Anda di halaman 1dari 12


By Peter C. G. Isaac and G. K. Anderson

(Department of Civil Engineering. Division of Public Health Engineering. University of
Newcastle upon Tyne)

Received 18fA October, 1072

Following a general discussion of the effects of different types of industrial waste

on the waters receiving these wastes, and a survey of methods available for assessing
the polluting strength of effluents (e.g. Biochemical Oxygen Demand and Chemical
Oxygen Demand) analyses are given of the occurrence and nature of specified malting
and brewery effluents. Methods of treatment, including the use of bacteria beds
"and of activated sludge are descri bed and evaluated and estimates of costs of treatment
and disposal are suggested.

Key words: brewery, costing, effluent, chromium from plating, anodizing or tanning,
mailing, pollution. pesticides used in agriculture, disinfectants
used in bottle washing, and radioactive
Industry in England and Wales uses for materials from laboratories and hospitals.
process purposes some 3-4000 million m3 of Measurable quantities of this kind of pollu
water per year. Some of this leaves the tion are likely to make the water unfit for
factory as part of the product, e.g. in beer, use as a water supply, as well as destroying
but the greater part leaves industry in a the plant and animal life in the stream.
dirtier state than it entered, and much of 2. Those which contribute to the oxygen
this is discharged to surface waters, where depletion of the receiving water.—In turn, it is
the substances it contains may cause pollu convenient to subdivide these into three

(i) Chemical reducing agents such as

Effects of Wastes on Receiving Waters
sulphide (e.g. from tanning); these,
It is clear that almost any substance can even if they are themselves not toxic
get into waste water—and many do. (Group 1) will exert an immediate
Although, therefore, the effects of these oxygen demand.
wastes on the receiving waters are extra
(ii) Biologically labile substances, for
ordinarily varied and occasionally disastrous,
whose biochemical stabilization oxy
it is convenient to consider the effects of
gen is essential, and which will there
polluting subtances in three groups:
fore draw on the small supply of dis
1. Those which are themselves toxic or solved oxygen in the water. The
harmful.—As examples we may consider commonest example here is sewage and
• Paper read to the Yorkshire & North-Eastern Section ol the Institute of Brewing on 6th October, 1072.

others are wastes from the soft-drinks certain micro-organisms can get the oxygen
industry, breweries, distilleries, malt- that they need from oxygen-containing sub
ings, beet-sugar factories, etc. stances such as sulphates and nitrates. In
(iii) Surface-active agents, which interfere these circumstances the metabolism is anaero
with the solution of oxygen at the air- bic (or septic) and the oxygen-donors will be
water interface, by which means re- reduced, usually with the production of
aeration normally takes place. A odorous substances (e.g. H2S from the reduc
layer of grease or oil could act in this tion of sulphate).
way, but the commonest materials of In treatment processes we can very largely
this type are the anionic synthetic control whether the breakdown is aerobic or
anaerobic, and we can, within limits, govern
detergents in wide use in the home and
for bottle-washing, etc. the relative proportions of oxidation and
synthesis. In a stream, however, we have
3. Those which are indirectly toxic.— little or no control over the self-purification
Suspended solids will be deposited and may which occurs.
so blanket the stream bed as to destroy plant
and invertebrate life, and thus "sterilize" Self-purification of Receiving Waters
the stream as effectively as a Group-1 poison.
Examples of this kind of pollution are waters All bodies of water can safely receive, and
from the washing of coal or gravel. Dis can assimilate without nuisance, a sub
stantial amount of polluting matter. The
solved salts may render the water unsuitable
for some purposes: an example is oilwell various means by which the waters reduce
brine. the pollution are collectively called self-
Group (2.ii) substances are so important purification; they include the following:
(and it is into this group that malting and 1. Sedimentation (which may be assisted
brewing wastes fall) that we must take a by mechanical or biological flocculation).—
further look at the significance of dissolved This may not be an unmixed blessing;
oxygen in streams and other surface waters. sludge banks may interfere with navigation
and river flow, and organic deposits may
Dissolved Oxygen and Metabolism ferment anaerobically and so release a high
oxygen demand to the supernatant water.
All natural organic substances (and many
synthetic organic materials, even those so 2. Chemical oxidation of reducing agents
unlikely as phenol) decay and break down in may take place. The oxygen demand, how
nature as the result of the action of bacteria ever, is very rapid so that such reducing
and other micro-organisms. This decay is agents should not normally be permitted to
the result of two concurrent sets of reactions: reach surface waters in any measurable
oxidation (or catabolism), in which the organic concentrations.
matter is taken to relatively simple end- 3. Bacterial decay.—The classical work of
products with the emission of energy, and Alexander Houston showed (in connection
synthesis (or anabolism), in which the micro
with the storage reservoirs of the Metropolitan
organisms use the energy released by catabol Water Board) that most enteric and other
ism to increase and multiply. pathogens died away in fresh water quite
In this aerobic metabolism the maximum rapidly, indeed more rapidly than the indicator
amount of energy is released by the catabol
organism, Escherichia coli. This bacterial
ism and the end-products are harmless and
decay is probably due to a number of factors
odourless. Aerobic breakdown is highly
including (i) dilute substrate, (ii) reduced
desirable, therefore, but demands a supply of
salinity [compared with body fluids], (iii)
oxygen large enough to meet all the needs of antibiotic substances produced by plant and
the micro-organisms. In sewage-treatment animal life in the water, (iv) lower tempera
processes we ensure this by careful design ture, and (v) interspecific competition with
and operation; in receiving waters we can
normal 'water' bacteria.
ensure it only by limiting the organic load on
the stream to what it can carry. 4. Biochemical oxidation is perhaps the
Oxygen is always necessary for catabolism, most important of the factors contributing to
but it does not have to come from the air: self-purification. It occurs as the result of

