0 tayangan

Diunggah oleh Angelo John R. Javinez

`1234

- FLEXION COMPOSEE.pdf
- Finite Element Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Beams with Corroded Shear Reinforcement
- Bridge structural design
- Drill String Failure Theory Calculations Mitigation
- Cal Cul de Longer On
- ARPS_HP_ES
- 145_CanGeoJournal_2004_Vol41_No3_451_466 A New design method for retaining wall in clay.pdf
- Crack Initiation
- TD5
- SYNTHESEflexion-4t
- 1-introduction.pdf
- 126 Contraintes de 0 a Elu Section Qq v2 1
- PoinConnement
- l3 Upssitech Rdm 2013s1 Corrige
- Poutres continus.pdf
- Assemblages Sous Chargement Statique
- formulation
- charge concentrée.docx
- energie de déformation
- SKILLS M12F Pannes laminées à chaud

Anda di halaman 1dari 9

made of concrete with different strengths – Theoretical

approach

I. A. E. M. Shehata1, L. C. D. Shehata1,2 and S. L. G. Garcia1

(1) COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

(2) Universidade Federal Fluminense, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.

A B S T R A C T R É S U M É

Minimum reinforcement is provided in concrete Un renforcement minimum des poutres en béton armé est prévu

beams in order to improve their behaviour towards crack- pour améliorer leur comportement en cas de fissuration et leur ducti-

ing and ductility at failure. lité dans la rupture.

Generally, codes of practice equations for the mini- En général les formules des normes techniques pour les pourcen-

mum steel ratios, longitudinal and transversal, are mainly tages minimum des armatures longitudinales et transversales sont

empirical and do not include all the influential parameters simplement empiriques et ne contiennent pas tous les paramètres

in them. For this reason and due to the fact that they do influents. Pour cette raison et comme elles ne prennent pas en consi-

lack of a theoretical background, different codes can give dération des fondements théoriques, les différents règlements donnent

values for the minimum steel ratios that greatly differs des valeurs très différentes pour les pourcentages minimum d’acier.

from one another. Also the validity of these equations may La validité de ces formules peut être mise en doute particulièrement

be questioned particularly in the case of high strength dans les cas de poutres en béton à haute résistance et des poutres pré-

concrete beams and prestressed concrete beams for which contraintes pour lesquelles seuls des résultats d’essais très limités sont

limited test data are available. disponibles.

In this work, a theoretical approach for the minimum Dans cette communication une approche théorique pour les

steel ratios that are required for the ductile behaviour at pourcentages minimum d’acier requis pour le comportement ductile

failure in bending, shear and torsion, in concrete beams dans la rupture par flexion, effort tranchant et torsion, des poutres

made of concrete with different strengths is presented. en béton armé exécutées avec des bétons de différentes résistances est

Comparisons are also made between the proposed expres- presentée. Des comparaisons entre les expressions proposées et celles

sions, the codes expressions and available test results. des règlements sont présentées.

Nowadays, the meaning of structural safety has

Design codes for reinforced and prestressed concrete widened up and includes the behaviour of the structure

structures have given lately a great deal of emphasis on during the eventual collapse and beyond it. A structure

the structural behaviour in the Ultimate Limit State should show enough signs (cracking and deformation)

(ULS) and beyond that state in the Post Collapse Limit before the collapse is reached and, in the event of loosing

State (PCLS). one or few of its individual members, a progressive

In the past, the structural safety was assured only by mode of collapse should be prevented.

the introduction of the partial factors of safety for both For this reason and others, the minimum and maxi-

materials and loading, irrespective of the mode of failure mum limits for project variables (steel ratios, member

that might occur or the post collapse residual strength. In dimensions, stress level, etc.) are established in the

fact, the guarantee of surplus resistance is not an overall design codes. Some of these limits, especially minimum

guarantee of structural safety, since in the event of over- steel ratios, have to be revised in order to cover members

loading and lack of member ductility at failure there will made of high strength concrete and prestressed members

be no force redistribution and a sudden collapse without that are not addressed adequately by current codes.

1359-5997/03 © RILEM 3

Materials and Structures/Matériaux et Constructions, Vol. 36, January-February 2003

forced concrete elements for one or more reasons: duc-

tility and residual strength at collapse, minimum strength

at ULS, minimum strength at PCLS, crack distribution

and durability.

In this work, a theoretical approach for the minimum

longitudinal and transversal steel ratios in beams sub-

jected to flexure, shear and torsion, associated only with

the ductility and minimum strength at ULS, is pre-

sented. The ductility through out this work is under-

stood as the capacity of a section, a structure member or

a structure as whole to undergo a reasonable amount of

plastic deformation without significant loss of strength

during its collapse (ULS). Fig. 1 – Stress distribution in a rectangular concrete section

under cracking moment.

