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FREQUENCY RESPONSES

Signals and System Analysis


Transfer function G(s)

s =jω

Frequency response G(jω)

Frequency (strictly angular frequency) ω

Magnitude |G(jω)|

Phase ∠G(jω)

Signals and System Analysis


Significance of the frequency response
It indicates how much the system responds to a
sinusoidal input at different frequencies

Frequency response G(jω)

Mmagnitude |G(jω)|

Phase ∠G(jω)

Signals and System Analysis


There are several ways of plotting frequency
responses but the two most common are:

Direct plotting
|G|-ω ∠G-ω

Bode diagrams
|G| - ω in log scale
∠G- ω in log scale

Nyquist (or polar) plot


Real(G) -Imag(G)

Signals and System Analysis


Any transfer function can be plotted

1. using the Control Kit in MATLAB.

or

2. write a program using MATLAB codes

Signals and System Analysis


The Bode diagram consists of two graphs:

1. |G(jω)| against ω on a log scale


The gain in dB, that is 20log10 |G(jω)|, is plotted on a linear
scale

2. ∠G(jω) against ω on a log scale

The Nyquist plot is a locus with ω as a parameter showing


|G(jω)| and ∠G(jω as a curve as ω varies.

Signals and System Analysis


Bode plots of the following transfer functions

K – a gain

1/sT – an integrator

1/(1+sT) – a time constant or first order system

ω02/(s2+2ζsω0+ω02) – a complex pole pair or second order


system.

Signals and System Analysis


K – a gain

G(s)=K G(jω)=K

G ( jω ) = K
0
∠G ( jω ) = tan −1
=0
K

Signals and System Analysis


- K – a negative gain

G(s)=-K G(jω)=-K

G ( jω ) = K
0
∠G ( jω ) = tan−1
= 180o
−K

Signals and System Analysis


P lot Frequency Res pons e for K gain
2

1.5

1
|G|

0.5

0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

1
K=1;
0.5 omega=0:0.1:100;
G(1:1001)=K;
phas e

-0.5
G_mag=abs(G);
G_phase=atan(imag(G)./
-1
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 real(G));
om ega subplot(2,1,1);
plot(omega, G_mag);
ylabel('|G|');
title('Plot Frequency
Response for K gain');

subplot(2,1,2);
plot(omega, G_phase);
ylabel('phase');

xlabel('omega');
Signals and System Analysis
P lot Frequency Response for K gain
1

20*log10(|G|) (db)
0.5

-0.5

-1
-1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10

0.5

phas e
0

K=1; -0.5
omega=0:0.1:100;
G(1:1001)=K; -1
-1 0 1 2
G_mag=abs(G); 10 10 10 10
G_phase=atan(imag(G)./ real(G)); om ega
subplot(2,1,1);
semilogx(omega,
20*log10(G_mag));
ylabel('20*log10(|G|) (db)');
grid;
title('Plot Frequency Response
for K gain');

subplot(2,1,2);
semilogx(omega, G_phase);
ylabel('phase');
grid;
xlabel('omega');

Signals and System Analysis


1/sT – an integrator

G(jω) = 1/jωT

|G(jω)| = 1/ωT

∠G(jω = –90º.

In dB the gain

20log 10 |G(jω)| = 20log 10 (1/ωT)

On a graph with frequency on a log scale this will be a


straight line with a negative slope.

Signals and System Analysis


P lot Frequency Response for integrator
10

|G|
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

phas e 0
omega=0.1:0.1:100;
G=1 ./(j .*omega); -2
G_mag=abs(G);
G_phase=atan(imag(G)./0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
om ega
(real(G)+0.0000001));
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(omega, G_mag);
ylabel('|G|');
title('Plot Frequency
Response for integrator');
subplot(2,1,2);
plot(omega, G_phase);
ylabel('phase');
axis([0 100 -pi pi]);
xlabel('omega');
Signals and System Analysis
P lot Frequenc y Res pons e for integrator
20

20*log10(|G|) (db)
0

-20

-40
-1 0 1 2
T=1; 10 10 10 10
omega=0.1:0.1:100;
G=1 ./(j .*omega);
2
G_mag=abs(G);
G_phase=atan(imag(G)./

phas e
0
(real(G)+0.0000001));
subplot(2,1,1);
-2
semilogx(omega,
20*log10(G_mag)); -1 0 1 2
ylabel('20*log10(|G|) 10 10 10 10
om ega
(db)');
grid;
title('Plot Frequency
Response for integrator'); Slope is –6dB/octave
subplot(2,1,2); –20dB/decade
semilogx(omega, G_phase);
axis([0 100 -pi pi]); ∠G(jω = –90º = -π/2 =-1.57 rad
ylabel('phase');
grid;
xlabel('omega');
Signals and System Analysis
An octave is a frequency change of 2.

