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ISSN 2355-6927

PROCEEDINGS
Organized by: Sponsored by:
ISSN 2355 – 6927

PROCEEDING
SEMINAR NASIONAL THERMOFLUID VI 2014

29 April 2014
Yogyakarta, Indonesia

DISELENGGARAKAN OLEH:
JURUSAN TEKNIK MESIN DAN INDUSTRI
FAKULTAS TEKNIK
UNIVERSITAS GADJAH MADA

SEMINAR NASIONAL THERMOFLUID


2014
ISSN 2355 – 6927

SEMINAR NASIONAL THERMOFLUID VI 2014


Yogyakarta, 29 April 2014

Untuk segala pertanyaan mengenai makalah Thermofluid VI:


Ruang Administrasi S2 Jurusan Teknik Mesin dan Industri
Fakultas Teknik - Universitas Gadjah Mada
Jalan Grafika No.2 Yogyakarta 55281
Phone: (0274) 521673
Email: thermofluidvi@gmail.com
Website: thermofluid.ugm.ac.id

Reviewer:
Prof. Dr. Ir. H. Djatmiko Ichsani, M.Eng. (ITS)
Prof. Dr. Ir. Harinaldi, M. Eng. (UI)
Dr. Ir. Anhar Riza Antariksawan (BATAN)
Prof. Ir. I Made Bendiyasa, M.Sc., Ph.D. (UGM)
Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ir. Harwin Saptoadi, M.SE. (UGM)
Dr.Eng. Tri Agung Rohmat, B.Eng., M.Eng. (UGM)
Indro Pranoto, S.T., M.Eng. (UGM)
Adhika Widyaparaga, S.T., M.Biomed.Sc., Ph.D. (UGM)

Editor:
Dimas Dwi Ananda
Avila Dhanu Kurniawan
Ogy Satria Ramadhan
Muhammad Ilham Kurniawan
Ilham Adityarsena F
Putra Juliansen Siregar

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DEWAN REDAKSI

Penanggung Jawab : Prof. Ir. Jamasri, Ph.D.


(Ketua Jurusan Teknik Mesin dan Industri, Fakultas Teknik
UGM)

Panitia Pengarah : 1. Sugiyono, ST., MT., Ph.D.

(Kepala Lab. Mekanika Fluida)

2. Dr.Eng. Tri Agung Rohmat, B.Eng., M.Eng.

(Kepala Lab. Konversi Energi)

3. Dr. Ir. Prajitno, MT.

(Kepala Lab. Perpindahan Kalor dan Massa)

Reviewer : 1. Prof. Dr. Ir. H. Djatmiko Ichsani, M.Eng. (ITS)

2. Prof. Dr. Ir. Harinaldi, M. Eng. (UI)

3. Dr. Ir. Anhar Riza Antariksawan (BATAN)

4. Prof. Ir. I Made Bendiyasa, M.Sc., Ph.D (UGM)

5. Prof. Dr.-Ing. Ir. Harwin Saptoadi, M.SE. (UGM)

6. Dr.Eng. Tri Agung Rohmat, B.Eng., M.Eng. (UGM)

7. Indro Pranoto, S.T., M.Eng. (UGM)

8. Adhika Widyaparaga, S.T., M.Biomed.Sc., Ph.D.

Ketua Panitia : Dr. Eng. Khasani, S.T., M.Eng.

Sekretaris : Adhika Widyaparaga, S.T., M.Biomed.Sc., Ph.D.

Bendahara : Fauzun, S.T., M.T., Ph.D.

Koord. Pelaksana : Fadhli Akbar

Sekretaris Pelaksana : Puput Iin Qur’aini

Bendahara Pelaksana : Arfin Aruni Silma

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DAFTAR ISI

Halaman Judul .................................................................................................................... i


Dewan Redaksi ................................................................................................................... iii
Kata Pengantar ..................................................................................................................... v
Daftar Isi ............................................................................................................................. vi

A. Combustion Engineering

1. Gelombang Detonasi Marginal Campuran Bahan Bakar Hidrogen & Udara


dengan Pengencer Argon
Jayan Sentanuhady, Ari Dwi Prasetiyo ......................................................................... 1