FLEXURE a minimum moment of resistance M and a certain

amount of ductility at failure of a beam should satisfy

From the previous definition of ductility, the mini- both Equations (1) and (2).

mum flexural steel reinforcement can be any tensile longi- The previous analysis is valid only if the beam is pre-

tudinal steel ratio that is smaller than the balance steel ratio, cracked in f lexure. If, on the other hand, the beam is

provided that the steel deformation is less than the ultimate uncracked, the following analysis should be considered

steel deformation (deformation at steel rupture), i.e.: taking into consideration the cracking moment Mcr.

A M M In this case, it is important to guarantee that, if the

ρ s ,min = s ,min ≥ = < ρ s ,bal (1)

b.d b.d .z ⋅ fy b.d .(d − 0.5β ⋅ x ) ⋅ fy cracking moment Mcr is reached due to eventual over-

loading, the forces resisted by concrete in tension is

with transmitted to tensile longitudinal steel capable of resist-

ε cu fc ing Mcr, i.e.,

ρ s ,bal = α ⋅ β ⋅ ⋅

ε cu + ε y fy ρ s ,min ⋅ b ⋅ d ⋅ fy ⋅ z = M cr

where α, β are the parameters of the rectangular stress M cr

block (α = 0.85 and β = 0.8 for normal strength concrete). ρ s ,min = (3)

b ⋅ d ⋅ fy ⋅ z

Equation (1) is valid for any concrete strength pro-

vided that the rectangular stress block parameters (α), (β) The value of the cracking moment M cr can be

and the ultimate concrete strain (εcu) are adjusted to the obtained from the linear elastic stress distribution along

strength used. The CSA A23.3 [6], that covers concrete the section and the tensile strength of the concrete

with strength up to 80 MPa, for example, propose (Fig. 1b). In the case of rectangular cross section without

α = (0.85 –0.0015fc) ≥ 0.67, β = (0.97-0.0025fc) ≥ 0.67, normal forces (ignoring shrinkage and temperature

and a constant εcu = 3.5‰. effects), the neutral axis depth is x = 0.5 h and, therefore,

In order to avoid the sudden rupture of the reinforce- the cracking moment can be written as:

ment when the concrete reaches its ultimate strain εcu,

fct ⋅ b ⋅ h 2 (4a)

the maximum steel deformation in the section should be M cr = = 0.167 fct ⋅ b ⋅ h 2

limited to ultimate strain εsu, 6

or, in the non-dimensional form,

d−x

ε s ,max = ⋅ ε cu ≤ ε su , M cr f

x µ cr = = 0.167 ct (4b)

b ⋅ h 2 ⋅ fc fc

x fy 1

or = ρ s ,min = Considering the flexural tensile strength of concrete

d α ⋅ β ⋅ fc ε su as given by the CEB-FIP MC90 [9]:

+1

ε cu

0.7

and, consequently: h

1 + 1.5 100

0.67

fct , f = 0.2 fck 0.7

(5)

1 f h

ρ s ,min = α ⋅ β ⋅ ⋅ c

ε f (2) 100

su

+ 1 y

ε

cu the non-dimensional cracking moment (µ cr) can be

Then, the flexural minimum steel ratio that provides expressed as a function of fck:

4

Shehata, Shehata, Garcia

strength of concrete given as fctp = ν.fct, where ν < 1.0 is the

effectiveness factor. The value of this factor is obtained by

equating the areas underneath the stress-strain diagrams for

the actual and idealised elasto-plastic diagrams (see Fig. 2),

for a given relation between the ultimate deformation (εtu )

and the deformation of the concrete (εo) at peak stress (fct ).

Fig. 3 gives the values of (ν) obtained as function of the

ratio (εtu /εo ), for a range of variation of this ratio between

1.5 and 2.0 and the stress-strain curves given in Fig. 2.