the action of bacteria and other micro of becoming unpleasant where the dissolved
organisms. oxygen concentration falls below 5-7 mg/
The living organisms in a stream—bacteria, litre.
plants, protozoa and higher animals—form a Warm water, of pure quality, may well
complex and balanced community. The fall into Group 2 pollution. Biological
plants build themselves up by photosyn stabilization, like most biochemical and
thesis, using carbon dioxide and nutrient chemical reactions, takes place more rapidly
salts which are to be found in the water; in as temperature rises. For this reason heated
some circumstances these plants may make effluents will increase the rate of oxygen
a substantial oxygen contribution to the uptake. At the same time the saturation
water especially where there is bright sun concentration of oxygen falls with increase of
shine. When this community is efficiently temperature. Raised temperatures, there
operating—i.e. when the dynamic ecological fore, place a double burden on the oxygen
'balance' is in a happy state—the various concentration of surface waters. Very warm
organisms carry out a continuous purification effluents, indeed, may produce dramatic
of the water. The presence of a sufficient fish-kills, both by accentuating the action of
concentration of dissolved oxygen in the poisons and by reducing oxygen concentra
water is absolutely essential to this condition tion.
of healthy balance. If the dissolved oxygen
concentration falls sufficiently, the higher Strength of Effluents
organisms will be eliminated and the whole The polluting strength of a malting or
character of the water will be changed; brewery effluent is best defined in terms of
organic substances may now be broken the organic substances which will affect the
down anaerobically with consequent odour dissolved oxygen content of the receiving
nuisance. The atmosphere is the chief water. It is not usual to analyse for indivi
source of oxygen and re-aeration is assisted dual organic compounds, but to measure the
by turbulent conditions of flow. overall oxygen demand of these substances.
This demand may be assessed in a number of
Oxygen Balance in Streams ways.

We are clearly concerned with the dis Biochemical oxygen demand.—The bio
solved oxygen (DO) concentration in the chemical oxygen demand (BOD) is usually
water; this is affected by: defined as the amount of oxygen required to
stabilize organic matter under aerobic condi
(a) temperature;
tions. It is used to determine the polluting
(b) BOD (biochemical oxygen demand— strength of waste materials in terms of the
to be discussed later); oxygen they will require if they are discharged
(c) re-aeration; and into natural watercourses in which aerobic
conditions prevail. Since the BOD test
(d) salinity of the water.
involves the measurement of oxygen con
At any time the oxygen concentration is the sumed by living organisms while these are
resultant of the rate of oxidation (oxygen using the organic matter present in waste,
uptake) and the rate of reoxygenation. As the conditions under which the the test is
oxygen uptake commences, due to self- run must be controlled very closely, including
purification, the oxygen deficit so caused incubation at a temperature of 20° C for five
starts re-aeration; this produces the well- days. It is important that the environ
known 'sag*. At normal temperatures in mental conditions of the test should be suit
Britain the saturation concentration of oxy able for the organisms to function at all
gen in fresh water is 10 mg/litre or less, so times. This means that toxic materials
that even if the water is initially saturated must not be present and that all nutrients
with oxygen the cumulative oxygen uptake needed for bacterial growth should be present
can at no stage exceed the cumulative in the waste; if they are not, they should be
reoxygenation by more than about 10 mg/ added.
litre if septic conditions are to be avoided. The biological breakdown of organic matter
Indeed, the Royal Commission on Sewage will not be complete during the five-day
Disposal (in the Appendix to its Eighth Report) incubation of this test. However, longer
has suggested that a river is on the verge periods of incubation are generally not

