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Microbiology and Pathology



It is the branch of medicine. It is the study of small living

organisms which can capture only with microscopes. It mainly
deals with microorganisms, viruses, fungi, protozoa and including
bacteria. Microbiology is the heart of sciences. Microbiology plays
a major role in other science branches like pathology, genetics,
immunology, biochemistry, molecular biology, mainly in clinical
and medical industries. It is also useful for human beneficial
products like medicines, antibiotics, vaccines, and
biotechnological products. The following mentioned branches in

Actually, Microbiology consists of divisions and subdivisions.

Firstly we should talk about the divisions of microbiology.
Divisions of microbiology

 Pure Microbiology
 Medical Microbiology
 Applied Microbiology
 Environmental Microbiology
 Agricultural Microbiology


Pathology is a branch of medical is the study of disease

and it includes an examination of organs, tissues, body fluid, and
auto species to study and diagnose disease. The word pathology
derived from the Greek words “pathos” means “disease” and
“logos” means “a treatise” which means- a treatise of disease.
The following presents some divisions of pathology.

 Clinical pathology
 Anatomical pathology
 Forensic pathology
 Molecular pathology
 Surgical pathology
 General pathology

About divisions of microbiology

Pure Microbiology

In this division, scientist study and explore a particular group of

microorganisms to better understand them. Mainly they study the
classification of a specific group of organisms, structure, and
function to observe exploiting and controlling their activities. And
also how to use one bacteria to spread of another. Pure
microbiology consist with

Mycology- it deals with the fungi.

Virology- it is dealing with the virus.

Immunology- the study of the immune system.

Protozoologists- study about protozoa.

Parasitologists- study about parasitic microorganisms.

Bacteriologists- study about bacteria strains.

Nematologists- deals with nematodes.

Medical Microbiology

Medical microbiology is also known as clinical microbiology. It is

the study of microbes role in human illness and disease. And at
the same time study about beneficial microbes to the humans and
animals. Microbiology has great importance in the medical field.
Louis Pasteur and Robert Koch these two persons have great lines
in microbiology history and also these two persons are the
founders of Medical Microbiology. Medical Microbiology Fields

Microbial genetics- deals with how microbes to the cellular

functions in genes
Microbial physiology-deals with metabolism, microbial structure,
and microbial growth

Parasitology-it is the examination of parasites in the blood, urine,

and cerebrospinal fluids

Applied Microbiology

Applied microbiology focuses on microbes abilities to make

medicines, Food ingredients, industrial enzymes. simply applied
microbiology applies or refers microbes to the production of
enzymes, vitamins, vaccines, and antibiotics. Applied
Microbiology fields are

Pharmaceutical Microbiology

Industrial Microbiology

Microbial Biotechnology

Food Microbiology

Agricultural Microbiology

Veterinary Microbiology


Environmental Microbiology

Environmental Microbiology is the study of the microbial process

in an environment and it includes the interactions between
microbes and microorganisms. Environmental microbiology also
interacts with the microorganisms that exist in unnatural
environments such as bioreactors.

Agricultural microbiology
it is mainly associated with the microorganisms in agriculture and
deals with the plant and animal disease. And also deals with the
microbiology of soil fertility. Some of the soil microorganisms are
Bacteria, actinomycetes, Fungi, protozoa. Soil microorganisms
mainly involved in the transformation of the nutrient process. And
improves soil structure and useful to biological equilibrium

About divisions of Pathology

Clinical Pathology

Clinical pathology includes a wide range functions of laboratory

and deals with the diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of
disease. Mainly in clinical pathology involves an analysis of blood,
urine, and other body fluid. with the help of different types of
tools such as Microscopes, analyzers, strips, centrifugal machines

Anatomical pathology

Anatomical pathology or anatomic pathology is a branch of

science in medical deals with the diagnosis of disease based on
the examination of organs and tissues. It is considered one of the
diagnostic branches in medicine. In anatomical,l pathology, there
are two main sub-branches. The first one is histopathology, and
the second one is cytopathology or cytology. In Histopathology
whole tissues will be examined under the microscope. And in
cytology single cell will be examined under a microscope. A
common test of cytology is the cervical smear.

Forensic pathology

Forensic pathology is the subspecialty of pathology in the medical

field. It mainly deals with the crime, sudden and suspicious
unexplained deaths. A forensic pathologist examines the cause of
dead bodies in order to determine, and as well as looks for
evidence. Forensic pathologists also called as coroners.
Molecular Pathology

Molecular pathology is a subspecialty of pathology which is deals

with the diagnosis of the disease through the molecules
examination within organs, blood, and tissues.

Surgical Pathology

Surgical pathology is the most time-consuming practice for most

pathologists. Surgical pathology is the study of removing tissues
from living patients during surgery to helps diagnose a disease
and also determine for a treatment plan.

General pathology

This sub-branch involves all aspects of pathology and also all

aspects of laboratory investigations in a disease that focuses on
the causes of health.