Considering that the concrete modulus of elasticity is

the same for tension and compression, from the equilib-

rium of the section, the plastic moment at failure is:

Fig. 2 – Assumed actual and plastic stress–strain curves for con-

crete under uniaxial tension. 1 x x ycg

Mp = fct , f ⋅ b ⋅ h 2 ⋅ 1 − ⋅ 2 ⋅ + 3 ⋅

6 h h h

with:

1 ε ε

ycg = 1 − ⋅ 1 + tu ⋅ ( h − x ) for tu ≤ 2

6 εo εo

ε x

σ c = fct , f ⋅ tu

εo h − x

ε tu

ε − 1

o

x= h⋅

ε tu

− 1

εo

ε tu

Assuming = 1.85, which corresponds to ν = 2/3,

Fig. 3 – Variation of the effectiveness factor with the relationship εo

between the maximum deformation and the deformation at peak

stress for concrete in tension. one can obtain (see Fig. 3)

x = 0.424 h

ycg = 0.302 h (position of the resultant of the tension

0.7 forces with respect to neutral axis)

h σc = 1.36 fct,, f

1 + 1.5 100

−0.33 Mp = 0.168fct, f . b . h2

µ cr = 0.0333 fck 0.7

(6) This moment, practically the same as the cracking

h

moment M cr given by expression (4a), leads to ρs,min

100 similar to the one obtained from expression (7b).

Fig. 4 shows comparisons made between (ρs,min fy) as

In the case of prestressed beams, Mcr is evaluated tak-

ing into consideration the normal force.

Admitting z ≈ 0.8h and d ≈ 0.85h, from expressions

(3) and (4a) one can get to:

fct , f

ρ s ,min = (7a)

4 fy

or, as a function of fck,

0.7

h

1 + 1.5 100

fck0.67

ρ s ,min = 0.05 0.7

(7b)

fy h

100

Fig. 4 – Comparison between Equation (7b) and the proposals of

On the other hand, if the elasto-plastic tensile stress some codes for the longitudinal minimum steel in concrete

distribution is considered in the ULS (Fig. 1c), the collapse beams (∗ for h >= 500 mm).

5

Materials and Structures/Matériaux et Constructions, Vol. 36, January-February 2003

Fig. 5 – Comparison between Equation (7b) and available test cross–section at the instant of diagonal crack formation.

results [4, 5].

The influence of the beam height h and the concrete

strength fc on the cracking moment and on the mini-

mum steel ratio to insure ductile behaviour of beams at

failure have been investigated experimentally [4, 5] and

analytically [11], but there are divergences between the

obtained results. The analysis of the results of Bosco et al.

[4 and 5] made by Queiróz [12] have indicated that the

inf luence of h on the non-dimensional cracking

moment (Mcr /bh2fct ) is restricted to a small range of vari-

ation of (h). For practical values of h (h > ≈ 300 mm) this

influence can be ignored when compared to that of fc.

The expression for ρ s,min based on the fracture

mechanics approach suggested by Bosco et al. [4 and 5],

Fig. 6 – Comparison between Equation (2) (εsu/εsu = 20 and 30)

indicates a decrease in the minimum steel ratio as the

and Equation (7b) (h = 200 mm and 1000 mm). beam height h increases, in the proportion of (h-0,5).

According to Ožbolt and Bruckner [11] this only hap-

pens up to a certain value of h if the beams are not pro-

given by expression (7b), for h varying between 200 mm vided with distributed reinforcement along their heights.

and 1000 mm, and by the proposals of five codes of prac- In addition to that, in high beams without distributed

tice [1, 3, 6, 9 and 10]. To obtain the values of (ρs,min fy) for steel, higher minimum steel ratios are required in order

CEB-FIP MC/90 [9] in Fig. 4, fy = 500 MPa was used. It to avoid the sudden loss of resistance at ultimate load.

can be seen from this figure that expression (7b) leads to Ruiz et al. [14], on the other hand, concluded that,

values of (ρs,min fy) less than those suggested by the codes, besides the beam height and the concrete strength, the

except for the CEB-FIP MC-90, and the proposed values minimum f lexural steel ratio depends also on the steel

for the minimum steel ratios given by these codes are type and the concrete cover, which in part substantiate

greatly different from one another. Equation (2).

Fig. 5 shows a comparison between expression (7b)

and the results of the beams tested by Bosco et al. [4 and

5], with height (h) varying between 100 mm and 800 mm 3. MINIMUM SHEAR STEEL RATIO

and yielding moments (M y ) close to the cracking

moments. In Fig. 6 Equation (7b) is also compared with 3.1 Analysis based on the diagonal cracking

Equation (2). Two values of the ratio (εsu /εcu ) were used load

in Equation (2), 20 and 30, in order to represent two lev-

els of steel ductility, medium and high. The adopted val- Considering a concrete beam with rectangular cross

ues of (α) and (β) were as proposed by the CSA 23.3 [6]. section subjected to shear and moment, from the elastic