practicable, and may give rise to serious organic pollution will break down may be
error, due, for example, to nitrification. obtained from the ratio of the COD (di
When considering domestic sewage and some chromate value) to BOD. The COD: BOD
industrial wastes it has been found that the ratio for domestic sewage is about 2:1. A
five-day BOD value is about 70-80% of the higher ratio indicates that the substance is
total BOD, but with certain organic industrial less easily degraded than sewage.
wastes the proportion of BOD exerted in five It is also important to measure the amount
days can be markedly different from this. of suspended solids in an effluent, since such
BOD data are used to design biological solids can cause pollution on discharge to a
treatment units, to control the quality of surface water and since they will add to the
effluents discharged into receiving bodies of sludge problem at the treatment works. It
water, and to fix charges made by Local is usual to differentiate between total sus
Authorities for the reception of industrial pended solids and volatile suspended solids
effluents. (i.e. those lost on heating to redness), the
Chemical oxygen-demand tests.—For some latter being taken as organic matter.
time now organic wastes have been analysed
for their oxygen-consuming power by oxidiz Control of Pollution
ing them chemically with measured amounts It will readily be appreciated from the
of oxidizing reagents. These methods are analyses given later in this paper that
superior to the BOD tests in that they can be malting and brewing effluents would cause
completed in a very short time, but their serious pollution if they were discharged to a
value is reduced since they do not differentiate river, and therefore they must be subject to
between biologically oxidizable and biologic control. Indeed most discharges of effluent
ally inert organic matter. At the same time, are subject to control as follows:
they do not provide any data on the rate at
1. To non-tidal surface waters.—All such
which biologically active material can be
discharges require the consent of the River
stabilized under conditions that exist in
Authority under the Rivers (Prevention
receiving bodies of water. When the charac
of Pollution) Acts, 1951 and 1901.
teristics and organic content of the waste
remain reasonably constant it is sometimes 2. To ground waters.—All discharges to
possible to obtain a fixed relationship be underground strata made by means of a pipe,
tween chemical oxygen-demand tests and the borehole or well require similar consent from
biochemical oxygen-demand test. However, the River Authority.
frequent correlations between the BOD and 3. To sewers.—All such discharges re
COD tests should be made. It is general quire the consent of the Local Authority or,
practice to use COD data for plant control if they were made before 3rd March, 1937,
and not for design work; such data are still they may be subject to the Authority's
frequently used by municipalities as the basis direction. Charges may be made by the
for charging for the reception and treatment Local Authority for the reception and
of industrial wastes. treatment of such effluents.
The oldest COD test is that which employs
4. To tidal estuaries.—All discharges made
acid potassium permanganate and the result
after 29th September, 1960, are subject to an
obtained, known as the permanganate value
exactly similar consent procedure of the
(PV), is the amount of oxygen absorbed from
River Authority.
acid potassium permanganate in four hours
at 27° C. Sometimes a modification of this 5. To the sea.—Such discharges may
test is used to detect rapidly oxidizable require the consent of the Sea Fisheries
material during a three-minute contact. Committee under the Sea Fisheries Regula
The dichromate test is the most recent tion Acts.
COD determination, and measures the oxygen The consequence of such statutory control
consumed from boiling acid potassium di is that malting and brewing wastes will often
chromate. This test has the advantage over require to be pretreated before discharge.
the permanganate method in that the solu
tion is boiled, so that no thermostatically- Occurrence and Nature of Malting Effluents
controlled incubator is required. The only normal waste from malting is the
Some estimate of the ease with which the steep liquor. This is a strong, deeply

JU ■ UAli.

Analyses of Malting Steep Liquors"

C» D E F

Contact 6-day Waste 5-day Waste 6-day Waste 5-day

time BOD volume BOD volume BOD volume BOD
Makings (h) mg/litre gal mg/litre gal mg/litre gal mg/litre

1st steep 24 060 14.000 1100 10.000 750 14.000 1900

2nd ,. 12 020 10.000 900 10.000 850 14,000 1630
Srd 12 185 10.000 700 10.000 400 14,000 1890
4th 16 254 5000 140 8000 50 14,000 450
termination water 50
Composite sample .. 300 30.000 825 38,000 540 56,000 1470

Water use
(gal/bushel) 63 20-4 300 13
BOD load
(lb/bushel) 0-25 022 0-21 0-19

• See also Ruf ct al.°

coloured, readily putrescible liquid, which using Scottish, English and Canadian barley.
may contain much suspended solids if the The figures given represent the production
grain is dirty. The steep liquor may give over one week. During this week the total
rise to nuisance from excessive frothing.
The nature and quantity of the steep liquors TABLE II
vary widely but, as will be seen from the Analyses of Maltinos (G) Steep Liquors"
analyses given below, the total BOD load
per bushel of barley malted is much more 5-day HOD Organic N NII.-N
consistent from one maltings to another. (mg/litrc) (mg/Utrc) (mg/litre) BOD:N*

Typical analyses given by Simpson10 are let sleep 2800 132 32 29

2nd „ 2250 75 17 42
conflated in Tables I and II; these are for Srd „ 1900 64 10 40
4th „ 490 12 2 61
maltings in US and Britain. The consider Composite
able variation in strength is further illustrated sampio 1800 71 17 36

by the analyses given in Table III. These

Water use—13 gal/bushel. BOD load—024 lb/bushel.
values were measured at a British maltings • llatio of BOD to Bum of (lulf organic N + N1I.-N).

