Anda di halaman 1dari 6

A Sound Check for Hearing Conservation - 06/01/1999

Well-balanced hearing conservation programs include noise control and hearing testing
elements. Our experts outline the essential elements needed for success.

Well-balanced hearing conservation programs include noise control and hearing

testing elements. Our experts outline the essential elements needed for

by Virginia Sutcliffe

Noise is one of the most pervasive occupational health problems in industry. While many
companies have been successful in combating their noise problems and preserving their
employees' hearing through hearing conservation programs, experts say some employers
are putting too much emphasis on elements such as hearing testing and not enough where
it is really needed: noise control and training. We asked several experts to explain the
proper components of a hearing conservation program and to give advice about how to
fine-tune existing programs for improved performance.

OSHA's noise regulation, enacted in 1972, limited noise exposure to 90 decibels (dB) for
eight hours of exposure per day. In 1983, OSHA amended its original regulation to
incorporate a lower protective level and to define hearing conservation programs. The
revision called for noise monitoring and protective equipment in an 85-decibel
environment. Above this level, employers are required "to implement a continuing and
effective" occupational hearing conservation program (OHCP).

Mary McDaniel, MS-CCCA, president of Pacific Hearing Conservation in Seattle, said

that if an employer has reason to believe hazardous noise exists, it is the employer's
responsibility to implement a program. "If, for example, you own a carpentry shop where
there are table saws and planers that emit great noise, then you have reasonable
information to believe your workplace has hazardous noise," said McDaniel.

Behavioral signs are another way for employers to determine if a program is needed. Don
Gasaway, a hearing conservation specialist with Aearo Corp., said if an employee has to
move from a normal voice to a loud voice when he speaks in a workplace, above 82-85
dB, hazardous noise probably exists. "If employees are having difficulty being heard by a
companion at arms' length, then a program is needed," said Gasaway.

OSHA's 1983 amendment said that hearing conservation programs must include noise
monitoring, ear protection, education and training, audiometric testing and review and
record keeping. Many hearing conservation professionals believe there are five basic
elements to a successful program:

 Annual audiometric testing.

 Noise measurement and control.
 Hearing protection.
 Training and enforcement.
 Follow-up and evaluation.

Identifying Hearing Loss

Experts say occupational hearing loss is easy to ignore because of a lack of physical
signs. "The ears don't bleed, there is no pain, and there is no apparent physical deformity
to the ear, so people don't even know a problem exists," said Tom Thunder, audiologist
with Acoustic Associates in Palatine, Ill.

The type of hearing loss associated with workplace exposure is called sensory-neural. It
is damage to a very sensitive part of the hearing system called the cochlea, which is a
receptor organ for hearing in the inner ear that converts sound waves into electrical
impulses sent up to higher auditory centers. There are 16,500 tiny hair cells in each
cochlea that differentiate between sounds of different pitch and which can be damaged by
loud noise.

Hearing loss is a slow, progressive process that may not be noticed for many years by
workers who have been exposed to loud noise. "The ability to piece things together to
hear only what one needs to hear increases with age. An employee who has worked in a
factory for 25 years only needs to hear what he needs to do his job," said Gasaway.

Despite the insidious nature of the disability, there are subtle clues that become noticeable
when someone is experiencing sensory-neural hearing loss. "Voices are not as clear, and
when someone speaks, it sounds like he is talking in a barrel," said Gasaway.

Other clues include ringing, buzzing or chirping in the ears after leaving a noisy situation;
asking for repeats in conversation; not hearing well on the phone; and difficulty hearing
speech in the presence of background noise.

Annual audiometric testing can help employers identify whether their employees are
suffering from hearing loss. McDaniel said it is best to have employees tested when they
begin employment.
The first part of audiometric testing includes a baseline audiogram, which establishes the
threshold or softest levels of noise an employee can hear. Subsequent audiograms are
compared with the baseline audiogram to monitor changes in the employee's hearing.

Rena Glaser, audiologist and manager of medical surveillance for 3M's Corporate
Occupational Medicine Department, St. Paul, Minn., said 3M employees are tested as
soon as they are hired. "We try to get the employees preplacement, especially if they are
going into a production area," said Glaser.

Audiograms can be useful in tracking employees' hearing loss, but McDaniel cautioned
that employers should not make hearing tests the focus of their program. Rather, the tests
should simply be used as a measuring tool. "An annual audiogram is not the end-all-be-
all of a hearing conservation program. It doesn't protect or save anyone's hearing," said

Noise Control

Conducting a noise hazard analysis, which includes noise measurement and possible
solutions to controlling noise, is the first step to preventing employee exposure.
"Understanding the noise risks involved in the workplace through identifying the sources
of noise really feeds the whole hearing conservation program," said Lee Hager, incoming
president of the National Hearing Conservation Association (NHCA).

