaing;
f:):器 f【 f1Ⅰ e∶l∶ ;Ⅰ ;j【 1i∶ ;∶
s几 “ z
忉品ers
hsL v讠 函 △a1ii,cu乱 。m demaIlds nrst tllat汛 e erPe无 JTacIt。 s 9Pos扭 , φ认 oσ oφ 缸 /,乃 氵osrlP,几 夕,
氵 φ
t・ k占 σ°φos p乃 lJosoP乃 召r,

50)=饣 o0e 舀γγ‘λos c,l`gz, t。 κc【 IV犭 s oC召 αⅡ


1Pro8eIl1infini1lve in IIldirec1Di8course§
2For infoF皿 a1ion rθ garding Herodotu8and o1h3r per8oIlages rθ forred to in l IPi口 Bl η,Ⅲ heIl1rausliter⒏ ted into氵 ,ig rθ gt11arly sounded
pagθ 铷 ⒌
t“ δl::订 舔 sult D犭 c而 nα 砬 铲 PI oper珈 饥e岛
READING 39
88 AN INrrRODuCrPIoN TO GREEK
δe,-pzα c@db⒊ 切 s Theso can belearned F1・ om
1eJt兀 ru氵 l,l eglu扔 oze庀 氵
§§I and II,bu111o1e espeoially tha1o1passe8into oε or e,C1into
’° r巳 ° 1into四 or o(when全 na1o‘ becomes t),° v into t。 , v
illto v(e区 C0pt in diph1hongs),° s iIl1° lts J

us卩 Bo° k VI A犭 σxL,tos
'E、 c乃 /〃 s, A氵 仇oπ 蒎 rz/l"P拓 , σt‘ 俗刀s
Aρ ‘ 彳 汀s`l/Jgs,
Adap1ed from Herodc比
o叼 σc%v T/csgtt″ , ΦotBos P几 四δ乙s, Φo饣vtsc P乃 lr nzclrl n, Φ趴‘
tπ ot

J’ /tIⅡp1 E,r&。 vρ os刀 PJcurvs, K1而 【
λωv9(9,`cJoPJs

2 Use1he ordinary English sc,unds for1h° letter8,remem-


berlilg fh砒 c Cclr⑼ and¢ am“ s。 ft” befcll。 e or氵 sollnds
3 Name81hat have becomo
Very oolnlnoⅡ in EIlghsh are
likely七 o have lost or ohallged
their in丑 ec1ional endings∶

Dv⒍ 1 △而
△矽 召ns, Σtpdκ oLcll1
sy犯 c“s`,° oJt,,ρ os HrlllP,,Π λ茳tω y
PJα 协,′ λ
迦hv》 os`氵 e氵 α
n″ 弘

4 The ang1icized form is to


be acceIlted aCCording1o the
Latin rules; 1xvo-syllabled

捃昝℃
∶l庶 ::∫ 僬 ;Ⅰ:1⒉ 喙莒 ::盅 茹
l::扌 滥:絮 丨
mJk漶 絮刂
wOrds acoen1the Penul1; polyˉ
sy1lables aoceIl11he peIlu1t,i£
for the most herotC exp1° it in Athenian hist0!y BRoNzE BoY FRoM MARATHoN
long,° tllerwiso七 he an七 epenul1:
ⅣΔⅢ Es this head belong.s t0 a beautiful
66 PRoⅡ 0Ⅱ cIAIl【 oII0p ^Ⅱ 0L=0Iz,9D GmEK PRoPDIt Ath′ eIls,odyg′ seus,PeIle1′ opo! statuo found in aImost perfeCt oonˉ
(cl Transli1erato in七 o Eng~ dition by a fisherman in the Bay of
lish aIld pronounce; Marathon in t925

Aγ 画 KⅡ os
Kvε φc够 u私 vω v Bo卩 cⅡ
tH卩
dδ oto⒐
’ 拓″1 Θov钅 vδ 6” 9 ’
Aφp° δ Aπ 抚 λ。
,v

zc泌 XJρ ωv Σω钅pJt叼 , Λv″ o∞ γos

l娶 】 ∶七
Ⅰ 、 o七 her 七
haIl proper names have gu狂 ered 8tlu
i1∶ V° rdg


l∶ (rzl
o士 n⒏ grea1er changes乙 s七 o onaing;
f:):器 f【 f1Ⅰ e∶l∶ ;Ⅰ ;j【 1i∶ ;∶
s几 “ z
忉品ers
hsL v讠 函 △a1ii,cu乱 。m demaIlds nrst tllat汛 e erPe无 JTacIt。 s 9Pos扭 , φ认 oσ oφ 缸 /,乃 氵osrlP,几 夕,
氵 φ
t・ k占 σ°φos p乃 lJosoP乃 召r,

50)=饣 o0e 舀γγ‘λos c,l`gz, t。 κc【 IV犭 s oC召 αⅡ


1Pro8eIl1infini1lve in IIldirec1Di8course§
2For infoF皿 a1ion rθ garding Herodotu8and o1h3r per8oIlages rθ forred to in l IPi口 Bl η,Ⅲ heIl1rausliter⒏ ted into氵 ,ig rθ gt11arly sounded
pagθ 铷 ⒌
t“ δl::订 舔 sult D犭 c而 nα 砬 铲 PI oper珈 饥e岛
PRoNOUNs 41

t氵 κ0u,
氵色白 砒召st,″ ev氵 JJrl9c, 氵 K苗 叼 °访 犭 `,lc vˉ ″α夕e枕 seo△
K协 G访 次 伪 硒 乃ImJ盯 。访 λ 邯 uy″ △召腕 泔 eJryfed丿

LEssoN XⅡ I α访 f Jypa帜 f″ ″ 召 勿 无掮 , G折 °诉 a%° 饣 包 无e cozJec凼 汤 召m

,‘
P△ o⒒ o0lI日 VoC▲ B口△ΔRY
溉f找 °
「 畅‰er 助 诙 犭,讠 s,分 PJc庀 :ovL口 ・
nc cⅡ
n″ 添 。nolaσ seJr I
邑 cpos γaρ 淌 tδ s。 φJλ os启 cr缸 一 左 户 切 :∶ 缶 叩 tlUkl。 i11):pJor四 卿 lnε 1耐 tIl D
苗从 os,叼 9 ⒑ ; °汤c9, @no饣 乃饣r丿 if ,rl甲 ㈨M,讠 s,Ⅱ
ε p′ o^

preceded by 1ho article, `/J纟 1σ °s,-” ,ˉov: I臼 0so】 △Eg


e♀ vo′
口屁 c△ ner召 召氵or ^△ △oP^TH⒘ K讼 创 吗 KcXc锸叭 诺κo泣 vσ α:o,d纟 ”
CWt,s,硝 “:Jc″ e,ε eJ/,乃 o砒 e,", c° mmσ n汪
汤e弘 °1° ・ ^vT0△ i^toW Js,串 蚤 rel pron∷ tt乃 @,tt乃 访 乃,r/Jo`,

FouNc血 ,p。 ux锁 泗,J卩 o"● )1ε vt,t△ :


而茹 ,饣 s,氵 :几 o・ △ s召 鲋 0乃・ ⅡouR,冫 ^‘
p氵 臼n,
‘s 1
叨乃o,忉 1犭 σ
⒕・

92, EXEItCIsEs
f

N M r

ˇ

α・
ι●

α◆w∴卟″
吊〓氵 和

° ・
〓・


〉Wha七 tloes巴 J材 q meaIl in1be⒃ Pbrases?

ω
ν上
ω
ν ˇ

∞・

.⑾

邺ˇG
ω

.〓
诧 口切aδ Ⅱ己 t泌 9卸 ;q已 氵
ω

。vto讠 》
,它 犭 ‘
ε t溱





,冖
ο
ν
ο


lb)T】 langlate:

燕蓝黼 孤槭 跗 擗
1, 钅口1扌 @沂 氵 σtp舀 TJa犭 pπ 巴← t泌 σ钅叼v赤 . 2. 犭λλoq
¢TptrTη 游 讶丫 卩。
P卩 卸oⅡ φ ‘ 8.aλ r
d而稿 和@v rxt。
J仇 畅 沂
rcP巴 吵 卜 冫rⅡ ππ Jσ 已vt氵 v阝 bvλ 犭v, 4,J∞ 0uⅡ
汹 t泌 a9r~吖 cu aπ δ 叻 q钅 凼u饣 9 B钅 稿 σ而 阮 vs. 5. oJ ov

淼诞棣黼 薮螳 i槭 鞲 :∶ l雾 ll氵
△ %I,tr‘ 。aλ λ犭λ。


-碉 o杉 λcvσ 。v:0汕
^Jπ “
Q・ ” δ仑φvλ @r^苗 卩a

。 dγ γcλ os δ
tt,ls乃 召
'品
εJo`召 ε
‘uψ εs:ε 趴
(1φ vγ cV 砒e祝 essC n`e'tt乃 o沈 Vov s召 ’
Ⅰt


钅紫 百孰

语 功
磊 竿
弘早 r拟
o氍
Θ Comp1ete:
1 t-σ TpoT,,γ一 缶 ˉ
昭 o饥 ct/σ a9,° J`卸 Fapα -— Ω沂 0
氵σ口vπ °λ咖 Jo‘ . 2・ oJt-(漉 幽 )π 妇 ψ oucv涝 λλ° δ卸 ov
ˉˉ_-eXo″ v。 8・ tIv印 9,σ tIv乙 λλ~ˉ o拓 ‘
-ˉ ,

c无 Cα a cs,IX 9,10,11zO B
n乃 犭 ’氵λλ λ°,lRcXa tho giⅡ gu!Br numbor and$bo no皿 iⅡ B刂 Ve pluml
=Ari810tlo,W,Ct D1α ”
dl,
PRoNOUNs 41

t氵 κ0u,
氵色白 砒召st,″ ev氵 JJrl9c, 氵 K苗 叼 °访 犭 `,lc vˉ ″α夕e枕 seo△
K协 G访 次 伪 硒 乃ImJ盯 。访 λ 邯 uy″ △召腕 泔 eJryfed丿

LEssoN XⅡ I α访 f Jypa帜 f″ ″ 召 勿 无掮 , G折 °诉 a%° 饣 包 无e cozJec凼 汤 召m

,‘
P△ o⒒ o0lI日 VoC▲ B口△ΔRY
溉f找 °
「 畅‰er 助 诙 犭,讠 s,分 PJc庀 :ovL口 ・
nc cⅡ
n″ 添 。nolaσ seJr I
邑 cpos γaρ 淌 tδ s。 φJλ os启 cr缸 一 左 户 切 :∶ 缶 叩 tlUkl。 i11):pJor四 卿 lnε 1耐 tIl D
苗从 os,叼 9 ⒑ ; °汤c9, @no饣 乃饣r丿 if ,rl甲 ㈨M,讠 s,Ⅱ
ε p′ o^

preceded by 1ho article, `/J纟 1σ °s,-” ,ˉov: I臼 0so】 △Eg


e♀ vo′
口屁 c△ ner召 召氵or ^△ △oP^TH⒘ K讼 创 吗 KcXc锸叭 诺κo泣 vσ α:o,d纟 ”
CWt,s,硝 “:Jc″ e,ε eJ/,乃 o砒 e,", c° mmσ n汪
汤e弘 °1° ・ ^vT0△ i^toW Js,串 蚤 rel pron∷ tt乃 @,tt乃 访 乃,r/Jo`,

FouNc血 ,p。 ux锁 泗,J卩 o"● )1ε vt,t△ :


而茹 ,饣 s,氵 :几 o・ △ s召 鲋 0乃・ ⅡouR,冫 ^‘
p氵 臼n,
‘s 1
叨乃o,忉 1犭 σ
⒕・

92, EXEItCIsEs
f

N M r

ˇ

α・
ι●

α◆w∴卟″
吊〓氵 和

° ・
〓・


〉Wha七 tloes巴 J材 q meaIl in1be⒃ Pbrases?

ω
ν上
ω
ν ˇ

∞・

.⑾

邺ˇG
ω

.〓
诧 口切aδ Ⅱ己 t泌 9卸 ;q已 氵
ω

。vto讠 》
,它 犭 ‘
ε t溱





,冖
ο
ν
ο


lb)T】 langlate:

燕蓝黼 孤槭 跗 擗
1, 钅口1扌 @沂 氵 σtp舀 TJa犭 pπ 巴← t泌 σ钅叼v赤 . 2. 犭λλoq
¢TptrTη 游 讶丫 卩。
P卩 卸oⅡ φ ‘ 8.aλ r
d而稿 和@v rxt。
J仇 畅 沂
rcP巴 吵 卜 冫rⅡ ππ Jσ 已vt氵 v阝 bvλ 犭v, 4,J∞ 0uⅡ
汹 t泌 a9r~吖 cu aπ δ 叻 q钅 凼u饣 9 B钅 稿 σ而 阮 vs. 5. oJ ov

淼诞棣黼 薮螳 i槭 鞲 :∶ l雾 ll氵
△ %I,tr‘ 。aλ λ犭λ。


-碉 o杉 λcvσ 。v:0汕
^Jπ “
Q・ ” δ仑φvλ @r^苗 卩a

。 dγ γcλ os δ
tt,ls乃 召
'品
εJo`召 ε
‘uψ εs:ε 趴
(1φ vγ cV 砒e祝 essC n`e'tt乃 o沈 Vov s召 ’
Ⅰt


钅紫 百孰

语 功
磊 竿
弘早 r拟
o氍
Θ Comp1ete:
1 t-σ TpoT,,γ一 缶 ˉ
昭 o饥 ct/σ a9,° J`卸 Fapα -— Ω沂 0
氵σ口vπ °λ咖 Jo‘ . 2・ oJt-(漉 幽 )π 妇 ψ oucv涝 λλ° δ卸 ov
ˉˉ_-eXo″ v。 8・ tIv印 9,σ tIv乙 λλ~ˉ o拓 ‘
-ˉ ,

c无 Cα a cs,IX 9,10,11zO B
n乃 犭 ’氵λλ λ°,lRcXa tho giⅡ gu!Br numbor and$bo no皿 iⅡ B刂 Ve pluml
=Ari810tlo,W,Ct D1α ”
dl,
AN lNrrRODucTIoN TO GREEK

LEssON XIV
DEMoNstRAlrIVE PItoNo0W$

l「 ,rC0δ (卩 ραδ乩 s— Jrrl【 、 J lIs佗 Mo″ /l/l

氵4 The principa1 dem° llstrative prO【 louIls are o氵 toq 饣


乃氵8

(I'atln/l犭 c),犭 δc r/l犭 s,and爸 钅cε v° ,r1‘ “ (La乇 in扌 J氵 c)

°
st° s 氵
几Js


2 t∶
pP t:∶
∶:∶ ∶
:;s ∶∶
:v :∶ |.


toV丁 屮 t⒍ Vt″ tovt屮
toVtoV TuVt,lV tovro


bδ ξ `/l氵 8

淼淼淼

咖凇
t。 δ‘ o1δ c α:δ c toδ c
to0δ ( tavδ c tδ vδ c tδ yδ ‘


‘泷
t(3δ ( to:kⅠ δc tαoσ δ( toCσ δt

耀
撒薛
Toδ ( tovσ δ( tα σδc t。 δ(


繇茁
艚鹦 谶 浴
弼 拶 △
XTOte that oδ tos has1he s乙 me clldh)gs as α 氵t犭 s(§ 68丿 ,that i1has

iIlitial i only wherc tlle artiCle。 ,氵 ,t。 has⒎ ,al1d111a1it has° v iⅡ


the penult Oldy wben an()soulld oCC11rs in the ll】 1hna,having ov ill
the other forl11s
Contras1o1tos and α氵了0sa81o brea1hing,accent,a12ds1em
c}a‰
社铴饣‰召
拶%轷 拶∵ 瞅 Note tha11he forms of♂ δc arc1hC forms of1bc article wlth sc
;劣 )鸳 :1dded

(叩
‰ f秽 芥 贯劈 苈 讠离 筋 ‰ 洫 D,佗 λmπ 犭 75 尼
κ‘vos has the same endings and accents as ovtos,

In】 e。 t it,t1na comparc wltl△ paradigm(§ 528)
Jσ t‘ v犭 σ面
^9ta gλ 色
4, 钅色讠 碴av aI,仿 。t9 (av=tt勿 ◇ 拓 画 πPotr Tc汐 l suetoni11s,'‘ 1‘
〃lls名 △s,% A faVolltθ eXpression o£ A11gu81us
2Tlle threθ
Jσ t:v冱 vˉ ‘
σo. gellder8of pronouns and ad,ectiveg appear in parallel co1umΙ ls,

like犭 9iⅡ tlle previou81essoΠ


Ⅱuc1id
】0on8ult D讠 c饣 o乃 α叼 ¢ P7l,pε r Ⅳ 臼 ,lCB for伍o faC1s about
氵 43
AN lNrrRODucTIoN TO GREEK

LEssON XIV
DEMoNstRAlrIVE PItoNo0W$

l「 ,rC0δ (卩 ραδ乩 s— Jrrl【 、 J lIs佗 Mo″ /l/l

氵4 The principa1 dem° llstrative prO【 louIls are o氵 toq 饣


乃氵8

(I'atln/l犭 c),犭 δc r/l犭 s,and爸 钅cε v° ,r1‘ “ (La乇 in扌 J氵 c)

°
st° s 氵
几Js


2 t∶
pP t:∶
∶:∶ ∶
:;s ∶∶
:v :∶ |.


toV丁 屮 t⒍ Vt″ tovt屮
toVtoV TuVt,lV tovro


bδ ξ `/l氵 8

淼淼淼

咖凇
t。 δ‘ o1δ c α:δ c toδ c
to0δ ( tavδ c tδ vδ c tδ yδ ‘


‘泷
t(3δ ( to:kⅠ δc tαoσ δ( toCσ δt

耀
撒薛
Toδ ( tovσ δ( tα σδc t。 δ(


繇茁
艚鹦 谶 浴
弼 拶 △
XTOte that oδ tos has1he s乙 me clldh)gs as α 氵t犭 s(§ 68丿 ,that i1has

iIlitial i only wherc tlle artiCle。 ,氵 ,t。 has⒎ ,al1d111a1it has° v iⅡ


the penult Oldy wben an()soulld oCC11rs in the ll】 1hna,having ov ill
the other forl11s
Contras1o1tos and α氵了0sa81o brea1hing,accent,a12ds1em
c}a‰
社铴饣‰召
拶%轷 拶∵ 瞅 Note tha11he forms of♂ δc arc1hC forms of1bc article wlth sc
;劣 )鸳 :1dded

(叩
‰ f秽 芥 贯劈 苈 讠离 筋 ‰ 洫 D,佗 λmπ 犭 75 尼
κ‘vos has the same endings and accents as ovtos,

In】 e。 t it,t1na comparc wltl△ paradigm(§ 528)
Jσ t‘ v犭 σ面
^9ta gλ 色
4, 钅色讠 碴av aI,仿 。t9 (av=tt勿 ◇ 拓 画 πPotr Tc汐 l suetoni11s,'‘ 1‘
〃lls名 △s,% A faVolltθ eXpression o£ A11gu81us
2Tlle threθ
Jσ t:v冱 vˉ ‘
σo. gellder8of pronouns and ad,ectiveg appear in parallel co1umΙ ls,

like犭 9iⅡ tlle previou81essoΠ


Ⅱuc1id
】0on8ult D讠 c饣 o乃 α叼 ¢ P7l,pε r Ⅳ 臼 ,lCB for伍o faC1s about
氵 43
狃 厶N INIpRODuCIPI0N lro oRanK DEMONsTRATIVE PRoNOUNs 奎5

Ts,U日 es of让 e DemOnstr曲oB.0)o跖 o。 and Jδ c both Tg.


口XERCIszs
】ne凸 n矽 枕8,诊 1仿 3ool,et° ,; bu1o氵 to。 uguIllly ref° r臼 to gomoˉ
lc)【 rrang1・ute:
thing aIready motl1ioned, and 弓δc 1o gomething ye1 to
follow:

Tcurc幻 泅 G汤 由 Cu茹 meIⅡ⒗ ned)△ t。 lcJ乃 c Ioro功 丿
△⒀ ct焱 乃e vⅡ Jε g,s/oJJol,o

(3)drca螂 referg1o gometbhg more romote than do


oho。 and J淇 and k translatod腕 溺。
(oA11three moybe uged ag omplla1io Personal Pronoung,

矽,8无 e,仞 ,诊 乃彡

(J)Ⅵ飞° n uged ag demonstrativo画 d刂 eo1ivog all three

群孺嚣← h兰 魉
o)Complete:


have the predioato pogi1on(§ 81,◇

疵嵌蛘罗
:

而η 氵“ 苗u″ J^诂 r讹ge丿


&“叼 访 “ωu, fPj曰 口夕召
`v诩
77, Dative of means. Th。 da1ive indicateg 1he 99,etrm (c9Witein Gr∞ k:
whereby an ac1ig done:!