Steep Liquors from a British Malting

1st Steep 2nd Steep 3rd Steep 4th Steep

Batch Volume BOD Volume BOD Volume BOD Volume BOD

Malting H (gal) (mg/litre) (gal) {mg/litre) (gal) (mg/litre) (gal) (mg/litre)

1 14.000 2750 14.000 1300 14,000 1800 14,000 870

2 14.000 1600 14.000 1300 14.000 2000 14,000 390
3 14.000 1600 14,000 1000 14,000 1600 14.000 210
4 14,000 1000 14.000 1000 14,000 14.000 325
5 14.000 1200 14.000 1250 14,000 1630 14.000 400
0 14,000 1450 14,000 1700 14,000 1600 14.000 350
7 14,000 2800 14,000 2000 14,000 3000 14.000 560
8 14.000 2800 14,000 2250 14,000 1900 14.000 490
9 8000 4000 8000 315
10 8000 2000 8000 2400 8000 635
11 8000 2350 8000 3050 8000 720
12 8000 2700 8000 3200 8000 720
13 8000 2050 8000 2860 8000 550
Vol. 79, 1973] Isaac and anderson: brewery effluents 169

quantity of effluent discharged was 434,000 tory are given in Table IV. Further
gal with a total BOD load of 7060 lb; the analyses of malting effluents may be found in
daily discharge varied from 38,000 to 73,000 Beeckmans et al* and in Briscoe4.
gal with a corresponding daily BOD load
varying from 623 to 1191 lb. This wide Occurrence and Nature of Brewery Effluents
variation in polluting load is one of the There are two stages of operation following
problems of which account must be taken in malting: brewing and fermentation, and cask
the design of treatment plant. More de- or bottle filling. Each of these stages contri-
tailed analyses made in the authors' labora- butes more or less liquid waste, which varies

Analyses of Malting Effluents Made in the Authors' Laboratory

Volume Total Total

(gal) BOD COD* PV§ SSf TSJ pH N P

Maltings K
(Dressed Zephyr barley, 12 hr steep, about 10} qr barley per tank)
1st steep 1400 4360 66 4950 6-8 138 60
2nd 1700 3360 31 2790 60 82 33
3rd 2300 3520 24 1790 5-8 50 16
Steep water used : 104 gal/qr (13 gal/bushel)
BOD load: 1-87 lb/qr (0-23 lb/bushel)

Maltings L
(Barley varieties: 1st steep Proctor, 2nd Ymer, 3rd1 Golden Promise)
1st steep .. 14,000 470 830 180 87 1408 00 303 10
2nd .. 14,000 570 750 148 41 998 0-9 11-2 6
3rd .. 14,000 360 450 68 23 634 7-0 7-8 0
Steep water used : 175 gal/qr (23 gal/bushel)
BOD load: 0-32 lb/qr (010 lb/bushel)
(Samples settled 5-10 min to lremove gross solids)

Maltings M
(125 qr per tank, malt for export grade lager: 1st steep 8 h + 12 h rest, 2nd Oh + 10 h rest, 3rd 4h +
10 h rcst^

1st steep .. 8000 1060 1020 303 104 2642 6-2 50-5 36
2nd .. 8000 260 400 120 30 750 00 00 7
3rd .. 8000 470 000 125 52 644 6-9 0-7 35
Steep water used : 102 gal/qr (24 gal/bushel)
BOD load: 1-15 lb/qr (014 lb/bushel)
(Samples settled 5-10 min to iremove gross solids)

Maltings N
(Norfolk Proctor barley, 1st steep 12 h. 2nd 21 h + 24 h dry. 3rd 36 h + 24 h dry—30 qr barley)
1st steep .. 1500 80 188 33 29 498 71 0-7 11
2nd .. 1300 1320 2360 226 44 1464 61 49-4 27-5
3rd .. 1200 1200 1700 240 79 1220 6-2 33-5 25
Steep water used: 133 gal/qr (17 gal/bushel)
BOD load: 118 lb/qr (015 lb/bushcl)
(Samples settled 5-10 min to remove gross solids)

• Dichromate value. { Total solids. (All analyses except pH in mg/litre). § Permanganate value (4 h).
f Suspended solids.