2. Pengaruh Excess Air terhadap Karakteristik Pembakaran dalam Bubbling


Fluidized Bed Combustor (BFBC)
Fransisko Pandiangan, Tri Agung Rohmat, Purnomo ................................................... 6

3. Perambatan Gelombang Detonasi Campuran Stoikiometris LPG-Oksigen


di Belakang Model Media Porous dengan Variasi Massa
Jayan Sentanuhady, Jannati Adnin Tuasikal ................................................................. 11

4. Studi Eksperimental Kestabilan Api Difusi Biogas pada Counterflow


Burner Configuration
Mega Nur Sasongko ..................................................................................................... 17

5. Studi Eksperimental Pengaruh Swirling Intensity terhadap Efisiensi Termal RFM


Swirl Burner
I Made Kartika Dhiputra, Mekro Permana Pinem ......................................................... 23

6. Simulasi CFD untuk Mengetahui Pengaruh Penambahan Batu Bara


Jenis Medium Rank Coal pada Boiler Jenis Low Rank Coal
di Power Plant PLTU Suralaya Unit 8
Nur Ikwan, Giri Nugroho, Wawan Aries Widodo .......................................................... 28

7. Pengaruh hot-EGR dan cooled-EGR Terhadap Daya Mesin Dan Emisi Jelaga
(Soot) Pada Mesin Diesel Direct Injection (DI) Dengan Menggunakan
Bahan Bakar Campuran Biosolar-Jatropha-High Purity Methanol (HPM)
Sobri, Syaiful ................................................................................................................ 33

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8. Pengaruh Tinggi Bed Terhadap Kecepatan Minimum Fluidisasi dan Distribusi


Temperatur Dalam Fluidized Bed Combustor
Kevin Kristiantana, Tri Agung Rohmat, Purnomo ......................................................... 39

B. Energy and Renewable Energy

9. Thermoelectric sebagai Heat Collector untuk Meningkatkan Efisiensi Photovoltaic


pada Daerah Tropis
Andhita Mustikaningtyas, Sindu Daniarta, Yollanda Zilviana Devi ............................... 45

10. Panas Bumi Sebagai Energi Masa Depan Dan Terbarukan Sumatera Barat
Armila .......................................................................................................................... 50

11. Studi Eksperimental Optimasi Campuran Metanol (96%) Etanol (10%) sebagai
Bahan Bakar Alternatif Terbarukan Pengganti Minyak Tanah
Jarot Hari Astanto, Dwi Aris Himawanto, D.Danardono Dwi Prija T ............................ 61

12. Analisis Resistivitas Daerah Geothermal ”T” Berdasarkan Hasil Inversi Finite
Element Data 2D Magnetotelurik
Nur Rachmaningtias, Agus Setyawan, Imam Baru Raharjo ........................................... 67

13. Sistem Irigasi Buatan dengan Photovoltaic dan Thermoelectric untuk


Meningkatkan Pertanian di Indonesia
Pandhu Picahyo, Sindu Daniarta, Galih Pambudi .......................................................... 70

14. Microhydro Power Plant Pest As Energy Source Electromagnetic Wave


Technology With Environmentally Friendly
Syahrial Shaddiq, Dery Januarizki, Gunawan Eka Prasetyo, Ismail Mukti, Fikriyan,
Fajar Al Farobi, Ramadoni Syahputra ........................................................................... 75

C. Fluid Mechanics

15. Pengaruh Penambahan Inlet Disturbance Body Terhadap Karakteristik Aliran


Melintasi Silinder Sirkular Tersusun Tandem
Aida Annisa Amin Daman, Wawan Aries Widodo ........................................................ 79

16. Analisis Numerik Karakteristik Pressure Drop pada Instalasi Sistem Pneumatik
menggunakan CFD
Amam Fachrur Rozie, Yuda Trimardana, Sumadi, Ahmad Indra Siswantara ................ 85

17. Studi Komparasi Jumlah Sudu Turbin pada Rancangan PLTMH Head Rendah
dengan Daya 2Kw
Budi Triyono, Haryadi dan Sugianto ............................................................................ 93

