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Compiled by: Capt. Dayan@2017


Kerjasama Tim Harian
 Kerjasama tim adalah tentang sesuatu bagaimana mengontrol
operasional kapal oleh semua personel diatas kapal. Umumnya
sudah ditetapkan di atas kapal.
 Kita hanya perlu pencegahan yang biasa dilakukan menghadapi
resiko dan ancaman yang mungkin saja terjadi. Tapi apasaja bisa
terjadi diluar kontrol dan jika terjadi maka itu memerlukan usaha
lebih dari awak kapal dalam mengambil keputusan dan saling
percaya.
 Tidak semua cukup adil terhadap beban resiko dan kompensaasi
yang sama. Setiap awak kapal harus mengambil setiap konsekuensi
dari keputusan yang telah ditetapkan.
 Biaasanya ini telah dijelaskan secara baik di dalam SOP(Standard
Operation Procedures) yang harsu di ikuti.

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Tips Mengadakan Rapat
 Berikut ini adalah tips untuk melakukan rapat (by George Robotham)
 Cari lokasi yang bebas dari gangguan.
 Pimpin rapat dengan penuh semangat, antusias dan gaya sendiri (style)
 Awali rapat dengan pembukaan (misalnya; menanyakan kondisi).
 Bawa topik/issue yang relevan dengan pekerjaan.
 Katakan dan nyatakan tujuan dari rapat.
 Berikan jawaban terhadap pertanyaan dan komentar secara positif.
 Tegaskan tanggungajwab setiap pihak
 Gunakan pertanyaan terbuka untuk mendapatkan komitment atas jawaban.
 Interaksi dari peserta adalah ide yang baik.
 Hindari gaya kuliah atau menceramahi.
 Jika tidak bisa jawab pertanyaan, tanyakan bagaimana pendapat lainnya.
 Issu/topik bisa saja terkait review of incidents, observations on practice, safety alerts,
legislative updates and safety initiatives
 Atur tindakan yang mengganggu (handphone, games, musik /video)
 Waspada terhadap orang2 yang cari ‘aman’
 Buat suatu keadaan ‘tidak ada rasa takut’, jangan menyalahkan jika ada yang
menyampaikan pendapat
 Catat ringkasan hasil rapat.
 Sedikit selipkan humor 3
Hal Penting Dalam Teamwork
Hal penting dari kerjasama tim adalah kemampuan
berkomunikasi dengan efektif. Adalah penting untuk
bisa berkomunikasi secara terbuka dan jujur tentang ide
ide, rekomendasi, kepedulian antar angota
Penting juga untuk mendengar dengan penuh perhatian
dan memberikan respon secara objektif dengan
feedback.
Komitmen adalah faktor penting dalam membangun
kerjasama tim. Tanpa komitmen maka kerjasama tim
menjadi tidak berguna

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Pressure Management inside a Team
 Pressure usually refers to the feelings a team member has about
performing his job while he experienced as a compelling or constraining
influence on the mind, or an urgent demand that must be met.
 It is our internal reactions felt in our body reaction. Our heart pounds
faster, muscles tighten, blood pressure rises, breath quickens, and our
senses become sharper. Pressure is a feeling that is created by ourselves,
when we react to particular events or situations.
 Pressure isn’t necessarily bad – it can enhance motivation, concentration
and stimulation we need.
 All in all the decisive factor of the pressure is the timing. If the time to
adjust to the change is abundant the pressure is less. If no time to adjust
to the change we feel pressure.
 The way to deal with pressure most effectively is by teamwork. As long as
we have a team we don’t need to fight along. This will reduce the
pressure of everybody.
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Pressure Management inside a Team
 Pressure can come from a variety of internal and external sources.
For example:
 Expectations to perform
 Other people’s expectations
 Preparation for the job
 Importance of this performance
 Anticipated difficulty or importance
 Individual readiness to perform
 time available
 our physical conditions
 lack of self-confidence
 implementing a new technique in job
 repeated errors

