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Respiratory System

Dr. Anung Putri Illahika


Program Studi Farmasi
Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang
Respiratory System:
Functions
1. Provides extensive surface area within
the lungs in the alveoli for gas exchange
between outside air & blood.
2. Moves air to & from exchange surfaces
of lung.
3. Purifies, warms, and humidifies the
incoming air in passageways to the lungs
4. Defends against invading
microorganisms.
5. Produces sounds involved in speech.
ORGAN PENYUSUN SISTEM RESPIRASI
Conducting portion

 Nose
 Pharynx
 Larynx
 Trachea
 Bronchi
Respiratory
portion

 Lungs –
alveoli
Figure 13.1
PEMBAGIAN SISTEM
RESPIRASI
Upper respiratory system – Nose to pharynx.
Functions:
Filters air
Warms air
Humidifies air
Lower respiratory system – larynx to smallest
structures of lungs.
Functions:
Same as above
Gas exchange
Upper
Respiratory
System

Lower
Respiratory
System
Nasus

Fungsi:
 Pembau
 Penyaring & proteksi
 Melembabkan & menghangatkan

WIRONO 6
Nasus

 Nasus externus

 Nasus internus

WIRONO 7
Sinus Paranasales
 Sinus frontales

 Sinus ethmoidales

 Sinus sphenoidales

 Sinus maxillares

8
Sinus Paranasales
Fungsi:
 Resonansi suara
 Berat cranium ↓
 Melindungi mata
 Melindungi struktur-struktur
intracranial

WIRONO 9
WIRONO 10
Pharynx
Fungsi:
 Jalur makanan & udara nafas
 Menghangatkan & melembabkan
 Pengecap
 Pendengaran
 Proteksi → Tonsillae
 Bersuara → resonansi

WIRONO 11
Pharynx
 Nasopharynx

 Oropharynx

 Laryngopharynx

12
WIRONO 13
WIRONO 14
WIRONO 15
Larynx (Voice Box)
 Routes air and food into proper channels
 Plays a role in speech
 Made of eight rigid hyaline cartilages and a spoon-shaped
flap of elastic cartilage (epiglottis)
 Thyroid cartilage
◦ Largest hyaline cartilage
◦ Protrudes anteriorly (Adam’s apple)
 Epiglottis
◦ Superior opening of the larynx
◦ Routes air to the trachea & food to the esophagus.
 Vocal cords (vocal folds)
◦ Vibrate with expelled air to create sound (speech)
 Glottis – opening between vocal cords
Anatomy E
of the epiglottis
larynx

Thyroid
Anatomy of the
larynx:
Vocal fold
E
epiglottis,
glottis, and
vocal folds
Trachea (Windpipe)
Trachea

The
trachea
(windpipe)
connects
larynx with
bronchi.
Trachea
Walls reinforced
with C-shaped
hyaline cartilage
which prevent
collapse of the
trachea.

Trachea lined with


ciliated mucosa
that beat
continuously;
trachea expels
mucus loaded
with dust & other
debris away from
lungs.
Coverings of the Lungs (Serous Membrane)
 Pulmonary (visceral) pleura covers the lung surface
 Parietal pleura lines the walls of the thoracic cavity
 Pleural (serous) fluid fills the area between layers of pleura
to allow gliding
Each lung is divided into lobes by fissures

Lungs oblique
fissure

lobe
lobe

hilus lobe
lobe

Left lung – two lobes Right lung – three lobes


Primary Bronchi
 Formed by division
of the trachea
 Enters the lung at
the hilus
 Bronchi subdivide
into smaller
and smaller
branches
Respiratory Tree
Divisions
 Primary bronchi
 Secondary bronchi
 Tertiary bronchi
 Bronchioles
 Terminal
bronchioles
The trachea
primary bronchus and primary
bronchi have
cartilage
rings.
secondary bronchus
Secondary
and tertiary
bronchi have
cartilage
plates
arranged
around
L lumen.

tertiary
bronchi

Bronchioles
lack cartilage.
Bronchioles

 Smallest branches of the


bronchi
 All but the smallest
branches have
reinforcing cartilage
 Terminal bronchioles end
in alveoli

Figure 13.5a
Respiratory Zone
 Respiratory
bronchioles
 Alveoli
◦ Alveolar duct
◦ Alveolar sac
◦ Alveolus
(Alveoli)
 Gas exchange
takes place
within the alveoli
 Sites of gas
exchange
 Pulmonary
capillaries cover
external surfaces
of alveoli
Events of
Respiration
 Respiratory gas
transport –
transport of
oxygen and
carbon dioxide via
the bloodstream
 Internal
respiration – gas
exchange
between blood
and tissue cells in
systemic
Neural Regulation of Respiration

Figure 13.12
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 13.37
Mechanics
of
Breathing
(Pulmonar
y
Ventilation)
 Completely mechanical process
 Depends on volume changes in the thoracic cavity
 Volume changes lead to pressure changes, which lead to the flow of
gases to equalize pressure
 Two phases
◦ Inspiration – flow of air into lung
◦ Expiration – air leaving lung
Inspiration

•Diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract


•The size (volume) of the thoracic cavity increases.
•The pressure inside the thoracic caivity decreases and draws external
air into the lungs down the pressure gradient. Figure 13.7a
Expiration

 Largely a passive process which depends on natural lung


elasticity
 As muscles relax, air is pushed out of the lungs
 Forced expiration can occur mostly by contracting internal
intercostal muscles to depress the rib cage
Pressure
Differences
in the lungs:
Thoracic intrapulmonary
pressure

