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1. What is the operating system supported by HANA?

Answer:
Currently SUSE Linux Enterprise Server x86-64 (SLES) 11 SP1 is the Operating System
supported by SAP HANA.

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2. Explain how you can avoid unnecessary logging information from being stored?

Answer:
You can avoid unnecessary logging information from being stored by pausing the replication
by stopping the schema-related jobs.

3.There are 2 types of packages in content. What are they?

Answer:
In HANA, 2 types of packages can be created.
Structural: Package only contains sub-packages. It cannot contain repository objects.
Non-Structural: Package contains both repository objects and sub-packages.
By default it creates Non-structural.

4. What are the different types of calculation view? Which one would you prefer?

Answer:
There are 2 types of calculation view possible.
Graphical calculation view
Scripted calculation view

Graphical calculation views are created using the graphical editor. Scripted calculation views
are created using SQL Editor.
Graphical based calculation views offer better performance compared to SQL based
calculation views.
But in scenarios where graphical calculation views cannot implement business logic, we need
to use scripted calculation view. Complex calculations which are not possible thru graphical
approach, can be created using SQLScript.

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5. How you can use Data provisioning in SAP HANA studio?

Answer:
Go to SAP HANA Modeler Perspective → Data Provisioning.

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6. What is the importance of _SYS_BI_CP_ALL analytic privilege?

Answer:
_SYS_BI_CP_ALL analytical privilege gives access to read from all information model
views. We can control this by creating our own analytical privileges and assigning it to only
the views that a user should be reporting against and at the level they want to view data.
If a user has the _SYS_BI_CP_ALL Analytic Privilege assigned all other restrictions are
ignored. This is generally used for developer roles.

7. What is ad hoc analysis?

Answer:
In traditional data warehouses, such as SAP BW, a lot of pre-aggregation is done for quick
results. That is the administrator (IT department) decides which information might be needed
for analysis and prepares the result for the end users. This results in fast performance but the
end user does not have flexibility.
The performance reduces dramatically if the user wants to do analysis on some data that is
not already pre-aggregated. With SAP HANA and its speedy engine, no pre-aggregation is
required. The user can perform any kind of operations in their reports and does not have to
wait hours to get the data ready for analysis.

8. Which all Business Objects tools can be directly connected to HANA Information views?

Answer:
SAP Lumira
Analysis edition for OLAP
SAP Crystal Reports
Design Studio

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9. What are the row-based and column based approach?

Answer:
Row based tables:
It is the traditional Relational Database approach
It store a table in a sequence of rows

Column based tables:


It store a table in a sequence of columns i.e. the entries of a column is stored in contiguous
memory locations.
SAP HANA is particularly optimized for column-order storage.
SAP HANA supports both row-based and column-based approach.

10. How to get sap hana performance solutions?

Answer:
Like any other database, sap hana could suffer from low performance at one stage. It is
therefore important to have a monitoring strategy in place in order to catch any performance
issues. Reasons for slow performance are known and advices are available.

11. How to troubleshoot sap hana?


Answer:
Errors in sap hana can happened and would be coming from various areas such as SQL script
execution, in Memory Data growth, change of configuration, disk, cpu and memory issues.

12. What is the Purpose of SUM and LM structures?

Answer:
SUM allows automatic download and installation of SAP HAN versions and upgrades from
SAP Marketplace. LM structure stores details on the current product version installed.

13. How to manage hana users step by step?

Answer:
A user has to be assigned the necessary privileges in order to work with sap hana database.
Predefined privileges are available and ready to be granted to specific users such as
Operation-users, Monitoring-User, backup-user.
.

14. What is Configuration and Monitoring Dashboard?

Answer:
It is an application that runs on SLT replication server to specify configuration information
(such as source system, target system, and relevant connections) so that data can be
replicated. It can also use it to monitor the replication status (transaction LTR).
Status Yellow: It may occur due to triggers which are not yet created successfully.
Status Red: It may occur if master job is aborted (manually in transaction SM37).

15. What are Transformation rules?

Answer:
A rule specified in the Advanced Replication settings transaction for source tables such that
data is transformed during the replication process. Example you can specify rule to
Convert fields
Fill empty fields
Skip records

16. What happens when you set-up a new configuration?

Answer:
The database connection is automatically created along with GUID and Mass transfer id
(MT_ID).
A schema GUID ensures that configurations with the same schema name can be created. The
Mass transfer ID is used in the naming of SLT jobs and the system can uniquely identify a
schema.

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17. What is the relation between the number of data transfer jobs in the configuration settings
and the available BGD work processes?
Answer:
Each job occupies 1 BGD work processes in SLT replication server. For each configuration,
the parameter Data Transfer Jobs restricts the maximum number of data load job for each
mass transfer ID (MT_ID).