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Pressure Management inside a Team
 How should we prepare for Pressure
 You must practice pressure situations in your mind-set, so they become normal and easy to
handle.
 Ensure you have good preparation in knowledge which leading up to your profession.
 Pressure situations require enhanced communication – practise this in your learning.
 Learn to focus on the right thing at the right time, discuss it with your superior.
 Often we rush things under pressure. It’s better to slow down and get some opinion from
others than to rush it and make an error.
 Some people will benefit from engaging in some relaxation exercises to help them to feel calm
and focused.
 no negative thoughts..., think positively.
 Share how you feel with others – talking about how you feel can help you to deal with
 Strive for excellence, not perfection. It is okay to make mistakes under pressure, so long as you
are supervised by your superior.
 Focus on the skill you had. Pay attention to the things you have practised – they are familiar so
they won’t feel pressured.
 Have good error recovery strategies – people tend to make more errors when they perceive
they are under pressure, so you need to have a good strategy to deal
 Remember, it’s not about your feelings, it’s about your actions. Take the focus off how you feel,
by putting your focus onto what you should do. Your actions affect your emotions so go through
the right actions (pretend if you must) and you will feel better.
 Identify the actions/skills that suffer most when you are in a pressure situation. Put extra time
into understanding those skills and knowledge so that you feel confident in them in any
circumstance.
 Increased fitness helps you deal with pressure. Make sure your fitness in the body. 7
Complacency while the pressure is low
Pressure is a relative term to each person. Sometimes
you feel pressure mounting and sometimes you feel it is
OK. If you felt the pressure it is a good thing. At least you
will try to do something about it.
If you felt no pressure or just a little bit of disturb. You
might in the stage of complacency where “false status of
security mentally although the physical threat is still
present Mentally, the conscious is under low aroused
status and feels self –sustained without any solid ground
of reason, almost in an unconscious status.”

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Root Causes of teamwork Complacency
1. EXCESSIVE RELIANCE ON PRIOR SUCCESS: The more often a particular routine
achieves a successful outcome, the more likely people are to develop an
unwarranted belief that success is assured. This is part of human nature we all
need the structure (the routine) to follow even it is in a teamwork. This is the
reason why the civilization developed where people can use his skill and
knowledge through the same practices over and over again.
2. ARROGANCE OF EXPERTS: The fact that the Captain can handle the situation
more efficiency than young OOW can lead to the illusion that he is always right.
Young OOW finds the trust is very convenience for his own development. The
captain did not realize his practice might introduce some risks in critical
situation that he had no longer control, like the vessel had not enough room to
finish his turn in Chapter 7.
3. OVER- EMPHASIZE ON ACTION: Management is encouraging action plan. The
mind-set for action that is necessary for getting things done which may
discourage listening to non-believers or any doubts, even when their points of
view have some merit. Nevertheless, most valuable knowledge may lies in
negative statements that reveal the pitfalls, difficulties, and obstacles that lie in
the way of process. These statements from young OOW can be seen as a threat
to voyage plans and objectives, fear of negative career consequences can
hamper their assertiveness.

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Root Causes of teamwork Complacency
4. OVER-RELIANCE ON EXTERNAL RESOURCES: Marine Technical department in
the office have a tendency to believe in the infallibility of their resources,
particularly in areas where they have some external knowledge and analyses.
This can be a serious problem for ship board operation, which can generate a
false sense of infallibility also. On board the vessel the situation will never be
the same as they had expected at shore. Captains have to use his own
discretion to best guide the ship’s safety not rely on Company instruction only.
5. THE “BLACK SWAN” BIAS: People tend to underestimate the possibility of
unprecedented risks. Because all the swans they have seen are white, they
assume black swans do not exist. A black-swan event is beyond the realm of
normal expectations and tends to be underestimated, even by experts. The
difficulty of learning from black-swan events is compounded by the fact that
they rarely repeat, like the Captain found his vessel inside the pocket of 6
vessels in Chapter 6 where he has lost control of vessel’s turning movement.
6. GROUPTHINK: Groupthink occurs when people are involved in a group decision
process overrides the realistic appraisal of any alternative could be taken or
asserted by any individual, including illusions of invulnerability and a sense of
superiority; collective rationalization and stereotyping of outsiders; ignoring
contrary data; suppressing alternative viewpoints; and denying leadership from
dissent.