in strength from the beer-tank "bottoms" to Analyses of samples of effluent from three
almost pure cooling water. North-eastern breweries, submitted by the
The main waste during brewing is the wash- courtesy of the brewers, to whom we extend
water from the fermentation vessels. This our thanks, are shown in Table V. If they
may be fairly strong and may contain viable may be taken as typical, it will be seen that
yeast cells, which can be troublesome in the overall waste is likely to be about
normal sewage treatment. Varying quanti neutral, with a significant BOD value and
ties of pollution may be contributed by some suspended solids. For comparison it
spillage during mashing and fermenting. may be said that a normal British domestic
The greatest volume of waste from the sewage will have a BOD of about 300 mg/litre
filling of casks or bottles will be the water for and suspended solids of about 400 ing/litre
washing the casks and bottles. The volume and may contain 10 or more mg/litre of
of these wash-waters is likely to be very much synthetic detergent.
greater than that of the other effluent, and
the waste is likely to be weaker. Bottle
washing may also contribute detergent and Waste Control
alkali, as well as suspended solids from the The total volume of wastes may be mini
labels removed. Spillage while filling (e.g. mized by careful plant housekeeping, and in
from bottles breaking on the filling machine) particular by the recirculation of cooling
will also contribute pollution to the floor- water. When making comparisons of costs
washing waters. of the refrigeration of recirculated cooling
In addition, substantial quantities of un water and of once-through use, it must be
polluted cooling water may be discharged to kept in mind that to the cost of water (today
waste. In the present climate of opinion, probably 15 to 30p per 1000 gal)—must be
such water ought to be re-used where added the trade-waste charges levied by the
possible. There will also be such normal Local Authority.
'factory' discharges as boiler blowdown, The importance of avoiding spillage need
wash water from water filters, brine from hardly be emphasized. Spillage and the
zeolite softeners, lime sludge from lime flushing to waste of spoilt batches of material
softeners, etc. None of these is likely to be in production can make a considerable contri
large in volume or to contribute significant bution to the overall polluting strength of an
organic pollution. effluent. In addition to the normal recovery

Analyses of Brewery Effluents

Suspended Total Fhcnolphthalcin

Permanganate BOD Total solids ncldlty alkalinity
value. (4 h> 5-day solids (glass fibre) (mg/Illrc (mg.'litru
BREWERY A pll (mg/lltre) (mg/litrc) (mg/lltre) (mg/lltre) as CaCO,) as CnCO,)

Fennenting-vcisw] washings (I'M) 177 880 2070 1080 47

Cagk-woKliine 0 40 an 460 1000 168 21 —

Bottle-washing (beer) 1070 30 210 1930 460 —

Bottle-washing (mineral) (1-40 30 100 1230 450 —
Steep liquor ex waitings 0-35 250 050 2910 218 87

Steep liquor lnt drain 51M) 451 2350 3090 145 284
Steep liquor llnnl drain 5-llS 404 40SO 3070 112 508
Ex cask washer (1110 32 110 690 96 26
Ex bottle washer 00 19 105 1140 438 34

Steep liquor composite sample

from one hntrh of barley .. 0-40 30-7 170 408 27-5 26 —

Steep liquor lot drain fi-ns 13-0 80 341 16-0 14 —

Cask-washing 505 49-2 700 727 53-0 87 —

Fcrmcntlng-veracl washing .. .VI5 2230 1340 1080 111-5 212

Bottle-washing (prcrinse) .. 6-00 201 140 406 340 12 —

Draught beer: Exhibition .. :mo 2046 63000 38585 315 1607 .—

Draught beer: I.P.A. 3-00 1924 50000 24038 235 1528


of yeast, it is desirable to do as much as is Since these effluents are not very different
feasible to remove yeast from the wash-water from domestic sewage, the normal methods
from the brewery fermentation vessels. of biological treatment may be used, namely,
Cleanliness of equipment, cask and bottle biological filters (more properly known as
is so important to the product and its storage bacteria beds) and activated sludge.
life that re-use of wash-water must be very It has been found that for effective and
limited. Economy can, however, be effected rapid biological oxidation of organic matter
by countercurrent washing of bottles; this there is an optimum ratio of BOD: nitrogen:
also economizes in heat, detergent and alkali. phosphorus which is about 100:6:1. In
particular, if the BOD: N ratio is substantially
greater than 17 the treatment will be less
Effluent Treatment complete and slower. Malting and brewing
After all measures have been taken to wastes are, on the whole, low in nitrogen as
minimize the quantity and strength of the may be seen from Tables II and VII, which
effluent there will still be a substantial volume give analyses of nitrogen in the effluent
of very polluting liquid waste requiring samples from makings of Brewery C.
disposal. Estimated quantities of the vari Domestic sewage, on the other hand, has a
ous waste waters discharged from the three BOD:N ratio much less than 17. The most
North-eastern breweries are shown in Table economical way of treating brewery and
VI and volumes of effluent from makings are malting effluent is, therefore, to treat them
given in Tables I, III and IV. These waste in admixture with domestic sewage. For
waters contain so much organic material that makings and breweries situated in large
they cannot be discharged to surface waters towns this implies the discharge of the waste
without causing nuisance. Treatment is waters to the municipal sewers for treatment
therefore necessary before final discharge. at the town's sewage works. Even in this