From Figs. 5 and 6 it can be concluded that expres- shear stress distribution (second degree parabola,

sion (7b) can be used to determine the minimum longi- Fig. 7b), the shear crack appears when τmax = fct, and the

tudinal steel ratio for beams reinforced with high ductil- associated shear force is calculated as:

ity steel (εsu /εcu = 30). In the case of beams reinforced

with medium and low ductility steel Equation (2) 2 2

becomes dominant and should be used to define the Vcr = ⋅ b ⋅ h ⋅ τ max = ⋅ b ⋅ h ⋅ fct (8)

3 3

minimum reinforcement. It is worth noting that the val-

ues of (ρs,min fy) given by Equation (2) with (εsu /εcu = 20) When an axial force is applied to the beam, resulting

lie in between those given by the ACI 318-99 [1] and the in an average normal stress equal to σcp (positive when

NS-3474E92 [10] shown in Fig. 4. compressive), the maximum shear stress that causes the

6

Shehata, Shehata, Garcia

first diagonal shear crack, according to the modified nal crack occurs in a region with no flexural cracks, for

Mohr-Coulomb criteria, is: example in the case of fully prestressed beams. In beams

with a rectangular cross section and without shear rein-

τ max = (f 2

ct + fct ⋅ σ cp ) (9) forcement and normal forces, test results have shown

that the diagonal crack in a pre-cracked beam in flexure

and the associated shear force is: starts from or joins an existing f lexural one, and at a

shear force lesser than the one given by expression (8).

2

(f )

The analysis of pre-cracked beams in f lexure is dealt

Vcr = ⋅ b ⋅ h ⋅ 2

+ fct ⋅ σ cp (10) with in a later section.

3 ct

reached, a sudden rupture of the beam will occur with a 3.2 Analysis based on the truss model

total loss of strength, it is important that the beam con-

tains a minimum shear reinforcement to provide it with From the truss analogy, the stress field in the web of

certain ductility at failure. Considering the failure plane an uncracked concrete beam subject to flexure and shear

to be inclined at an angle θu to the beam axis and the can be considered as two orthogonal (principal stress

stirrups at right angle to the beam axis, from the equilib- state) uniform stress fields, one in tension and the other

rium of forces in the vertical direction along a projected in compression. Considering θ and α the angles of incli-

length of the failure plane (h cot θu), the minimum shear nation of the compression and tension fields (comple-

reinforcement is: mentary angles), respectively, the stress in the tension

field can be obtained from the truss equilibrium at the

Asw ,min ⋅ fyw = Vcr diagonal crack formation as

(11)

Asw ,min = ρ sw ,min ⋅ b ⋅ h ⋅ cot θu Vcr Vcr

σ ct = = = νfct

or: b ⋅ z ⋅ (cotθ + cotα )sin 2α b ⋅ z ⋅ cotθ (16)

ρ sw ,min = ⋅ ct 1 + ⋅ tgθu force can be found:

fct

(12)

3 fyw

Vcr = ν ⋅ fct ⋅ b ⋅ z ⋅ cot θ = Asw ,min ⋅ fyw = ρsw ,min ⋅ fyw ⋅ b ⋅ h ⋅ cot θ

(17)

The angle of the failure plane (θu) normally varies

between 20° and 45°, tending to the smaller value for the Making ν = 2/3 and z ≈ 0,8h in Equation (17), the

minimum transversal steel ratio. Considering, then, that minimum transversal steel ratio becomes

θu = 20°, fct

ρ sw ,min = 0 , 5 ⋅ (18)

fyw

fct σ cp

ρ sw ,min = 0 , 24 ⋅ 1+

fct (13) Note that Equation (18), differently from Equations

fyw

(13) and (15), does not take into account the influence of

In the case of prestressed beams with inclined cables, the normal force at the section. This occurs because in the

the minimum transversal steel ratio can be reduced by truss analysis the top and bottom cords resist the normal

deducting the vertical component of the prestressing forces and the stress fields of the web remains unaltered.

force (Vp), so as:

Asw ,min ⋅ fyw = Vcr − V p 3.3 Minimum shear steel ratio in beams

and, therefore, cracked in flexure

Vcr − V p The diagonal crack formation process is very complex,

ρ sw ,min = ≥0 (14) and depends on the development of the flexural cracks in

b ⋅ h ⋅ fyw ⋅ cot θu

length and width and on the dowel effect of the flexural

If the plastic shear stress distribution (uniform, Fig. 7c) steel. Earlier studies have shown that the section dimen-

is used, instead of the elastic distribution, and the plastic sions b and d, the concrete strength and the longitudinal

tensile strength of the concrete is taken as fctp = ν.fct, with steel ratio inf luence the cracking shear force. Analyses