A decade is a frequency change of 10.

Geometric mean of two frequencies ωa


and ωb is the ω aω b .

Signals and System Analysis


1/(1+sT) – a time constant (first order system)

G(jω) = 1/(1+jωT)

= 1 for ω small

= 1/jωT an integrator for ω large.

Signals and System Analysis


P lot Frequenc y Res pons e for 1s t-order s ys tem
1

0.5

|G|
0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

T=1; -1
omega=0.1:0.1:100;
phas e

G=1 ./(1+T*j .*omega);


-2
G_mag=abs(G);
G_phase=atan(imag(G)./
(real(G))); -3
subplot(2,1,1); 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100
plot(omega, G_mag); om ega
ylabel('|G|');
title('Plot Frequency Response
for 1st-order system');

subplot(2,1,2);
plot(omega, G_phase);
ylabel('phase');
axis([0 100 -pi 0]);
xlabel('omega');
Signals and System Analysis
P lot Frequency Response for 1st order sys tem
0

20*log10(|G|) (db)
-10
T=1; -20
omega=0.1:0.1:100;
G=1 ./(1+T*j .*omega); -30
G_mag=abs(G); -40
G_phase=atan(imag(G)./ 10
-1
10
0
10
1
10
2

real(G));
0
subplot(2,1,1);
semilogx(omega,
-1
20*log10(G_mag));

phas e
ylabel('20*log10(|G|)
-2
(db)');
grid;
-3
title('Plot Frequency -1 0 1 2
10 10 10 10
Response for 1st order
om ega
system');

subplot(2,1,2);
semilogx(omega, 0dB line to ωT = 1,
G_phase);
axis([0 100 -pi 0]); `Integrator’ line has slope –6dB/octave
ylabel('phase');
grid;
The phase shift from 0 to –90º
xlabel('omega'); –45º at ωT = 1.

Signals and System Analysis


breakpoint

ωT 0.1 0.125 0.25 0.5 1.0 2.0 4.0 8.0 10


dB -0.05 -0.1 -0.3 -1 -3 -7 -12.3 -18.1 -20.05
Approx 0 0 0 0 0 -6 -12 -18 -20.0
dB
ϕ -6° -7° -14° -26° -45° -64° -76° -83° -84°

Table for 1/(1+sT)

Signals and System Analysis


In DB scale
20log10 (|G(jω)|)

• If |G(jω)|=1

20log10 (|G(jω)|) =0 (db)

• If 2 ×

20log10(2|G(jω)|) =20log10 (2) +20log10 (|G(jω)|)=6+20log10 (|G(jω)|) (db)

• If 10 ×

20log10 (10|G(jω)|) =20log10 (10) +20log10 (|G(jω)|)=20+20log10 (|G(jω)|)(db)

Signals and System Analysis


ω02/(s2+2ζsω0+ω02) – a complex pole pair or second
order system.

At low frequencies s->0 the gain of this transfer function is


unity (0dB).

At high frequencies G(jω)> -ω02/ω2; this is two integrators


with 0dB gain at ω = ω0.

The asymptotic approximation is therefore two straight


lines, 0dB for ω < ω0 and –12dB/oct for ω > ω0.

The shape of both the gain and phase curves near to ω0


change significantly with the value of ζ.

