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Optik

journal homepage: www.elsevier.de/ijleo

temperature in one-dimensional photonic crystals

Francis Segovia-Chaves a,b,∗ , Herbert Vinck-Posada a

a

Departamento de Física, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, AA 055051 Bogotá, Colombia

b

Departamento de Ciencias Naturales, Universidad Surcolombiana, AA 385 Neiva, Colombia

a r t i c l e i n f o a b s t r a c t

Article history: In this work, by the transfer matrix method we calculated the transmittance spectrum of

Received 10 February 2018 two defects coupled in a one-dimensional photonic crystal composed of alternating layers

Accepted 19 March 2018 of Bi4 Ge3 O12 and SiO2 with defects of SiO2 . We consider the simultaneous effects of thermal

and thermal–optical expansion. It was found the presence of two defect modes within the

Keywords: photonic band gap, where the position of the modes changes to long wavelengths when

Photonic crystal increasing the temperature. Additionally, as we increase the separation of defects and tem-

Temperature

perature, the conﬁnement of the modes is greater with a shift of the central wavelength.

Defects coupled

Transfer-matrix method

© 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

In the atomic crystals the electrons suffer multiple scattering, the constructive interference gives rise to allowed electronic

states such as conduction or valence bands, while the destructive interference originates prohibited electronic states [1].

The allowed electronic energies are represented by bands and those prohibited are represented by electronic bandgaps.

Analogously, photons or electromagnetic waves suffer multiple scattering in a photonic crystal (PC). PCs are a new class

of artiﬁcial optical materials with a periodic modulation in the space of the refractive index with a period comparable to

the wavelengths of electromagnetic waves, and in the same way as in an atomic crystal, the constructive interference gives

rise to bands or allowed states and destructive interference gives rise to photonic band gaps (PBG) [2,3]. However, there

are important differences: the description of the electronic dynamics in an atomic crystal is governed by Schrödinger’s

scalar equation, while the description of the electromagnetic dynamics in a PC is governed by Maxwell’s vector equations

[4]. Additionally, the possibility of tuning the PBG by the optical response of the constituent materials of the PC by an

external agent such as operating temperature [5,6], hydrostatic pressure [7,8], electric and magnetic ﬁelds [9,10], attracts

the attention of researchers in their implementation in devices such as TE/TM ﬁlters, splitters, laser manufacturing and

light-emitting diodes [11–13].

The insertion in the PC of geometric or compositional defects that break the spatial periodicity of the crystal, originates

the presence of electromagnetic modes within the PBG [14]. In this way, it is possible to produce a cavity in low absorption

dielectric materials through a conﬁnement mechanism called distributed Bragg-reﬂection. This generates a large increase

in the quality factor Q of the cavity, deﬁned as the ratio between the stored energy and the energy dissipated in a cycle [15].

These heterostructures allow the conﬁnement of light of great interest in the solid state and quantum optics, the construction

∗ Corresponding author.

E-mail address: francis.segoviac@gmail.com (F. Segovia-Chaves).

https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijleo.2018.03.065

0030-4026/© 2018 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

F. Segovia-Chaves, H. Vinck-Posada / Optik 165 (2018) 168–173 169

of waveguides with higher quality factors than those of ﬁber optics, optical ﬁlters, optical switches, resonant cavities and

Fabry–Perot resonators [16–19].

The wide variety of functionalities offered by photonic devices has its origin in the interaction between the basic

constituents of the system. Particularly the coupling of the electromagnetic modes associated with the defects in the het-

erostructure with the capability of those constituents to transfer information between them. The coupling in PC attracts

attention because it provides some important functionalities which cannot be reached with a single defect, as in the

waveguides made of coupled defects which are referred to as coupled cavity waveguides and in optical switches [20,21].