ν = 2/3, the following expression for ρsw,min can be found. made by Castro [8] and Queiróz [12], among others, have

shown that the non-dimensional nominal cracking shear

ρsw ,min =

(ν ⋅ f

2 2

ct + ν ⋅ fct ⋅ σ cp ) = 2⋅ f 3σ cp stress (Vcr /bdfct ) decreases with the increase of fc and d and

1 + 2 ⋅ f ⋅ tgθu (15) increases with the increase of ρ. It was concluded also

ct

fyw ⋅ cot θu 3 fyw ct that, for beams with practical heights (h >= 300 mm), the

Expression (15) gives the same values for ρsw,min as influence of the effective depth of the beam d is not signif-

Equation (12) when the normal stress σ cp = 0, and icant and, according to Regan [13], the scale effect tends

slightly different values when σcp > 0. to vanish in beams with some shear reinforcement.

This analysis is valid only for beams where the diago- Queiróz [12] has also shown that, in beams without

7

Materials and Structures/Matériaux et Constructions, Vol. 36, January-February 2003

Fig. 8 – Comparisons between Equations (20) and (21) and code Fig. 9 – Comparison between Equations (20) and (21) and avail-

equations for the minimum transversal steel values. able test results.

(cases of beams with minimum reinforcement), the

cracking shear force Vcr is about 40% of the one obtained

from the elastic analysis.

On the basis of the previous discussion, it is here

considered that the minimum shear steel ratio for a beam

with bending cracking can be calculated by either

Equation (13) or (18) multiplied by a reduction factor

equal to 0.4 which counts for the reduction of the crack-

ing load. Considering also that the tensile strength of the

concrete (fct ) is as given by CEB-FIP MC90,

f ct = 0.3 f ck0,67 (19) Fig. 10 – Truss model for the analysis of concrete beams under

torsion.

the minimum shear steel ratio for a beam with bending

cracking can be expressed as:

range between 1.22 and 1.47. From this figure it seems

f 0,67 σ cp that, at least for beams without normal force, Equation

ρsw,min = 0.029 ⋅ ck 1 + (20) (20) can be considered to give adequate values of mini-

f yw 0.3 f ck0,67

mum shear steel ratio, but more test results are needed.

or:

f ck0,67

ρsw,min = 0.06 ⋅ (21) 4. MINIMUM TORSION STEEL RATIO

f yw

Fig. 8 compares the values of (ρsw,min fyw) given by the Due to the little contribution of the core of solid

expressions (20) and (21) and by those of the different concrete section to torsion resistance, the section core is

codes of practice [1, 3, 6, 9 and 10], which, do not dis- normally ignored when beam torsion resistance is calcu-

tinguish between beams with or without normal force. lated. The beam section is considered as a hollow thin

For the sake of comparison, Equation (20) was plotted walled section with effective wall thickness equal to tef, as

for two values of σcp/fct = σcp/(0.3 fck0.67): zero (curve indi- shown in Fig. 10. In design codes, tef is taken as one sixth

cated with Eq 20-0) and 2 (curve indicated with Eq 20- of the short side length of the section or the relation

2). In this figure, it can be observed that Equation (21) is between the section area and the section perimeter.

identical to the proposals of the new Brazilian code From the analysis of the hollow thin walls section

NBR 6118 and the CEB-FIP MC90, and leads to the beam under circulatory torsion, it can be obtained the

highest values of (ρ sw,min f yw ). Making σ cp /f ct = 0 in shear stress in the wall under the action of the torsional

Equation (20), in general, leads to the smallest values of moment Mt, so as:

(ρsw,min fyw) among all proposals. Mt

In Fig. 9 a comparison is made between the values of τ= (22)

2 ⋅ Aef ⋅ t ef

(ρsw,min fyw) of tested beams from Yoon et al. [15] and

unpublished tests (D.Sc. thesis due for submission at The formation of the spiralling diagonal torsion crack

COPPE/UFRJ) and the values given by Equations (20) occurs when the shear stress in the wall reaches its limit

(with σcp/fct = 0) and (21). The tested beams were divided (τlim = fct p = ν.fct ) and, therefore, the cracking torsion

into two groups according to the value of the relationship moment Mt,cr can be estimated from:

between the yielding shear force and the cracking shear M t ,cr = 2 ⋅ Aef ⋅ t ef ⋅ νfct

force (Vy /Vcr ): in the range between 1 and 1.22 and in the (23)

8

Shehata, Shehata, Garcia

where Aef is the area confined by the centre lines of the f ck0.67 u N

walls of the hollow section. ρs,min = 0.22 ⋅ tef ⋅ o − (26)