18. What is the best way to manage, operate, and monitor sap hana systems?

Answer:
Sap Hana is a young database with interesting features of SAP HANA. First of all Sap Hana
is a in-memory database. It is accessible for administration via various channels. Directly
from the Server, It is not the most convenient method but you can use hdbsql to manage
databases. With the web based interface Hana cockpit you can browse and manage sap hana
environments. The Client Hana Studio is the most complete tool to administer Sap Hana but
it has to be physically installed and therefore is dependent of the client hardware.

19. How does SAP HANA support import from a local file?

Answer:
This is used to import data from a flat file like .xls or.csv file. Click on Next → Choose
Target System → Define Import Properties.

Select Source file by browsing local system. It also gives an option if you want to keep the
header row. It also gives an option to create a new table under existing Schema or if you want
to import data from a file to an existing table.

20. List advantages of column-based tables?

Answer:
Allows smoother parallel processing of data as the data in columns is stored vertically. Thus,
to access data from multiple columns, every operation can be allocated to a separate
processor core.
Efficient operations since most columns hold unique values and thus, high compression rate.
Only specific columns need to be approached for Select query and any column can be used
for indexing.

21. Mention what is SAP HANA?

Answer:
SAP HANA stands for High Performance Analytical Appliance- in-memory computing
engine. HANA is linked to ERP systems; Frontend modeling studio can be used for
replication server management and load control.

22. Mention what is the advantage of SLT replication?

Answer:
SAP SLT works on trigger based approach; such approach has no measurable performance
impact in the source system
It offers filtering capability and transformation
It enables real-time data replication, replicating only related data into HANA from non-SAP
and SAP source systems
It is fully integrated with HANA studios
Replication from several source systems to one HANA system is allowed, also from one
source system to multiple HANA systems is allowed.

23. Mention what is the role of master controller job in SAP HANA?

Answer:
The job is arranged on demand and is responsible for

Creating database triggers and logging table into the source system
Creating Synonyms
Writing new entries in admin tables in SLT server when a table is replicated/loaded

24. If my Analytic View foundation is joined to attribute views, is both the OLAP and JOIN
Engine used?

Answer:
Nope – during activation of the analytic views, the joins in the attribute views get ‘flattened’
and included in the analytic view run time object. Only the OLAP engine will be used then.

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25. Which are the top five use cases in SAP HANA?

Answer:
Major sap hana use-cases are:
Real time financial planning
Genome analysis
Customer segmentation
Detective HANA and
Profitability analysis

26. What are the different modes in HANA studio that can be used for migration?

Answer:
Change and Transport system
Delivery Unit
Developer Mode
SAP support mode

27. Which of the export options allows you to export multiple packages locally or to other
HANA system?

Answer:
Delivery Unit

Delivery unit is a single Unit which can be mapped to multiple packages and can be exported
as single entity so that all the packages assigned to Delivery Unit can be treated as single unit.

28. Why materialized aggregates are not required in HANA?


Answer:
Since the SAP HANA database resides entirely in-memory all the time, additional complex
calculations, functions and data-intensive operations can happen on the data directly in the
database. Hence materialized aggregations are not required.
It also provides benefits like
Simplified data model
Higher level of concurrency
Simplified application logic

29. What is a new calculated column in a HANA Modeling view?

Answer:
New calculated column is defined as a column added on the fly in Analysis tab when a view
is activated. This column doesn’t exist at database level or in Data Foundation or Star Join
level.

30. Does SAP HANA require indexes or aggregates?

Answer:
Every column in SAP HANA is stored as an index, and therefore HANA has no need for
separate primary indexes. Secondary indexes with multiple columns are possible and used for
OLTP scenarios like the Business Suite. HANA will also self-generate helper indexes to
ensure that multi-column joins are efficient.

31. To improve the performance of Information view by validating joins and Cardinality,
which option cab be used?

Answer:
You can select Switch to Performance Analysis Mode. This allows you to do Performance
Analysis by validating correct join type and Cardinality.

32. What is the use of parameters and variables in Semantic layer?

Answer:
Variables are used as an explicit SQL filter directive for view consumers to filter the view
data, based on attribute column values specified in variable UI prompt of a BI Client. When
you go to data preview, variables allow users to pass the value of attribute defined in the
variable.

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33. What are the different authentication methods configured in SAP HANA system for user
creation?

Answer:
Below is the list of authentication methods supported by SAP HANA −

User name/Password
Kerberos
SAML 2.0
SAP Logon tickets
X.509
Authentication Configure

34. What is a restricted user in SAP HANA system?

Answer:
Restricted users are those users who access HANA system with some applications and they
don’t have SQL privileges on HANA system. When these users are created they don’t have
any access initially.