螨 l紧鹦 :蝌茫

tδ v t听 αⅡ 白“ π汕 巾 △ε″凼J】 ,J JhC而 ¢ h Oy mesI1:of)
tI bott厶
`MF。

78. VocABInIR:
。感 游 卩 Gtos,oy2:亿 Ⅱcro,s9tIbJe tk讠 吗 剞 ,ro:乃 oo厶
江 卩“阳 ⒔∶r抑 批 Ⅱ r(,‘ ;,ou,δ :¢ctⅡ ,y。 。
d,
漉 卩αt(;i;,犭 ,葫 v:crosBG祝 ε ,

亻c:0飞 ,s,n,ˉt,:疏 诩
ε , m严 踟献‘ 洳蚝 碗1hn。 f
血Ⅱ α
阝cfos,彳 9讪 : /tJ饵 力″ o/, tbe perBOn,
碗 1bG, σv%prep,with D:钞 氵

卩%扌
,
v氵
・ q t胡 c。乃

a‘ ,舒 δ 茵 0:follow8), gYN° I,,
cf%瑟
;劈 栋 爿
劈 扩 fc鸳
舔 饵 抵、 Ⅱ钫o:汤 缶(aB
BalΦ
afore~ :z`猡
l凡 e dativo haB thr∞ dI臼 tlnc1divigl0口 εag to ugo,CorrQqpoudi。 g to Engˉ
Iish ph:a8e8witL uo or丿 °r,1。 Iu无 ,Ilnd讠 %
l`汪 rs访 凼uBumly b〗
2z铆 α叼 σ
elld into t。 Ⅱ ∠
C'ε gce,page∞
`T‰ s1 Johll,I 1四
ε,,10JJε pre召 cncε ¢
2Mngcul】 no8nd fo● :uin。 aro aliko!Ⅱ fom sQe pandlgm(§ JlO,0,
0ompare L每 伍nom庀 犭
ε 8Jlltur8⒏ nd BorIs1mll be givon Iater
‘σV” Changθ s to σuuˉ boforθ 卩for tho8Bko o`ouphony
狃 厶N INIpRODuCIPI0N lro oRanK DEMONsTRATIVE PRoNOUNs 奎5

Ts,U日 es of让 e DemOnstr曲oB.0)o跖 o。 and Jδ c both Tg.


口XERCIszs
】ne凸 n矽 枕8,诊 1仿 3ool,et° ,; bu1o氵 to。 uguIllly ref° r臼 to gomoˉ
lc)【 rrang1・ute:
thing aIready motl1ioned, and 弓δc 1o gomething ye1 to
follow:

Tcurc幻 泅 G汤 由 Cu茹 meIⅡ⒗ ned)△ t。 lcJ乃 c Ioro功 丿
△⒀ ct焱 乃e vⅡ Jε g,s/oJJol,o

(3)drca螂 referg1o gometbhg more romote than do


oho。 and J淇 and k translatod腕 溺。
(oA11three moybe uged ag omplla1io Personal Pronoung,

矽,8无 e,仞 ,诊 乃彡

(J)Ⅵ飞° n uged ag demonstrativo画 d刂 eo1ivog all three

群孺嚣← h兰 魉
o)Complete:


have the predioato pogi1on(§ 81,◇

疵嵌蛘罗
:

而η 氵“ 苗u″ J^诂 r讹ge丿


&“叼 访 “ωu, fPj曰 口夕召
`v诩
77, Dative of means. Th。 da1ive indicateg 1he 99,etrm (c9Witein Gr∞ k:
whereby an ac1ig done:!

螨 l紧鹦 :蝌茫

tδ v t听 αⅡ 白“ π汕 巾 △ε″凼J】 ,J JhC而 ¢ h Oy mesI1:of)
tI bott厶
`MF。

78. VocABInIR:
。感 游 卩 Gtos,oy2:亿 Ⅱcro,s9tIbJe tk讠 吗 剞 ,ro:乃 oo厶
江 卩“阳 ⒔∶r抑 批 Ⅱ r(,‘ ;,ou,δ :¢ctⅡ ,y。 。
d,
漉 卩αt(;i;,犭 ,葫 v:crosBG祝 ε ,

亻c:0飞 ,s,n,ˉt,:疏 诩
ε , m严 踟献‘ 洳蚝 碗1hn。 f
血Ⅱ α
阝cfos,彳 9讪 : /tJ饵 力″ o/, tbe perBOn,
碗 1bG, σv%prep,with D:钞 氵

卩%扌
,
v氵
・ q t胡 c。乃

a‘ ,舒 δ 茵 0:follow8), gYN° I,,
cf%瑟
;劈 栋 爿
劈 扩 fc鸳
舔 饵 抵、 Ⅱ钫o:汤 缶(aB
BalΦ
afore~ :z`猡
l凡 e dativo haB thr∞ dI臼 tlnc1divigl0口 εag to ugo,CorrQqpoudi。 g to Engˉ
Iish ph:a8e8witL uo or丿 °r,1。 Iu无 ,Ilnd讠 %
l`汪 rs访 凼uBumly b〗
2z铆 α叼 σ
elld into t。 Ⅱ ∠
C'ε gce,page∞
`T‰ s1 Johll,I 1四
ε,,10JJε pre召 cncε ¢
2Mngcul】 no8nd fo● :uin。 aro aliko!Ⅱ fom sQe pandlgm(§ JlO,0,
0ompare L每 伍nom庀 犭
ε 8Jlltur8⒏ nd BorIs1mll be givon Iater
‘σV” Changθ s to σuuˉ boforθ 卩for tho8Bko o`ouphony

A-DEC硐 NsIoM pE踟 NAL PRoNOuNs 47

LEssON XV
ml-B IOms oF TEB▲ Dz岣 sIoⅡ ・ PE:soWnL
PBOW0口 ⅡB

锚 △ tT【 l,“ 沲 trG,-m饣 d细 ,f,l召 8召 c`l

81, FeminiooB h -岜 。 Mog1 n° ung of tho 。ˉdeolension


have讠 or△ h tbe nominative and oarry the8am。 1hiough-
弘镪鲲粥r坩⒈
1饫 ∵
盖tI掘
ou11he gingular, A few且 ouns have-岜 in1he nomina1iv°
Thog° have己 in the geni1ive and da1ive 8ingu1ar, if tho ap。 :1g;∶ ξ
・ ,regul色
r negative of the pr° tagis is u彳
, of 1Le

proooding letter i心 1or ρ; otherwigo1hoy have η.


8‘ . v。 c厶 :I,L厶 RY
芭0ogc 忉日 γ卧。p。 3河 。矽诊
'幽
秕 fG2 ⅡuFcJ γ邯 upG γ邯uPnt
J0Ι 召
门切s dⅡ乃α
崖洒v ycⅡ Ⅱs ycφ up劬
蝻 跏 饰 佴 帅 咖 s
卸“枷 卸磁氵s γ。
φ湃v γcφ ‘
9。
Woto1hat in the glnguh凸 nomiDallvo aⅡ d IIccuQtIVe agreG as to
nIlal vOwel,quan钪 1y° f iillal vowel,and巳 ccont; 征ld1ha11he ge血 1加 o
anr楹
T:瑟 标:呈 l藏嚣⒒伽煸.冫 》
82, Tho Pσ gO,lal pronO‘nB aro Jγ 犭 工 σJ〃 °
饧 (浼tlz),for 85. £XFR0IsEs
tbe丘 rg1and gooona pors。 ng・ For1he1hird pers【 ,Il,o田 0q
is uged in all oagog e区 oep11ho nomin劫 1ive,
0)Tranghte:

郇 r tIu(漉 卯)
Ⅱ乡
:辂 廴 c箔 ∴
sI鞔

,滞
y・
Ⅱo Jtc 氵
uas“
箝∶ ::∵
σ6【 rc 击
啦s 钅色)σ 。‘ 6, cJ u氵 Jπ 讠t氵 v 矽Jλ 舀tTov 涝 cuq t方 v,vλ 咖 v,
γ 犭
2孔 :a
=Xouoph。 n,∠ ,I臼 0臼峦,IV7叨 §V,c,∴ 口・
ap咖 Ⅱ
咖灿证
BCe吐 ,B∞
:护 舄梳l∶ 指苦
邑h号 卩
⒊∶
勰摞茹
W∶ :乩 邑
B Tho un巳 ∞ontod ior皿 s arθ θnClitio lo V,丿 〉 Wh° 。 uB:d,thoy Bhoπ that r°
d巳
Ⅱo omphaBi81g IⅡ ttndod Tho acContOd forng oro3Ⅲ phB侦 c or aro ugθ d呐 th 2ProcⅡ 11co彡 tI|ke8aⅡ
accθ m1a1th° oad or。 ao.tem∞
p咕 P溺 由mo rhQ n0咖 】Ψ°】gⅡ °1ugQd oXCopo whoa o皿 phaBlg】 B dooIred.
fo〗 Iow8vl1h whlch it
,be。 BuB。 Ⅱo wom
Ⅱoy bo pr【 nouucod,
40

A-DEC硐 NsIoM pE踟 NAL PRoNOuNs 47

LEssON XV
ml-B IOms oF TEB▲ Dz岣 sIoⅡ ・ PE:soWnL
PBOW0口 ⅡB

锚 △ tT【 l,“ 沲 trG,-m饣 d细 ,f,l召 8召 c`l

81, FeminiooB h -岜 。 Mog1 n° ung of tho 。ˉdeolension


have讠 or△ h tbe nominative and oarry the8am。 1hiough-
弘镪鲲粥r坩⒈
1饫 ∵
盖tI掘
ou11he gingular, A few且 ouns have-岜 in1he nomina1iv°
Thog° have己 in the geni1ive and da1ive 8ingu1ar, if tho ap。 :1g;∶ ξ
・ ,regul色
r negative of the pr° tagis is u彳
, of 1Le

proooding letter i心 1or ρ; otherwigo1hoy have η.


8‘ . v。 c厶 :I,L厶 RY
芭0ogc 忉日 γ卧。p。 3河 。矽诊
'幽
秕 fG2 ⅡuFcJ γ邯 upG γ邯uPnt
J0Ι 召
门切s dⅡ乃α
崖洒v ycⅡ Ⅱs ycφ up劬
蝻 跏 饰 佴 帅 咖 s
卸“枷 卸磁氵s γ。
φ湃v γcφ ‘
9。
Woto1hat in the glnguh凸 nomiDallvo aⅡ d IIccuQtIVe agreG as to
nIlal vOwel,quan钪 1y° f iillal vowel,and巳 ccont; 征ld1ha11he ge血 1加 o
anr楹
T:瑟 标:呈 l藏嚣⒒伽煸.冫 》
82, Tho Pσ gO,lal pronO‘nB aro Jγ 犭 工 σJ〃 °
饧 (浼tlz),for 85. £XFR0IsEs
tbe丘 rg1and gooona pors。 ng・ For1he1hird pers【 ,Il,o田 0q
is uged in all oagog e区 oep11ho nomin劫 1ive,
0)Tranghte:

郇 r tIu(漉 卯)
Ⅱ乡
:辂 廴 c箔 ∴
sI鞔

,滞
y・
Ⅱo Jtc 氵
uas“
箝∶ ::∵
σ6【 rc 击
啦s 钅色)σ 。‘ 6, cJ u氵 Jπ 讠t氵 v 矽Jλ 舀tTov 涝 cuq t方 v,vλ 咖 v,
γ 犭
2孔 :a
=Xouoph。 n,∠ ,I臼 0臼峦,IV7叨 §V,c,∴ 口・
ap咖 Ⅱ
咖灿证
BCe吐 ,B∞
:护 舄梳l∶ 指苦
邑h号 卩
⒊∶
勰摞茹
W∶ :乩 邑
B Tho un巳 ∞ontod ior皿 s arθ θnClitio lo V,丿 〉 Wh° 。 uB:d,thoy Bhoπ that r°
d巳
Ⅱo omphaBi81g IⅡ ttndod Tho acContOd forng oro3Ⅲ phB侦 c or aro ugθ d呐 th 2ProcⅡ 11co彡 tI|ke8aⅡ
accθ m1a1th° oad or。 ao.tem∞
p咕 P溺 由mo rhQ n0咖 】Ψ°】gⅡ °1ugQd oXCopo whoa o皿 phaBlg】 B dooIred.
fo〗 Iow8vl1h whlch it
,be。 BuB。 Ⅱo wom
Ⅱoy bo pr【 nouucod,
40
48 AN1NTRODVOIpIoN To oREEK
oJ λ 犭出。 t亦 σ π 【lI,δ 海 . 7,o`虑 v钅 t9ra dπ )tav犭 u山 ξδ 、
LEssoN XVI
Jφ vγ % 氵δ忿卩舀σDu巳 tr
° o切 r莒 λ:9rc t氵 vγ 舀宀加。″
・ 8・ JJ m△ sC-B Ⅲoms o9,Hz▲ =DEC… sIOF. mFL△ WE
~ 9rOTc泌 氵v δ
‘ ht犭 c, 氵
@ˉ 阝 JcIov PBoⅢ ouIs
。氵优v抚 tI βσ佤 v,

曲 陧 溺 σcIs t汹 7λ 四 枷 σov击,‘虾 ‘v
Cb)complete: r乃 °vs乃 α″ 切 v召 汤 〃 nε 氵Ⅱ1沙o'臼J汤 夕⒔召1〃 1
1, 咖一 u忿 v t氵 助 σ‘λcj-
ˉ
挢 c卩 o诫 ε
浼 Tc,犭 u-y耐 2・ J
・ 87, Ⅲ agc‘ 1i】 le Wouns of the Aˉ declensiO厶 Mog1 nouⅡ g
o防o‘ 一 (linking ve此 )J优 而
of tho o△ deoleIlgion aro feminine. Masoulinog may be

卩飘 s℃ 扌亏$苜
reoognized not memˇ 焖 refer⒒ ng to males butalgo ag Bhow~
糨 p贮
ingˉ ηs or~。 s instead of-η or~。 in1he nomina1ivθ 茁ngular.

苫λ
γγ‘ o, Jft Jγ t。 Jt9,v Th° ir geni1ive跛 Ⅱgular end旬 inˉ ov。 othorwisO tho inn。 。~
~dπ 氵σtoλ 犭v. 1ion p日 rollols1hat of1ho£ omininog.
lcl′ v∮ te in Grook: σtρ 。r16tη s 8oJ乱 @″ Ξ 曰耐己s 豸乙9访¢8
1 Tha1(man,plan:aB follow8。 σrpaT‘ ωtt卩 crpGT‘ ωt o‘ Ξ四rⅡ
2 We sh斑 l advIge him1o se【 zo trTpaT‘ 苗t ov crpcrItJt av Ξc订 。v
g r加 or was σtut⑾ tη cTpcT‘ ωr o● 。 艮 订△
THE sEA C° D’ s sHIulIE the £∞ d. 8 Ir⒒
σ了ρCt10T ηv cTpGr1or Io 踟 亻Bl,
Ihese c° Iumns ° f Whitest orossablo 血 a boat 4. ehese

胛山
Note1he1wo iIldlca砬 oⅡ g of mIIBcu⒒ ne ge⒒ der h s of tho nomi】 l扯
⒍ T扌 鞯拈盅
f景里
啁a踹 社
苫甄狁息 " l「 【
lv o£ 1he geIl⒒ ive欲 ilgu】 a、 bo1h of wbicb oocur :Il
tlve sillgular andˉ
1he o~declensioll
In liko manIxer iⅡ 丑ec1δ tVt叼 s,

s点 a拣 88 Re丑 eziVe PronouⅡ βIlre formed frolll1ho stoms o£ 1ho


ⅠhP:;辖 舄 嘿:搬:呶张刂 滥
∶ I诺 :氵 :扌 Personal pronoung aIld tho Proper OIlso formg of t,J祢 In

拈帮J器 滞黠扌 I:拿 ∶Ⅰ



Ⅰ∶
1he plural of1Le hst and second perst,】lg bo1h partg of1he
:犒 s摺 l:罕 ;讠 t;∶
word Bro fully infleoted. The Pronoun of th° third per8on,
ho、Fever,h色 臼 1ho compoundod form in tlle plura1,
t汪 δJta缸 t肥 吼 f纟 v饣 z co狃 叼 铋n饣 四 饣勋 卩s corr叼
貂 四
r
φ `
甯 黯 a肷 u¢ vto0 仞〃
‘ ε

c/Gt’ tov2 句皿v叨 9 TJlov Gl’ rov 叨uω v cvtω v
Transl包 1e1he£ o11owing oharao1eris1io u11or色 noe: 盲
呷 φ Ⅱ岣 伽 渝亦 uV α讠tG:s

a∷ v印 枇 vt。 v dullT和 窟s c访 弱g
£】
瞒‰
氵卩 巴Vtα 9

J筲 黟£
i9rtC0

%‰ r孓卩
贺 形 Ⅳ氙 ls1,M⒏ tthow,X【 X 19
B For obv:ous rQ,BOn$tho rononvo pronoⅡ
have Ilo ooutor
nB oI t△ o珀 1〖 Bt EI△ d socOId perBOn$

ω
48 AN1NTRODVOIpIoN To oREEK
oJ λ 犭出。 t亦 σ π 【lI,δ 海 . 7,o`虑 v钅 t9ra dπ )tav犭 u山 ξδ 、
LEssoN XVI
Jφ vγ % 氵δ忿卩舀σDu巳 tr
° o切 r莒 λ:9rc t氵 vγ 舀宀加。″
・ 8・ JJ m△ sC-B Ⅲoms o9,Hz▲ =DEC… sIOF. mFL△ WE
~ 9rOTc泌 氵v δ
‘ ht犭 c, 氵
@ˉ 阝 JcIov PBoⅢ ouIs
。氵优v抚 tI βσ佤 v,

曲 陧 溺 σcIs t汹 7λ 四 枷 σov击,‘虾 ‘v
Cb)complete: r乃 °vs乃 α″ 切 v召 汤 〃 nε 氵Ⅱ1沙o'臼J汤 夕⒔召1〃 1
1, 咖一 u忿 v t氵 助 σ‘λcj-
ˉ
挢 c卩 o诫 ε
浼 Tc,犭 u-y耐 2・ J
・ 87, Ⅲ agc‘ 1i】 le Wouns of the Aˉ declensiO厶 Mog1 nouⅡ g
o防o‘ 一 (linking ve此 )J优 而
of tho o△ deoleIlgion aro feminine. Masoulinog may be

卩飘 s℃ 扌亏$苜
reoognized not memˇ 焖 refer⒒ ng to males butalgo ag Bhow~
糨 p贮
ingˉ ηs or~。 s instead of-η or~。 in1he nomina1ivθ 茁ngular.