To guarantee the beam ductility at the instance of fy Ac Ac f y

cracking by torsion, the beam should be provided by a f ck0.67 tef

minimum amount of longitudinal and transversal steel ρsw,min = 0.058 ⋅ (27)

capable of resisting the forces resisted by concrete prior f yw b

to cracking. This minimum steel is found by equating Considering uo = 2h(0,8+0,8b/h), d = 0,9h, and tef/b = 1/6,

the forces in concrete and steel before and after cracking. h/b = 3 or h/b = 2 and N = 0, these equations are reduced

to, respectively,

f ck0.67

4.1 Minimum longitudinal steel ratio ρs,min = 0.087 for h / b = 3 (28a)

fy

From the equilibrium of forces in the space truss f ck0.67

(Fig. 10) in the direction of the beam axis, the force in ρs,min = 0.097 for h / b = 2 (28b)

the longitudinal steel is: fy

n n f ck0.67

ρsw,min = 0.0097

∑F s , li = ∑ τ ⋅ t ef ⋅ zi ⋅ cot θ − N f yw

(29)

i =1 i =1

n If, however, it is adopted for tef the relation between the

As ,min . fy = τ ⋅ t ef ⋅ cot θ ⋅ ∑ zi − N area and perimeter of the section, i.e. tef = 0.5b(b/h+1), the

i =1 previous equations become:

where n is the number of the section walls (n = 4 for rec- f 0.67

tangular section). ρs,min = 0.20 ck for h / b = 3 (30a)

The minimum longitudinal steel ratio is, then, fy

νfct u N f ck0.67

ρ s ,min = ⋅ t ⋅ cot θ ⋅ o − (24) ρs,min = 0.20 for h / b = 2 (30b)

fy ef Ac Ac fy fy

where: f ck0.67

n ρsw,min = 0.022 for h / b = 3 (31a)

f yw

u o = ∑ zi , Ac = bd

i =1

f ck0.67

ρsw,min = 0.019 for h / b = 2 (31b)

f yw

4.2 Minimum transversal steel ratio These equations show that, depending on the

adopted value of tef, the minimum steel ratios can differ

From the equilibrium of the truss forces in the trans- considerably.

verse direction, the force that is transmitted to the stir- Fig. 11 shows a comparison between the values of

rups at the time of formation of the inclined crack in the (ρs,min fy) for the minimum longitudinal steel required for

section walls is: flexure (expression (7b), h = 500 mm) and half the values

required for torsion, (Equations 28a and 28b with tef = b/6

Asw ⋅ fyw = τ ⋅ t ef .z

and h/b = 3 or h/b = 2, respectively) and Equation (30)

and the minimum transversal steel ratio is: (with tef = 0.5b(b/h+1) and h/b equal to 2 or 3). Half the

2 Asw ,min νf t ef values for torsion were used in this comparison in order to

ρ sw ,min = = 2 ct ⋅ ⋅ tgθ (25) represent the longitudinal steel required for one side of the

b ⋅ z ⋅ cot θ fyw b

cracked in flexure

Similarly to the case of minimum shear reinforce-

ment, it is admitted here that the diagonal-cracking load

in torsion for a beam cracked in flexure is about 40% of

that of the uncracked beam. Adopting the values ν = 2/3

and θ = 20°, from Equations (19), (24) and (25), the

minimum steel ratios in torsion for a beam cracked in

flexure can be deduced as:

minimum steel for flexure (7b) and for torsion (28a , 28b and 30).

9

Materials and Structures/Matériaux et Constructions, Vol. 36, January-February 2003

jects and the execution of Concrete Structures’, in Portuguese,

NBR-6118. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1980.

[3] Brazilian Association of Technical Standards, ‘Code for the pro-

jects and the execution of concrete structures’, in Portuguese,

new revision of NBR-6118. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2001.

[4] Bosco, C., Carpinteri, A. and Debernardi, P. G., ‘Minimum rein-

forcement in high-strength concrete’, Journal of Structural

Engineering 116 (2) (1990) 427-437.

[5] Bosco, C., Carpinteri, A. and Debernardi, P. G., ‘Use of the brittle-

ness number as a rational approach to minimum reinforcement

design’, in ‘Analysis of concrete structures by fracture mechanics’,

Proceedings of a RILEM Workshop, Abisko, Sweden, (1989).

[6] Canadian Standard Association, ‘Design of Concrete Structures’

(CSA A23.3-94). (Rexdale, Ontario, Canada, 1994).