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18. Analisis Eksperimental dan Simulasi Numerik Karaktristik Aliran Fluida


melalui Silinder Persegi dan Segitiga
H. Nasaruddin Salam, Muh. Noor Umar, Ibnu Sidig ...................................................... 98

19. Studi Eksperimen tentang Karakteristik Tekanan dan Kemungkinan Kavitasi


Aliran Fluida melalui Katup Kupu-Kupu
Muh. Hasbi, Sutardi ...................................................................................................... 105

20. Simulasi Numerik Aliran di Sekitar Circular Cylinder dengan Dua Square
Cylinder sebagai Disturbance Body pada Saluran Sempit
Rina, Wawan Aries Widodo .......................................................................................... 111

21. Analisis Penurunan Tekanan pada Instalasi Sistem Hidrolik Alat Uji Tarik
menggunakan CFD di Laboraturium Fenomena Mesin UIKA Bogor
Rio Adika Cahya, Hady Hidayat, Sumadi1, Edi Sutoyo ................................................. 117

22. Studi Parametrik Pengaruh Roughness Terhadap Profil Kecepatan Lapisan


Batas pada Simulasi Atmospheric Boundary Layer di Wind Tunnel
Subagyo ....................................................................................................................... 125

23. Simulasi Numerik Aliran Internal Muffler Kendaraan 2D


Subagyo ....................................................................................................................... 134

24. Aplikasi Reliability Centred Maintenance (RCM) pada Sistem Pemipaan Industri
Kertas yang Beroperasi Kontinyu
Sumadi.......................................................................................................................... 138

25. Analisa Instalasi Sistem Pneumatik untuk Air Service di Laboratorium Proses
Produksi
Wahyu Nuri. Sumadi .................................................................................................... 145

D. Heat – Mass Transfer

26. Kinerja Termal Green Roof sebagai Pendingin Pasif di Iklim Tropis
Nandy Putra, Wayan Nata Septiadi, Bambang Ariantara, Retsa Anugrah Menteng ..... 151

27. Alat Uji Sirkulasi Air Akibat Efek Thermosyphon pada Sistem Pemanas
Air Surya
Caturwati NK, Ipick S, Alief ........................................................................................ 157

28. Proses Pembuatan Membran Silika MCM-41untuk Alat Penukar Kalor Udara
Hens Saputra, Murbantan Tandirerung, Hananto Widoyoko ......................................... 162

29. Fenomena Pendidihan dan Dinamika Gelembung dari Porous Graphite Foams
Indro Pranoto ............................................................................................................... 168

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30. Aplikasi Heat Pipe pada Thermoelectric Generator


Rio Wirawan, M. Hadi Kusuma, Ranggi Sahmura, Wayan Nata Septiadi,
Nandy Putra ................................................................................................................. 174
31. Efek Orientasi Sudut Delta-Winglet Vortex Generator Terhadap Performa
Termal dan Hidrodinamik Penukar Kalor Jenis Fin-Tube dengan Susunan
Pipa Sejajar Untuk Aplikasi EGR Cooler
Syaiful dan Rahmat Purnomojati ................................................................................. 180

32. Penentuan Sudut Kontak dengan Pengolahan Citra


Windy Hermawan Mitrakusuma, Deendarlianto, Syamsul Kamal, M. Nuryadi,
Rudi Rustandi .............................................................................................................. 186

E. Internal Combustion Engines

33. Efek Campuran High Purity Methanol (HPM) – Diesel dan Sistem Cooled EGR
terhadap Smoke Opacity dan Brake Specific Fuel Consumption (BSFC) pada
Mesin Diesel Injeksi Langsung
Aa Setiawan, Syaiful .................................................................................................... 191

34. Karakteristik Pelumas Campuran Zinc Oxide Nanopowder untuk Kendaraan


Agung Sudrajad, Aditya Yuda Anggara ........................................................................ 196

35. Efek High Purity Methanol (HPM) dan Hot EGR terhadap Brake Spesific Fuel
Consumption (BSFC) dan Emisi Jelaga pada Mesin Diesel Injeksi Langsung
Angga Septiyanto, Syaiful ............................................................................................ 200