苫λ
γγ‘ o, Jft Jγ t。 Jt9,v Th° ir geni1ive跛 Ⅱgular end旬 inˉ ov。 othorwisO tho inn。 。~
~dπ 氵σtoλ 犭v. 1ion p日 rollols1hat of1ho£ omininog.
lcl′ v∮ te in Grook: σtρ 。r16tη s 8oJ乱 @″ Ξ 曰耐己s 豸乙9访¢8
1 Tha1(man,plan:aB follow8。 σrpaT‘ ωtt卩 crpGT‘ ωt o‘ Ξ四rⅡ
2 We sh斑 l advIge him1o se【 zo trTpaT‘ 苗t ov crpcrItJt av Ξc订 。v
g r加 or was σtut⑾ tη cTpcT‘ ωr o● 。 艮 订△
THE sEA C° D’ s sHIulIE the £∞ d. 8 Ir⒒
σ了ρCt10T ηv cTpGr1or Io 踟 亻Bl,
Ihese c° Iumns ° f Whitest orossablo 血 a boat 4. ehese

胛山
Note1he1wo iIldlca砬 oⅡ g of mIIBcu⒒ ne ge⒒ der h s of tho nomi】 l扯
⒍ T扌 鞯拈盅
f景里
啁a踹 社
苫甄狁息 " l「 【
lv o£ 1he geIl⒒ ive欲 ilgu】 a、 bo1h of wbicb oocur :Il
tlve sillgular andˉ
1he o~declensioll
In liko manIxer iⅡ 丑ec1δ tVt叼 s,

s点 a拣 88 Re丑 eziVe PronouⅡ βIlre formed frolll1ho stoms o£ 1ho


ⅠhP:;辖 舄 嘿:搬:呶张刂 滥
∶ I诺 :氵 :扌 Personal pronoung aIld tho Proper OIlso formg of t,J祢 In

拈帮J器 滞黠扌 I:拿 ∶Ⅰ



Ⅰ∶
1he plural of1Le hst and second perst,】lg bo1h partg of1he
:犒 s摺 l:罕 ;讠 t;∶
word Bro fully infleoted. The Pronoun of th° third per8on,
ho、Fever,h色 臼 1ho compoundod form in tlle plura1,
t汪 δJta缸 t肥 吼 f纟 v饣 z co狃 叼 铋n饣 四 饣勋 卩s corr叼
貂 四
r
φ `
甯 黯 a肷 u¢ vto0 仞〃
‘ ε

c/Gt’ tov2 句皿v叨 9 TJlov Gl’ rov 叨uω v cvtω v
Transl包 1e1he£ o11owing oharao1eris1io u11or色 noe: 盲
呷 φ Ⅱ岣 伽 渝亦 uV α讠tG:s

a∷ v印 枇 vt。 v dullT和 窟s c访 弱g
£】
瞒‰
氵卩 巴Vtα 9

J筲 黟£
i9rtC0

%‰ r孓卩
贺 形 Ⅳ氙 ls1,M⒏ tthow,X【 X 19
B For obv:ous rQ,BOn$tho rononvo pronoⅡ
have Ilo ooutor
nB oI t△ o珀 1〖 Bt EI△ d socOId perBOn$

ω
sCl ΔN INlpRODuCTIoN TO GREEK 51
^-DIi9CLENsIoN, REIpLEXIVE PRoNOUNs





σ四Vt00 胛%rneJ/ 91. 口XBRα sEs


咖i啷

vuω v


σCcur【 lO I σ“ Ⅵ?。 αvrω v


(α )Translate:
otauro σ‘
0Vt叼 Ju” o氵 r机 s
σ四 V“ V CoIurI9V Vfns 己V了 0Vs



tm
耐・
肪 仞 ε侈忱 无″ 彬 睨 仿彤 J/



‘⑾


托 抗如


咖 缸沂 av

υ
τ
ο
乱vta″ 缸
`av
:α tr亦
^唧

俪 沁 ε
咖 亦
'⒁


缸vr° Js 遣αvt茳 s 虐
αv?‘

Bθ 。ReⅡ eェ ive Pronouns apPear in1he predioa1e and refer


to thθ gu丬 eo1of the seⅡ tonoe or olaug° in which they stand.
A8皿 oh they someJmes they appear
are偷o幽 啷 口耐 ves・
in a dθ ponden1claugθ ana refer1° the subjec1of1he main
olauge. They tllen巳 re拓 溺 Ⅱ 泷 Ⅱ叨 勿 犭v纟 Jf
氵幻 v dπ :砀 v drc・ ,r。 Ot,K〃
缸 u。 y自 u)予 κctI/ε 书 t氵
犭v
y铀
`m召 ″

淌 v crK”

v犭
m〃

'
。m叼 招 Plz丿

汤叼 p召 rsvn``PrP″ Bmr/r,
几J眢 雨〃饣πr铅
vⅡ
架1‰ 冫嘿± )t冫 口t,T cr99妨 v氵 γov讠 v而 v
fn历 r Co” /】 ,″
%玄 v品 岁
B。
`Ⅱ :zˉ 羟‰
θ0. VoC厶 BI,J・ ΔRY
lG)飞 Vrite in Greek:
dcut沅 ,讠 s痂 :o/乃 t.nsezF,乃 e邓 πm品 ms卢 门叱 δ:cJl切 ε⒎
e!)`∶
1 Aoo° rdulgly1he c° ward】 y que° ll丑 ed1° 1h。 sea, 2 F° r


seJ/.
j‘
POLItI。 g


搂:鞯 珲 繇T麦秽谔
JarpcT。 pe⒈

碱搌
dJtuu了 疝,讠 s∶ o/myseJr・ 0ou,δ :J臼 ″cJ,,巳
dtc9、 【 I咖 ,9莳 彳地 trG;d汀 vc ov氵 , 苗nn诮 cero吕
morc乃 ヵ c乃 m
° rfc vⅡ 0,叼 s:旷 夕
【 ov坩 efr l晷
"h,m泖
枷,ioo订 σto口 u犭 %-tl△ B:无 α氵
饣9,l9P,Jσ ″ ,″ q`、 were Ilot on七 he wagon.
rcyo::re,n口
Ξξ ,u,δ : ’
v汔 s, 【 (召 m沏 s,民 n ArCa・ ,jlcrC几
`沉
di巳 Il geIleral serving uIldor σ tρ g● ‘苗 tn9s卢 ooL, δ: εozrJ讠 er, Cf, 92, R° ¢ew a姑 oms g卜 en in§ 78;then tlanglato:
C严 Ⅱ ,tho younger, ˉ。
oTtf9rr。 oqvJθ ,

钅 :扬 a′ a'仿 @v打 。 奶 upc9氵 ,ta


δ滤 η,,8ˉ tlu,δ :乃 qP姒 G巳 heaV严 号
Ⅱ λⅡ 祝 dσ T。 ,,

氵9,ˉ ‘σ tz。
armed soldier Cf bIrλ o,
痂 茄 t° 氵 δ″ λJσ ‘
¢ (JO%况 eO沅 抵 λ伽
∶ContrB⒍ edfomθ σ“vto0Bnd o防 o氵 aro° ttOIl uged!n pInCo ot σecro08nd ^
笃 t〃
“ v`oo
2吼 o futuro oi0b!8Vorb lB Ⅱrogu〗 or I0w】 ∶l be proBOntQd lo1θ r 钅 饣° 砌 ・ °°mPare ⅡEM必 PH‘ a→
B Tho Bum【 oo(Ⅱo岫 B刂vO JIB)deⅡo凼 tho ogCn`or doer of BIl actlo△ or 劣 f1舄 挠 留 俨
tho po"0,tc0助 Cemε d
Eu¢ lit1
sCl ΔN INlpRODuCTIoN TO GREEK 51
^-DIi9CLENsIoN, REIpLEXIVE PRoNOUNs





σ四Vt00 胛%rneJ/ 91. 口XBRα sEs


咖i啷

vuω v


σCcur【 lO I σ“ Ⅵ?。 αvrω v


(α )Translate:
otauro σ‘
0Vt叼 Ju” o氵 r机 s
σ四 V“ V CoIurI9V Vfns 己V了 0Vs



tm
耐・
肪 仞 ε侈忱 无″ 彬 睨 仿彤 J/



‘⑾


托 抗如


咖 缸沂 av

υ
τ
ο
乱vta″ 缸
`av
:α tr亦
^唧

俪 沁 ε
咖 亦
'⒁


缸vr° Js 遣αvt茳 s 虐
αv?‘

Bθ 。ReⅡ eェ ive Pronouns apPear in1he predioa1e and refer


to thθ gu丬 eo1of the seⅡ tonoe or olaug° in which they stand.
A8皿 oh they someJmes they appear
are偷o幽 啷 口耐 ves・
in a dθ ponden1claugθ ana refer1° the subjec1of1he main
olauge. They tllen巳 re拓 溺 Ⅱ 泷 Ⅱ叨 勿 犭v纟 Jf
氵幻 v dπ :砀 v drc・ ,r。 Ot,K〃
缸 u。 y自 u)予 κctI/ε 书 t氵
犭v
y铀
`m召 ″

淌 v crK”

v犭
m〃

'
。m叼 招 Plz丿

汤叼 p召 rsvn``PrP″ Bmr/r,
几J眢 雨〃饣πr铅
vⅡ
架1‰ 冫嘿± )t冫 口t,T cr99妨 v氵 γov讠 v而 v
fn历 r Co” /】 ,″
%玄 v品 岁
B。
`Ⅱ :zˉ 羟‰
θ0. VoC厶 BI,J・ ΔRY
lG)飞 Vrite in Greek:
dcut沅 ,讠 s痂 :o/乃 t.nsezF,乃 e邓 πm品 ms卢 门叱 δ:cJl切 ε⒎
e!)`∶
1 Aoo° rdulgly1he c° ward】 y que° ll丑 ed1° 1h。 sea, 2 F° r


seJ/.
j‘
POLItI。 g


搂:鞯 珲 繇T麦秽谔
JarpcT。 pe⒈

碱搌
dJtuu了 疝,讠 s∶ o/myseJr・ 0ou,δ :J臼 ″cJ,,巳
dtc9、 【 I咖 ,9莳 彳地 trG;d汀 vc ov氵 , 苗nn诮 cero吕
morc乃 ヵ c乃 m
° rfc vⅡ 0,叼 s:旷 夕
【 ov坩 efr l晷
"h,m泖
枷,ioo订 σto口 u犭 %-tl△ B:无 α氵
饣9,l9P,Jσ ″ ,″ q`、 were Ilot on七 he wagon.
rcyo::re,n口
Ξξ ,u,δ : ’
v汔 s, 【 (召 m沏 s,民 n ArCa・ ,jlcrC几
`沉
di巳 Il geIleral serving uIldor σ tρ g● ‘苗 tn9s卢 ooL, δ: εozrJ讠 er, Cf, 92, R° ¢ew a姑 oms g卜 en in§ 78;then tlanglato:
C严 Ⅱ ,tho younger, ˉ。
oTtf9rr。 oqvJθ ,

钅 :扬 a′ a'仿 @v打 。 奶 upc9氵 ,ta


δ滤 η,,8ˉ tlu,δ :乃 qP姒 G巳 heaV严 号
Ⅱ λⅡ 祝 dσ T。 ,,

氵9,ˉ ‘σ tz。
armed soldier Cf bIrλ o,
痂 茄 t° 氵 δ″ λJσ ‘
¢ (JO%况 eO沅 抵 λ伽
∶ContrB⒍ edfomθ σ“vto0Bnd o防 o氵 aro° ttOIl uged!n pInCo ot σecro08nd ^
笃 t〃
“ v`oo
2吼 o futuro oi0b!8Vorb lB Ⅱrogu〗 or I0w】 ∶l be proBOntQd lo1θ r 钅 饣° 砌 ・ °°mPare ⅡEM必 PH‘ a→
B Tho Bum【 oo(Ⅱo岫 B刂vO JIB)deⅡo凼 tho ogCn`or doer of BIl actlo△ or 劣 f1舄 挠 留 俨
tho po"0,tc0助 Cemε d
Eu¢ lit1
tⅡ n vnRJB du‘ nNcLITIcs sB

0)Ⅱ thθ pro∞ dhg word ha心 an aoute on tho pond1,


an onoli孔 of oIle gyuabl。 △a。 Il【 ,acoon1bu1m OIIoliⅡ o of
LEssON XVII
twO gy△ auo臼 h ao0θ nted on the nnal gy⒒ ablo:
Pm日 9IT AwD nIPERmc: Ⅱ D:C▲ TⅡ 工 AΙ D PREsBuT δ
TRfT,。 t‘ cc口 rro犰 咖 ¢丿
mm- oF ‘1u‘ ・ Ⅲ cⅡ 叮 cs δ
t9茁 tη 阝启
π 缸 乃c商 c乃 叨 扬 .

θ6, Δccent of▲ IIgmonted VorbB。 Tho 。°°θn1 o巳 nno1


缶‘
κ 加 ・t氵 v σK。 0,v rrh茳 vλ 句ω
φ” pre。ode thθ 多ugmon1, Thorof° re oompouIld v° rb臼 are aoˉ
r口 m/r。m访 q,u记 c,!
`噼 召 cou砬 叼 丿 /c。 zJ tI。tPc【 fe日
oentod after1be prenx:
扌 ω,:亭,'v;dT cIHl由r,Ⅱ
f亻 γ
8, The verb c1“ 氵
θ o3ei:iregular,a8are1he oorr←
sponding verbg in Eng】 ish and La1in.
PRE8ENT王 lI I,I0^tIVE IMPERrEcT INDIc^TI v口
d‰ e鲷 瑟器勰搬 ;a捃 抵踹茫芳
切纟with幻 h th° £
饣 podδ gh impl忆 g tlla11h° 。
ondi10n
氵v

d叮 o四
。r
蕊 i嬲锣

c。 缸 私v
ct… σ阢

私腻 。 枷 |踹

… 和c
:σ tKv)2 dσ “v)” 吊v ,σ αv

PREg口 NT IlfFIN!lrIVE 0bα ‘


甘 泌 re卿
‘, A11formg of1h° presen1indicaive of‘
θ 0Ⅱ r ex° ep1 离揽 e,瑰 兮
‰仿蹁 掖廿

:/・ ct°

‘:are 莒σt‘ when1hus巳 oceIl1oa meangV锣 刂


oncli1ic. Br:0r刂 8^ c氵 ・ 启φ铖 6¨ ・ av 趴 oσ 〃 旷 屁e乃 cJ乡 u臼 rrj朗 ・,” 乃e
vouJtf乃 ov¢ 0roten, . .
excep11h色 1it is regularly so aocen忱 d af1er由 λλJ,
PosoOb】

c’

a揣 窝龀智 扌蛋鞯 黯孺 勰 崴严 m趾
and J GD,whether i1hag1hIs spⅡ

钅¢‘ u犭 ,o氵 钅,t而 To,由 咛
°ial meaIli】 lg or no1,

θ
5. EnCImCg, (@)If the precedlng word ha.s an o∝ 98. VoCIBσ L▲ R:
cen七 on1he ul1ima,1he encli1ic hag no aoceΠ 1: dv, poBt Pos・ p岛 rtlc1e bol° ngiRg π白tc,Ⅱ Ⅱde° llllnble:v钅 ve

(δ )
【gx。 r扌 σ″ z/l呷 σ¢扬。wt/u厶

I£ 1he Pr° c° ding


word hag an aou1e oll1he an1epo-
to certniIl typρ 母 °f condItl° IlaI


l腽 盱i括 押
gm α
Ⅱ1嬲 PIIⅣ T▲ 0oaI.

涨扌
ct】 mP・ “
d“ :b召
nul1° r a ciroumnex 。n the penul1,it receiveg an addi- 勹吡 α t。 ¤饬 0召 αbs召 mⅡ t‘ πη心 ,ou,::pJocε

cIJu・ !eⅡ c拉 1:3ε T【 ,p【 ,oR^pⅡ r.


Jo】 l巳 l nCute on1he ul1ima and the encli1ic has no acoen1:
芯创 缶 Ptls 了缶 、 ad,.:砀 en,ou Jlα
石【
`%oT“
dσ Iy 厶
丙铆 cre πnen丿 ‘ "(D,2impersrlllIIl:订
laJ口 ・
咖汹Ⅱ),2eIlcllt冖 `utme.
fcg,
。rPaTtOTgt ‘lCBI’ ε况 dtε rs
而 .,neg ad艹 ;`oJ夕 犯 畅σ《y,,:eIlc△ △: he
^镏or B乃 ε‘
汤召 V tl″ I‘ li`19。

I0omlC ΛttlC 了自。qu:。 e prtl9m△ PROPⅡ 0T。


f△ agmcn1 △itθ FBI〗 y;f日 仍 C CotI,l氵 ″ m己 衤 ;J CE″
2” Ⅱ °v:bI。 `^c`oO C
】Tho:uturo Ψi11sppQat l“ ter tJJI‘ hn母 Ⅱo ao:Igo ’o moΨ “bIo
`tt0 m
tⅡ n vnRJB du‘ nNcLITIcs sB

0)Ⅱ thθ pro∞ dhg word ha心 an aoute on tho pond1,


an onoli孔 of oIle gyuabl。 △a。 Il【 ,acoon1bu1m OIIoliⅡ o of
LEssON XVII
twO gy△ auo臼 h ao0θ nted on the nnal gy⒒ ablo:
Pm日 9IT AwD nIPERmc: Ⅱ D:C▲ TⅡ 工 AΙ D PREsBuT δ
TRfT,。 t‘ cc口 rro犰 咖 ¢丿
mm- oF ‘1u‘ ・ Ⅲ cⅡ 叮 cs δ
t9茁 tη 阝启
π 缸 乃c商 c乃 叨 扬 .

θ6, Δccent of▲ IIgmonted VorbB。 Tho 。°°θn1 o巳 nno1


缶‘
κ 加 ・t氵 v σK。 0,v rrh茳 vλ 句ω
φ” pre。ode thθ 多ugmon1, Thorof° re oompouIld v° rb臼 are aoˉ
r口 m/r。m访 q,u记 c,!
`噼 召 cou砬 叼 丿 /c。 zJ tI。tPc【 fe日
oentod after1be prenx:
扌 ω,:亭,'v;dT cIHl由r,Ⅱ
f亻 γ
8, The verb c1“ 氵
θ o3ei:iregular,a8are1he oorr←
sponding verbg in Eng】 ish and La1in.
PRE8ENT王 lI I,I0^tIVE IMPERrEcT INDIc^TI v口
d‰ e鲷 瑟器勰搬 ;a捃 抵踹茫芳
切纟with幻 h th° £
饣 podδ gh impl忆 g tlla11h° 。
ondi10n
氵v

d叮 o四
。r
蕊 i嬲锣

c。 缸 私v
ct… σ阢

私腻 。 枷 |踹

… 和c
:σ tKv)2 dσ “v)” 吊v ,σ αv

PREg口 NT IlfFIN!lrIVE 0bα ‘


甘 泌 re卿
‘, A11formg of1h° presen1indicaive of‘
θ 0Ⅱ r ex° ep1 离揽 e,瑰 兮
‰仿蹁 掖廿

:/・ ct°

‘:are 莒σt‘ when1hus巳 oceIl1oa meangV锣 刂


oncli1ic. Br:0r刂 8^ c氵 ・ 启φ铖 6¨ ・ av 趴 oσ 〃 旷 屁e乃 cJ乡 u臼 rrj朗 ・,” 乃e
vouJtf乃 ov¢ 0roten, . .
excep11h色 1it is regularly so aocen忱 d af1er由 λλJ,
PosoOb】

c’

a揣 窝龀智 扌蛋鞯 黯孺 勰 崴严 m趾
and J GD,whether i1hag1hIs spⅡ

钅¢‘ u犭 ,o氵 钅,t而 To,由 咛
°ial meaIli】 lg or no1,

θ
5. EnCImCg, (@)If the precedlng word ha.s an o∝ 98. VoCIBσ L▲ R:
cen七 on1he ul1ima,1he encli1ic hag no aoceΠ 1: dv, poBt Pos・ p岛 rtlc1e bol° ngiRg π白tc,Ⅱ Ⅱde° llllnble:v钅 ve

(δ )
【gx。 r扌 σ″ z/l呷 σ¢扬。wt/u厶

I£ 1he Pr° c° ding


word hag an aou1e oll1he an1epo-
to certniIl typρ 母 °f condItl° IlaI


l腽 盱i括 押
gm α
Ⅱ1嬲 PIIⅣ T▲ 0oaI.

涨扌
ct】 mP・ “
d“ :b召
nul1° r a ciroumnex 。n the penul1,it receiveg an addi- 勹吡 α t。 ¤饬 0召 αbs召 mⅡ t‘ πη心 ,ou,::pJocε

cIJu・ !eⅡ c拉 1:3ε T【 ,p【 ,oR^pⅡ r.


Jo】 l巳 l nCute on1he ul1ima and the encli1ic has no acoen1:
芯创 缶 Ptls 了缶 、 ad,.:砀 en,ou Jlα
石【
`%oT“
dσ Iy 厶
丙铆 cre πnen丿 ‘ "(D,2impersrlllIIl:订
laJ口 ・
咖汹Ⅱ),2eIlcllt冖 `utme.
fcg,
。rPaTtOTgt ‘lCBI’ ε况 dtε rs
而 .,neg ad艹 ;`oJ夕 犯 畅σ《y,,:eIlc△ △: he
^镏or B乃 ε‘
汤召 V tl″ I‘ li`19。

I0omlC ΛttlC 了自。qu:。 e prtl9m△ PROPⅡ 0T。


f△ agmcn1 △itθ FBI〗 y;f日 仍 C CotI,l氵 ″ m己 衤 ;J CE″
2” Ⅱ °v:bI。 `^c`oO C
】Tho:uturo Ψi11sppQat l“ ter tJJI‘ hn母 Ⅱo ao:Igo ’o moΨ “bIo
`tt0 m
刂1
ii‘ AN IN|rRODUcTIoN To oRaEK
θ9. 臼XEItcIs四 σ

【c)Tran:】 ato:
1.罚 Tc况 °沅 沼备氵v犭 uε v π画ρˉ
cav色 ‘
。 2。 r沆 λ纪 v
δ泷 ∮‘
To氵 材 v¢ 枋 ‘v° 切 a9r cε z,tI Ⅱ 8.J四 ″ ω v而 σ TPf,T瞎 To诉
“ππouq σpπ Jσ 画‘; 4, 芭λV J钅 t,q @氵 t99 %op峦 。σ扫 .