[7] Carpinteri, A., Chiaia, B. and Ferro, G., ‘A new explanation for

Fig. 12 – Comparison between equations for the transversal mini- size effects on the flexural strength of concrete’, Magazine of

mum steel for shear (20) and for torsion (29, 31a and 31b). Concrete Research 178 (March 1997) 45-53.

[8] Castro, F. A. B., ‘Shear in R.C. beams – Parametric study’, M.Sc.

thesis, in Portuguese, COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 1997.

section which can be comparable to that for flexure and [9] Comité Euro-International du Béton, Bulletin d’Information No.

added to it when combined action is present. 213/214, ‘CEB-FIP Model Code 90’, May 1993.

The comparison between the values of (ρsw,min fy) [10] Norwegian Council for Building Standardization, ‘Concrete

required for shear, given by expression (20), and the val- Structures Design Rules’ - NS 3473E, 4th edition, November 1992.

[11] Ožbolt, J. and Eligehausen, R., ‘Size effects in concrete struc-

ues of (ρs,min fy) required for torsion moment, given by tures – diagonal shear and bending’, CEB Bulletin d’Information

expressions (29) (tef = b/6), (31a) (with tef = 0.5b(b/h+1) 237 (1997).

and h/b = 3) and (31b) (with tef = 0.5b(b/h+1) and h/b = 2), [12] Queiróz, R. R., ‘Minimum steel in flexure and shear in R.C.

is shown in Fig. 12. beams’, M.Sc. thesis, in Portuguese, COPPE/UFRJ, Rio de

Janeiro, Brazil, 1999.

[13] Regan, P. E., ‘Depth factor for shear in concrete bridges – a

review of literature’, partial report, University of Westminster,

5. CONCLUSIONS London, UK, 1998.

[14] Ruiz, G., Planas, J. and Elices, M., ‘Minimum steel in flexure:

It has been shown that the concrete strength, the theory and codes’, Annals of Fracture Mechanics, in Spanish, 13

steel type, the wall thickness used in torsion analysis and (1996) 386-391.

[15] Yoon, Y. S., Cook, W. D. and Michell, D., ‘Minimum shear

the normal force are the influential parameters that can reinforcement in normal, medium, and high-strength concrete

greatly affect the minimum steel ratios required for flex- beams’, ACI Structural Journal 93 (5) (1996) 576-584.

ure, shear and torsion. The beam effective depth does

slightly affect the minimum steel ratio but its influence

can be neglected. LIST OF SYMBOLS

There is great difference between the minimum steel

ratios proposed by codes, due to the lack of theoretical Ac Area of a concrete section

background in them and the lack of enough test data that Aeff Area confined by the centre lines of the walls of

cover adequately all the influential parameters involved. a hollow section

The minimum steel ratios for torsion can greatly differ As Area of longitudinal steel

from those required for flexure and shear, and, therefore, As,min Minimum area of longitudinal steel

codes of practice recommendations may not be adequate. Asw Area of transversal steel

There is need for more test results to cover a wide Asw,min Minimum area of transversal steel

range of the influential parameters involved, in order to Fs,l Force in longitudinal steel

substantiate proposals for minimum steel ratios, particu- M Bending moment

larly for torsion and combined actions. Mcr Cracking bending moment

Mp Plastic flexural moment

Mt Torsional moment

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT N Normal force

Vcr Cracking shear force

The authors would like to thank the Brazilian Vp Shear force due to the inclination of prestressing

Government Research Agencies CAPES and CNPq for cables

financing this project. b Width of a rectangular section

d Effective depth of a rectangular section

h Section height

REFERENCES tef Effective thickness of a thin walled section

x Neutral axis depth

[1] American Concrete Institute, Building code requirements for

reinforced concrete and commentary - ACI 318-99/ACI 318R-

z Lever arm

99), Detroit, USA, 1999. fc Compressive strength of concrete

10

Shehata, Shehata, Garcia

fct Tensile strength of concrete εtu Ultimate concrete strain in tension

fct,f Flexural tensile strength of concrete εo Concrete strain at peak stress in tension

fy Yield strength of steel σcp Average stress in concrete section due to normal

fyw Yield strength of web steel force

n Number τmax Maximum shear stress

α Coefficient µcr Normalized cracking moment (Mcr/fc.b.h2)

β Coefficient ρs,bal Balanced steel ratio

θu Truss angle ρs,min Minimum longitudinal steel ratio

εco Concrete strain at peak stress in compression ρsw,min Minimum transversal steel ratio