If we compare restricted users with Standard users −

Restricted users can’t create objects in HANA database or their own Schemas.
They don’t have access to view any data in database as they don’t have generic Public role
added to profile like standard users.
They can connect to HANA database only using HTTP/HTTPS.

35. What is SAP HANA Analytic Privileges?

Answer:
Analytic Privileges are used to limit access on HANA Information views. You can assign
different types of right to different users on different component of a View in Analytic
Privileges.

36. If you want that your Area Managers can only see data from their region and you want to
assign this restriction for specific duration, how this can be achieved?

Answer:
Using Analytic Privileges, you can add Region attribute and values to Attribute Restrictions
and Time duration is defined in Privilege validity.

Analytic Privilege can be added to user profile in User and Roles under Security tab.

37. What are the different methods of data replication in HANA?

Answer:
SAP LT Replication SLT
SAP Data Services
Direct Extract Connection DXC

38. What system privilege is required for a user to enable him to create user and roles in
HANA studio?

Answer:
Only database users with the system privilege ROLE ADMIN are allowed to create users and
roles in HANA studio.

39. Suppose you have the sales data in a database table in a different currency. How can you
generate a Sales report for a region in a particular currency?
Answer:
Create an Analytic view by selecting the table column containing the sales data and currency
and perform currency conversion. Once the view is activated, we can use it to generate
reports.

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40. What are the factors that affect currency conversion?

Answer:
Currency conversion is performed based on source currency, target currency, exchange rate,
and date of conversion. You can select currency from the attribute data used in the view.
Currency conversion is enabled for Analytic view and Calculation views.

41. What is the prerequisite for doing the currency conversion?

Answer:
You need to import tables TCURC, TCURF, TCURN, TCURR, TCURT, TCURV, TCURW
and TCURX.

42. What are the different privilege types that can be assigned to a user in HANA studio?

Answer:
System Privilege
Object Privilege
Analytic Privilege
Package Privilege
Application Privilege
Privilege on roles

43. How you can connect SAP HANA to Microsoft Excel?

Answer:
MDX Provider is used to connect MS Excel to SAP HANA database system. It provides
driver to connect HANA system to Excel and is further used for data modelling. You can use
Microsoft Office Excel 2010/2013 for connectivity with HANA for both 32 bit and 64 bit
Windows.

44. What are different recovery mechanism can be performed in HANA system?

Answer:
Most Recent State − Used for recovering the database to the time as close as possible to the
current time. For this recovery the data backup and log backup have to be available since last
data backup and log area are required to perform the above type recovery.

Point in Time − Used for recovering the database to the specific point in time. For this
recovery the data backup and log backup have to be available since last data backup and log
area are required to perform the above type recovery.
Specific Data Backup − Used for recovering the database to a specified data backup. Specific
data backup is required for the above type of recovery option.

Specific Log Position − This recovery type is an advanced option that can be used in
exceptional cases where a previous recovery failed.

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45. Name the operating system SAP HANA supports?

Answer:
More than 70% of customers run their SAP workloads on Linux with the use of SUSE Linux
Enterprise Server, which is the best OS choice for SAP HANA.

46. Does HANA/IMDB replace Oracle?

Answer:
Once the Business Suite keeps running on IMDB, Oracle won’t be required any more by SAP
clients who purchase HANA. This doesn’t affect anything in the short term because those
people buying HANA today will still need an Oracle ERP system.

47. Explain Parallel Processing in SAP HANA?

Answer:
Using the columnar data storage approach, the workload in SAP HANA is divided vertically.
The columnar approach allows linear searching and aggregation of data rather than two-
dimensional data structure. If more than one column is to be processed, each task is assigned
to diverse processor. Operations on one column are then collimated by column divisions
processed by different processors.

48. What does HANA cost?

Answer:
SAP hasn’t completely affirmed HANA permitting costs yet the equipment is some place
around $1-200k for every TB. Add to this permitting costs which are as yet being made on a
for every client premise.

49. What are the different license keys type in HANA system? What is their validity?

Answer:
Temporary License key
Permanent License Key
Temporary License keys are automatically installed when you install the HANA database.
These keys are valid only for 90 days and you should request permanent license keys from
SAP market place before expiry of this 90 days period after installation.
Permanent License keys are valid till the predefine expiration date. License keys specify
amount of memory licensed to target HANA installation.

50. What happens to my data when I shut down the SAP HANA One instance?
Answer:
The SAP HANA One instances are backed up by persistent data stores and volumes and will
remain attached until the user terminates the instance. Once the instance is terminated, by
default, only the root volume is deleted. The data, log, and backup volumes are not deleted
automatically. Those volumes can be attached to other instances if required. If the instance is
not needed anymore, make sure to delete all the EBS volumes to avoid storage charges for
unused EBS volumes.