5, c‘ u″ σv” c/3ovλ coσ t,tC CuoJ,o氵 r av cγ tIψ 。t9,v dπ ‘


σtoλ 犭v,

驵 曳摅 龆 糍 ⒎ ρ
v塄
-:∶
ˇ°
踯 犭⒉ 絷
竿 吝 :”
⒊πω a'π cPˉ 氵ucv, Ju氵 o πot色 uδ q δ
‘色ˉ
卩@t泌 昂v πλo幼
Ju吵
叩 i:斡
勹p叼 需屮.币 叮 To韬 δ
9・
?仰 中 Ⅱ 弭卩 p・ tHE s丁ADIVM^T AmENs
@)C° mplet。 :
`0皙 Here the0Iympic games were reViVed in 1896after the lapse of centuri锱
In the lowor picture you can see:‘ marbIe seats bey。 nd the grovo,
1, r¢ ) rIJt° 、 o拓 洳 另 uT9,δ c← -,cJ u氵 dv r。 λ0

诏 π p-— — (linbng ver→


't--dπ
tδ σ TPo材 π cδ oI, 2, 如 c扫 °凼 }冫

T【 泌 σ TP町 汹 t峦
φ饣沆 π 曰p-dπ )⒎ _γ cφ tJp-. 8.J乩 纟

λcutrcv犭 uas,d雪 ~刀 λoσ 一 勃 它


切tδ σt¢ 9uo衫 。

(cl W止 to in Greok:

彗 ∶f鞯羰 亻
垂 0晦 讠
措甘 苷
:盏 |l∶ lll∶
、sa七 rap hag hig Owll proviIloe.
;∶
5 ThQ hopli1es made
t
+【 m″ c/tea)a ten da。 y矿 marcb

100 Ⅲ 且0sFI△I9 tDRRIIrORY


dvTcε 彐刀 Jε ˉ
‘。1。 JI,c。 δ沱 tDq Λ ur品 v锸 。 t画细 vt氵 v,‘氵;p历 v
δⅡ枷 π色ccv l由 9@◇ πo泌 u衔 仇 vK仰 oq nv K焱 jcσ 画v

(厶丙口‘万J犭 历劭勿 卿 ¢纟乃)c沁 t氵 vK‘ λ氵
`
~9r妇 π“ 访 vt呷 仿 Tm'
r‘励 aπ 。
Ew oF AtHENs FRoM tHE AcRoPo△ 】s
2 r。 )σ v″ 犭 ruψ c,,西 J” σrp。 t‘ oyrΩ 9oJ9
V】

〔咖 曲 @:诊 )Jδ dv・ Above the housetops“ ses the Arch of HadⅡ an lpage39l Tothe"ght
M幽 ωv c】 I,、 ,c钅 沆 口折 洳 . are the suⅣ tVing columns of the】 ofty0lympIeum〈 pag。 1lBl Beyond tho
Adapted fr° m XelloPhoIl,且 stadlum1ooms Hym◆ “us,famed for its honey, The g!ory of Hyme"us’
m色 aos标 ,I 2 19-20 ‘
‘vlolet Crownod”
s!opes at sunset won for Athons the tlt】 e,
1§ 】
∞ 2Adˇ erblm厶 ccⅡ ga“ ve.
刂1
ii‘ AN IN|rRODUcTIoN To oRaEK
θ9. 臼XEItcIs四 σ

【c)Tran:】 ato:
1.罚 Tc况 °沅 沼备氵v犭 uε v π画ρˉ
cav色 ‘
。 2。 r沆 λ纪 v
δ泷 ∮‘
To氵 材 v¢ 枋 ‘v° 切 a9r cε z,tI Ⅱ 8.J四 ″ ω v而 σ TPf,T瞎 To诉
“ππouq σpπ Jσ 画‘; 4, 芭λV J钅 t,q @氵 t99 %op峦 。σ扫 .

5, c‘ u″ σv” c/3ovλ coσ t,tC CuoJ,o氵 r av cγ tIψ 。t9,v dπ ‘


σtoλ 犭v,

驵 曳摅 龆 糍 ⒎ ρ
v塄
-:∶
ˇ°
踯 犭⒉ 絷
竿 吝 :”
⒊πω a'π cPˉ 氵ucv, Ju氵 o πot色 uδ q δ
‘色ˉ
卩@t泌 昂v πλo幼
Ju吵
叩 i:斡
勹p叼 需屮.币 叮 To韬 δ
9・
?仰 中 Ⅱ 弭卩 p・ tHE s丁ADIVM^T AmENs
@)C° mplet。 :
`0皙 Here the0Iympic games were reViVed in 1896after the lapse of centuri锱
In the lowor picture you can see:‘ marbIe seats bey。 nd the grovo,
1, r¢ ) rIJt° 、 o拓 洳 另 uT9,δ c← -,cJ u氵 dv r。 λ0

诏 π p-— — (linbng ver→


't--dπ
tδ σ TPo材 π cδ oI, 2, 如 c扫 °凼 }冫

T【 泌 σ TP町 汹 t峦
φ饣沆 π 曰p-dπ )⒎ _γ cφ tJp-. 8.J乩 纟

λcutrcv犭 uas,d雪 ~刀 λoσ 一 勃 它


切tδ σt¢ 9uo衫 。

(cl W止 to in Greok:

彗 ∶f鞯羰 亻
垂 0晦 讠
措甘 苷
:盏 |l∶ lll∶
、sa七 rap hag hig Owll proviIloe.
;∶
5 ThQ hopli1es made
t
+【 m″ c/tea)a ten da。 y矿 marcb

100 Ⅲ 且0sFI△I9 tDRRIIrORY


dvTcε 彐刀 Jε ˉ
‘。1。 JI,c。 δ沱 tDq Λ ur品 v锸 。 t画细 vt氵 v,‘氵;p历 v
δⅡ枷 π色ccv l由 9@◇ πo泌 u衔 仇 vK仰 oq nv K焱 jcσ 画v

(厶丙口‘万J犭 历劭勿 卿 ¢纟乃)c沁 t氵 vK‘ λ氵
`
~9r妇 π“ 访 vt呷 仿 Tm'
r‘励 aπ 。
Ew oF AtHENs FRoM tHE AcRoPo△ 】s
2 r。 )σ v″ 犭 ruψ c,,西 J” σrp。 t‘ oyrΩ 9oJ9
V】

〔咖 曲 @:诊 )Jδ dv・ Above the housetops“ ses the Arch of HadⅡ an lpage39l Tothe"ght
M幽 ωv c】 I,、 ,c钅 沆 口折 洳 . are the suⅣ tVing columns of the】 ofty0lympIeum〈 pag。 1lBl Beyond tho
Adapted fr° m XelloPhoIl,且 stadlum1ooms Hym◆ “us,famed for its honey, The g!ory of Hyme"us’
m色 aos标 ,I 2 19-20 ‘
‘vlolet Crownod”
s!opes at sunset won for Athons the tlt】 e,
1§ 】
∞ 2Adˇ erblm厶 ccⅡ ga“ ve.
C0NsoNANT DEC△ ENsIoN (K-sTEMs) 57
】08. Ge】 litive of Timo, The genihvo deno1° s 1he‘ 氵
叨口
功1氵%忉 无氵
忉犭 c无 an ao1ion occurs:】

n/rc dG铃
LEssoN XVⅡ I ypaΨ ω t知Ⅱ 氵u印 δv Js91c`氵 rrtr召 tc汕 氵

CoWs0IAlC9 DEC口 W日 i0Ⅱ lK s△ IIⅢ 臼)


10‘ voc‘ 9I,△
γ龠∶ ∶
vmc巧 ψ
^RY

&宀 u阳 诵 叩 吼
yuJtφ
幻 wⅡ
v【
g∶

&tIp7Gro,
(1饣
:∶f’

ap7α σω, i9PTtl【 ro:


$‰ £
汤εslrJ召 oF,协 四 砧
;劈 f£ 女
饣彳菇发 ,:刂

mcn’ s它 浒 召,tIm o馏 :汜 t,,I’ ε boss1


ri饧 了

'mo汩 `巾 p氵 ttnd召 r, PlJ勿 夕6 scc饣 PROsELYTE

】01。 The CoIlBOnant DecleI日 ion inoludeg Iloun臼 whogo


,δ :%'ac沅 △
0耐ξ△K。。
Kα fC,prep∷ wlth G,,r/o氵 c叼 /,o氵 ″丿 ;兜 砦鞯 篇δ
″″

臼tems eIld in a oongonaIl1 w⒒ hA,rJolt,tG扬 乃为 c氵 o刀 n纟

The gtem appears wben tho olldingˉ os is dropped from


co/d氵 n乡

响ρ吨 ˉ
zo
;κ os,δ :肠 ra″
c^T^I・0C.VE `,C⒍ ∮伤uξ “KOs, δ: 夕"口 ,rf cf
`氵

φuX。 x彳 , ●uXdw。 ・
`嬲 卜
To1his θtem1ho onding8for1hθ
,

1he geni1ive gingular。 Tpoζ , preP: wl1h 而召


G” to,,l
§
o1her oa臼 eg are动 dded. ′° 嘛Ⅱ γ
尸 ^’
TLe ending for1he nominative茁 ngular ghould bo loarnod I05. I9XERc【 sEs

膜烨辅碳诎羁箨棚溅
fronl1he vooabu1ary. somotiInegi1θ nasi,l~s The da1ive Ⅱ
plural enag in。 1. Tho σ in e吼 ch of thoso l,lg1an∞ gu“ teg
with κ,v,¢ x to fom; |

φvλ 犭rω i,, φJλ ¢钅t9, alld φvλ 。r缶 ・


knρ vg (δ ) 无
er@JJ ,ac.gG)、 乃河勿⒆
巾)【rran献 ate: |


qpt・ f x枷 uJf ts

营扌
貉 嚣 r(言
t;浣;fr讠氍
氵卩


箩 骨扌偌:犰 f%卿 γv召 o瑁 榔
a箩

噙 取 色鬼v幺 蜘锑 ・
^
俨 虎夥
o啻

∶耳 钅
∶ :。
flIl∶

菇 扌言 ∶ ∶∶∶
c虍

I瀚

狒懈
`堍

:∶ :!;∶ ;i【 ;}0∶

10z。 ⅡOnogylIi;∶ ∶ :∶ I∶ ∶∶Itn1 ded°ngioIl are :11∶ l{:∶

ac∞n1ed on 1ho ultima in the ge】 lⅢ vo and dativo of au



I∵


虫 罗免帑 卩 狃
;丨 Ii|!∶

numI,org,1ho oiⅡ um丑 ex ooour芷 ng on1ong vowelg or diPh-


t:I∶
仿∶

If芒∵梵 J丑 耢

1;;;燕
?ρ;frv、
:∶ ::;‰
1hongg,o1h° rwige1ho aou1o. 口拓 0φ t,N菇 ot/trJ扌 a‘ t执 γvI,a弦 o9氵 J栊 (∶
:``l。 t犭 δc馋 ・

Inne乱 。叼; c。 mPare with parad⒈ gm(§ 509,舀 )・


∶ 雀驾点£
扰态袈苄盎搌拉筘
lll;9∶ 潦躲品 ^Ⅰ ,a∞ e屮 tl e屮

l EurlpldOB,攵 ragmen1 LitQrmlv∶ 刃 0'氵 o¤ 仍 o俨 扌 0杨 aε ¢room。 叻伽 犭
ε 血1ho茹 缶d+1π J瓦 J菇 。
Ι△ 负。
fjI Ι
iJJ:忑 e。 ri。 r9ls:1aCCθ n俩 th8
mte氵 reoB Iast Byllsblθ o£ tho“ e匝
C0NsoNANT DEC△ ENsIoN (K-sTEMs) 57
】08. Ge】 litive of Timo, The genihvo deno1° s 1he‘ 氵
叨口
功1氵%忉 无氵
忉犭 c无 an ao1ion occurs:】

n/rc dG铃
LEssoN XVⅡ I ypaΨ ω t知Ⅱ 氵u印 δv Js91c`氵 rrtr召 tc汕 氵

CoWs0IAlC9 DEC口 W日 i0Ⅱ lK s△ IIⅢ 臼)


10‘ voc‘ 9I,△
γ龠∶ ∶
vmc巧 ψ
^RY

&宀 u阳 诵 叩 吼
yuJtφ
幻 wⅡ
v【
g∶

&tIp7Gro,
(1饣
:∶f’

ap7α σω, i9PTtl【 ro:


$‰ £
汤εslrJ召 oF,协 四 砧
;劈 f£ 女
饣彳菇发 ,:刂

mcn’ s它 浒 召,tIm o馏 :汜 t,,I’ ε boss1


ri饧 了

'mo汩 `巾 p氵 ttnd召 r, PlJ勿 夕6 scc饣 PROsELYTE

】01。 The CoIlBOnant DecleI日 ion inoludeg Iloun臼 whogo


,δ :%'ac沅 △
0耐ξ△K。。
Kα fC,prep∷ wlth G,,r/o氵 c叼 /,o氵 ″丿 ;兜 砦鞯 篇δ
″″

臼tems eIld in a oongonaIl1 w⒒ hA,rJolt,tG扬 乃为 c氵 o刀 n纟

The gtem appears wben tho olldingˉ os is dropped from


co/d氵 n乡

响ρ吨 ˉ
zo
;κ os,δ :肠 ra″
c^T^I・0C.VE `,C⒍ ∮伤uξ “KOs, δ: 夕"口 ,rf cf
`氵

φuX。 x彳 , ●uXdw。 ・
`嬲 卜
To1his θtem1ho onding8for1hθ
,

1he geni1ive gingular。 Tpoζ , preP: wl1h 而召


G” to,,l
§
o1her oa臼 eg are动 dded. ′° 嘛Ⅱ γ
尸 ^’
TLe ending for1he nominative茁 ngular ghould bo loarnod I05. I9XERc【 sEs

膜烨辅碳诎羁箨棚溅
fronl1he vooabu1ary. somotiInegi1θ nasi,l~s The da1ive Ⅱ
plural enag in。 1. Tho σ in e吼 ch of thoso l,lg1an∞ gu“ teg
with κ,v,¢ x to fom; |

φvλ 犭rω i,, φJλ ¢钅t9, alld φvλ 。r缶 ・


knρ vg (δ ) 无
er@JJ ,ac.gG)、 乃河勿⒆
巾)【rran献 ate: |


qpt・ f x枷 uJf ts

营扌
貉 嚣 r(言
t;浣;fr讠氍
氵卩


箩 骨扌偌:犰 f%卿 γv召 o瑁 榔
a箩

噙 取 色鬼v幺 蜘锑 ・
^
俨 虎夥
o啻

∶耳 钅
∶ :。
flIl∶

菇 扌言 ∶ ∶∶∶
c虍

I瀚

狒懈
`堍

:∶ :!;∶ ;i【 ;}0∶

10z。 ⅡOnogylIi;∶ ∶ :∶ I∶ ∶∶Itn1 ded°ngioIl are :11∶ l{:∶

ac∞n1ed on 1ho ultima in the ge】 lⅢ vo and dativo of au



I∵


虫 罗免帑 卩 狃
;丨 Ii|!∶

numI,org,1ho oiⅡ um丑 ex ooour芷 ng on1ong vowelg or diPh-


t:I∶
仿∶

If芒∵梵 J丑 耢

1;;;燕
?ρ;frv、
:∶ ::;‰
1hongg,o1h° rwige1ho aou1o. 口拓 0φ t,N菇 ot/trJ扌 a‘ t执 γvI,a弦 o9氵 J栊 (∶
:``l。 t犭 δc馋 ・

Inne乱 。叼; c。 mPare with parad⒈ gm(§ 509,舀 )・


∶ 雀驾点£
扰态袈苄盎搌拉筘
lll;9∶ 潦躲品 ^Ⅰ ,a∞ e屮 tl e屮

l EurlpldOB,攵 ragmen1 LitQrmlv∶ 刃 0'氵 o¤ 仍 o俨 扌 0杨 aε ¢room。 叻伽 犭
ε 血1ho茹 缶d+1π J瓦 J菇 。
Ι△ 负。
fjI Ι
iJJ:忑 e。 ri。 r9ls:1aCCθ n俩 th8
mte氵 reoB Iast Byllsblθ o£ tho“ e匝
58 AN INTRODUClrIoN lro oR屈 EK

(cl C° mPleto:

1・ 9rP泌 犭-诤 氵优 J9rJ咖 9tI楠 Tc伽 ρˉ ・ 2・ 协


oπ Tc勤 to泌 φ ‘λ¢r~Ⅱ 叩 εv r色 ta t已 vT t_Jδ _. 8 劳
LEssoN XIX
gingular〉 。
币 缶c/・ Ψ‘t— cttλ π呷γ
9r-γ v功 口氵
淀 ro0Θρ -【 C0Ⅱ s0WAIr0l DEc田 Ⅲs=0Ⅱ (△ -oB T-sT口 Ⅲs)
C望|J〃 ∞h
⒒meek: 、
!嬲 l⒊ aPlrrTtlv严 v vδ ωρ
ˉ
ˉ【弘″召
r us Jefu!

眦 溅 Jπ 各榀护
1拷
孙噩妊搔蓬 107 stemg iIl t° r δ with unaooented1before the nIl巳 l
廴挠甯 ;瑟 砦秕墚 ⒋屮叩mm灬 n屮 汐 1 oon仑 。nan1 have ‘
v in the accuga1ive gingular, Oth° r
in tho camp noun8with t° rδ 81° ms are norma1,

106. 0l且 口 P且 厶△▲WX 湓 氮 拈 嚣 强 l专 :i1Ⅰ ∶℃Jh⒊ :;:甜 糊 乱 。丫 甓

〓△ '
By means of 1he phalanx, iIlvented lt11d developod by gtem leng111ens to° v。
Groekg,Aloxander1he Grea1imposed llis、 ˇ⒒l upon mos1


of the o∶ vilized world. In1be hands o£ tlle Itomang,who 洳π“(1) :无 扬JJ 1s(η )丿 ‰v°
x芭 ρ
'
g x咖


gre△ v in1o1he famous 山刀亻s dσ 了/δ tB
were quick1o grdsp itg poggibⅡ i1ieg,it 晌 ‘ ico
dσ trδ 。
s aσ 7rs。 v rrov
″乡杨仇・ 冫
“‘ρTo。
I
犯ρ
dσ Tr01 山σtrσ ‘
“The average deptll d the pll扭 aIlx w泅 eigh1men, (v) 勺Ⅱ ,(。
D‘
晌 ‘σ‘Θ
dσ 7rδ ‘ dσ rrs。 :
ore1he 珈 8tv x咱 ρ
‘fos
色l1hotlgh i1ooca8ionally roaohed six1oen, even be£
1ime of the Maoedoniang。 EpaminOIldas m巳 de hig lef1 v饣 s(1)m勿 /。 r 茁ρxΦ v(0)r%杨 r
wing abou1nfty r巳 nkg deep, Tho gpear migh1be1、 ˇen1yˉ n笤 2 vvKt c:
卸xQ' Ⅱxo,.T‘ s
one f∞ t long,or even1went,亻 our in Helle“ st忆 umⅡ . vv‘ t‘ s vvKt aV Ⅱ胆l,r og Ⅱ踟yT Ol,
Five or⒍ x rOws of spear Pohts wodd ProJ∞ 1beyond tlle
nJrt‘ ∽茫K/, φ胛町‘ 卸胛v σ‘ o)
yvJr?o
£ront rallk making an imPene1rab1ob日 rrier. Tho gpearg
” κt Ⅱ
φxⅡ t巳 Ⅱ胆,/rt・ g
of1ho rear rankg rested upon the ghoulderg of【 llen in frOIlt 芑pIl。 (TJ)c・ 舀 ε
/。

'拓
wi1h1heir poin1g diro° 1ed upwara rma1ion looked
Th。 f。
ⅡPn cpBcr o
like a bugo poroupine wi1h 1ho quillg poin1ing in oⅡ e tIpPn?os IIpJIcT ov
direcΙ oI1. The Roman oongul,Luoug AemⅡ iug,a∞ 巳goned cpJtco‘ 而u“ kv9
Gp/tc 妇/tcT。
ve1eran, oo】 lfesged 1o fri° ndθ a1 Rome 1ha七 ho had nover
geen any1hing morθ terrible and dtIrming1han1he Maceˉ IⅡ ⒒k。 mann° r innec1・ Eλ λ血 ,Tp。 yJ,n,

do】 lian phalanx of Perseug.” I Pindar,o勿 ”


lp氵 on,I1

E.⒍ MoCattney,Wcr/gre勿 zcntJ cnd scc,pageg2⒍ 叼⒎ 2FOr acc。 nt of啖,8ee§ ⒑⒉


so
58 AN INTRODUClrIoN lro oR屈 EK

(cl C° mPleto:

1・ 9rP泌 犭-诤 氵优 J9rJ咖 9tI楠 Tc伽 ρˉ ・ 2・ 协


oπ Tc勤 to泌 φ ‘λ¢r~Ⅱ 叩 εv r色 ta t已 vT t_Jδ _. 8 劳
LEssoN XIX
gingular〉 。
币 缶c/・ Ψ‘t— cttλ π呷γ
9r-γ v功 口氵
淀 ro0Θρ -【 C0Ⅱ s0WAIr0l DEc田 Ⅲs=0Ⅱ (△ -oB T-sT口 Ⅲs)
C望|J〃 ∞h
⒒meek: 、
!嬲 l⒊ aPlrrTtlv严 v vδ ωρ
ˉ
ˉ【弘″召
r us Jefu!