Brewery Effluent Volumes

Brewery A

Settling-vessel washing Average 4S0 gat/h

Fermenting-vessel washing Average 300 gal/h
Cask-washing effluent 2500 gal/h when washer is running
Steep liquor from maltings 2100 gal discharged over 1 h at 10 times in the
Bottle-washing effluent (beer) 5300 gal/h with all units operating
(inc. cooling water and blowdown)
Bottle-washing effluent (mineral) 1800 gal/h at max. operation
(inc. cooling water from chilling plant

Brewery B

Maltings 16,000 gal/day, of which 8000 gal is steep liquor;

most of remainder is pure cooling water
Brewery 200,000 gal/day, of which 30,000 gal is from cask
washer; rest from numerous sources, very
variable in quality
Bottling 150,000 gal/day, of which 40,000 gal is from bottle-
washer; rest variable in quality

Brewery C

Steep liquor from maltings 3000 gal discharged in one day's operation
Fermenting vessel washing Average 2500 gal/day
Cask-washing Average 63,000 gal/day
Bottle-washing (beer) Average 17,000 gal/day

Nitrogen in Brewery Wastes
(Brewery C)

Waste NH,-N* Organic-N* Available N* BOD: N ratio

Steep liquor 0 25-2 12-6 13-4 : 1

Fermenting—vessel washing .. 0 1050 52-6 25-6 : 1
Cask-washing 0 13-4 6-7 104-4 : 1
Bottle washing (prerinsc) 0 0 0

Draught beer:
Exhibition 0 52-7 26-4 2400 : 1
I.P.A 0 6-1-3 32-2 1556 : 1

' Analyses in mg/litre.

case, it is desirable, indeed probably neces The Use of Bacteria Beds for Treating
sary, to provide a minimum of pretreatment Mailing Effluent
at the brewery, e.g. settlement to remove In bacteria beds, or percolating (trickling)
large solids such as label residues, and filters, the micro-organisms form a zoogloeal
effective removal of yeast. Some balancing slime on a solid medium (broken rock, gravel
of flow from maltings may be desirable, but or specially constructed plastic) which is
this must usually be fairly short, since the retained in a bed. For domestic sewage the
strong, organic steep liquors tend to go bed is usually 6 ft deep, but much greater
septic quite readily. depths have been used, especially with
Where a maltings or a brewery is in a plastic medium and in situations where
country district it may be necessary to treat climate demands that the filter be enclosed
the liquid wastes at the source, before dis (e.g. distilleries in the North of Scotland).
charge to a river. Full treatment will be The medium is of such a size (usually 1£ in
required, and either bacteria beds or activ and upwards for gravel or broken rock or
ated sludge may be used for the biological blast furnace slag) or configuration that the
stage. In view of the waste's high BOD: N interstices are not blocked by film growth;
ratio we are inclined to think that bacteria in this way the free movement of air through
beds are likely to give the most consistent the bed is permitted. The effluent is usually
results. The effectiveness of these beds may fed to the bed intermittently.
be increased by deepening them so that they Malting effluents are several times stronger
may be insulated. In this way any waste (in terms of BOD concentration) than domes
heat in the brewery may be used to keep the tic sewage, and it may therefore be necessary
wastes at a temperature above the surround to dilute the waste before it is dosed to the
ings, thus increasing the rate of the bio bacteria bed. This may most readily be
chemical treatment reactions, and so increas done by recirculating a portion of the treated
ing the treatment rate. Normal sewage beds effluent. For full treatment of the waste the
are designed for a rate of BOD removal of usual BOD load will be of the order of 0-2 lb
0-2 lb/yd3 day; at temperatures of about BOD per yd3 of medium per day. Even
30° C it should be possible to double this rate, higher loads may be achieved by alternating
and so to halve the bed volume. double filtration.
If a malting effluent contains much sus Ruf et al9 report the results of tests on
pended matter primary settling may be malting effluents (malting C in Table I).
necessary. If possible this should be avoided The pilot bacteria bed, which was filled with
by the use of dry cleaning methods for dirty 1-2-in crushed limestone, was 8 ft deep.
barley and by excluding rootlets from the Grain and rootlets were removed by a fine
liquid stream. If, for any reason, the screen, which required frequent cleaning.
exclusion of rootlets is not possible, they may A number of runs were made with wastes of
readily be removed from the effluent by the various BOD strengths, the removal varying
use of a fine screen. between 61 and 97% as shown in Table VIII.