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THE HUMAN FATIGUE
 Fatigue is a common problem in shipping
industry, IMO in MSC/Circ. 1014 June
2001 has defined fatigue as
“A reduction in physical and/or mental
capability as the result of physical, mental or
emotional exertion which may impair nearly
all physical abilities including: strength;
speed; reaction time; coordination; decision
making; or balance.”
 Circadian Rhythms: is the natural body's
rhythm and is repeated almost every 24
hours; it is also called internal body clock.
 The circadian rhythm affects many
functions of the body such as; body
temperature, digestion, hormone levels
and most importantly sleeping behaviour.
Generally the physiology of human body
is designed so that to work during the
days and sleep at nights.
 Most of the functions of human body are
at their maximum activity during day time
and at their minimum activity at night.
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THE HUMAN FATIGUE
 Human body requires restorative sleep in order to be alert, restorative sleep has four
elements:
1. Duration; an average adult requires 7 to 8 hours sleep in a 24 hour period.
2. Continuity; the sleep period must be continuous and without interruptions.
3. Quality; five stages of any sleeping cycle must be complete as each stage provides a different
benefit.(see table 2.1)
4. Time of day; sleeping during the night has higher quality than during the day.(see figure 2.1)
 During the sleeping session the human body cycles through different levels of sleep

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THE HUMAN FATIGUE - Environmental Factors
 Motion: It must be said that it is much more difficult to work in a moving
environment than a stationary environment and the energy consumed to perform a
task is much higher. The ship motion could cause sleep disturbances. (Dobie, 2003)
Wilson (et al, 1993) by using a simulator found that performance and cognitive
processing were substantially degraded. Motion-induced fatigue is in fact of
significant importance. It may increase the incidence of mistakes which could remain
unnoticed.
 Vibration: Whole-body vibration could affect personal comfort, efficiency at work
and even personal safety and health. Dobie, (2003) Vibration could be transmitted to
the human body in different ways. First from the surface of the body, second from a
part of the body that is in contact with the ship, e.g. feet or buttocks and third from
the individual part of the body. Vibration could have other indirect effects on
human's performance.
 Noise: Noise has two distinct effects on human body, one is the long term impact
which is the hearing loss and the other is the short-term impact which is fatigue and
reduced human performance. (Calhoun 1999) The noise has been defined by
scientists as unwanted and undesirable sound. The noise has physiological effect
which has an impact on human performance due to fatigue.
 Lighting: Lighting is the key to maintain human biological clock, i.e. the circadian
rhythm. The sun light provides this light even on cloudy days. Some crew members
on board merchant ships spend the majority of their times without being exposed to
natural sun light, therefore they are only confined to electric lightings; this can lead
to shift of sleep patterns and fatigue. One thing is unfortunate; the electrical lighting
which is normally installed on board ships is not strong enough and fatigue will rise.
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THE HUMAN FATIGUE - Consequences of Fatigue
1. Accidents and Injuries: Number of hours worked before the casualty and number of
hours worked during last 24, 48 and 72 hours before the casualty is highly
important in the occurrence of the casualty. In personal injuries which are related
to fatigue, in average the mariners have worked 7.7 hours prior to accident and in
non-fatigue related personal injuries the mariners have worked only 3.2 hours prior
to the injury. 33% of personal injuries and 16% of ship casualty accidents have
fatigue as a casual or contributory factor. McCallum et al, (1996)
2. Performance: Fatigue is usually defined operationally in terms of performance
decrements. There are not enough researches in the field of maritime domain but
the relationship between fatigue and performance among seafarers can be
considered almost the same as other transport sectors. The human performance is
affected by a number of factors, including the nature of the specific job, the job role
and life stress experienced. (Sanquist et al, 1996) The mariners experience various
physical and environmental stressors, such as weather, ship vibration and noise. The
impact of these factors may be very large and unfortunately unpredictable, since
for example the bad weather can affect the entire crew in terms of sleep and
balance.
3. Health: Fatigue is linked to ill health. It is a common factor in worker's consultations
with General Practitioners, and prospective studies have shown that there is a clear
relation between negative work conditions, fatigue and subsequent illness. (Leone
et al, 2006) Shift work is a normal practice on ships and sleep deprivation and
disturbed sleep are the most common effect of shift work which may lead to fatigue
and ill health.
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THE HUMAN FATIGUE
 The issue of fatigue features in many accident reports, albeit
mainly relating to minimum manned short sea shipping. According
to the IMO, fatigue is an important issue that has hitherto been
discounted as a potential cause of or contributor to human error6.
It had been suggested that fatigue could be prevented through
some of the characteristics described in the context of personal
attributes articulated above. But, if the seafarer is unable to
identify the causes of fatigue, he will be unable to take measures
to prevent it.