眦 溅 Jπ 各榀护
1拷
孙噩妊搔蓬 107 stemg iIl t° r δ with unaooented1before the nIl巳 l
廴挠甯 ;瑟 砦秕墚 ⒋屮叩mm灬 n屮 汐 1 oon仑 。nan1 have ‘
v in the accuga1ive gingular, Oth° r
in tho camp noun8with t° rδ 81° ms are norma1,

106. 0l且 口 P且 厶△▲WX 湓 氮 拈 嚣 强 l专 :i1Ⅰ ∶℃Jh⒊ :;:甜 糊 乱 。丫 甓

〓△ '
By means of 1he phalanx, iIlvented lt11d developod by gtem leng111ens to° v。
Groekg,Aloxander1he Grea1imposed llis、 ˇ⒒l upon mos1


of the o∶ vilized world. In1be hands o£ tlle Itomang,who 洳π“(1) :无 扬JJ 1s(η )丿 ‰v°
x芭 ρ
'
g x咖


gre△ v in1o1he famous 山刀亻s dσ 了/δ tB
were quick1o grdsp itg poggibⅡ i1ieg,it 晌 ‘ ico
dσ trδ 。
s aσ 7rs。 v rrov
″乡杨仇・ 冫
“‘ρTo。
I
犯ρ
dσ Tr01 山σtrσ ‘
“The average deptll d the pll扭 aIlx w泅 eigh1men, (v) 勺Ⅱ ,(。
D‘
晌 ‘σ‘Θ
dσ 7rδ ‘ dσ rrs。 :
ore1he 珈 8tv x咱 ρ
‘fos
色l1hotlgh i1ooca8ionally roaohed six1oen, even be£
1ime of the Maoedoniang。 EpaminOIldas m巳 de hig lef1 v饣 s(1)m勿 /。 r 茁ρxΦ v(0)r%杨 r
wing abou1nfty r巳 nkg deep, Tho gpear migh1be1、 ˇen1yˉ n笤 2 vvKt c:
卸xQ' Ⅱxo,.T‘ s
one f∞ t long,or even1went,亻 our in Helle“ st忆 umⅡ . vv‘ t‘ s vvKt aV Ⅱ胆l,r og Ⅱ踟yT Ol,
Five or⒍ x rOws of spear Pohts wodd ProJ∞ 1beyond tlle
nJrt‘ ∽茫K/, φ胛町‘ 卸胛v σ‘ o)
yvJr?o
£ront rallk making an imPene1rab1ob日 rrier. Tho gpearg
” κt Ⅱ
φxⅡ t巳 Ⅱ胆,/rt・ g
of1ho rear rankg rested upon the ghoulderg of【 llen in frOIlt 芑pIl。 (TJ)c・ 舀 ε
/。

'拓
wi1h1heir poin1g diro° 1ed upwara rma1ion looked
Th。 f。
ⅡPn cpBcr o
like a bugo poroupine wi1h 1ho quillg poin1ing in oⅡ e tIpPn?os IIpJIcT ov
direcΙ oI1. The Roman oongul,Luoug AemⅡ iug,a∞ 巳goned cpJtco‘ 而u“ kv9
Gp/tc 妇/tcT。
ve1eran, oo】 lfesged 1o fri° ndθ a1 Rome 1ha七 ho had nover
geen any1hing morθ terrible and dtIrming1han1he Maceˉ IⅡ ⒒k。 mann° r innec1・ Eλ λ血 ,Tp。 yJ,n,

do】 lian phalanx of Perseug.” I Pindar,o勿 ”


lp氵 on,I1

E.⒍ MoCattney,Wcr/gre勿 zcntJ cnd scc,pageg2⒍ 叼⒎ 2FOr acc。 nt of啖,8ee§ ⒑⒉


so
ω AN INTRODUClr【 oN To oR涸 EK CoNsoNANlp DECLENsIoN (Δ -oR TsIPEMs) 61

苗σtc f° llowod by tho 犭


勿J犭 c溺 犭 σ¢o,σ vuˉ 卩ovλ ‘Jo,0uav JI,rtf氵 汐画 u舀 阢 氵
πεε v・ 8, 氵 δ忿γt,v氵 钅tI1
】08. ReBu1t C【 auseg。 t,e
oJ9rtI焱 s耐 Ⅱ 氵 卸 a溺 J,。 I,cBI,拓 )叼 。 Ⅱ 诺 下 ・
denOteg an四 彷咖 J re姒 Jε owed by the加 V汹 沈扬εi1denoteg o。

a muturtrJ or ProJ咆 3扬 ″`fo⒒


BltJJ f
'四
@)Complete:
δ‘n f^α J mone'om`(ε o
ctxo,/xp虾
`击 19GC色 论
Cr‘ 切 。 品
`亻 1・
币 γ扣 π色Ⅱ-Jσ t氵 πλoε o%苗 σ竹 δ‘@~助 ‘v一 枋 vπ om〃 v,
lnc汀 ,切 v妒 ″prov击 IOns;
2,/tIp 自xoI,c。 v0阼 η γ℃ γ扣
犭 “ cJtoX如 钅@r° O TJ9rot,.
crx。y xp犭 u£tα 缶crc dγ op洳 Gt侥 g9r1t犭 δctrt `乃 cJ mon镏 rso¤ o
8.挖 δ它叩 叼u一 鞒 ‘uψ cv,苗 σtc oJ oπλ卜画 j氵 J我 一 我 o‘
yc。 v,
fr,0“ v Pror如 tomB


Og, V0C厶 BuI.^RΨ Θ Write in Greek:
Fp灬 睥 ,咆 ro。 ,溺 :/CC1D臼 shcsB`
1.With the trumPe1he wilI order tho g⑿ rds to IIlarCh【 oil)・
Ⅱ胛,ˉ ro%t占 :c乃 crJo氵
apXo’ ’
, ⒑】
/ros, o: C⒓ r无 om, ru`er, ° 2, 、Vithin iivo days 1ho herald8 wero prΘ sen1, 8, Ill
Com9Jl@md″ Cf,巳 Px臼 ‘apxi 鞫 rr贳 :TΙ 臼汉Ⅱ岱t,Il to tb抬 1hoy plundered the wag【 ,Ilg of the quoen.
Ⅱed down1ha七 road 5,I£ tho ph饧 lanx woro
dJtk,铌 ,叼 :s乃 饣
〃01 4,TLo wom,n
埚吗 xIfog,t。 :sPCIl⒎ 谋 T写 :夕 v耐 汹 记已
ε
prooo盹 the ene△ ay w【 ,uld llo1be pIllaging thθ houseB.
D0llYPIIOR08 Ⅱ ^ 召J乡 恂 氵¢ %J,Wi讪 D・
斗̀
,搦 :岬 :严

丨宀
uds,《 1比 s,氵 :ffcJJtIs,Cr“ cc. 盅

毗 ,,txT尔 ,氵 :ntr/乃 z Lat mo⒒ 为


叩莒湍 ;栅 ‘
on口 氵
勰 δ°
r ,9: 。 ln妒
丿
,rots, oV9 夕Irz, J}i∫
o丿
"丨
c^缸 PEDΔ GooVE
‰胛 :i肌
ind”

【10 EXEItCIsEs

)Irransla七 e:
1. aλ λa 。ur mv 。氵tρ xp9,u口 t% @σ tε πeJoπ c‘ V 刀u氵 v ‘口)

to0苈 pu巴 to9犭 λ。口vc π¢Pa t氵 v φJλ tIγ γrI, 6, JJ δδ

踹 ‰胪胛
o氵 v JF讠

T焦卢
多鞯吁
智 δ
儿揣f‰篇 ^ HoCKEY
Ⅱthoro△s nothlng new under the suⅡ M^TcH ne
!Thθ acoen1 oi 1ho geni1ivθ p!ur日 l :8 on thθ pel〗 u1t, b` eXCeption to '. Tho
lo CaⅣ od was bui⒒ !nto lhe ciψ v/nlI of^曲 ensstono
afteronthe
WhICh thlg s∞
deparmro° ‘tho
§1ll9 Porsians】 n480BG
2IlroⅡ B late by rorm9δ p ・
80oⅢ pIlr。 △a1in口 rα laα m ftlICtt氵 hα 0e'e
ω AN INTRODUClr【 oN To oR涸 EK CoNsoNANlp DECLENsIoN (Δ -oR TsIPEMs) 61

苗σtc f° llowod by tho 犭


勿J犭 c溺 犭 σ¢o,σ vuˉ 卩ovλ ‘Jo,0uav JI,rtf氵 汐画 u舀 阢 氵
πεε v・ 8, 氵 δ忿γt,v氵 钅tI1
】08. ReBu1t C【 auseg。 t,e
oJ9rtI焱 s耐 Ⅱ 氵 卸 a溺 J,。 I,cBI,拓 )叼 。 Ⅱ 诺 下 ・
denOteg an四 彷咖 J re姒 Jε owed by the加 V汹 沈扬εi1denoteg o。

a muturtrJ or ProJ咆 3扬 ″`fo⒒


BltJJ f
'四
@)Complete:
δ‘n f^α J mone'om`(ε o
ctxo,/xp虾
`击 19GC色 论
Cr‘ 切 。 品
`亻 1・
币 γ扣 π色Ⅱ-Jσ t氵 πλoε o%苗 σ竹 δ‘@~助 ‘v一 枋 vπ om〃 v,
lnc汀 ,切 v妒 ″prov击 IOns;
2,/tIp 自xoI,c。 v0阼 η γ℃ γ扣
犭 “ cJtoX如 钅@r° O TJ9rot,.
crx。y xp犭 u£tα 缶crc dγ op洳 Gt侥 g9r1t犭 δctrt `乃 cJ mon镏 rso¤ o
8.挖 δ它叩 叼u一 鞒 ‘uψ cv,苗 σtc oJ oπλ卜画 j氵 J我 一 我 o‘
yc。 v,
fr,0“ v Pror如 tomB


Og, V0C厶 BuI.^RΨ Θ Write in Greek:
Fp灬 睥 ,咆 ro。 ,溺 :/CC1D臼 shcsB`
1.With the trumPe1he wilI order tho g⑿ rds to IIlarCh【 oil)・
Ⅱ胛,ˉ ro%t占 :c乃 crJo氵
apXo’ ’
, ⒑】
/ros, o: C⒓ r无 om, ru`er, ° 2, 、Vithin iivo days 1ho herald8 wero prΘ sen1, 8, Ill
Com9Jl@md″ Cf,巳 Px臼 ‘apxi 鞫 rr贳 :TΙ 臼汉Ⅱ岱t,Il to tb抬 1hoy plundered the wag【 ,Ilg of the quoen.
Ⅱed down1ha七 road 5,I£ tho ph饧 lanx woro
dJtk,铌 ,叼 :s乃 饣
〃01 4,TLo wom,n
埚吗 xIfog,t。 :sPCIl⒎ 谋 T写 :夕 v耐 汹 记已
ε
prooo盹 the ene△ ay w【 ,uld llo1be pIllaging thθ houseB.
D0llYPIIOR08 Ⅱ ^ 召J乡 恂 氵¢ %J,Wi讪 D・
斗̀
,搦 :岬 :严

丨宀
uds,《 1比 s,氵 :ffcJJtIs,Cr“ cc. 盅

毗 ,,txT尔 ,氵 :ntr/乃 z Lat mo⒒ 为


叩莒湍 ;栅 ‘
on口 氵
勰 δ°
r ,9: 。 ln妒
丿
,rots, oV9 夕Irz, J}i∫
o丿
"丨
c^缸 PEDΔ GooVE
‰胛 :i肌
ind”

【10 EXEItCIsEs

)Irransla七 e:
1. aλ λa 。ur mv 。氵tρ xp9,u口 t% @σ tε πeJoπ c‘ V 刀u氵 v ‘口)

to0苈 pu巴 to9犭 λ。口vc π¢Pa t氵 v φJλ tIγ γrI, 6, JJ δδ

踹 ‰胪胛
o氵 v JF讠

T焦卢
多鞯吁
智 δ
儿揣f‰篇 ^ HoCKEY
Ⅱthoro△s nothlng new under the suⅡ M^TcH ne
!Thθ acoen1 oi 1ho geni1ivθ p!ur日 l :8 on thθ pel〗 u1t, b` eXCeption to '. Tho
lo CaⅣ od was bui⒒ !nto lhe ciψ v/nlI of^曲 ensstono
afteronthe
WhICh thlg s∞
deparmro° ‘tho
§1ll9 Porsians】 n480BG
2IlroⅡ B late by rorm9δ p ・
80oⅢ pIlr。 △a1in口 rα laα m ftlICtt氵 hα 0e'e
tEVIEW
【 68

〈 )Wri1e tlle forms of巴 山诀 ,而 To。 ,and t;扌 ,c th・at would


:j`・

be used witll πoⅤ 印 ,a四 r&s,舀 Pu。 Tc,刀 rta巧 φJλ @r己 ,

挢 λ杆赤
LEssON XX (`) In且 eo1cJu亻 in the preθ en1and imper£ eo1indi° Il1ive,

REˇ 灿 W
112 EXERC:sEs

0)C° mplete:

←诫
o&“咖 t屿 ●p0盯 Jδ 6【 roⅡ tcpt1。 -纽 ¨ o扬 's召 cond而 四妒“ l

1.亻 研a TJuT t_J犹 v邯 嘤 耐 r9,Pt,rcs9rpo9


σTpaToπ cδ_. 2 α ucv犭 λ洳‘。 pzo沂 co?印 o踟 v
厶 ssICF匝 EⅡ 0・ s 抚vt_σ TpcTtω t_,句 由δ 忿 心 扣口
T【 vt_, 8.r臼 讠J&~ˉ
(o Review V° cabtllary π。 t咖 δ泖 。t击 dσT9π λot_, 4 ″λ°‰ ~(linking
III,page880,following thθ verb) 氵u″ 扬 tc tδ v π° t。 uδ v δ
氵口・
卩 v— . 5, aλ λa 。
t,‘ J

mothod indioa1ed in§ 叮,@・ σ氵 v历 u一 犭 刁cλ ov u南 vπ 函


c。 tc历 ucp- 6 。
柱 toε Jpu函 一
(3)Nam。 and de且ne tho -ˉ — (linking verb) tI犭 拓π 佾c9 —_ (relatlvθ pronoun)
和 π左σ。″ v&t氵 戚 k栊
Greek worag guggegted by: q σr叼 v氵 9 7.J轫 δoP己 一 J耆 v, c‘

B眵叩 溺无‘ 6饣 8沅切 ’


’’IttJ,绍 口饣
8白 πcρ _rIv・

仰访⒄ α阢弘 印庇印 九 P纟 蚋 鸭 智、 (Θ Wrlte lll GⅡ ek:


poJ犭 饣 of,。t`P幽 切 漉Joh仍 -
弘 氵 1 【rhe satrap lliInsel£ wro七 °a旬 fol1ows 2. `Vi1hi!l sevell
c°P,。 o多 纩, 勿勿无箩Jr@%B, 无@'@- days1he ruler will bring 1he arnlg11】 1d1he chario1s 3, I£
sc呷 @, 叩 勿 彻 饰 , 漉 舀J钔 :切 ,
1he queen had n° 1 brough1a guard wi1h her, the mell froln
c,B@r饣矽‘ 白溺, `rq1口 而‘
the village would have pursued her 压 IΙ e sayg tha1 1hθ
J勿 刀刂8, `,
@r饣c@1咿 7犭 色
无OP@J犭 口,`纟 ‘ 膏ˉ
5, The guards des1r° yed

o1hor meIl are at +lla1 bridge
Ⅱ茹. eigh1boats,go111at i11vas no1possible to cr° ss1he jliver,
(⊙ Wh砒 °ther derh扯
饫veg can you add to this
z咖 印 CCJIOmli
group?
岫 优 扰ωρ
the sacred ls⒗ of Dolog now lies
(J)In丑 Θot the gingular of
In Ⅰ λ画ttr9,卩 tiσ 众cttf,氵 π
u1ns,but“ CleopBtr矿 s WelP’ st】 ll 9苗 λ莎
P叼 。 ,

cheers tho thirsty,


z咖 q,$op,妫
氵 纟 ,

(。 )Giv° the aaJve plural of φ饥菇,aJpv,犭 pzΦ v。

1蛐 记凼 ,Jr,pt9oJIr0t。 B,kRG n咖 :。qe∞ 泪 h。 ugh0J Bllme无 c叼 αro


饣 tt印d9⒑ v


tEVIEW
【 68

〈 )Wri1e tlle forms of巴 山诀 ,而 To。 ,and t;扌 ,c th・at would


:j`・

be used witll πoⅤ 印 ,a四 r&s,舀 Pu。 Tc,刀 rta巧 φJλ @r己 ,

挢 λ杆赤
LEssON XX (`) In且 eo1cJu亻 in the preθ en1and imper£ eo1indi° Il1ive,

REˇ 灿 W
112 EXERC:sEs

0)C° mplete:

←诫
o&“咖 t屿 ●p0盯 Jδ 6【 roⅡ tcpt1。 -纽 ¨ o扬 's召 cond而 四妒“ l

1.亻 研a TJuT t_J犹 v邯 嘤 耐 r9,Pt,rcs9rpo9


σTpaToπ cδ_. 2 α ucv犭 λ洳‘。 pzo沂 co?印 o踟 v
厶 ssICF匝 EⅡ 0・ s 抚vt_σ TpcTtω t_,句 由δ 忿 心 扣口
T【 vt_, 8.r臼 讠J&~ˉ
(o Review V° cabtllary π。 t咖 δ泖 。t击 dσT9π λot_, 4 ″λ°‰ ~(linking
III,page880,following thθ verb) 氵u″ 扬 tc tδ v π° t。 uδ v δ
氵口・
卩 v— . 5, aλ λa 。
t,‘ J

mothod indioa1ed in§ 叮,@・ σ氵 v历 u一 犭 刁cλ ov u南 vπ 函


c。 tc历 ucp- 6 。
柱 toε Jpu函 一
(3)Nam。 and de且ne tho -ˉ — (linking verb) tI犭 拓π 佾c9 —_ (relatlvθ pronoun)
和 π左σ。″ v&t氵 戚 k栊
Greek worag guggegted by: q σr叼 v氵 9 7.J轫 δoP己 一 J耆 v, c‘

B眵叩 溺无‘ 6饣 8沅切 ’


’’IttJ,绍 口饣
8白 πcρ _rIv・

仰访⒄ α阢弘 印庇印 九 P纟 蚋 鸭 智、 (Θ Wrlte lll GⅡ ek:


poJ犭 饣 of,。t`P幽 切 漉Joh仍 -
弘 氵 1 【rhe satrap lliInsel£ wro七 °a旬 fol1ows 2. `Vi1hi!l sevell
c°P,。 o多 纩, 勿勿无箩Jr@%B, 无@'@- days1he ruler will bring 1he arnlg11】 1d1he chario1s 3, I£
sc呷 @, 叩 勿 彻 饰 , 漉 舀J钔 :切 ,
1he queen had n° 1 brough1a guard wi1h her, the mell froln
c,B@r饣矽‘ 白溺, `rq1口 而‘
the village would have pursued her 压 IΙ e sayg tha1 1hθ
J勿 刀刂8, `,
@r饣c@1咿 7犭 色
无OP@J犭 口,`纟 ‘ 膏ˉ
5, The guards des1r° yed

o1hor meIl are at +lla1 bridge
Ⅱ茹. eigh1boats,go111at i11vas no1possible to cr° ss1he jliver,
(⊙ Wh砒 °ther derh扯
饫veg can you add to this
z咖 印 CCJIOmli
group?
岫 优 扰ωρ
the sacred ls⒗ of Dolog now lies
(J)In丑 Θot the gingular of
In Ⅰ λ画ttr9,卩 tiσ 众cttf,氵 π
u1ns,but“ CleopBtr矿 s WelP’ st】 ll 9苗 λ莎
P叼 。 ,

cheers tho thirsty,


z咖 q,$op,妫
氵 纟 ,

(。 )Giv° the aaJve plural of φ饥菇,aJpv,犭 pzΦ v。

1蛐 记凼 ,Jr,pt9oJIr0t。 B,kRG n咖 :。qe∞ 泪 h。 ugh0J Bllme无 c叼 αro


饣 tt印d9⒑ v


P扭 TI∞ △Es ss
1:J, FIngT At,RIgT AoTI叼 EP^RTIOIPLE Op π0‘ ω rB氵 。
P
,,rluCcs ,rGu,aV
T【 IWaWo9 ,rtIVσ 芑σ
″s tα VσαVTOs
tα u】 rα σ
LEssON XXI Tou,cCG'
'
PA△ uc=PLEs mIurcyrCC wItkr-m ,rCtKrtIwa
παVCarroV παvσ 犭FOy

渝 勘g’ t""
Tuit`o★ 冫‘(D t¤Vσα
σα1s 9rgζ σ0σ1(v)
:1∮

;;:;:‰ 嗍粉 :;fl;Ⅰ
-uCg yrog πGVσ atrrls πG偷 cvrG

黼 扫嚣i遴莎撕蹭箨鞲玎搬芈
Ⅱ6, Ⅱ臼 eg of Partk1p:es, Co)A particⅡ le,wh° nu⒃ d in
1ho at1ribu1ive Pogition(§ 81,舀 ),h西 θ1he for° °of an a1trib- 冫

uti∞ 凸d吁 ec1iv° ・ Thig k oaⅡ ed the沅 弼 J9。 砌 ep¢ 磁 吻 讫 :
in1he plural,where i1add8ˉ o1o1he stem, Tlle feminine s犰卿 畋 岬 crpcT‘ 函吓 姒 Phm幽 汀η夕咖 .