TABLE VIII of the secondary sludge is returned to the

Biological Filtration of Malting Wastes* aeration tank. The authors have been
unable to find any reference in the literature
Waste Effluent BOD BOD to the use of the standard activated-sludge
HOD BOD* removal load
(mg/Uttc) (ms/lltrc) <%) lb/yd'/day process for the treatment of malting effluents.
490 100 61 31 While there is no fundamental reason for this,
250 35 86 1-2 there are two practical reasons; the bacteria
340 10 91 0-41
300 8 97 0-28 bed is inherently better able to withstand the
variations of load which are inevitable with
* After final settling. a batch process, such as malting, and activated
sludge tends, in normal sewage practice, to
The tests were carried out in summer and be used only for the larger works for popula
winter, and the authors found that, irrespec tions over, say, 20-30,000: a makings may be
tive of the ambient air temperature, which taken as representing a population equivalent
varied from —7 to 16° C, the raw malting of around 5-10,000.
waste remained at about 14° C, and lost only On the other hand, the Pasveer ditch, a
4° C in passing through the filter at the lowest modification of the activated-sludge process
ambient temperatures. developed in the Netherlands, is very suitable,
It will be seen from these results that the especially where the malting is situated in a
'critical' loading for a 'Royal Commission' rural area. Briscoe4 describes a Pasveer
effluent (BOD 20 mg/litre, suspended solids ditch which was used to treat the effluent
30 mg/litre) is about 0-5 lb BOD/yd3 day. from the Crisp Maltings at Great Ryburgh,
The authors found that fungi tended to near Fakenham, Norfolk. A Pasveer ditch
proliferate on the filter medium. consists essentially of an elliptical ditch of
Alternating double filtration was originally trapezoidal cross section, and with a liquid
developed especially for the control of exces depth of about 1 m. The mixture is oxygen
sive surface growths on bacteria beds, and ated and kept moving by means of an aera
such treatment might have been expected to tion rotor, partially submerged in the surface
have given even better results on the Wiscon of the liquid. Final settling may be carried
sin effluents. Recirculation, also, is advan out either in the ditch itself or in a separate
tageous and was adopted in pilot tests at a tank.
British malting. A 3:1 recirculation ratio The ditch described by Briscoe was later
was adopted and the bacteria bed was dosed extended by the construction of a further two
at 1 lb BOD/yd3 day. The BOD of the raw ditches, to give a total capacity of 534,000 gal
waste varied from 1350 to 2600 mg/litre, the for the treatment of 150,000 gal/day of
corresponding values for the treated effluents effluent.1 The BOD load to be treated is
being 70-550 mg/litre; the corresponding 1725 lb (equivalent to a population of over
BOD removals were 61-96%. While the 14,000); the BOD concentration varies from
effluents were not good enough to be dis just under 1000 to over 1600 mg/litre, and
charged to a surface water, the treatment the suspended-solids concentration averages
process was a most economical method of over 300 mg/litre. The effluent from a sump
reducing the BOD strength and hence the in the maltings is pumped, through a fine
trade-waste charge, before discharge to a screen, to a balancing tank on the centre
Local Authority sewer. Oliver & Walker8 island in one of the Pasveer ditches. The
describe the treatment by an experimental mixed liquor is drawn continuously from the
percolating filter at Salisbury. ditches and taken to the final settling tanks.
Surplus sludge is stored in a holding tank and
The Use of Activated Sludge for Malting periodically removed for disposal on farmland.
Effluent Some tests of the performance of the earlier
In activated sludge the stabilizing micro ditch were made by the Water Pollution
organisms are suspended in the liquid being Research Laboratory in 1965, and the results
treated, and the necessary air is blown in were given by Briscoe; average results are
through diffusers or is dissolved by mechani shown in Table IX.
cal agitation of the surface. In order to The total cost of the treatment plant was
maintain a sufficient concentration of the about £35,000 (or about £2-50 per head of
micro-organisms in the aeration tank, part equivalent population). The running costs

TABLE IX lower capital costs than those given in the

Performance of Pasveer Ditch on Malting Table, and it will usually be felt more appro
priate, where possible, to discharge the wastes
(Maltings J) to a Local Authority sewer. The Local
Authority will make a charge under the
Screened Final
effluent elllucnt Public Health (Drainage of Trade Premises)
to l'asveer to Removal
ditch stream (%)
Act, 1937, or under Part V of the Public
Health Act, 1961. Such charges are normally
Suspended solids S13 18 94
nob 1140 12 90 calculated on three elements:
Dichromatc value 1501 100 OS
Permanganate- value 1. Volume of effluent, which governs size
3 mill at 27° 0 S3 10 81
4 h at 27" C .. 304 30 00 of sewers, pumps, primary settling
Total nitrogen .. 30 0-7 81
tanks, etc;
Ammonincal nitrogen* 0-4 0-2 _