Checking the decibel levels in a workplace through monitoring equipment, such as noise
dosimeters and sound level meters, is the best way to track and measure noise.

Instituting engineering controls can eliminate or reduce noise levels at the source.
Possible engineering controls include maintenance of machinery to eliminate excessive
noise, isolators for noisy equipment, noise baffles or equipment enclosures, or placement
of noisy machinery in areas of the facility that are away from employees.

McDaniel said companies are too concerned with the other aspects of their programs and
as a result, don't put enough emphasis on the noise control portion of their programs.
"Things have gotten a little lax in the noise control department. Employers would be
better served to reduce the noise exposure through engineering controls," said McDaniel.

Hearing Protectors

If engineering controls are unsuccessful, then employers need to provide hearing

protection. When used properly, experts agreed that hearing protectors can be a very
effective part of an OHCP. "The difficulty is not in the protector itself, but in the
administrative program that surrounds the protector," said NHCA's Hager.
Appropriate selection, use and fit of the protectors are common program glitches. There
are many different types of protectors on the market today. When deciding which type is
best, employers should look at the type of noise exposure present and the level of hearing
ability their employees need, and assess the employees' need to communicate in their

At 3M, individual plants are responsible for hearing protection, but Glaser said her
department suggests that safety management conduct annual fit tests.

"Fit is very important. If the protector doesn't fit, isn't comfortable and the wearer isn't
able to use it, it doesn't do any good," said McDaniel.

Ironically, workers who wear hearing protectors still have hearing loss. Experts attribute
this to the employer's tendency to overprotect employees. At times, management often
selects a hearing protector because it has the highest noise reduction rating (NRR).

"If an employee is working in an area where he only needs 6 or 8 dB of protection, and

he uses a protector that provides 25-30 dB of protection, that is a little bit of overkill,"
said McDaniel.

Consequently, if an employee can't hear because he is overprotected, he will likely take

out the protectors. "In reality, those employees with greater protection are experiencing
more hearing loss, and those with less protection have totally effective noise reduction,"
said Gasaway.

Another problem regarding protectors is that those charged with selecting the protectors
have too many options. "Don't play the numbers game when it comes to buying a
protector, said Thunder. "Asking for the protector that works against the highest level of
noise may not necessarily protect your employees the best." To ensure proper selection,
have an educated selector make decisions about protectors.

Training is Key

OHCP programs often fail, not because of the wrong type of hearing protector, but
because of the lack of employee training and education. Properly training your employees
on how to use hearing protection and educating them on the dangers of hazardous noise is
the most beneficial way to prevent hearing loss. "Over my 43 year career in hearing
conservation, I have found that the most effective programs are those with hands-on
training," said Gasaway.

Hands-on training could mean the difference between having your employees protected
because they know how to insert their protectors or having them exposed to high levels of
noise because they don't. Gasaway suggested leading employees through an examination
of their ears in training seminars. For example, he said, employees should understand
that, to have an ear plug provide a proper seal, the rear end of the plug should be a half-
inch beyond the dip in the outer ear.

How can employers encourage their employees to wear hearing protection? The more
education employees receive, the more motivated they will be to wear the protectors. "If
the worker is made aware of the hazards and what the effects of noise exposure will be,
he will want to know what he can do to protect against it," said McDaniel.

Acoustic Associates' Thunder believes that audio and visual demonstrations are the most
powerful ways to get employees to understand the consequences of noise exposure.

When he conducts training sessions, he uses hearing loss simulation tapes. These audio
tapes contain unfair hearing tests. The tape gives employees 10 words heard through an
impaired ear, then asks them to guess what those words are. "The words at this point are
almost indistinguishable," said Thunder. Then the same 10 words are heard through an
ear with mild hearing loss. Employees are able to distinguish the sounds a little more
clearly. Finally, they hear the words through an ear with clear hearing. "Employees
realize what the words are and they are extremely surprised to know that what they
thought they heard through the impaired ear was nothing like the actual word heard
through the perfectly good ear," said Thunder.

Because hearing loss doesn't have any recognizable physical signs, it is dramatic to see
what the inside of a damaged ear looks like. When Thunder conducts the visual portion of
his training program, he shows employees a picture of the cochlea of the ear in perfect
condition. Then he shows a picture of what happens when the cochlea is damaged from
30 years of noise exposure. The hair cells in the damaged cochlea are flattened, and there
is debris in the ear. "This is a very effective image because employees see what happens.
Once these cells are gone, they can't be regrown. No amount of Rogaine can help with
this damage," said Thunder.

Even after the training seminars and audiometric testing are finished, employers need to
keep employees diligent about protecting their hearing. Thunder said monitoring your
employees' use of their hearing protectors on a daily basis is as important as
demonstrations and training seminars. "Simply training your employees doesn't mean that
when you send them back to work with the protectors, they will wear them," said
- Staff