ig inflected like苈 u口 舀
tI(§ 81)・


T甯 饣髁品品芳找J⒎ 袋挠糕严嘿




ˇ
瀛沏ˇ
ˇ

△E OF‘ 1ut r田 叨
ο
ν

PI1E8ENT P^RTIcII’
ν
ω

h tho regular equivalon1of1he Englhh乃 e叻无口,厶 丙o。 e叨 而口J

ˇ

ο
ν
τ
ω

ˇ






ˇ

茳 φ“~ol/rcs 砒e/t,9autu幽 0rJlⅡ εv屁 o


ο
τ

ν

cr召 馋 召
枷弘
ˇ

ˇ




ˇ

ˇ

ο
ν

(3)A paruciple,when used wi1bou1an Elr1icle nnd in

114
are
The presen七 and fu1ure It° 1ive par1i。 ipleg o£ π色
ill丑 ected like苗 v wi乇 h1he色 ooen1°
n πr9V-0rπ 口vσ -,
g谳
犭ω
eXˉ 翮 煳 聊 轴雾
骂腕腓
器狞 抚 糨 桄 £扰 %「 嘿 △胝 骡 :
嬲 滥嬲 饣
货嬲 饣
另圪镞 :脚m漉 r
nc畿
Ⅱ7。 TeIlges of th° Po甘Ⅱ 【 ate1imo as
。u1en1ire1he in且 ec1ion o£ π舀uOJ,,π 0Jσ @9,,λ ‘
π?v。 e ugually indl°
51‘ ,曰 )・ etr1o1ha1。 f tbe main verb:
″eJ口 诊
Compare witll paradigms(§
φ ‘白 oy δ心 阢 伍 ‘ 咖 IJe`召 εI:9乃 ec'猢 阝 丿
1Theognls,1】 35
φ uy洳 乩 田 溺 吧
叩 v/⒎
纟d/te crosJ纟 s,
64 ^cv钅
P扭 TI∞ △Es ss
1:J, FIngT At,RIgT AoTI叼 EP^RTIOIPLE Op π0‘ ω rB氵 。
P
,,rluCcs ,rGu,aV
T【 IWaWo9 ,rtIVσ 芑σ
″s tα VσαVTOs
tα u】 rα σ
LEssON XXI Tou,cCG'
'
PA△ uc=PLEs mIurcyrCC wItkr-m ,rCtKrtIwa
παVCarroV παvσ 犭FOy

渝 勘g’ t""
Tuit`o★ 冫‘(D t¤Vσα
σα1s 9rgζ σ0σ1(v)
:1∮

;;:;:‰ 嗍粉 :;fl;Ⅰ
-uCg yrog πGVσ atrrls πG偷 cvrG

黼 扫嚣i遴莎撕蹭箨鞲玎搬芈
Ⅱ6, Ⅱ臼 eg of Partk1p:es, Co)A particⅡ le,wh° nu⒃ d in
1ho at1ribu1ive Pogition(§ 81,舀 ),h西 θ1he for° °of an a1trib- 冫

uti∞ 凸d吁 ec1iv° ・ Thig k oaⅡ ed the沅 弼 J9。 砌 ep¢ 磁 吻 讫 :
in1he plural,where i1add8ˉ o1o1he stem, Tlle feminine s犰卿 畋 岬 crpcT‘ 函吓 姒 Phm幽 汀η夕咖 .

ig inflected like苈 u口 舀
tI(§ 81)・


T甯 饣髁品品芳找J⒎ 袋挠糕严嘿




ˇ
瀛沏ˇ
ˇ

△E OF‘ 1ut r田 叨
ο
ν

PI1E8ENT P^RTIcII’
ν
ω

h tho regular equivalon1of1he Englhh乃 e叻无口,厶 丙o。 e叨 而口J

ˇ

ο
ν
τ
ω

ˇ






ˇ

茳 φ“~ol/rcs 砒e/t,9autu幽 0rJlⅡ εv屁 o


ο
τ

ν

cr召 馋 召
枷弘
ˇ

ˇ




ˇ

ˇ

ο
ν

(3)A paruciple,when used wi1bou1an Elr1icle nnd in

114
are
The presen七 and fu1ure It° 1ive par1i。 ipleg o£ π色
ill丑 ected like苗 v wi乇 h1he色 ooen1°
n πr9V-0rπ 口vσ -,
g谳
犭ω
eXˉ 翮 煳 聊 轴雾
骂腕腓
器狞 抚 糨 桄 £扰 %「 嘿 △胝 骡 :
嬲 滥嬲 饣
货嬲 饣
另圪镞 :脚m漉 r
nc畿
Ⅱ7。 TeIlges of th° Po甘Ⅱ 【 ate1imo as
。u1en1ire1he in且 ec1ion o£ π舀uOJ,,π 0Jσ @9,,λ ‘
π?v。 e ugually indl°
51‘ ,曰 )・ etr1o1ha1。 f tbe main verb:
″eJ口 诊
Compare witll paradigms(§
φ ‘白 oy δ心 阢 伍 ‘ 咖 IJe`召 εI:9乃 ec'猢 阝 丿
1Theognls,1】 35
φ uy洳 乩 田 溺 吧
叩 v/⒎
纟d/te crosJ纟 s,
64 ^cv钅
AN INTRODUCTIoN Ipo oREF,Κ PAR・ rIcIPLEs

犭vTtI。 , 8。 oz,Tttq品 v Gˉ 0品 犭 λ t,cv溺 Ttl泌 δ1~cpπ 犭 rctv


VO0Δ BV△ ARY 钗 γ ρ犭肛
t氵 v光 击 P讠 v・ 4, 犭 δ仑 卩 @σ 亻λcJ舀 zp犭 u函 t色 π @p-cε
zc tΦ K勋 P
π∝″CVω , ω, ε
π‘
λπ次, ˉ
ε 窃os,叩 : 乃 ol,e,ε Jr/ecza‘ 切n t1σ t‘ Vσ JT‘ vcl△ :

π ‘σ t澎 。vσ 色 t0^ t0Jtov TPJπ °氵s 5. ″画冫 toλ φ t,γ Jσ ‘v


κ ω,Kω λ6σ ω,ε κ击jVtcd;Pr召 veη t
ωλ舌 trus`,wi1hD
KOLYNOg rPz;rω ,rp芒 ψω,:rp〔 Wa:flfr9t Jλ π涤 淫σt氵 v
6 to泌 δ忿 σt卩 画t‘ 苗t历 9 :钅 ‘λεvε v ta δπλ¢


XCJ・ 猛 βov; ‘
卩。vo, 谙 α沦e, r召c犭 re tρ oTOs, 【lv, δ∶‘
tJ'll, 乙nJ,” ″臼
召 n- λ¢弘 vtrJ。 πtIρ ˉ 7, t0φ c勾 °vt〃 dv° /tJ Jσ t氵 φvγ J9
Cε 。‘・I’

BYLLΛ BLE (Fu1ure,page18⒎ ) m召 r,C,Itlrac`召


' TROPI0 8.aγ 。矿 vδ 它πt:Pˉ 句 @v氵 uaq av,趴 。吟 c功 c9・
。yoJ△ c,乜 tos,t0:nα 氵
氵:召 φ η 滋 s, 氵 况 s,δ
: e=lJP,/u夕 订Ⅱ匕

Cf・ 蛳 ・ 【b)Complete:
0,唧滋唧渺:/lj卜 Ila,adv:铘 ,钳
v∮ cuγ _a`c哓 。v δ _.
t/,ttJIe".
,roρ 叙ω,「 rl″ 诺
o,s,Cl●
1.。 J δuor~a庇 tδ rtδ σt。 δ

n沁 无,cΩ lls召 ,
2 Tp‘ Ψt9-。 sv t沁 π。λcu汔 vs σπc犭 σctc FPδ q t~ˉ 既 λt,tt~
8, to^ u公 v uc'— ˉ π‘
σtε 衫
σ。ucI’ ・

toε ,δ 忿芒
雪~cλ 己vv-ˉ o犭 4 o氵 toq
γ加 λ叫卜-诧 %ρ 叼驷 一 犭印 o氵 σc
σ^P色 ^u曰 v.

120 厶lrIt^】 oIoIt C厶 uoⅡ T



opoI,T泌 drⅡ 泊bl/Nc浼‘ K卸 ⒐
o防 Ⅱ K卸 pc品 ‘v(r° JJ)洳 氵(漉 诩 )
cJ¢ 山0况 向 (腕otrJJ`vε )σ rPr,
Gs・ r色 TrI彳 JvⅡ av(忉 。∝汩 sJ。
t9/)
"洳
rtl泌 πoλ ε vq tω s7氵 vx卸 厉
u‘ 。 v
r南 vtⅡ (3够 明Ω 〃
17) 币 δ它 K咖 p
ar。 。
σt9v“ (° ° !npare AoousⅡ I0)
t口 衍 色 oδ ‘
f^‘ “
【9e口 吻 召J)钅 。λ沆 c‰ 劬 ,
rt,) 启r舀 λcvσcv 己氵 tδ v λ‘
石 卩‘ 。vc‘ v ToRcHEs FRoM E△ EusIs
σtP色 t1凼 tJt Jy9o卩 Jvt巴 `乃qv° 卩0 Much of the ntuaI was pe⒈
formed by t° rchl,ght
cg9 rIvtP εaI/g冖 °氵 9 σtρ 口Tjotas
The εleus!nian Mysteries,unlike the ordinary GreCk relig】 on.gave hope 氵J9rtmo,t氵 v πaPa FccJ,L芘 (屁 昭 )&氵 犭εⅡ 0彡 ⒄ 饬JJ
onρ 伽
of a了 ea11ife afler dealh Clcero was initiated into these MysterIes m彤 )戋 @v σ印 。T油 tcq.m侨 刀v t氵 v挢 tcToλ 氵vδ 6ω cu
119 EX9Rα sEs o纟 ct0(c【lmpare πtcTcoΦ
″etI)π 。 )aV即 凼π⒐ 由9咖 v
(无 纟氵乃∞够 无诊
'氵 ) 。δ忿λ。/3它 ov K卸 ρ δ‘
δωσ‘
v.
((・ )9)Tran:1a1e:
Adap1ed fr° m XeIlophon,`刀 α;夕 sIs,I 6,2-3.
1,λ ‘σ。vtcs δ忿 t氵 Vγ 邯 up¢ v πp犭 γu己 t色 π画ρˉ舀舀°ucv J钅 ε南留
t氵 σTp町 旧 ・ 2 Tt心 δ忿 π印 -dvroq a9r衔 crtFε v击 9φ 趴 ot,q
P⊥
AN INTRODUCTIoN Ipo oREF,Κ PAR・ rIcIPLEs

犭vTtI。 , 8。 oz,Tttq品 v Gˉ 0品 犭 λ t,cv溺 Ttl泌 δ1~cpπ 犭 rctv


VO0Δ BV△ ARY 钗 γ ρ犭肛
t氵 v光 击 P讠 v・ 4, 犭 δ仑 卩 @σ 亻λcJ舀 zp犭 u函 t色 π @p-cε
zc tΦ K勋 P
π∝″CVω , ω, ε
π‘
λπ次, ˉ
ε 窃os,叩 : 乃 ol,e,ε Jr/ecza‘ 切n t1σ t‘ Vσ JT‘ vcl△ :

π ‘σ t澎 。vσ 色 t0^ t0Jtov TPJπ °氵s 5. ″画冫 toλ φ t,γ Jσ ‘v


κ ω,Kω λ6σ ω,ε κ击jVtcd;Pr召 veη t
ωλ舌 trus`,wi1hD
KOLYNOg rPz;rω ,rp芒 ψω,:rp〔 Wa:flfr9t Jλ π涤 淫σt氵 v
6 to泌 δ忿 σt卩 画t‘ 苗t历 9 :钅 ‘λεvε v ta δπλ¢


XCJ・ 猛 βov; ‘
卩。vo, 谙 α沦e, r召c犭 re tρ oTOs, 【lv, δ∶‘
tJ'll, 乙nJ,” ″臼
召 n- λ¢弘 vtrJ。 πtIρ ˉ 7, t0φ c勾 °vt〃 dv° /tJ Jσ t氵 φvγ J9
Cε 。‘・I’

BYLLΛ BLE (Fu1ure,page18⒎ ) m召 r,C,Itlrac`召


' TROPI0 8.aγ 。矿 vδ 它πt:Pˉ 句 @v氵 uaq av,趴 。吟 c功 c9・
。yoJ△ c,乜 tos,t0:nα 氵
氵:召 φ η 滋 s, 氵 况 s,δ
: e=lJP,/u夕 订Ⅱ匕

Cf・ 蛳 ・ 【b)Complete:
0,唧滋唧渺:/lj卜 Ila,adv:铘 ,钳
v∮ cuγ _a`c哓 。v δ _.
t/,ttJIe".
,roρ 叙ω,「 rl″ 诺
o,s,Cl●
1.。 J δuor~a庇 tδ rtδ σt。 δ

n沁 无,cΩ lls召 ,
2 Tp‘ Ψt9-。 sv t沁 π。λcu汔 vs σπc犭 σctc FPδ q t~ˉ 既 λt,tt~
8, to^ u公 v uc'— ˉ π‘
σtε 衫
σ。ucI’ ・

toε ,δ 忿芒
雪~cλ 己vv-ˉ o犭 4 o氵 toq
γ加 λ叫卜-诧 %ρ 叼驷 一 犭印 o氵 σc
σ^P色 ^u曰 v.

120 厶lrIt^】 oIoIt C厶 uoⅡ T



opoI,T泌 drⅡ 泊bl/Nc浼‘ K卸 ⒐
o防 Ⅱ K卸 pc品 ‘v(r° JJ)洳 氵(漉 诩 )
cJ¢ 山0况 向 (腕otrJJ`vε )σ rPr,
Gs・ r色 TrI彳 JvⅡ av(忉 。∝汩 sJ。
t9/)
"洳
rtl泌 πoλ ε vq tω s7氵 vx卸 厉
u‘ 。 v
r南 vtⅡ (3够 明Ω 〃
17) 币 δ它 K咖 p
ar。 。
σt9v“ (° ° !npare AoousⅡ I0)
t口 衍 色 oδ ‘
f^‘ “
【9e口 吻 召J)钅 。λ沆 c‰ 劬 ,
rt,) 启r舀 λcvσcv 己氵 tδ v λ‘
石 卩‘ 。vc‘ v ToRcHEs FRoM E△ EusIs
σtP色 t1凼 tJt Jy9o卩 Jvt巴 `乃qv° 卩0 Much of the ntuaI was pe⒈
formed by t° rchl,ght
cg9 rIvtP εaI/g冖 °氵 9 σtρ 口Tjotas
The εleus!nian Mysteries,unlike the ordinary GreCk relig】 on.gave hope 氵J9rtmo,t氵 v πaPa FccJ,L芘 (屁 昭 )&氵 犭εⅡ 0彡 ⒄ 饬JJ
onρ 伽
of a了 ea11ife afler dealh Clcero was initiated into these MysterIes m彤 )戋 @v σ印 。T油 tcq.m侨 刀v t氵 v挢 tcToλ 氵vδ 6ω cu
119 EX9Rα sEs o纟 ct0(c【lmpare πtcTcoΦ
″etI)π 。 )aV即 凼π⒐ 由9咖 v
(无 纟氵乃∞够 无诊
'氵 ) 。δ忿λ。/3它 ov K卸 ρ δ‘
δωσ‘
v.
((・ )9)Tran:1a1e:
Adap1ed fr° m XeIlophon,`刀 α;夕 sIs,I 6,2-3.
1,λ ‘σ。vtcs δ忿 t氵 Vγ 邯 up¢ v πp犭 γu己 t色 π画ρˉ舀舀°ucv J钅 ε南留
t氵 σTp町 旧 ・ 2 Tt心 δ忿 π印 -dvroq a9r衔 crtFε v击 9φ 趴 ot,q
P⊥
π¢ . READING 69
23.
】 9xDRcIszs

LEssoN XXII
钔杌 揩 Ι
:b品 器:∵ 耳
e∶



)∶

πog. BEAD=W0 :
wa七er

记 vtω v xp,JIcro,,阝 ffpov αyep~l,s~z’fCn话 汤e mecs″ 旷 c〃 :汛杭 少 J (bl WrIte h Greek:

121. In△ eC犭 bn of πes. πas hag tlle game endingg as


π@衫 σ¢s, Tho goni1ivo and dtl1ivo plural o£ 1he rnagoulino
and neuter viola1e the rule for aooon1of monosyllables of
1he congonan1doolenson(§ IO2)・ Tho acce且 1of the
瓣鞣 黼
Ⅱeg do n° 11rug1thoso w△ o are r⒐
ma】 nlng here, 4 siIlce we are
eminine is regd色
£ r,
hopefu1oGv,nσ 无 ・

。pe)we hteⅡ d
π‘s 纟V纟 to Ⅱagterl to the camP, 丿
,@JJ .

'〃 ,′
硫v 记 yrcs 扁钪 1 韬 yTc 12‘ 。 VocABtrL‘ R:
9rayros t缶 ∮ ,,lI叨缶 讪防 o】, t勋 面 t枷 诩
饨vtF s
taσ 1(o 7芑σα‘ πaα (v) ‘
i;rα , adv,: `乃 召
n,nc=`
π色Vt1 πασ″

弼谗嘁:糍嬲
磁唰 栊 cay TCI’ ,rCFCs tGCGs T0-

122, 【Ises of"泌 , (勿 )π 铋,wh。 n modⅡ ”ng a noun,


ugually has the pred妃 色
te posiJon(§ 81,δ )and meang 吧 v加 栳 丿
1⒒
△ 尼 孓∷ 1羔 :1忠 ℃ J昭 吼 黯 舄 i亠 m⒈

枷 础 搿}焦:冫 骷 器a蠲
JJ f
taσu‘ dδ 抚亻 α″漉e ro记 s丿
饣 碍δ战囟 ¤zl汤 c rotId。
"跏
(3) πaq in 1ho a11ribu1ivθ posi1ion (§ 81, 口) meang
无彡 叨几o扬
诊 (饣 无e¢ 勿历 臼吻″勿3@'or ttm例 ”仍诊):
'¢

仔 taσ α ♂δ犭s汤 εtu尼 ° r0口 吨 疏″ m汾召r0臼 d


`召

(口 )π aq wi七 hou1a【 l ar住 de meang@:J(conceivable)or


彡Ve'。

'J ta田 I&、 亻 口 JJ r【 ,cdJ丿

πGσ G δ
δ尔 eve叼 ro斌`

!PJOhgorag. IJ△ Ⅲe8Russoll L。


weⅡ ,彳 ddrecs o,l Boo△ l9c,ttI乃 犭
0,c冖 cs
08
π¢ . READING 69
23.
】 9xDRcIszs

LEssoN XXII
钔杌 揩 Ι
:b品 器:∵ 耳
e∶



)∶

πog. BEAD=W0 :
wa七er

记 vtω v xp,JIcro,,阝 ffpov αyep~l,s~z’fCn话 汤e mecs″ 旷 c〃 :汛杭 少 J (bl WrIte h Greek:

121. In△ eC犭 bn of πes. πas hag tlle game endingg as


π@衫 σ¢s, Tho goni1ivo and dtl1ivo plural o£ 1he rnagoulino
and neuter viola1e the rule for aooon1of monosyllables of
1he congonan1doolenson(§ IO2)・ Tho acce且 1of the
瓣鞣 黼
Ⅱeg do n° 11rug1thoso w△ o are r⒐
ma】 nlng here, 4 siIlce we are
eminine is regd色
£ r,
hopefu1oGv,nσ 无 ・

。pe)we hteⅡ d
π‘s 纟V纟 to Ⅱagterl to the camP, 丿
,@JJ .