Oxidized nitrogen* 0-1 0-1 —

2. BOD which governs the size of the bio
logical stage of treatment; and
All analyses (except tliosc marked*) are average values over
nl>out three days and arc given In me/litre. 3. Suspended solids, which govern the cost
of the troublesome treatment and
total about £2800 per year (about 20p per disposal of sludge.
year per head of equivalent population).
Estimates are, therefore, given in Table X
Costs of Treatment and Disposal of the probable charges that might be made
No figures for the cost of the treatment and for the reception and treatment of these
disposal of malting or brewing effluents have wastes by some typical large Local Authori
been given in the literature, except those ties.
quoted above for the Pasveer ditch. "Guesti- Acknowledgements.—This paper is largely a
mates" of these costs for brewery and malting rewriting of two papers by one of the authors
wastes have been made by Isaac6*7 based on (Isaac6-7). The analyses for the original
a survey of the capital and operating costs papers were carried out by Mr. B. Yoxall,
for the treatment of domestic sewage formerly a technician in the Division of
(Bradley & Isaac3). These 'guestimates' are Public Health Engineering of the Department
brought up to date in Table X. of Civil Engineering and now Manager of
Full treatment of malting and brewing Blyth Corporation Sewage Works. The
effluents is unlikely to have substantially original cost estimates were made by Dr.

Approximate Costs for the Treatment and Acceptance of Brewing and Malting Wastes

Cost* for full treat ment Annual sewer charges'

County Upper
Total Annual Total Borough of Tame* Main
capital operating annual Burton on Drainage
Volume Total BOD Total SS Population cost1 cost* cost* Trent Authority*
(gal/day) (lb/day) (lb/day) equivalent' £ £ £ £ £

A 43,800 145-0 160-7 1120 47,000 1410 5150 705 1770
B 78,000 331-0 213-!) 2550 89,000 2670 0740 1350 3160
V 85,000 503-4 42-8 3850 123,000 3690 13,450 1465 3450

K 6720 120 020 40,000 1200 4380 100 438
1. 50,500 206 20 2040 75,000 2250 8210 075 1370
M 140,700 HSfi 6420 186,000 5570 20,370 2420 4000
X 30,500 370 20 2840 06,000 2880 10,510 706 1510

Notes: All costs are for 1971.

1. Based on 0-13 lb BOD/licad day.
2. Knsed on the costs for domestic scn-agc.
3. Taken as 3% of total capital cost.
4. Sum of operating cost and debt charges based on an annual repayment rate of 8%.
5. Based on 310 working days per year.
II. Since CO1) not normally to exceed 600 mg/litrc, nor 8S 400 mg/litre the Upper Tame Main Drainage Authority formula
for sewrr rliarges would give a theoretical maximum effluent charge of 13.11p/lOOO gal. It should lie noted here that the
wastes in the above Tahlc would therefore not be acceptable on an estimated COD basis.
X. 11. These cost estimates are approximate and reflect to some extent the wide variation In effluent analyses.

R. M. Bradley, at that time with Babtie !2 Bccckmans. I.. Dcvlaminch, I1"., Lejour, M.,and
Shaw and Morton, consulting civil engineers Leclcrc. K., Ihilletin Centre Beige d'Etudc rt
tie Documentation des lSati.v, li)54, 26. 216.
of Glasgow and now with D. Balfour and a. Bradley, K. M., & Isaac, P. C. G., University
Sons, consulting engineers of London and of Newcastle upon Tyne Department of Civil
Newcastle upon Tyne. The revised estimates Engineering 1909. Bulletin Number 40.
have been made with the assistance of Mr. 4. Briscoc. l£. K. E.. Journal of the Institute of
Public Health Engineers, 1006. 65. 148.
J. Wadley of Babtie Shaw and Morton. 5. Institute of Water Pollution Control. Water
Finally, the authors' thanks are due to the Pollution Control. 1987, 66, 193.
malts.ters and brewers who provided the 6. Isaac. P. C. G., Hrcwers Guild Journal, 1060. 52,
samples for the analyses given in Tables IV
7. Isaac. P. C. G., Effluent and Water Treatment
and V and who helped in many other ways. [ournal, 1969, 9, 597.
8. Oliver, J. H.. & Walker, ]. I'., Brewers Guild
Journal. 1961, 47, 81.
0. Ruf, H. W.. Warrick. L. P.. & Nichols. M. S..
Sewage Works Journal. 1935, 7, 564.
1. Anonymous, Water Waste Treatment, 15167, 11. 10. Simpson. J. R., Brewers Journal. 1967. 103,
42S. August p. 33. September p. 32.