εcu Ultimate concrete strain in compression ν Effectiveness factor

11

- FLEXION COMPOSEE.pdfDiunggah olehRahma Chaibi
- Finite Element Modelling of Reinforced Concrete Beams with Corroded Shear ReinforcementDiunggah olehLiew Sam Tat
- Bridge structural designDiunggah olehsatish chandra
- Drill String Failure Theory Calculations MitigationDiunggah oleh72espo
- Cal Cul de Longer OnDiunggah olehAndré Germain Mbogba
- ARPS_HP_ESDiunggah olehCristian Sandoval
- 145_CanGeoJournal_2004_Vol41_No3_451_466 A New design method for retaining wall in clay.pdfDiunggah olehJeerawat
- Crack InitiationDiunggah olehjs kalyana rama
- TD5Diunggah olehIsmahene Smaheno
- SYNTHESEflexion-4tDiunggah olehabdourazg
- 1-introduction.pdfDiunggah olehRochdi Zaa
- 126 Contraintes de 0 a Elu Section Qq v2 1Diunggah olehMakrem Aouani
- PoinConnementDiunggah olehWael Mak
- l3 Upssitech Rdm 2013s1 CorrigeDiunggah olehOumayma Rkiouak
- Poutres continus.pdfDiunggah olehBilal Belhaji
- Assemblages Sous Chargement StatiqueDiunggah olehmlamour
- formulationDiunggah olehanasrachid
- charge concentrée.docxDiunggah olehKerby Pierre Louis
- energie de déformationDiunggah olehMaxton Hunter
- SKILLS M12F Pannes laminées à chaudDiunggah olehYassine Kandoussi
- CIV1150 5 Flexion PoutreDiunggah olehKadogognon Mohamed Coulibaly
- ELEMENTS FLECHIS.pdfDiunggah olehMohamed Bah
- RDM a quoi ca sertDiunggah olehAnge Tyga
- (page 153 bétona fibre et béton HP )MAN5828Diunggah olehMichael Matthews
- newhook2002.pdfDiunggah olehMuhammad Tanveer
- Formation EC CDMETALDiunggah olehDounia Ti
- perf ctbDiunggah olehRupeshIngole
- m+®moire_OA&BP-2011-2012-3AGC2Diunggah olehHamza Abidi
- Flexion SimpleDiunggah olehabdourazg
- KEN Koemhong I5 GCI (a) 34èmeDiunggah olehken koemhong

- Chap 3Diunggah olehqzm74l
- Tp 2Diunggah olehmihaidelian
- Chapitre 2 Efforts ElectrodynamiquesDiunggah olehEliyes Abdel
- Chapitre 3 Mouvement Parabolique Dans Un ChampDiunggah olehahlam
- Presentation de l’OuvrageDiunggah olehanouar maiz
- Comportement Des Pieux Sous Charge TransversaleDiunggah olehmitsao
- RDM.pdfDiunggah olehPham Cong Hanh
- These Rodriguez 2006Diunggah olehPablo J. González Mora
- Td Torsion 12 13Diunggah olehothmanR
- Traction.pdfDiunggah olehGenie Meca
- 170-300-1-SMDiunggah olehChouaïbJarfi
- Système de ForcesDiunggah olehSimo298
- 245897234-R-II.pdfDiunggah olehsun_rachid
- 05b-modelisationDiunggah olehdxsszsz
- 740B2FE2d01Diunggah olehMehdi Chams Eddine Farah
- Mod1er8Diunggah olehbenalimourad
- Contraintes DeformationsDiunggah olehmustaphaxa
- Fonction Convertir Actionneur Électrique N.L.techNIQUE PROF S.charIDiunggah olehAymen Hssaini
- Tribology ScienceDiunggah olehmbuyiselwa
- Ndc Plaques Ceramique ModDiunggah olehAbdellahJrhaidar
- FoXta-PartieH_v2.0Diunggah olehpinorachn
- Chapitre1_IntrodutionBADiunggah olehZakaria Chakir
- 13_mec_forcees.pdfDiunggah olehAzizElheni
- Mecanique Appliquee - RDM,MF, ThermoDiunggah olehMourad HM
- 02- Torseur Statique Mode de CompatibiliteDiunggah olehAmina Dinari
- Exercices mécanique généraleDiunggah olehAmira Zarglayoun
- Cours 03 - Cinématique du solide indéformable.pdfDiunggah olehAbdelilah Elmesbahi
- La Méthode de Calcul Au Coefficient de Réaction. Pierre de LAVERNEE. Solétanche BachyDiunggah olehAlfredo A Lopez
- 1trDiunggah olehHakimAlioua