'〃 ,′
硫v 记 yrcs 扁钪 1 韬 yTc 12‘ 。 VocABtrL‘ R:
9rayros t缶 ∮ ,,lI叨缶 讪防 o】, t勋 面 t枷 诩
饨vtF s
taσ 1(o 7芑σα‘ πaα (v) ‘
i;rα , adv,: `乃 召
n,nc=`
π色Vt1 πασ″

弼谗嘁:糍嬲
磁唰 栊 cay TCI’ ,rCFCs tGCGs T0-

122, 【Ises of"泌 , (勿 )π 铋,wh。 n modⅡ ”ng a noun,


ugually has the pred妃 色
te posiJon(§ 81,δ )and meang 吧 v加 栳 丿
1⒒
△ 尼 孓∷ 1羔 :1忠 ℃ J昭 吼 黯 舄 i亠 m⒈

枷 础 搿}焦:冫 骷 器a蠲
JJ f
taσu‘ dδ 抚亻 α″漉e ro记 s丿
饣 碍δ战囟 ¤zl汤 c rotId。
"跏
(3) πaq in 1ho a11ribu1ivθ posi1ion (§ 81, 口) meang
无彡 叨几o扬
诊 (饣 无e¢ 勿历 臼吻″勿3@'or ttm例 ”仍诊):
'¢

仔 taσ α ♂δ犭s汤 εtu尼 ° r0口 吨 疏″ m汾召r0臼 d


`召

(口 )π aq wi七 hou1a【 l ar住 de meang@:J(conceivable)or


彡Ve'。

'J ta田 I&、 亻 口 JJ r【 ,cdJ丿

πGσ G δ
δ尔 eve叼 ro斌`

!PJOhgorag. IJ△ Ⅲe8Russoll L。


weⅡ ,彳 ddrecs o,l Boo△ l9c,ttI乃 犭
0,c冖 cs
08
70 AN IN|pRODuCtrIoN 忄o GREEK

126。 9 REVIEW OI。 厶Ⅲ


IrⅡ 】 ARm!
LEssoN XXIII
C0lIIⅡ厶Cr V口aBs Iw ~‘ 。

φ汰 :δ 、 tf κ卸 vOI,r1σ ucTc论 己 V徒 女 ,-Co″ 屁召JP,s Jtz,。 Itlho/tcJPs枥 松 ¢


l


留 CoiltraCt Verbs。 (o Two gu∞ ossiVo vowelg are
rogularly oontrEl。 1ed in乇 o ono long vowol or diphth° ng:
‘+ω =ω ;∈ +° or0V=0v;‘ +‘ =Ct.
c is钆 lways absorbed by a vowel or diph1hong。
〈3)If1坐 9rgt of0hρ 。 on1racting sy11油 les k accented, |・
e reglllt巳 n1叮 llable re∞ l△・
eg a oroum丑 ex:
ta。 σ仰 vaq私 ov Adap1ed£ 少 |、

roln Xenophon,⒕ no3已 sis,I2IO18 扒 南


∮ , φIXa
〕 卩 击 ℃
In o1her tenBe81h匕 n1be pregen1 1ho丑 nal‘ of七 ho stem
∶ ;扌 秽
留:呷嚅扌Ⅰ ;ξ 笨:盅瑟茁 ;frlf摭 沙 :l:11∶ ig regdarly leng1bened to η :

"钭 饣n`
φ趴细, φtX和 ω, 眉
φ趴9trlI
紧 “ cIlIllpotlnd Womg dtett IIll ms0e几
PREgDNT I.NDIcATIVE A0TIvE° 「 φ1λ 送ω rJ。 v@
(φ 1λζω) φ‘λ° (φ 。ˉ
0ˉ u‘ v)
1λ φuλ 。ou〔 v
(φ ‘
λ诌 ˉ
c‘ s) φ1λ ds (φ 。:tcl
1入 φ认‘ :tc
(φ ‘
λ。c◆ φ1λ (c (φ 1λ 。ˉ
ovσ ◇ φtX。 。 σ1(→
IMPERrEoT【 If Dェ cATIVu AcTIvn OF φ 1λ ‘Φ
(dφ Jλ ←°
ˉyl e∮ 趴ol,v (:,1λ 。。ˉ ucO 苫φR° 。llfv
(ε ,rλ c~:θ 逞φ趴(ts (ε φ1λ 苫fˉ tc, ~扌 φ趴。 tε

(氵 φ亻 λcˉ θ εφ趴(1 (宫 φrλ c。 y, :∮ 趴ouI/


PREgΙ刀ΠT krINITIVE ACTIvE (φ ‘λ。-c‘ v) φ讠、(ev
PREsE,TP^RTェ oIPLn AoTlvII
\ (φ

1λ 。-ω
‘ )
λζovσ α
o φtX8v
φ讠、°。“

λ。-oD 。
φ1λ °v
In like manller inn° ct 拓芒
α ω (φ
:刀 △⒑byIus,fragmont hteraⅡ y:Cod zov召 召犭o asl】 lB氵 zCGlo%fJv tnC"哂 乃
A PRNAmENAlc AitPHoRA Io^o too'栖
氵1
70 AN IN|pRODuCtrIoN 忄o GREEK

126。 9 REVIEW OI。 厶Ⅲ


IrⅡ 】 ARm!
LEssoN XXIII
C0lIIⅡ厶Cr V口aBs Iw ~‘ 。

φ汰 :δ 、 tf κ卸 vOI,r1σ ucTc论 己 V徒 女 ,-Co″ 屁召JP,s Jtz,。 Itlho/tcJPs枥 松 ¢


l


留 CoiltraCt Verbs。 (o Two gu∞ ossiVo vowelg are
rogularly oontrEl。 1ed in乇 o ono long vowol or diphth° ng:
‘+ω =ω ;∈ +° or0V=0v;‘ +‘ =Ct.
c is钆 lways absorbed by a vowel or diph1hong。
〈3)If1坐 9rgt of0hρ 。 on1racting sy11油 les k accented, |・
e reglllt巳 n1叮 llable re∞ l△・
eg a oroum丑 ex:
ta。 σ仰 vaq私 ov Adap1ed£ 少 |、

roln Xenophon,⒕ no3已 sis,I2IO18 扒 南


∮ , φIXa
〕 卩 击 ℃
In o1her tenBe81h匕 n1be pregen1 1ho丑 nal‘ of七 ho stem
∶ ;扌 秽
留:呷嚅扌Ⅰ ;ξ 笨:盅瑟茁 ;frlf摭 沙 :l:11∶ ig regdarly leng1bened to η :

"钭 饣n`
φ趴细, φtX和 ω, 眉
φ趴9trlI
紧 “ cIlIllpotlnd Womg dtett IIll ms0e几
PREgDNT I.NDIcATIVE A0TIvE° 「 φ1λ 送ω rJ。 v@
(φ 1λζω) φ‘λ° (φ 。ˉ
0ˉ u‘ v)
1λ φuλ 。ou〔 v
(φ ‘
λ诌 ˉ
c‘ s) φ1λ ds (φ 。:tcl
1入 φ认‘ :tc
(φ ‘
λ。c◆ φ1λ (c (φ 1λ 。ˉ
ovσ ◇ φtX。 。 σ1(→
IMPERrEoT【 If Dェ cATIVu AcTIvn OF φ 1λ ‘Φ
(dφ Jλ ←°
ˉyl e∮ 趴ol,v (:,1λ 。。ˉ ucO 苫φR° 。llfv
(ε ,rλ c~:θ 逞φ趴(ts (ε φ1λ 苫fˉ tc, ~扌 φ趴。 tε

(氵 φ亻 λcˉ θ εφ趴(1 (宫 φrλ c。 y, :∮ 趴ouI/


PREgΙ刀ΠT krINITIVE ACTIvE (φ ‘λ。-c‘ v) φ讠、(ev
PREsE,TP^RTェ oIPLn AoTlvII
\ (φ

1λ 。-ω
‘ )
λζovσ α
o φtX8v
φ讠、°。“

λ。-oD 。
φ1λ °v
In like manller inn° ct 拓芒
α ω (φ
:刀 △⒑byIus,fragmont hteraⅡ y:Cod zov召 召犭o asl】 lB氵 zCGlo%fJv tnC"哂 乃
A PRNAmENAlc AitPHoRA Io^o too'栖
氵1
72 AN INTRODUCq・ IoN TO GREEK Ct,NTRACT VERBs IN-扬 zs

7e Absolu饴 .√ noun∝
阴.Cen△庄 prmoun h硗 o 。 q dδ Jrc‘
roλ fT口 氵 δδc π°λc/cε v。 4。 πJvt@v ta t,刂 ;lΓ a
o‘ vToV0q nv cF,妨 v枋 v@ρ

瑕搬碟蹒l襻嬲 鸾
胖弪
口 J″ 焱 5, v


9ro‘ c氵 . 99/I氵

'沂
;钣
枨 。

〃挺盎a孑彐
轷镪扌
“ ρ⑾ “ENcoc冂 ,vT【 ls祸 rIt渐 响 【
砒灯
rG,,v无 ⒄ ‘犭vr饧 s old¢ d,l/tc夕 拥 d
'召
Iρ 觯 黼。

@)Completθ :

roi・ roy9rp灬哪 ⒋ ,rapˉ fXowov σTC偷


o/Ic9. PF′ hε y clIus"r0切 δJ纟 ,叼 纟

9JttIJJ Jt咖 饣
召,l丿
1・
φJλ —σ。 。氵诧v 诤
卩 tIσ众 cjt, o劫 “ 犭’晶cv
v
袖 〃 亻Ⅱ山λ。κωv⒊ ωκ‘vtoi/邯 vγ ‘ v讠 漉 屁c夕 vGrdε Pu`s¢ 饣m咿 ,乃 召搀 盂
c9~δ ‘
r . 2。 t° vtov

12θ ,
Vo0厶 BⅡ ▲Ry I・
rtIλ cσ tⅡ o亠 - o¨ tλ ho氵
1“勹
氵、 t汛 ˉ:¢ JJJ,mc,,to 叼肛- dt犭 t9,, o加 彻
如,曲 嘭 trt,,,书 幻m:tmJture,
减 κ Ko△ 0色 ” o、

Vro仍 夕 CALⅢ ltI,^I1, 氵 t凼弛 o卜一


8.r。 : δ
o订 缅 泣 叫 σo,咖 叼 cG:cs饣 /o巧 TOJEQ,9rOI0CtO,启 了“ ″σ0:” ⒑ 抬e,do, 犭卩a。 av氵 ~⒊ 钅 q.
pOEt(to1η t自 :〉
dem臼 n饣
p㈨ 姐cle empha沏 ng ,谳 匀u犭 co,:r。 λou,CG:
Θ Wri1。 h Greok:
砝苕 ‰ 找 :∶ 忿 甘 ::∶ 首
1F斋 :l
肠,POs。po。 ・
t∶
,roNcJI钇
s° ° 洫 乩m∞ ∞m屺 宛

precedlIlg wOrd:,lo,,,氵 汛召l,n⒍ m仞叻 ttitI∴ C£ tω 【Ilos. 狈)叫 Il’

co们 犭飞 mdeε d, 乱c, o£ 1en


gz〃 , 讠 φtX舀ω, φ趴犭σω, 逞 φ趴”cg: ′ α,已 四⒊丿℃昱胥£∵ P1f甘 浦
untraIlslotet1. C£ ・◆0os tho chJdreI【 wanted@由 泐Θ 1o rlde to thelr frIend矿 tentg.
乩,δ 萜ω, 论of。 : ‘
扬κ ee,,t,Bε e私 δδ 屁vs, tIs/oJJovs・ Cf,
c, adv,∶ 饣 3 Al【 ,llg tbe elI七 irθ Hol1Θ spollt 1here i8 n° 1 a bridge,
Ⅱ Wlth inJ as
0esJ,枷 ,lI, o孔 ° bst,
⒋ FIrgt(of alD tho Fom1” ers marched by,theⅡ th° o伍 ers
subjec1. Do¤ M厶 TIC
18】 , ,匝 ▲Ⅱ pRAII,T:
Ⅱ【
口X卫 ItCIsi9s
180。
v卩 。饣丫c‘ Jv ju”
Π J炙 v lo・ 乃@饧 口ε)π 焱 印 °‘ 钅沆 π招 ε ;oJr
1)TraIlslate: ` dvtc龆 c巧 如 tav氵 况 vav(P扬 四砌 ″ o,uav・ ;dm矽 咖 ‘εTc
°
蓝i茹 氵
(‘

〈Jε 砌 叼)″ 砣 °JF句 ‘σ c・ ・ ・ u钅 烀 σ炙 @o%£ 汹 θ rtI)π 毗 ←


'・

讠哩
搦筠货 号
饣 :沪 f匕
j∶
f・ ⒊l砦抵 卩饣 浪
@JT钅
.。 。
σ炙

(=。
口沁 caTc钅
泞苟
Tc)
Ω)。 氵λ舀uβ蕊I,cTe,δ 泌Ⅱ (a纟 四 幽 )钅 ¢ra心 2
s1 Jameg,d、 1~q,
I The pr° sont and fnt△ r° o£ vQtb Ilro ldθ ntiCBl in form

DBtiVo of▲ 8ooch0on6
1DI10Vo of AmoclBuon6DBF,l 2AdVorb

&t・ 、“

5v严 +n^7
72 AN INTRODUCq・ IoN TO GREEK Ct,NTRACT VERBs IN-扬 zs

7e Absolu饴 .√ noun∝
阴.Cen△庄 prmoun h硗 o 。 q dδ Jrc‘
roλ fT口 氵 δδc π°λc/cε v。 4。 πJvt@v ta t,刂 ;lΓ a
o‘ vToV0q nv cF,妨 v枋 v@ρ

瑕搬碟蹒l襻嬲 鸾
胖弪
口 J″ 焱 5, v


9ro‘ c氵 . 99/I氵

'沂
;钣
枨 。

〃挺盎a孑彐
轷镪扌
“ ρ⑾ “ENcoc冂 ,vT【 ls祸 rIt渐 响 【
砒灯
rG,,v无 ⒄ ‘犭vr饧 s old¢ d,l/tc夕 拥 d
'召
Iρ 觯 黼。

@)Completθ :

roi・ roy9rp灬哪 ⒋ ,rapˉ fXowov σTC偷


o/Ic9. PF′ hε y clIus"r0切 δJ纟 ,叼 纟

9JttIJJ Jt咖 饣
召,l丿
1・
φJλ —σ。 。氵诧v 诤
卩 tIσ众 cjt, o劫 “ 犭’晶cv
v
袖 〃 亻Ⅱ山λ。κωv⒊ ωκ‘vtoi/邯 vγ ‘ v讠 漉 屁c夕 vGrdε Pu`s¢ 饣m咿 ,乃 召搀 盂
c9~δ ‘
r . 2。 t° vtov

12θ ,
Vo0厶 BⅡ ▲Ry I・
rtIλ cσ tⅡ o亠 - o¨ tλ ho氵
1“勹
氵、 t汛 ˉ:¢ JJJ,mc,,to 叼肛- dt犭 t9,, o加 彻
如,曲 嘭 trt,,,书 幻m:tmJture,
减 κ Ko△ 0色 ” o、

Vro仍 夕 CALⅢ ltI,^I1, 氵 t凼弛 o卜一


8.r。 : δ
o订 缅 泣 叫 σo,咖 叼 cG:cs饣 /o巧 TOJEQ,9rOI0CtO,启 了“ ″σ0:” ⒑ 抬e,do, 犭卩a。 av氵 ~⒊ 钅 q.
pOEt(to1η t自 :〉
dem臼 n饣
p㈨ 姐cle empha沏 ng ,谳 匀u犭 co,:r。 λou,CG:
Θ Wri1。 h Greok:
砝苕 ‰ 找 :∶ 忿 甘 ::∶ 首
1F斋 :l
肠,POs。po。 ・
t∶
,roNcJI钇
s° ° 洫 乩m∞ ∞m屺 宛

precedlIlg wOrd:,lo,,,氵 汛召l,n⒍ m仞叻 ttitI∴ C£ tω 【Ilos. 狈)叫 Il’

co们 犭飞 mdeε d, 乱c, o£ 1en


gz〃 , 讠 φtX舀ω, φ趴犭σω, 逞 φ趴”cg: ′ α,已 四⒊丿℃昱胥£∵ P1f甘 浦
untraIlslotet1. C£ ・◆0os tho chJdreI【 wanted@由 泐Θ 1o rlde to thelr frIend矿 tentg.
乩,δ 萜ω, 论of。 : ‘
扬κ ee,,t,Bε e私 δδ 屁vs, tIs/oJJovs・ Cf,
c, adv,∶ 饣 3 Al【 ,llg tbe elI七 irθ Hol1Θ spollt 1here i8 n° 1 a bridge,
Ⅱ Wlth inJ as
0esJ,枷 ,lI, o孔 ° bst,
⒋ FIrgt(of alD tho Fom1” ers marched by,theⅡ th° o伍 ers
subjec1. Do¤ M厶 TIC
18】 , ,匝 ▲Ⅱ pRAII,T:
Ⅱ【
口X卫 ItCIsi9s
180。
v卩 。饣丫c‘ Jv ju”
Π J炙 v lo・ 乃@饧 口ε)π 焱 印 °‘ 钅沆 π招 ε ;oJr
1)TraIlslate: ` dvtc龆 c巧 如 tav氵 况 vav(P扬 四砌 ″ o,uav・ ;dm矽 咖 ‘εTc
°
蓝i茹 氵
(‘

〈Jε 砌 叼)″ 砣 °JF句 ‘σ c・ ・ ・ u钅 烀 σ炙 @o%£ 汹 θ rtI)π 毗 ←


'・

讠哩
搦筠货 号
饣 :沪 f匕
j∶
f・ ⒊l砦抵 卩饣 浪
@JT钅
.。 。
σ炙

(=。
口沁 caTc钅
泞苟
Tc)
Ω)。 氵λ舀uβ蕊I,cTe,δ 泌Ⅱ (a纟 四 幽 )钅 ¢ra心 2
s1 Jameg,d、 1~q,
I The pr° sont and fnt△ r° o£ vQtb Ilro ldθ ntiCBl in form

DBtiVo of▲ 8ooch0on6
1DI10Vo of AmoclBuon6DBF,l 2AdVorb

&t・ 、“

5v严 +n^7
⒎ ΔN INTRODUoTIoN lro oRaEK

LEssoN XXIV
PBEsEuT AWD moPEBrEcT mDェ ˇ‘, PBEsⅡ 日盯9
σΔ Ⅰ 9・

lID PABT】 CIpm oF πo白 。 Ⅲ


=lrmmwE,厶
mInDLE▲ lID P厶 8sm VOIcE

d湄 γ呷 y沉 δ茗矽献 u叙硼 吧 一 肠 ‘ev¢ m卿 凼 匆 ″ 印 Ω祝 s`馏 ce$〃 l

188, passive Voioe Like English ana Latln, Greek


h孔 saP¢ 8函 ve Vooe, whioh shows the 8ubIeo1 巳s ¢ C‘ @J

%uP° 9a; παvo/tc1 z@祝 乃ε


而¢ ε 茁
`oPP召
】34 1Jidd1e Voice Greek algo has a 忉犭JJJ@ voioe,
s》 whi。 h shows tllat tlle subjoo1go oots巳 g吻 纟
}Ⅱ
无o勿 ro叨 勹c矽
溺 芒 樊 藕 煳 蹀 拶 谳 找 熟 凳桠 拶 擀 |

woodon image Bonoath 1he 。°rth p。 rCh are still shown ule marks of 尻枷沿e莎
PosoIdoIl’ s!ridont rs。 。th。 p!cturcs° 。page∞ 4and facing page!aα ) (@)Th° su丬 ect may ac1o%无 漉 8e圹
lga. word~formodOn。 Verb$£ ormed by adaiⅡ g to,to TG△ ,oJtnt ′cⅡ opP氵 ″
V"少 eJ/,/“ m wlJJ,Pz叼 CIltra.,sltlve,.
J氵

nt,un(or a内 ∞Jvo)gtems de¤ ote ac廿 t,n of a nature茁 m⒈ (0Tbe sub刂 ect may Ilc1伽 or叨 仞%o@钔 e氵 枥 昭 厶凡口饣 Jε ˉ
1ar to that expregged by the uoun(or adjootlve【 ・ Thoy @几 扬 ,r,r in suc】 】a wa,ya出 o阝 口咖 ,劬 ″ ,α 0厶丙纟″・
Joj9,ε ε
uguauy denote a co勿 J犭 历o功 ° r an@c・t扔 刂
ε〃● 沥 :纟 q矽 %c・ t屁切叼龆 J/0r屁 :J砣 e~ε 氵Of
φ抵 s虍 emd,
讠 φIX乩 oe c虍 切nd,助 v饣 丿
9raρ
钬oJtn1 ′"″ ’
//l//r,r″ 9/s召 〃丿
π
“ONcJlos 钞口△ 械 c/t‘ %氵 m湘 召锣llr丿 oJtcI t();;s螂、vq r切
栩1KOs u町 vε
茄 osε 勿 乡 0v9l,乃 o,s岱
圮 Jc z刂 “s6do v'o凹
`, d&κ 135, PRE8ENT INI)IcΛ tIVE MIDDI,E^Ni,PAssIvE0F π ‘ iω
Thi臼 1ypo o£ vorb iθ 1o be £ound ohio丑 y iIl oollⅡ eotoll
吻喵′ˉ h¨
with wordg of the o~d° °lenθ ion,
箔 即h湍Ht肛 “′
鞯菡∷
‘ tα∮0vTGt
π‘V<彳 IlI :“

