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Patient-operated glucose monitor and diabetes management system

Lyle M Allen III


US Patent 4,731,726, 1988
A monitor system is provided which includes means for measuring blood glucose values and for
generating glucose data signals, monitor means coupled to the measuring means and including
means for inputting patient data, means for transmitting and receiving data to and from the
monitor means, and computing means for receiving glucose data signal in connection with
administration treatment for diabetes mellitus.
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Interventions to improve the management of diabetes mellitus in primary care, outpatient and
community settings
Carry Mira Renders, Gerlof D Valk, Simon J Griffin, Edward Wagner, Jacques ThM van Eijk,
Willem JJ Assendelft
Cochrane database of systematic reviews, 2000
Background
Diabetes is a common chronic disease that is increasingly managed in primary care. Different
systems have been proposed to manage diabetes care.
Objectives
To assess the effects of different interventions, targeted at health professionals or the structure in
which they deliver care, on the management of patients with diabetes in primary care, outpatient
and community settings.
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care.diabetesjournals.org
Interventions to improve the management of diabetes in primary care, outpatient, and community
settings: a systematic review
Carry M Renders, Gerlof D Valk, Simon J Griffin, Edward H Wagner, Willem JJ Assendelft
Diabetes care 24 (10), 1821-1833, 2001
OBJECTIVE—To review the effectiveness of interventions targeted at health care professionals
and/or the structure of care in order to improve the management of diabetes in primary care,
outpatient, and community settings.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS—A systematic review of controlled trials evaluating the
effectiveness of interventions targeted at health care professionals and aimed at improving the
process of care or patient outcomes for patients with diabetes was performed. Standard search
methods of the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organization of Care Group were used.
RESULTS—A total of 41 studies met the inclusion criteria. The studies identified were
heterogeneous in terms of interventions, participants, settings, and reported outcomes. In all
studies, the interventions were multifaceted. The interventions were targeted at health care
professionals only in 12 studies, at the organization of care only in 9 studies, and at both in 20
studies. Complex professional interventions improved the process of care, but the effect on patient
outcomes remained less clear because such outcomes were rarely assessed. Organizational
interventions that facilitated the structured and regular review of patients also showed a favorable
effect on process measures. Complex interventions in which patient education was added and/or
the role of a nurse was enhanced led to improvements in patient outcomes as well as the process of
care.
CONCLUSIONS—Multifaceted professional interventions and organizational interventions that
facilitate structured and regular review of patients were effective in improving the process of care.
The addition of patient education to these interventions and the enhancement of the role of nurses
in diabetes care led to improvements in patient outcomes and the process of care.

DIABETES MELITUS TIPE 2

Restyana Noor Fatimah

Medical Faculty, Lampung University

Abstract

Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus is a metabolic disorder that is marked by the rise in blood sugar due to a
decrease in

insulin secretion by pancreatic beta cells and insulin function ordisorder (insulin resistance).
Results Health

Researchin 2008, showed the incidence of diabetes mellitus in Indonesia reached 57%, while the
incidence in

type 2 diabetes mellitus World is 95%. Risk factors of diabetes mellitus type 2, namely age,
gender, obesity,

hypertension, genetics, diet, smoking, alcohol, lack ofactivity, waist circumference, . Treatment
done by the use

of oral medication hyperglycemia and insulin as well as life style modification storeduce the
incidence and

microvascular and macrovascular complications of diabetes mellitus type 2.