36. Pengaruh Diameter Exhaust Valve terhadap Unjuk Kerja dan Emisi Gas Motor
Bensin 4 Langkah
Slamet Wahyudi, Lilis Yulianti, Hastono Wijaya dan Alfian Kusuma ........................... 206

F. Multiphase Flow

37. Quantitative Visualization of the Wave Characteristics for Horizontal


Co-Current Gas-Liquid Plug Two-Phase Flow by Using an Image Processing
Technique
Akmal Irfan Majid, Okto Dinaryanto, Deendarlianto, Indarto ........................................ 212

38. Experimental Study on the Liquid Holdup Characteristics of Air-Water


Horizontal Stratified Flow by Using an Image Processing Technique
Hadiyan Yusuf Kuntoro, Deendarlianto ........................................................................ 218

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39. Visualisasi dan Signal Processing Aliran Slug Air-Udara Berdasarkan


Karakteristik Lokal Pada Pipa Horisontal
Yuli Purwanto, Indarto, Khasani, Deendarlianto ........................................................... 224

G. Thermodynamics

40. Analisis Performa Organic Rankine Cycles Berdasarkan Data Pengujian


Evaporator dengan Menggunakan Solar Panel Plat Datar untuk
Fluida Kerja R22 dan R134a
Edi Marzuki, Seftian Haryadi, Yogi Sirodz Gaoz, Mulya Juarsa,
Muhamad Yulianto ....................................................................................................... 230

41. Analisa Pengaruh Variasi Kecepatan Aliran Udara pada Evaporator


Terhadap Performansi Mesin Refrigerasi Kompresi Uap Air Conditioner
dengan Refrigeran R134a
Mahendra, Hendradinata .............................................................................................. 236

42. Analisis Performa ORC dengan Fluida Kerja R-134a Menggunakan Simulasi
Komputer Berdasarkan Data Eksperimental Variasi Laju Aliran Massa Air di
Kolektor Termal-Surya tipe Plat Datar
Mulya Juarsa, Seftian Haryadi, Muhamad Yulianto, Edi Marzuki, Yogi Sirods Gaos .... 241

43. Studi Simulasi pada Ventilasi, Kualitas Udara Interior dan Konsumsi Energi
Ozkar F. Homzah, Haryanto ......................................................................................... 246

44. Kaji Eksperimental Kinerja Mesin Pendingin Kompresi Uap (Freezer) terhadap
Variasi Massa Refrigeran Hidrokarbon Jenis Propan sebagai Pengganti R-22
Tandi Sutandi, Berkah Fajar ......................................................................................... 251

x
A. Multiphase Flow
Proceeding
Seminar Nasional Thermofluid VI
Yogyakarta, 29 April 2014

Quantitative Visualization of the Wave Characteristics


for Horizontal Co-Current Gas-Liquid Plug Two-Phase Flow
by Using an Image Processing Technique
Akmal Irfan Majid*1, Okto Dinaryanto2, Deendarlianto3, Indarto3
1
Master Program (Fast-track) in Mechanical Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering,
Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Grafika 2 Kampus UGM Yogyakarta 55281
2
Doctoral Program in Mechanical Engineering, Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of
Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Jalan Grafika 2 Kampus UGM Yogyakarta 55281
3
Dept. of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Gadjah Mada,
Jalan Grafika 2 Kampus UGM Yogyakarta 55281
E-mail: akmalirfanmajid@mail.ugm.ac,id