Signals and System Analysis


P lot Frequency Res pons e for 2s t-order sy stem
6

|G|
2

omega0=1; 0
zeta=0.1; 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
omega=0.1:0.1:10;
G=omega0^2 ./(- omega 0
.^2 +j* 2*zeta*omega0
.*omega +omega0^2); -1
G_mag=abs(G);
G_phase=atan2(imag(G), phas e
-2
(real(G+0.000001)));
subplot(2,1,1);
plot(omega, G_mag); -3
ylabel('|G|'); 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
title('Plot Frequency om ega
Response for 2st-order
system');

subplot(2,1,2);
plot(omega, G_phase);
ylabel('phase');
axis([0 10 -pi 0]);
xlabel('omega');

Signals and System Analysis


P lot Frequenc y Response for 2st order s ys tem
20

20*log10(|G|) (db)
0

-20
omega0=1;
zeta=0.1; -40
omega=0.1:0.1:10; 10
-1
10
0
10
1

G=omega0^2 ./(- omega .^2


+j* 2*zeta*omega0 .*omega 0
+omega0^2);
G_mag=abs(G);
-1
G_phase=atan2(imag(G),
phas e
(real(G+0.000001)));
subplot(2,1,1); -2
semilogx(omega,
20*log10(G_mag)); -3
ylabel('20*log10(|G|) -1 0 1
(db)'); 10 10 10
grid; om ega
title('Plot Frequency
Response for 2st order
system');
0dB for ω < 1
subplot(2,1,2);
semilogx(omega, G_phase);
–12dB/oct for ω > 1.
axis([0 10 -pi 0]);
ylabel('phase');
grid;
xlabel('omega');

Signals and System Analysis


Plot Frequency Response for 2st order system
20
ζ=0.05,
20*log10(|G|) (db) 0
ζ=0.1
-20
ζ=0.25
-40 ζ=0.707
-60
-1 0 1
ζ=1
10 10 10

-1
phase

-2

-3
-1 0 1
10 10 10
omega

Phase symmetrical about the –90º phase shift at ω = 1 for any ζ.


Signals and System Analysis
%Nyquist and Bode Plot
Nyquist (or polar) plot
clear all;

Example: w=logspace(-1,1,500);
s=j*w;
g=1 ./(s.^2+0.6 .*s+1);
1 Re=real(g);
G( s) = 2 Im=imag(g);
s + 0.6s + 1
figure(1);
plot(Re, Im,'*');
axis([-2 2 -2 2]);
1 grid;
G ( jω ) = title ('Nyquist Plot');
− ω 2 + 0.6 jω + 1
figure(2);
subplot(2,1,1);
semilogx(w,20*log10(abs(g)));
ylabel('20log10(|G|)');
title ('Bode Plot');
grid;
subplot(2,1,2);
semilogx(w,atan2(Im,Re));
ylabel('Phase (rad)');
grid;

Signals and System Analysis


Nyquist P lot
2

1.5

0.5

-0.5

-1

-1.5

-2
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 B ode Plot
10

20log10(|G|)
-10

-20

-30

-40
-1 0 1
10 10 10

-1
Phase (rad)

-2

-3

-4
-1 0 1
10 10 10

Signals and System Analysis


FILTERS

For many signal processing situations we need to design


filters to remove or amplify specific frequency
components.

Classify filters according to four basic frequency


response properties:

1. Low pass
2. High pass
3. Band pass
4. Band reject

Signals and System Analysis


A filter’s prpoerty can be described by the frequency
response

G (ω )
Or by the loss function

H (ω )

where

1
H (ω ) =
G (ω )

Signals and System Analysis


A simple low-pass filter

I(s) R

1
Vi(s) Vo(s)
sC

V0 (s) 1 / sC 1
The transfer function: G ( s ) = = or G (s) =
V i ( s ) R + 1 / sC 1 + sT
1 1
T he frequency response: G (ω ) = , G (ω ) =
1 + jω T 1 + ω 2T 2

|G ( ω ) |

ω
Signals and System Analysis
There are many types of filters, including

Butterworth Filter

Chebyshev Filter

- both low-pass filters

Signals and System Analysis


Butterworth Filter

1
G (ω ) = 1/ 2
  ω  2n

1 +   
  ω1  

ω1 - cut-off frequency

Signals and System Analysis


Chebyshev Filter

1
G (ω ) = 1/ 2
 2n

2 2 ω 
1 + ε Cn   
  ω1  

ω1 - cut-off frequency

Cn - Chebyshev nth order Chebyshev polynomial

Parameter ε links t the pass-band ripple δ

δ = 1 − (1 + ε 2 ) −1/ 2
Signals and System Analysis
|G(ω )|

Signals and System Analysis