Keywords: Definition, diabetes mellitus type 2, risk factors, treatment


Abstrak

Diabetes Mellitus Tipe 2 adalah penyakit gangguan metabolik yang di tandai ole

ahajournals.org
How do stroke units improve patient outcomes? A collaborative systematic review of the
randomized trials
Stroke Unit Trialists’Collaboration
Stroke 28 (11), 2139-2144, 1997
Background and Purpose We sought to clarify the way in which organized inpatient (stroke unit)
care can produce reductions in case fatality and in the need for institutional care after stroke.
Methods We performed a secondary analysis of a collaborative systematic review of all
randomized trials that compared organized inpatient (stroke unit) care with contemporary
conventional care. Nineteen trials were included, of which 18 (3246 patients) could provide
outcome data on death, place of residence, and final functional outcome. Data were less complete
(but always available for at least 12 trials; 1611 patients) for subgroup analyses examining timing
and cause of death and outcomes in patients with different levels of severity of initial stroke.
Results The reduction in case fatality of patients managed in a stroke unit setting developed
between 1 and 4 weeks after the index stroke. The reduction in the odds of death was evident
across all causes of death and most marked for those deaths considered to be secondary to
immobility. However, data were insufficient to permit a firm conclusion. The relative increase in
the number of patients discharged home from stroke units as opposed to conventional care was
largely attributable to an increase in the number of patients returning home physically
independent. Across the range of stroke severity, stroke unit care was associated with
nonsignificant increases in the number of patients regaining independence.
Conclusions Within the limitations of the available data, we conclude that organized inpatient
stroke unit care probably benefits a wide range of stroke patients in a variety of different ways, ie,
reducing death from secondary complications of stroke and reducing the need for institutional care
through a reduction in disability.
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ahajournals.org
Guidelines for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for
healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association
Edward C Jauch, Jeffrey L Saver, Harold P Adams Jr, Askiel Bruno, JJ Connors, Bart M
Demaerschalk, Pooja Khatri, Paul W McMullan Jr, Adnan I Qureshi, Kenneth Rosenfield, Phillip
A Scott, Debbie R Summers, David Z Wang, Max Wintermark, Howard Yonas
Stroke 44 (3), 870-947, 2013
Background and Purpose—
The authors present an overview of the current evidence and management recommendations for
evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke. The intended audiences are
prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health professionals, and hospital administrators
responsible for the care of acute ischemic stroke patients within the first 48 hours from stroke
onset. These guidelines supersede the prior 2007 guidelines and 2009 updates.
Methods—
Members of the writing committee were appointed by the American Stroke Association Stroke
Council’s Scientific Statement Oversight Committee, representing various areas of medical
expertise. Strict adherence to the American Heart Association conflict of interest policy was
maintained throughout the consensus process. Panel members were assigned topics relevant to
their areas of expertise, reviewed the stroke literature with emphasis on publications since the
prior guidelines, and drafted recommendations in accordance with the American Heart Association
Stroke Council’s Level of Evidence grading algorithm.
Results—
The goal of these guidelines is to limit the morbidity and mortality associated with stroke. The
guidelines support the overarching concept of stroke systems of care and detail aspects of stroke
care from patient recognition; emergency medical services activation, transport, and triage;
through the initial hours in the emergency department and stroke unit. The guideline discusses
early stroke evaluation and general medical care, as well as ischemic stroke, specific interventions
such as reperfusion strategies, and general physiological optimization for cerebral resuscitation.
Conclusions—
Because many of the recommendations are based on limited data, additional research on treatment
of acute ischemic stroke remains urgently needed.
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[PDF] medcriticapanama.com
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stroke
Cendekia
Free from Publisher
How do stroke units improve patient outcomes? A collaborative systematic review of the
randomized trials
SU Trialists'Collaboration - Stroke, 1997 - Am Heart Assoc
Background and Purpose We sought to clarify the way in which organized inpatient (stroke unit)
care can produce reductions in case fatality and in the need for institutional care after stroke.
Methods We performed a secondary analysis of a collaborative systematic review of …
Dirujuk 384 kali Artikel terkait
[PDF] medcriticapanama.com
Free from Publisher
… for the early management of patients with acute ischemic stroke: a guideline for healthcare
professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke …
EC Jauch, JL Saver, HP Adams Jr, A Bruno… - Stroke, 2013 - Am Heart Assoc
Background and Purpose—The authors present an overview of the current evidence and
management recommendations for evaluation and treatment of adults with acute ischemic stroke.
The intended audiences are prehospital care providers, physicians, allied health …
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[PDF] cmp-brno.cz
Free from Publisher
Classification of subtype of acute ischemic stroke. Definitions for use in a multicenter clinical
trial. TOAST. Trial of Org 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment.
HP Adams Jr, BH Bendixen, LJ Kappelle, J Biller… - stroke, 1993 - Am Heart Assoc
The etiology of ischemic stroke affects prognosis, outcome, and management. Trials of therapies
for patients with acute stroke should include measurements of responses as influenced by subtype
of ischemic stroke. A system for categorization of subtypes of ischemic …
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[PDF] semanticscholar.org
Free from Publisher
Symptomatic ischemic stroke in full-term neonates: role of acquired and genetic prothrombotic
risk factors
G Günther, R Junker, R Sträter, R Schobess… - Stroke, 2000 - Am Heart Assoc
Background and Purpose—The present multicenter case-control study was prospectively designed
to assess the extent to which single and combined clotting factor abnormalities influence the onset
of symptomatic ischemic stroke in full-term neonates. Methods …
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Recommendations for standards regarding preclinical neuroprotective and restorative drug
development.
TAIRS Stroke - Stroke, 1999 - ncbi.nlm.nih.gov
The plethora of failed clinical trials with neuroprotective drugs for acute ischemic stroke have
raised justifiable concerns about how best to proceed for the future development of such
interventions. Preclinical testing of neuroprotective drugs is an important aspect of assessing …
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[PDF] bostonscientific.com
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Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: the Framingham Study.
PA Wolf, RD Abbott, WB Kannel - Stroke, 1991 - Am Heart Assoc
The impact of nonrheumatic atrial fibrillation, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and cardiac
failure on stroke incidence was examined in 5,070 participants in the Framingham Study after 34
years of follow-up. Compared with subjects free of these conditions, the age …
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[PDF] academia.edu
Free from Publisher
Interobserver agreement for the assessment of handicap in stroke patients.
JC Van Swieten, PJ Koudstaal, MC Visser… - stroke, 1988 - Am Heart Assoc
Interobserver agreement for the assessment of handicap in stroke patients was investigated in a
group of 10 senior neurologists and 24 residents from two centers. One hundred patients were
separately interviewed by two physicians in different combinations. The …
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[C] Blood pressure, cholesterol, and stroke in eastern Asia
E Stroke… - Lancet, 1998 - ci.nii.ac.jp
… Blood pressure, cholesterol, and stroke in eastern Asia. Eastern Stroke and Coronary Heart
Disease Collaborative Research Group; Cited by (19). Access this Article. DOI. Author(s). Eastern
Stroke and Coronary Heart Disease Collaborative Research Group; Journal. Lancet …
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[PDF] researchgate.net
Organised inpatient (stroke unit) care for stroke
SU Trialists'Collaboration - Cochrane Database Syst Rev, 2007 - researchgate.net
Background Organised stroke unit care is provided by multidisciplinary teams that exclusively
manage stroke patients in a dedicated ward (stroke, acute, rehabilitation, comprehensive), with a
mobile stroke team or within a generic disability service (mixed …
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[PDF] semanticscholar.org
Free from Publisher
Probability of stroke: a risk profile from the Framingham Study.
PA Wolf, RB D'Agostino, AJ Belanger, WB Kannel - Stroke, 1991 - Am Heart Assoc
A health risk appraisal function has been developed for the prediction of stroke using the
Framingham Study cohort. The stroke risk factors included in the profile are age, systolic blood
pressure, the use of antihypertensive therapy, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking …
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