Abstract
Gas-liquid plug flow, as a part of the intermittent flow, has received more attention as the initiation of the
slugging phenomena in fluid transportation. This pattern has particular characteristics such as the large
pressure fluctuation, irregularity, and intermittency which possible to lead the internal pipe corrosion and
the pipe blasting. The presence of the large amplitude waves can be generated since gas flows with high
slip velocity through the liquid-phase. Due to that reason, “pipe blockage” phenomenon can be occurred.
The purpose of the present experimental study is to conduct a better understanding on the wave
characteristics of air-water co-current plug two-phase flow by using an advanced visualization method
named image processing technique.
The novel technique has been applied to elucidate quantitative result of liquid-phase level by analyzing
sequence of recorded images. Water and pressurized air flowed co-currently inside the horizontal acrylic
pipe with 26 mm internal diameters. A high-speed video camera (640 x 480 pixels; 120 frame per seconds)
was used to visualize the pattern. Those observed images were converted from RGB into binary mode by
image segmentation operation by using MATLAB®. In order to improve the images quality, several image
filtering types including Median and Wiener filtering were utilized. Moreover, the non-linear statistics
analysis such as cross-correlation function, power spectra density, and probability distribution function
were implemented to obtain the quantitative information. Here, the wave characteristics such as wave
velocity and wave frequency are determined. It reveals the information of plug flow liquid hold up
distribution. It can be inferred that the wave characteristics in a horizontal gas-liquid plug flow are strongly
affected by gas and liquid superficial velocities. Furthermore, the data can be potentially used to investigate
the plug flow mechanism in horizontal pipe, even to validate the CFD codes.
Keywords: Visualization studies, Plug flow, Wave characteristics, Image processing technique, Interfacial
behavior

1. Introduction design of the pipeline and pumping system, especially


The gas-liquid plug and slug flow has been in offshore, boiling industries, nuclear reactors, and
investigated since couple years ago due to its standout fluid lines.
characteristics of high pressure fluctuation, random, Particularly, plug flow takes part as the initiation
irregular motion, and large amplitude waves. of highly-turbulent slug flow. By increasing liquid
Specifically, the initiation of slugging is classified into flow rates, plug flow is considered as a transition from
hydrodynamic and terrain slugging. Hydrodynamic stratified into slug flow in a low gas velocity [3, 4].
slugging is caused by a flow disturbance to the gas– Under the rise of liquid level, the waves are formed
liquid interface in a stratified flow close to the pipeline and tend to block the pipe cross-sectional area.
entrance region. A small wave forms on the interface Otherwise, the gas velocity, liquid Froude number,
and the bridging location influence the air-water slug
and grows to block the pipe cross section, forming a initiation and its frequency [5]. However, this model
slug [1]. Terrain slugging results from liquid has a contradiction with one-dimensional two-fluid
accumulation in local dips of flow lines with variable model of Taitel and Dukler [6] which conducted that
topography [2]. The occurrence of the flow slug is initiated by a long wavelength disturbances in a
intermittency inflicts these patterns to be commonly stratified layer until the waves grow to block the pipe
avoided in related safety issues, pipe erosion, and [2]. A different criteria and definition on the onset of

Jurusan Teknik Mesin dan Industri


Fakultas Teknik UGM 212 ISSN 2355 – 6927
Proceeding
Seminar Nasional Thermofluid VI
Yogyakarta, 29 April 2014

slugging was also occurred. For all those studies, there only a few studies addressing a comprehensive data
is no deal which confirms an absolute concept on the including the flow topology and the important wave
plug and slug formation. On the other hand, it is parameters for the plug flow in a horizontal pipe.
agreed that a slug initiation process is basically Specifically, Mayor et al. [13] conducted an image
occurred when the wave characteristics are changed. processing technique for vertical slug flow while
Those facts lead the strong reasons to build up a good Amaral et al. [14] applied a different algorithm
understanding on the unique plug flow wave (watershed and H-minima) for determining slug flow
characteristics to support the systematical data on the topology. In this present work, a simple algorithm
slugging mechanisms. based on noise reduction and image segmentation was
Various methods have been proposed in order to developed to obtain both the gas-liquid plug flow
determine the interfacial behavior of this regime. For topologies and the quantitative evaluation of the wave
instances, the use of wire mesh sensor [7] which has a parameters. The purpose of this present study are to
shortage of its intrusive characteristics. The other obtain a better understanding on the interfacial
techniques such as the capacitance sensor [8] and analysis of gas-liquid plug flow in a horizontal pipe.
Constant Electric Current Method (CECM) signal The available previous studies were also compared
processing [9] were also used to obtain time-series with the obtained data of this present work.
data. Nevertheless, for a few case, those methods
could only be applied in a specific condition. 2. Experimental Methods
Consequently, the different results between those Experiments were performed at the horizontal
specified methods are ensued due to the diverse two-phase flow test facility of the Fluid Mechanics
measurement technique. Moreover, the visualization Laboratory, Department of Mechanical and Industrial
methods are used to conduct a profound observation Engineering, Gadjah Mada University. It consists of
on the flow behavior. However, the method were 26-mm inner diameter of transparent acrylic pipe
previously used as the escort study to support the with 9.5-m total length. Air and water were used as
obtained results from the other measuring devices. In working fluid. The present work was an adiabatically
the previous work, this method just applied for work which carried out under atmospheric pressure
assigning the flow pattern [10, 11]. Thus, the and room temperature. A depth visual observation of
qualitative data are only performed through this case. the gas-liquid flow behavior was conducted by a
Recently, the visual studies is continued to grow high-speed video camera with resolution of 640-pixel
in the field of advanced visualization methods. The width and 480-pixel height. The camera has rates of
CFD codes [12] have been already applied. A more 120 frame per second (fps). A rectangular correction
accurate result is expected due to the implementation box was used to reduce the image distortion due to