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Case study : Contact between Pride of Provence and The
Southern Breakwater
Report on the investigation of the contact between Pride of Provence and The
Southern Breakwater, Dover Harbour, eastern entrance on 18 April 2003
 M.V.”Pride of Provence”, a ro-ro passenger ferry with 641 persons on board,
made heavy contact with the end of the southern breakwater at the eastern
entrance to Dover Harbour on 18 April 2003 at 1724. It was daylight, the
weather was good and the visibility clear. There was a strong north-easterly
wind and a southerly flowing tidal stream across the entrance.
 At the time of the accident, the ferry was approaching the port, having
completed one of her regular cross-Channel passages from Calais. The vessel’s
master had the con and he was supported by a full team of officers and ratings.
The master intended to turn his vessel as he passed between the breakwaters,
and then to run down the inside of the eastern arm before swinging and
securing stern-to on No 2 ro-ro berth. However, his heading at the end of his
approach to the entrance, was such that, as he turned the vessel, her stern
collided with the end of the southern breakwater.
 The principal cause of the accident was poor communication and passage
planning, and disorientation of the master. Although the master briefed his
bridge team on his intended approach and pre-berthing manoeuvre, the briefing
was rudimentary and did not give key team members the information they
needed to monitor the approach.

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Case study : Report on the investigation of the contact between
Pride of Provence and The Southern Breakwater

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Case Study: Grounding of a bulk carrier
on a charted shoal while approaching a loading facility

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See you next port !
Capt. Dayan@2017 19
Case study : Report on the investigation of the contact between
Pride of Provence and The Southern Breakwater
 The master’s approach was not planned in detail and was flawed: he did
not show positive control of the navigation, and did not allow sufficiently
for the effects of the tidal stream and wind.
 Our comments:
 Master took over the con too late at 1718 hours. no time for toolbox meeting.
 Master order to steer towards southern B/W end regardless the wind and
current effects at 1720 hours. No one remind him about this.
 C/O did his part in a team asserted to Captain of the distance and speed at 1722
hours.
 This is the only time to make thing right again and is the “point of no return”
where the ship is at 6 times of ship’s length distance from the breaker water
entrance.
 At 1723, the master started a swing to starboard as Pride of Provence neared the
entrance.
 This is too late for the turn. Please beware of the ship’s position setting
to south quickly from 172200 to 172300 hours two ship’s width which is
half width of the B/W entrance.
 Reader are encouraged to measure 6 ship’s length and two ship’s width
(advance and setting from 1722 hours) by a ruler to realize the
importance of Chief Officer assertiveness.
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Case study : Report on the investigation of the contact between
Pride of Provence and The Southern Breakwater

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