136. IMPEIiFECT INDIoAtIVE MIDDLn ^NI) PAθ gIvF, oF π 0‘ ω

婉 艹0uη v Ι
叼mt,犭 uθ ‘

C-t色 0ˉ 0¢ 0〉 ε「ll。。v 汤α fc JO(
婉 山 ¨ t~协 vro
PR曰 gEWT IⅡ IrIlIITIVE MIDD△ E ^ND PAgg!vE π恐廿 t cOut
ROjt m巳 ERzC-EuⅡ
^DerAI¨ fam° us for】 ts α qMlte wOrknanshlp,‘ oB PREgElI÷ rP^RTIcIpLE MIDI,△ 日 ▲WD P厶 sg〖 vE wItl。 u△ ’0s,n,0v
ThIs honeysuckle pattem,,ustly
oVerˉ r-trlng th。 m。 !n th。 decorBtIo】 of ule tempIo. 】s:monldes
76
⒎ ΔN INTRODUoTIoN lro oRaEK

LEssoN XXIV
PBEsEuT AWD moPEBrEcT mDェ ˇ‘, PBEsⅡ 日盯9
σΔ Ⅰ 9・

lID PABT】 CIpm oF πo白 。 Ⅲ


=lrmmwE,厶
mInDLE▲ lID P厶 8sm VOIcE

d湄 γ呷 y沉 δ茗矽献 u叙硼 吧 一 肠 ‘ev¢ m卿 凼 匆 ″ 印 Ω祝 s`馏 ce$〃 l

188, passive Voioe Like English ana Latln, Greek


h孔 saP¢ 8函 ve Vooe, whioh shows the 8ubIeo1 巳s ¢ C‘ @J

%uP° 9a; παvo/tc1 z@祝 乃ε


而¢ ε 茁
`oPP召
】34 1Jidd1e Voice Greek algo has a 忉犭JJJ@ voioe,
s》 whi。 h shows tllat tlle subjoo1go oots巳 g吻 纟
}Ⅱ
无o勿 ro叨 勹c矽
溺 芒 樊 藕 煳 蹀 拶 谳 找 熟 凳桠 拶 擀 |

woodon image Bonoath 1he 。°rth p。 rCh are still shown ule marks of 尻枷沿e莎
PosoIdoIl’ s!ridont rs。 。th。 p!cturcs° 。page∞ 4and facing page!aα ) (@)Th° su丬 ect may ac1o%无 漉 8e圹
lga. word~formodOn。 Verb$£ ormed by adaiⅡ g to,to TG△ ,oJtnt ′cⅡ opP氵 ″
V"少 eJ/,/“ m wlJJ,Pz叼 CIltra.,sltlve,.
J氵

nt,un(or a内 ∞Jvo)gtems de¤ ote ac廿 t,n of a nature茁 m⒈ (0Tbe sub刂 ect may Ilc1伽 or叨 仞%o@钔 e氵 枥 昭 厶凡口饣 Jε ˉ
1ar to that expregged by the uoun(or adjootlve【 ・ Thoy @几 扬 ,r,r in suc】 】a wa,ya出 o阝 口咖 ,劬 ″ ,α 0厶丙纟″・
Joj9,ε ε
uguauy denote a co勿 J犭 历o功 ° r an@c・t扔 刂
ε〃● 沥 :纟 q矽 %c・ t屁切叼龆 J/0r屁 :J砣 e~ε 氵Of
φ抵 s虍 emd,
讠 φIX乩 oe c虍 切nd,助 v饣 丿
9raρ
钬oJtn1 ′"″ ’
//l//r,r″ 9/s召 〃丿
π
“ONcJlos 钞口△ 械 c/t‘ %氵 m湘 召锣llr丿 oJtcI t();;s螂、vq r切
栩1KOs u町 vε
茄 osε 勿 乡 0v9l,乃 o,s岱
圮 Jc z刂 “s6do v'o凹
`, d&κ 135, PRE8ENT INI)IcΛ tIVE MIDDI,E^Ni,PAssIvE0F π ‘ iω
Thi臼 1ypo o£ vorb iθ 1o be £ound ohio丑 y iIl oollⅡ eotoll
吻喵′ˉ h¨
with wordg of the o~d° °lenθ ion,
箔 即h湍Ht肛 “′
鞯菡∷
‘ tα∮0vTGt
π‘V<彳 IlI :“

136. IMPEIiFECT INDIoAtIVE MIDDLn ^NI) PAθ gIvF, oF π 0‘ ω

婉 艹0uη v Ι
叼mt,犭 uθ ‘

C-t色 0ˉ 0¢ 0〉 ε「ll。。v 汤α fc JO(
婉 山 ¨ t~协 vro
PR曰 gEWT IⅡ IrIlIITIVE MIDD△ E ^ND PAgg!vE π恐廿 t cOut
ROjt m巳 ERzC-EuⅡ
^DerAI¨ fam° us for】 ts α qMlte wOrknanshlp,‘ oB PREgElI÷ rP^RTIcIpLE MIDI,△ 日 ▲WD P厶 sg〖 vE wItl。 u△ ’0s,n,0v
ThIs honeysuckle pattem,,ustly
oVerˉ r-trlng th。 m。 !n th。 decorBtIo】 of ule tempIo. 】s:monldes
76
76 AN INTRODUCTIoN qlo oR口 ηK MIDDLE AND PΔ ss1V四 0p9rtf犭 ω
u
】87。 Thore ig no diiForθ noe in appearanoθ be1wee【 l the
mⅡ dle and the pasgive iIl the preseIlt tlnd imperfeo1. A8 p° r伍 °
ng h hea玎 0pe tell咽 1o pe咱 o马
JI器 :⒊ 扣
F蛋 锶 骢 1搌 罩
拄 Ξ茫E&:谳 弑 sI‰ 叮 n茁 台冫
卩o伤 、c1 π肖
uπ o u‘ v 鞒钅σθ
‘ πoρcI,d uCθ 0
be1Ween two
of tho geoond person gingular drop8 ou七
φvλ Jtt° vσ 1 JIε t画 πcr/IFc Tct 和 %o,T。 1 抚凼钅Φ
vowe1g,whioh are1hen oon1r芭 o1od,
σv″ 卩°vλ 形 ‘1s Jx矽 o|。l J'町 o
妇 纹 c Tc
Tho presen1and iIIlperfeot middle alld PElggive have tho
gamo g1em ag the pregen1no1ivo.
勋 o9r″ 犰 1 犭豺 ILnv 姒 刁 ou c‰ ε To

some verbs havo formg on1y in J彳2fⅠ 岁


厶扌
pr。 bable meaIlhg o£ tbe m记 dle o£ 七
△ e FoIˉ
1sθ 。DeponeⅡ t Verbs。 th°
1hθ middle or pa8sive voioe but with ac1ive meaningg。 助 v汝 勋 ¢诫 苈π ω π¢ρ 铷 ⑾ uβ仓Vλ 浼 TP命 @
Thoy are oalled J叩 口%e勿 矽
ε:
(0Trandate: 冖
铷 胛 1 z力 fJo叨 丨
1.t龈 2诧 y挢
,

δ氵 姒 汐ovt° t多 πoPc幻 ・ 氵
t犭 acJ。 氵πδ |

In丑 oo1tlle pregen1 and imPor£ ec1indioa1ive, and givo 锚 v π opcuoF。 cI,ov口 刁
0o9fcr。 么 8。 炉 印u¤ T。 °氵v%oI,哈

卩o%u口 ‘
1he pregeIlt in£niJve a【 ld Par1icΦ le of π° . t° v
tδ v σε C9rI. 4,而 γaP t° aγ γ苫λ♀ 芭Γcr,cc弘 ;I
aγ 。P口 ζ。
5.ε 彳 o卩饣ta ηav溆 λoI,中 炉 σ矽口氵 . 6.uσ
`山
a t口 氵t。
】g9. GeIlhive σf ▲gent。 访 J and the geni1ive when oJ φ`o众
‘№ 氵 耐 Ⅱ c‰ o9/r。 2Ⅱ M阳 扌MucI,o・ 7.″ 南 灬
modifying a passive vorb indioate tbe四 乡侈 r of an
仍哆or J口 口 胛 臼teuπ ° vTc‘ Vπ δto0σ 口 ⒎ 拓 ov. 8・ aλ λ9。 氵卩。
犭λouo‘
ρ
aoton(oompare with the La1in曰 or汕 and the ablatim):I T【 |、 dJoovt° ε
φ‘ λo‘ : u姒 ec浼 ‘ ・ 9.ro岱 u兮 v oJv
d%吡 ETGI sπ δ 汕 r面 切 诂 犭e沅 乡 碥 饣″ d勿 几I9n π 防u由 幻。
c‘ q氵 δercf。 ,to泌 δ 忿u氵 4uσ tI π私″crrIJ,

臼)Co】 Ilplete:

tO。 VoC厶B,IjAR:
1. 耐 u2v命 印
眇 一 ″ 诧 t~如 xo刃 一 (⒍ngulaD,J拉
敌幻 呵 :扬 3trrtrcn叱 v饣 ″献 rrc TEflToJ△ 。
t:。e记 C/re△ :tJm
σ TP。 roπ 。δp. 2,币 t,Io一
轫 盱 丬 ″
Ⅱ 助 cc“ v△ 矽 ˉ
卩Ⅱ汆嘤 :f,缶 1,`召 叩召
好 犭
.

v峦 d钅 氵 口 ,eε ,,. 8. oJ π 。λ 扦 口氵 to℃ 卩 oxoucv-ˉ o,z9o町


缶oJ,nt:/oJJo叨 ,mth D, 9ropt衔 ,ˉ :丿Vttr:召 〃 °。
=s,氵
JpxoJlα ,扒 9ov Oc刂 ∴
):∞ me,乡 ⒍ uα :丿 ou'。 召
,rop“ ° 弘 mc'c乃
vπo,preP:wlth G” @)Wri七 o in Greek:
氵a。 rct,3ep氵 四 s召 饣 ⅡEDoNIβ T, rro叼 znrJ召 r,
忉 (乙 geⅡ 1);Wi1hD,tI⒑ ', 1. I£ i1did no1seem bOgt t° hav° it,we sL° uld n°七be
幻 励,夕 枥召 乙ct′ Je Cf,
‘【 )`四 1: 丿
‘ j、 rJ召 a旬 kˉ
lng£ or此 , 2.s血 ∞

F
`J1‘
udXq・ 乃召m饣 α
腕 (碗 th vorbg of9csl); 曲 er° wa8hope C几 eⅡ D咖 叼 无oPΘ ,曲 e
goneral wag making war on tho Thracians 8, The enemy

鸲辗硝 a瑙 mth A,,够 呛


岫 ′:J△ 卩
饣″ (wlth verb:o£


:1。

Ⅰ /-沙 I千 '^
:tCr矽 臼 ln0ho Illiddlo and p臼
in工 B侦 n)
铋 :vO IlleIlns o0e钞 and govornB0ho d巳 1ive(aQ

BI● or BugmeIl1,Beo pago⒛ ,noto1 3Pag° 7⒉ Ⅱoto⒉


】~ˇ hat uso8ot1hθ goui刂 ve△ ave you no甲 hBd? ‘§铋 ?】 a艹 泌ycv,is to bo8upp1】 od臼 nd ig c【 ndi11onal
76 AN INTRODUCTIoN qlo oR口 ηK MIDDLE AND PΔ ss1V四 0p9rtf犭 ω
u
】87。 Thore ig no diiForθ noe in appearanoθ be1wee【 l the
mⅡ dle and the pasgive iIl the preseIlt tlnd imperfeo1. A8 p° r伍 °
ng h hea玎 0pe tell咽 1o pe咱 o马
JI器 :⒊ 扣
F蛋 锶 骢 1搌 罩
拄 Ξ茫E&:谳 弑 sI‰ 叮 n茁 台冫
卩o伤 、c1 π肖
uπ o u‘ v 鞒钅σθ
‘ πoρcI,d uCθ 0
be1Ween two
of tho geoond person gingular drop8 ou七
φvλ Jtt° vσ 1 JIε t画 πcr/IFc Tct 和 %o,T。 1 抚凼钅Φ
vowe1g,whioh are1hen oon1r芭 o1od,
σv″ 卩°vλ 形 ‘1s Jx矽 o|。l J'町 o
妇 纹 c Tc
Tho presen1and iIIlperfeot middle alld PElggive have tho
gamo g1em ag the pregen1no1ivo.
勋 o9r″ 犰 1 犭豺 ILnv 姒 刁 ou c‰ ε To

some verbs havo formg on1y in J彳2fⅠ 岁


厶扌
pr。 bable meaIlhg o£ tbe m记 dle o£ 七
△ e FoIˉ
1sθ 。DeponeⅡ t Verbs。 th°
1hθ middle or pa8sive voioe but with ac1ive meaningg。 助 v汝 勋 ¢诫 苈π ω π¢ρ 铷 ⑾ uβ仓Vλ 浼 TP命 @
Thoy are oalled J叩 口%e勿 矽
ε:
(0Trandate: 冖
铷 胛 1 z力 fJo叨 丨
1.t龈 2诧 y挢
,

δ氵 姒 汐ovt° t多 πoPc幻 ・ 氵
t犭 acJ。 氵πδ |

In丑 oo1tlle pregen1 and imPor£ ec1indioa1ive, and givo 锚 v π opcuoF。 cI,ov口 刁
0o9fcr。 么 8。 炉 印u¤ T。 °氵v%oI,哈

卩o%u口 ‘
1he pregeIlt in£niJve a【 ld Par1icΦ le of π° . t° v
tδ v σε C9rI. 4,而 γaP t° aγ γ苫λ♀ 芭Γcr,cc弘 ;I
aγ 。P口 ζ。
5.ε 彳 o卩饣ta ηav溆 λoI,中 炉 σ矽口氵 . 6.uσ
`山
a t口 氵t。
】g9. GeIlhive σf ▲gent。 访 J and the geni1ive when oJ φ`o众
‘№ 氵 耐 Ⅱ c‰ o9/r。 2Ⅱ M阳 扌MucI,o・ 7.″ 南 灬
modifying a passive vorb indioate tbe四 乡侈 r of an
仍哆or J口 口 胛 臼teuπ ° vTc‘ Vπ δto0σ 口 ⒎ 拓 ov. 8・ aλ λ9。 氵卩。
犭λouo‘
ρ
aoton(oompare with the La1in曰 or汕 and the ablatim):I T【 |、 dJoovt° ε
φ‘ λo‘ : u姒 ec浼 ‘ ・ 9.ro岱 u兮 v oJv
d%吡 ETGI sπ δ 汕 r面 切 诂 犭e沅 乡 碥 饣″ d勿 几I9n π 防u由 幻。
c‘ q氵 δercf。 ,to泌 δ 忿u氵 4uσ tI π私″crrIJ,

臼)Co】 Ilplete:

tO。 VoC厶B,IjAR:
1. 耐 u2v命 印
眇 一 ″ 诧 t~如 xo刃 一 (⒍ngulaD,J拉
敌幻 呵 :扬 3trrtrcn叱 v饣 ″献 rrc TEflToJ△ 。
t:。e记 C/re△ :tJm
σ TP。 roπ 。δp. 2,币 t,Io一
轫 盱 丬 ″
Ⅱ 助 cc“ v△ 矽 ˉ
卩Ⅱ汆嘤 :f,缶 1,`召 叩召
好 犭
.

v峦 d钅 氵 口 ,eε ,,. 8. oJ π 。λ 扦 口氵 to℃ 卩 oxoucv-ˉ o,z9o町


缶oJ,nt:/oJJo叨 ,mth D, 9ropt衔 ,ˉ :丿Vttr:召 〃 °。
=s,氵
JpxoJlα ,扒 9ov Oc刂 ∴
):∞ me,乡 ⒍ uα :丿 ou'。 召
,rop“ ° 弘 mc'c乃
vπo,preP:wlth G” @)Wri七 o in Greek:
氵a。 rct,3ep氵 四 s召 饣 ⅡEDoNIβ T, rro叼 znrJ召 r,
忉 (乙 geⅡ 1);Wi1hD,tI⒑ ', 1. I£ i1did no1seem bOgt t° hav° it,we sL° uld n°七be
幻 励,夕 枥召 乙ct′ Je Cf,
‘【 )`四 1: 丿
‘ j、 rJ召 a旬 kˉ
lng£ or此 , 2.s血 ∞

F
`J1‘
udXq・ 乃召m饣 α
腕 (碗 th vorbg of9csl); 曲 er° wa8hope C几 eⅡ D咖 叼 无oPΘ ,曲 e
goneral wag making war on tho Thracians 8, The enemy

鸲辗硝 a瑙 mth A,,够 呛


岫 ′:J△ 卩
饣″ (wlth verb:o£


:1。

Ⅰ /-沙 I千 '^
:tCr矽 臼 ln0ho Illiddlo and p臼
in工 B侦 n)
铋 :vO IlleIlns o0e钞 and govornB0ho d巳 1ive(aQ

BI● or BugmeIl1,Beo pago⒛ ,noto1 3Pag° 7⒉ Ⅱoto⒉


】~ˇ hat uso8ot1hθ goui刂 ve△ ave you no甲 hBd? ‘§铋 ?】 a艹 泌ycv,is to bo8upp1】 od臼 nd ig c【 ndi11onal
θ
缸觜 龇
鼹扌
1F托 罴1黯 捣噬 ⒊
g垦
Fi协
LEssoN XXV
142。 Δ ⅡE▲ vY sⅡ oWp厶 △I.
MDDLE AWD P厶 ssm oP VERBs Ⅲ -‘ Φ

φ 烀 印 δrov/lc汐 δv Ⅱ x‘
c9at一 助 切乃口 lI汹 atRq`vC"′
9・ @乃 缈 l

‘g. c。 ntract Verbθ ,


】 The prinoiΙ Ιos alileady leIlrnod
tIs芮 ,Iγ 1411, 612t)ag1o the∞ ntracton a且 d ao∞ n1° fφ 叭勤 h the
Δdapted£ rom XeIlophr,Il,z no乃
preθ en1andimperfect ac1ivo p。 pply1o its iIl丑 eotion in tho
middlo and passiv° .


γ阝rite pr° gon1and imperfeo1in~
olI1tl【 e iIl丑 eo1ion° f1he
dioadve mddle and passive of¢ ‘λ南 ・ Giv° dhe Present
illIini1ive and p:l1r1iCiple middle and Pa8sive, Compare
with pan曲 gmg(§ 584)・

I‘ ‘ ,TenporaI C1auges.(口 )dπ cr巴 nd缶 钆劲 £。llowod


e勿 and
by an imporfec1 or aorist indioa1ive °f1en mean v无
re£ er1o a definite ao1or si1uIl1io】 l in pagt1ime:

启t氵 扒 Jol,谔 杭 t氵 vK苗 u,y,G氵 访 哟叩 ″cc狃 c勿 仂召


cGv tl・ ac,I汤 ε

vOJJ△g6`/|¢ 〃 P诩 a7e〃 氵
`

(3) 勤吒rand J叨 ℃氵
δ犭£ oⅡ oWed by any tenge o£ 1he indioaˉ
贫ve may meon δ夕α砀0口 0r“ %″ ;
tHE A△ EXAwDER sARctlPHA0Vs
伽s唧 找 擗
b° ncs π扌 a。 “G tGOt巴 tα 叼σω 8i刀 c召 扭 s`召 a,ls沙 es`,rt,Jo″ ″。饣
虐 乃缸

糨 Ⅳ1:嬲 脱 r跗 菏描 忄 (o tρ 白 a° 。。mpanied by an讠 叩 侈r/ec诊 or@o'话 矽祝溺 勿 ~


仿v纟 ig ugually1ransl钆 tod%%r。 J. I1ig go tlsed only whθ n
1he main clause cOIl1色 in8a nega伉 ve:
Ⅱ 仙 0m JTo向 【ra Tp1v吊 λ踟 z rJtd砌 助 沥 沁 u,Il″ 乃ε ccm色

lg。 l。Il,aB quotBd” I,Iogon° s【 nor“ u8,I.∞ htorBlIy:JItIJe qFue'Ⅱ αt,

ing`四 口 JeJ
`Ieor即 `o bc〃 ?9
θ
缸觜 龇
鼹扌
1F托 罴1黯 捣噬 ⒊
g垦
Fi协
LEssoN XXV
142。 Δ ⅡE▲ vY sⅡ oWp厶 △I.
MDDLE AWD P厶 ssm oP VERBs Ⅲ -‘ Φ

φ 烀 印 δrov/lc汐 δv Ⅱ x‘
c9at一 助 切乃口 lI汹 atRq`vC"′
9・ @乃 缈 l

‘g. c。 ntract Verbθ ,


】 The prinoiΙ Ιos alileady leIlrnod
tIs芮 ,Iγ 1411, 612t)ag1o the∞ ntracton a且 d ao∞ n1° fφ 叭勤 h the
Δdapted£ rom XeIlophr,Il,z no乃
preθ en1andimperfect ac1ivo p。 pply1o its iIl丑 eotion in tho
middlo and passiv° .


γ阝rite pr° gon1and imperfeo1in~
olI1tl【 e iIl丑 eo1ion° f1he
dioadve mddle and passive of¢ ‘λ南 ・ Giv° dhe Present
illIini1ive and p:l1r1iCiple middle and Pa8sive, Compare
with pan曲 gmg(§ 584)・

I‘ ‘ ,TenporaI C1auges.(口 )dπ cr巴 nd缶 钆劲 £。llowod