of those methods. However, the shortcomings of the the different refraction index. The 1.2-m length of
PIV and X-Ray tomography application areFig. the1.facts
Experimental apparatus
transparent box was filled by water which has close
that they need a complicated installation and advanced value of acrylic reflective index. About 1-m length of
post-data processing. Else, by using CFD codes, a the visualization test area was positioned in around 7-
number of parameters such as the boundary condition, m from the initial pipe to ensure fully developed
meshing criteria, and exact flow parameters should be flow. A schematic layout of the experimental
well prepared. On the other hand, an image processing apparatus is briefly represented in Fig. 1 above.
technique is appropriate to be implemented in the This present work is involving 25 experimental
interfacial analysis due to its simplicity, accuracy, and data which covers the liquid superficial velocity (JL)
easy to be used. The non-intrusive method has an from 0.25 to 1.13 m/s and that of gas superficial
ability to establish both of the qualitative and the velocity (JG) from 0.12 to 0.51 m/s. The experimental
quantitative assessment. data range is presented in Fig. 2 in the form of co-
Although this technique has been previously current horizontal flow pattern maps comparison
applied for investigating slug flow characteristics, among Mandhane et al. (1974), Taitel & Dukler

Jurusan Teknik Mesin dan Industri


Fakultas Teknik UGM 213 ISSN 2355 – 6927
Proceeding
Seminar Nasional Thermofluid VI
Yogyakarta, 29 April 2014