In this work, we are interested in studying the dependence on the temperature of the transmittance spectrum for the

case of normal incidence, in the coupling of defects in a one-dimensional photonic crystal (1DPC). The crystal is composed

of alternating layers of Bi4 Ge3 O12 and SiO2 with defects of SiO2 . We will assume a linear dependence on the temperature

of the refractive indices and the thicknesses. The work is organized as follows: Section 2 presents the theoretical model for

calculating the transmittance spectrum by using the transfer matrix method (TMM). In Section 3, the numerical results of

the transmittance spectrum for different temperature values. The conclusions are presented in Section 4.

2. Theoretical model

In this work we studied the propagation of electromagnetic waves with normal incidence on a defective ﬁnite 1DPC

surrounded by air, and with a homogeneous pattern in the xy plane as shown in Fig. 1. The crystal is composed of alternating

layers of non-magnetic and isotropic materials, with H and L the materials of refractive indexes nH , nL and thicknesses dH

and dL , respectively. The defect is given by D with refractive index nD and thickness dD , the number of periods of layers HL

is N.

The monochromatic electric ﬁeld of frequency ω linearly polarized propagating in the plane (x, z) is given by:

E j (x, z) = ey Aj eikj,z z + Bj e−ikj,z z e−iqx (1)

ω 2

with kj,z = c j − q2 the z component of the wave vector, j the dielectric constant in the jth layer and q the wave

vector along the x axis. The values of Aj and Bj are calculated by the continuity conditions in the tangential components of

the electric and magnetic ﬁelds. In the TMM each layer H, L and D of the 1DPC is represented by the matrix [22]:

Mj = Dj Pj D−1

j

j = H, L, D (2)

eiϕj 0

Pj = (3)

0 e−iϕj

2dj

ϕj = kj,z dj = nj (4)

In Eq. (4) dj and nj = j , is the thickness and the refractive index in the jth layer, respectively. In Eq. (2) the dynamic matrix

is,

1 1

Dj = (5)

nj −nj

170 F. Segovia-Chaves, H. Vinck-Posada / Optik 165 (2018) 168–173

Fig. 2. (a) Transmittance spectrum as a function of wavelength for T = 0 ◦ C. (b) Transmittance spectrum of the defect mode as a function of wavelength

and variation in temperature.

The total transfer matrix for the 1DPC represented by Fig. 1 Air/(HL)N D(HL)N /Air, is

M11 M12

M= = D−1 M N MD (MH ML )N D0

0 (MH L )

(6)

M21 M22

with D0 the dynamic matrix of air. The transmittance I is calculated with the matrix elements M11 of Eq. (6),

1

2

I=

(7)

M 11

In this work we consider that the effects on the transmittance spectrum due to the variation in temperature T is determined

by two factors: ﬁrst, the linear dependence of the refractive index on T [23],

with n0 the refractive index of each layer at room temperature and ˇ is the thermo-optical coefﬁcient. Second, due to the

thermal linear expansion of the thickness d of each layer with T:

where d0 is the thickness of each layer at room temperature, ˛ the thermal-expansion coefﬁcient.

In our calculations the layer H is Bi4 Ge3 O12 (BGO) and the layer L is SiO2 , at a temperature T = 25 ◦ C the refractive indexes

are nH = 2.3 and nL = 1.45, respectively. The defect D is SiO2 , the period is N = 6 and the thicknesses of the layers are one-quarter

wavelength

0

nBGO dBGO = nSiO2 dSiO2 = (10)

4

with 0 the design wavelength that we will assume of 500 nm, such a structure is known as the Fabry–Perot resonator.

The thermo-optical coefﬁcients, for BGO and SiO2 are 3.9 × 10−5 /◦ C and 1.0 × 10−5 /◦ C, respectively. The coefﬁcients of linear

thermal expansion, for BGO and SiO2 are 6.3 × 10−6 /◦ C and 5.5 × 10−7 /◦ C, respectively [23].