Cavity
pleural cavity:
intrapleural
pressure

 Normal pressure within the pleural space (cavity) is always negative


(intrapleural pressure)
 Pressure differences between the lungs (intrapulmonary) and pleural
spaces keep the lungs from collapsing
The Cardiovascular System:
Program Studi Farmasi
Fakultas Ilmu Kesehatan
Universitas Muhammadiyah Malang
 Anatomy
Heart
◦ 4 chambers
◦ AV valves
Tricuspid
Bicuspid - mitral
◦ Semilunar valves
Right - pulmonary
Left - aortic

Inferior view of valves


Heart Anatomy
 Approximately the size of your fist
 Location
◦ Superior surface of diaphragm
◦ Left of the midline
◦ Anterior to the vertebral column, posterior
to the sternum
Heart Anatomy

Figure 18.1
Coverings of the Heart:
Anatomy
 Pericardium– a double-walled sac
around the heart composed of:
◦ A superficial fibrous pericardium
◦ A deep two-layer serous pericardium
The parietal layer lines the internal surface of
the fibrous pericardium
The visceral layer or epicardium lines the
surface of the heart
They are separated by the fluid-filled pericardial
cavity
Coverings of the Heart:
Physiology
 The pericardium:
◦ Protects and anchors the heart
◦ Prevents overfilling of the heart with blood
◦ Allows for the heart to work in a relatively
friction-free environment
Pericardial Layers of the
Heart

Figure 18.2
Heart Wall
 Epicardium – visceral layer of the
serous pericardium
 Myocardium – cardiac muscle layer
forming the bulk of the heart
 Fibrous skeleton of the heart –
crisscrossing, interlacing layer of
connective tissue
 Endocardium – endothelial layer of
the inner myocardial surface
External Heart: Major Vessels of
the Heart (Anterior View)
 Vessels returning blood to the heart include:
◦ Superior and inferior venae cavae
◦ Right and left pulmonary veins
 Vessels conveying blood away from the
heart include:
◦ Pulmonary trunk, which splits into right and left
pulmonary arteries
◦ Ascending aorta (three branches) –
brachiocephalic, left common carotid, and
subclavian arteries
External Heart: Vessels that Supply/
Drain the Heart (Anterior View)
 Arteries – right and left coronary (in
atrioventricular groove), marginal,
circumflex, and anterior
interventricular arteries
 Veins – small cardiac, anterior cardiac,
and great cardiac veins
External Heart: Anterior View

Figure 18.4b
External Heart: Major Vessels of
the Heart (Posterior View)
 Vessels returning blood to the heart include:
◦ Right and left pulmonary veins
◦ Superior and inferior venae cavae
 Vessels conveying blood away from the
heart include:
◦ Aorta
◦ Right and left pulmonary arteries
External Heart: Vessels that
Supply/Drain the Heart (Posterior
View)
 Arteries – right coronary artery (in
atrioventricular groove) and the
posterior interventricular artery (in
interventricular groove)
 Veins – great cardiac vein, posterior
vein to left ventricle, coronary sinus,
and middle cardiac vein
Pathway of Blood Through the Heart
and Lungs

Figure 18.5
Right common Left
Arteries carotid common
carotid
Right
subclavian
Brachiocephalic Left
subclavian

Aortic
arch

Descending
aorta
Major Arteries of Systemic Circulation

Figure 11.11

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 11.30
Veins

Superior
vena cava

Pulmonary
veins
Coronary
Cardiac sinus
veins

Inferior
vena cava
Major Veins of Systemic Circulation

Figure 11.12

Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 11.31
Coronary Circulation
 Coronary circulation is the functional
blood supply to the heart muscle itself
 Collateral routes ensure blood delivery
to heart even if major vessels are
occluded
Coronary Circuit

Aorta

Coronary
arteries
Coronary
sinus
Cardiac
veins
Coronary Vessels – Anterior
---LAC RPM---
Coronary Vessels – Posterior
---LAC RPM---
Heart Valves

 Heart valves ensure unidirectional blood


flow through the heart
 Atrioventricular (AV) valves lie between the
atria and the ventricles
 AV valves prevent backflow into the atria
when ventricles contract
 Chordae tendineae anchor AV valves to
papillary muscles
Heart Valves
 Aortic semilunar valve lies between
the left ventricle and the aorta
 Pulmonary semilunar valve lies
between the right ventricle and
pulmonary trunk
 Semilunar valves prevent backflow of
blood into the ventricles
Heart Valves

Figure 18.8a, b
Heart Valves
Valve Anatomy
 The AV valves, the tricuspid
and bicuspid (mitral) valves
AV Valve Mechanics
 Ventricles relax, pressure drops,
semilunar valves close, AV valves
open, blood flows from atria to
ventricles
 Ventricles contract, AV valves close
(papillary m. contract and pull on chordae
tendineae to prevent prolapse), pressure
rises,
semilunar valves open, blood flows
into great vessels
Operation of Atrioventricular
Valves
Operation of Semilunar
Valves
Blood Flow Through Heart
Pathway of Blood Through the
Heart and Lungs
 Right atrium  tricuspid valve  right
ventricle
 Right ventricle  pulmonary
semilunar valve  pulmonary arteries
 lungs
 Lungs  pulmonary veins  left
atrium
 Left atrium  bicuspid valve  left
ventricle
 Left ventricle  aortic semilunar valve
Pulse

 Pulse –
pressure wave
of blood
 Monitored at
“pressure
points” where
pulse is easily
palpated
Figure 11.16
Copyright © 2003 Pearson Education, Inc. publishing as Benjamin Cummings Slide 11.35
TERIMA KASIH