(1976), Weismann et al. (1978), and Lin & Hanratty order to eliminate the image noise, sequence
(1987). All observed data meet the appropriate plug operations were performed. The noise reduction
regime that proposed by these maps. process was begun with the image complementary
The physical experiments and investigation on operation (Fig. 3b) which underlies the next step of
the liquid hold-up by using CECM (Constant Electric the artificial backgrounds construction. They were
Current Method) have also been conducted [15, 16]. prepared after a combination with non-flat structuring
Three pairs of liquid hold-up sensors are located in element function for ensuring more uniform
215-mm spacing line between each sensors. The luminosity level. After that, a subtraction between the
available results of the signal processing experiment grayscale complement images and the new
were used as data comparison of the plug flow wave backgrounds was undertaken (Fig. 3c). Moreover,
characteristics. Median filtering and Wiener Filtering were
implemented to reduce the different types of image
noise. Each output pixel is determined by the median
value of the neighborhood pixels for Median Filtering
while Wiener filtering is a type of linear filtering
which worked adaptively into the images by tailoring
itself to the local image variance [17]. Result of image
filtering operation is presented as well in Fig. 3d.
One of the significant steps in image processing
technique is image segmentation which covers the
binary images conversion (thresholding). A threshold
value corresponds to change the pixel value to be 1
Fig. 2. Flow pattern maps comparison (white) – for higher value and 0 (black) – for lower
value than threshold value. Due to random and
3. Image Processing Technique irregular characteristics in this flow pattern, the
Each obtained video was extracted into threshold value needs to be determined manually
sequences of images. Through the Virtual Dub rather than automatic graytresh method (Otsu’s
software, a video was splatted into the consecutive method). Hence, the binary images were performed
images. This operation produces 3600 image frames (Fig. 3e). Through the bwperim function, the binary
from each 30-seconds video. A specific algorithm image perimeter (Fig. 3f) can be performed. The
which aimed to measure liquid-phase level was command help encourage an improvement on the
developed in MATLAB® R2013a. Particularly, this apparent gas-liquid interfacial boundary.
engineering software was commonly used in digital
image processing application by providing the friendly
features in Image Processing Toolbox.
Each of digital image was treated as matrix data
(row and column processing) in pixel unit. This work
was used the thresholding method of image
segmentation to make the binary images to find binary
image. Thus, a statistical analysis support the data
analysis for example to find the liquid hold-up
distribution and wave frequency.
The algorithm was started by loading the
extracted images. At the first, those images were in Fig. 3. The following steps of image processing
form of 8-bits RGB (red-green-blue). Due to the operation: (A) Result of cropped image (B) result of
imperfection in capturing the images, an inappropriate image complementary (C) after background
orientation of the loaded images often occurs. An subtraction (D) after image filtering (E) after
image rotation should be obtained to reach the best conversion to binary mode (F) result of image
image orientation. This step is aimed to ensure best perimeter. (JG=0.24 m/s and JL=0.77 m/s)
input for the next operation steps.
The 3-layers RGB images need to convert into 1- A quantitative analysis which combined of the
layer grayscale images. As the results, the output non-linear statistics such as cross-correlation function,
images have 256 grey level index ranging from 0 power spectral density (PSD), and Probability
(black) to 255 (white) pixel. The use of MATLAB® distribution function were involved to analyze this
command of ‘rgb2gray’ allow the easiest way for the phenomena. A local analysis was adapted to determine
grayscale conversion by eliminating the hue and liquid film thickness by dividing each image frame
saturation information while retaining the luminance into three selected zones (Fig. 4). Each divided zone
[17]. Those images were then cropped into desired has 1-pixel column width. The object tracking
size depend on the essential informations. Next, in algorithm ensured the obtainment of the lowest point

Jurusan Teknik Mesin dan Industri


Fakultas Teknik UGM 214 ISSN 2355 – 6927
Proceeding
Seminar Nasional Thermofluid VI
Yogyakarta, 29 April 2014

white object (gas-plug). The liquid film thickness ()


could be obtained by this following equation:
  [( h  1)  t G ]  calibratio n (mm) (1)
where h is the column height (pipe diameter), tG is the Fig. 6. Comparison among the image processing result
gas-phase thickness, and the calculation was calibrated CFD codes and visual observation
from pixel to mm unit. (JG=0.12 m/s and JL=0.25 m/s)
4.2 Liquid hold-up characteristics
The measurement of liquid film thickness brings
on the calculation of the liquid hold-up. Basically,
the obtained data at the 2nd zone (x/L = 0.5) of local
analysis (that showed in fig. 4) was chosen due to the
best object condition. However, the observation just
produced one-dimensional side-view data that should
be converted into 3-D liquid hold-up which involves
the cross-sectional analysis. Those following
Fig 4. Illustration of the image division (160th, 320th, assumptions has been used by Majid [20] to solve the
480th column) and liquid film thickness measurement same problem.
As shown in fig. 7, the waves are periodically
4. Results and Discussion fluctuated by showing high values (for liquid-plug)
4.1 Flow Pattern and low values (for gas-plug). In this case, the gas
Plug flow pattern is characterized by the movement was hampered because the liquid film
presence of the elongated bubble that located in always tended to block the pipe. Meanwhile, the
upper layer of the pipe. This pattern consist of liquid- pressure drop in this regime was also in the chaotic
plug and gas-plugs (often recognized as Taylor condition.
bubble or elongated bubble) without any tiny aerated
bubbles behind the gas-plug. Specifically, for the
horizontal flow, the gas-phase (very low-density
phase) took place at the top of the pipe whereas
liquid phase at the bottom of it due to the gravity
effect. Image processing technique was decisively
recognized the important flow parameters, bubble-
contours, and the boundary among gas and liquid
through image segmentation operation.
Fig. 7. Typical transient liquid hold-up data
(for JG=0.12 m/s and JL=0.31 m/s)