The width of the PBG is determined by the theory of reﬂectors of Bragg. The edges of the left band L and right R , is given

by [24],

(nH dH + nL dL ) (nH dH + nL dL )

L = n −n

, R = n (11)

H −nL

cos−1 − nH +nL cos−1 nH +nL

H L

In Fig. 2(a) we present the numerical results of the transmittance spectrum for T = 0 ◦ C with the edges of the PBG at

L = 445.7 nm and R = 569.2 nm. The insertion of the defect of SiO2 causes the appearance within the PBG of a transmittance

peak of 0.87 known as defect mode (localized mode) with wavelength at 0 = 500 nm. By increasing T from 0 ◦ C to 300 ◦ C,

we found a small shift in the defect mode position at long wavelengths due to an increase in the contrast of the 1DPC

refractive indexes, as presented in Fig. 2(b).

F. Segovia-Chaves, H. Vinck-Posada / Optik 165 (2018) 168–173 171

Fig. 3. Photonic crystal with two defects Air/(HL)N D(HL)m (HL)N /Air.

Fig. 4. Transmittance spectrum as a function of wavelength for defects coupled with T = 0 ◦ C and N = 6. (a) m = 1. (b) m = 6 and (c) m = 10.

Fig. 5. Transmittance spectrum of two defects coupled as a function of the wavelength and separation m, for T = 0 ◦ C and N = 6.

The interaction between the basic constituents of the PC as it is the coupling of the defects in the crystal is presented

below. In Fig. 3 we present the 1DPC with the insertion of two defects D of SiO2 , where m represents the number of HL layers

that separates the two defects.

In Fig. 4(a)–(c) we present the transmittance spectrum for T = 0 ◦ C and different separation periods between the defects,

m = 1, 6 and 10. We found within the PBG two defect modes, when the separation distance of the defects is greater than

their thickness (Fig. 4(c)), the electromagnetic modes for this system are degenerate. However, if the separation m of the

defects is reduced, the degeneration begins to break and a splitting of the spectral lines results from the coupling between

the eigenstates of the individual defects, as shown in Fig. 4(a). The magnitude is called splitting and can be used to quantify

the coupling between the two PC defects [15].

In Fig. 5 we present the transmittance spectrum for T = 0 ◦ C of the defect modes as a function of the wavelength and

the separation m of the defects. We found a defect mode with a maximum of transmittance in m > 11 located at the design

wavelength of 500 nm. The greater the number of layers between the defects, the higher the conﬁnement of the mode in

each of them; therefore, the coupling decreases rapidly.

However, when increasing T = 0 ◦ C there is in the PC, represented in Fig. 3, a shift of the transmittance spectrum of the

defects coupled to long wavelengths. In Fig. 6(a) we present that redshift of the defect modes for a separation between the

cavities of m = 1 and an increase in temperature from 0 ◦ C to 300 ◦ C. When increasing the temperature and separation m, we

found that the shift of the defect modes are located with a central wavelength around 502 nm (Fig. 6(b)), contrary to the

172 F. Segovia-Chaves, H. Vinck-Posada / Optik 165 (2018) 168–173

Fig. 6. (a) Transmittance spectrum of two defects coupled as a function of wavelength and variation in temperature, for N = 6 and m = 1. (b) Transmittance

spectrum of two defects coupled as a function of the wavelength and separation m, for T = 200 ◦ C and N = 6.

results presented in Fig. 5. Changing the position of the defect modes with the temperature allows to design PC as tunable

ﬁlter devices.

4. Conclusions

Within the transfer matrix method we found the transmittance spectrum of two defects coupled in a one-dimensional

photonic crystal, when considering the dependence on temperature in thermal and thermal–optical expansion. We found

that there is a shift to long wavelengths of the defect modes when increasing the temperature. When the number of layers

separating the defects increases, the splitting decreases; therefore, the coupling of the defects decreases rapidly.

Acknowledgments

F.S.-Ch. and H.V.-P. gratefully acknowledge funding by COLCIENCIAS projects: “Emisión en sistemas de Qubits Supercon-

ductores acoplados a la radiación. Código 110171249692, CT 293-2016, HERMES 31361” and “Modelación teórico-estadística

de la reﬂectividad en especies colombianas, HERMES 35767”. F.S.-Ch. also acknowledges to Vicerrectoría de Investigación,

Universidad Surcolombiana Neiva-Huila.

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