Fig. 5. Comparison among the obtained visualization result


from photograph view and image processing

The comparison of single elongated bubble


topology which observed by visual study and image Fig. 8. The effect of gas superficial velocities
processing technique is suitably illustrated in Fig. 5. on the average liquid hold-up
It can be seen that the image processing results
perform a better interface for the bubble nose and tail Fig. 8 is revealed that the average liquid hold-up
contours. Therefore, this technique can be potentially decreases as the increase of gas superficial velocities.
used to validate the CFD codes. A comparison with In a constant duct, the increase of JG was also
the previous visual observation [18] and CFD codes contribute to increase the gas volume flow rate.
[19] are also depicted in Fig. 6. Therefore, the liquid film was shoved by the presence
of gas-phase. Thus, the liquid hold-up value
decreased. The non-linear statistics such as PSD and
PDF conclude the liquid hold-up frequency and
distribution. As can be seen in Fig. 9, the gas-liquid
plug flow has twin peaks of liquid hold-up distribution
in PDF calculation. They are liquid dominant zone

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(which has =1) and the else for gas dominant zone.
The PSD data leads the wave frequency calculation.

Fig. 9. Example of (a) PSD and (b) PDF analysis


(JG=0.51 m/s and JL=1.13 m/s)

4.3 Wave Velocity


The wave velocity data was obtained by the
cross correlation function. The measurement used
two waves which obtained from the 160th column
pixel (x/L = 0.25) and the 480th column pixel (x/L = Fig. 11. The effect of (a) JG and (b) JL
0.75) of each image frame. The wave velocity can be on the wave velocity
calculated through this following equation:
4.4 Wave Frequency
Wave velocity = (m/s) (2) The PSD analysis which based on Fast Fourier
Transform (FFT) produces the exact wave frequency
An image processing technique shows a good for each matrix data. The influence of liquid
performance in the wave velocity measurement. The superficial velocity (JL) through the wave frequency is
wave velocity data comparison is shown in Fig. 10. shown in Fig. 12. Under the constant JG, the wave
The present data are well agree with the previous frequency increases as the increase of JL. For high
studies such as CECM Measurement [15] and bubble liquid flow rates, a high wave frequency also
translational analysis [18]. The data is also compared occurred. For instances, the wave frequency can be
with the drift-flux model [21], which use the Eq. (3), obtained as the plug frequency. This term also refers
as follows: to the frequency of waves that pass a specific
Ug = C0 Jm + vgj (3) reference point.
where C0 = 0.98 and vgj = 0.16, for plug flow.

Fig. 12. Relationship between the liquid superficial


Fig. 10. Relationship between the available previous velocity and the wave frequency
studies and averaged wave velocity
The increase of JG and JL induced the less lags 5. Conclusion
time between two waves. It has a meaning that these An image processing technique was used to
variables give a significant contribution in wave determine the wave characteristics of horizontal co-
velocity enhancement. Moreover, by increasing JG in current gas-liquid plug flow. The method has an
constant JL and vice versa, the increase of the wave ability both for qualitatively ensuring a better point of
velocities was also occurred. Fig 11 (a) and (b) depict air-water interface and proceeding detailed
the effect of JG and JL on the increase of wave quantitative results on the important wave parameters.
velocities, respectively. As the results, an apparent flow pattern, the liquid
hold-up characteristics and distributions, the wave
velocity, and the wave frequency could be
automatically determined through this technique.

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A specific study was conducted that the gas and [13] Mayor, T.S., Pinto, A.M.F.R., Campos, J.B.L.M.,
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characteristics. The results are summarized as follows: of Gas-Liquid Slug Flow Along Vertical Pipes –
1. Under a constant JG, wave frequency increases Associated Uncertainty, Flow Measurement and
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2. Under a constant JL, liquid film thickness and [14] do Amaral, C.E.F., Alves, R.F., da Silva, M.J.,
liquid hold-up decrease as the increase of JG. Arruda, L.V.R., Dorini, L., Morales, R.E.M., Pipa,
3. Under the increase of JG and JL wave velocity D.R., 2013, Image Processing Techniques for High-
Speed Videometry in Horizontal Two-Phase Slug
is also increased.
Flows, Flow Measurement and Instrumentation,
Vol. 33, 257-264
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