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Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)

Vol-3, Issue-4, 2017


ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

Design of Merchandise Cold Storage Facility for


Meat Products to Promote Make in India Initiative
Abhilash D Watpade1 & Shubham V Pardeshi2
Department of Mechanical Engineering
Late G N Sapkal College of Engineering, Anjaneri, Nashik.

Abstract: The paper aims at designing a storage 1. Introduction


room for perishable foodstuffs like meat products so
as to avoid economical losses. Also to maintain the The refrigeration process needs to be carried in a
quality of the meat products by minimizing the size of controlled environment. The liquid refrigerant is
crystals formed during refrigeration. The used for the purpose of the refrigeration which takes
refrigeration room has dimensions (2m x 2m x 2m). heat from the controlled environment and dumps it to
The location for the construction of refrigeration the heat sink or the outer environment. Humans have
room is inside of the building, which makes it away been using various methods for preservation of foods
from direct sun, lowering the heat load. The from ages. The design of a refrigeration room for the
refrigeration room has been designed for estimated preservation of meat requires utmost care. The moist,
refrigerating capacity of 0.52TR. The refrigerant warm surface of the freshly cut meat provides ideal
selected for the purpose is R134a. The selection was conditions for the growth of micro-organisms and
based on its negligible ozone depletion potential, this can result into spoilage of the meat if not
non-flammability, non-corrosiveness and most controlled. When the meat is refrigerated near 7℃,
importantly the non-toxicity, which is the most the mesophilic organisms and most pathogens will
important factor for storage of food products. The not grow, but still the psychrophilic will continue to
design of various components required for the grow, favoring the spoilage conditions. The
refrigeration was calculated. The calculations pseudomonads grow slowly at a temperature of 0℃
included the total heat load, occupancy load, heat but their growth rate accelerates very quickly at 5℃
load due to electrical equipment and the air change temperature. The surface of meat also may dry out
heat load i.e. heat load due to opening and closing of due to lack of moisture while refrigeration. The color
doors. The insulation selected for the purpose was of the meat is also influenced by the rate of cooling.
made of polyurethane and foam, with a thickness of Slower cooling rate will result in lighter colored
12 cm which about 4 cm greater than the meat. Slower cooling also avoids the problem of cold
recommended considering safety factor. The shortening. But slower cooling produces decrease of
transmission load was not calculated as the room is shell life, weight loss, dull meat color, and bigger
very small and it can be easily compensated in the crystals are formed which destroys the tissues. Rapid
safety factor. Also, with greater insulation thickness chilling increases the shell life, reduces the bacterial
the transmission load will be minimal. Based on the growth, retains color and weight and also produces
calculations, the evaporator selected for the purpose smaller crystals preventing tissue damage. Most meat
has a refrigeration capacity of 3 HP, the condenser products experience longer storage life with decrease
has a capacity of 2 HP and the compressor required in the freezing temperatures. The lower the freezing
is of 1 HP. Automatically operated expansion valve temperature, higher will be the life of meat.
was selected for the purpose. The generator is also
selected for the purpose having power generation 2. Principle of Operation of Refrigeration
capacity of 4 HP which is enough for operating the Room
compressor, evaporator and condenser fans and
other electrical equipment in case of power failure. The refrigeration room operates on basic vapor-
The rated power of the above was also calculated compression refrigeration cycle. The evaporator,
considering the actual COP. The system has cop of compressor, condenser, expansion valve are the key
4.57 and the actual COP amounts to 1.52. The components of the refrigeration cycle. The low
design aims at satisfying the load calculations and pressure low temperature liquid refrigerant absorbs
also the economic considerations. and removes heat from the inside cabinet. This low
pressure refrigerant from evaporator turns into
saturated vapor which is then compressed to high
pressure and passed to the condenser. The heat is
rejected in the condenser. Then the saturated liquid

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Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-3, Issue-4, 2017
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

refrigerant enters the expansion valve, where it is Product -12 ℃ -12 ℃ -12 ℃
undergoes pressure reduction. After expansion valve Meat 8 15 24
the refrigerant again enters the evaporator and the Ground Meat 6 10 15
cycle continues. A fan is used to force the warm air Veal carcass 6 12 15
over the evaporator coils. The condenser may be Veal steak 6 12 15
water or air cooled type. Lamb carcass 18 24 24
Lamb steak 12 18 24
Pork carcass 6 10 15
Pork steak 6 10 15
Sliced bacon 12 12 12
Chicken whole 9 18 24
Chicken parts 9 18 24
Turkey 8 15 24
Duck, Geese 6 12 18
Liver 4 12 18

As per the table the temperature for refrigeration


should be -18℃ to -24℃. Therefore, this parameter is
crucial for the design

3.3 Rate of freezing


3. Parameters considered for the design
If meat is frozen slowly, large ice crystals are formed
3.1 Site selection and their size breaks down the tissues. When
defrosted for use, the food spoils rapidly and taste is
The refrigeration room should be in a shady areas ruined. Fast freezing, from 0℃ to -15℃, forms small
having good wind flow. Small refrigeration room ice crystals which do not damage the meat tissues.
should better be built inside of building. The Faster freezing also tends to produce a lighter
refrigeration room should have good drainage colored product as the small crystals scatter the light
conditions around. The underground water level more than the large crystals and enhances the
should be low. It is better to have interlayer below appearance of the meat products. Meat placed in
and it is best to keep it well ventilated because rapid freezers will freeze quickly, and when
dryness is important for cold storage. Before defrosted for use, even after long storage, will still be
construction, refrigeration room should be set up tasty.
with corresponding three-phase electric capacity
according to the machinery power. If the 3.4 Relative Humidity
refrigeration room adopts water cooling methods,
water pipes should be laid and cooling tower should Relative humidity is the second most important
be assembles as well. condition for storage of meat products. Using proper
temperature and relative humidity, the life of meat
3.2 Storage temperature products can be extended. Relative humidity in a
storage space is affected by many variables, such as
Temperature is the most important parameter for system running time, moisture infiltration, condition
the meat storage purpose. Life of all frozen foods is and amount of product surface exposed, air motion,
dependent on temperature of storage. In many meat outside air conditions, type of system control, etc. If
types greater the frozen temperature higher is the life proper humidity is not maintained, the meat products
of meat. There is a clear effect of temperature of will have surface drying also resulting into weight
storage on storage life, but considerable scatter loss. Therefore to preventing the drying out of the
between results at some temperatures are also meat surface the relative humidity level should be
observed. maintained to about 90% to 95%. Thus, the weight
loss will be countered and freezer burns will also be
avoided.

The following table shows data for meat at 4. Calculation of Refrigeration Loads
different storage temperatures [Practical storage life The most accurate means of determining the
in months]. refrigeration load is by calculating each of the factors
contributing to the load.

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Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-3, Issue-4, 2017
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

Coefficient of performance
Product load COP = Refrigerating effect / Compressor work
= 152.4 / 33.3042
Mass = 200 kg COP = 4.57
Initial temp of meat = 24℃ (COP)Actual = (1/3) x COP
Freezing temp = -2℃ = 4.57 / 3
Final / storage temp. = -18℃ (COP)Actual = 1.52
Specific heat of meat before freezing = 3.23 KJ/kgK
Specific heat of meat after freezing = 1.68 KJ/kgK
Latent heat = 233 KJ/kg
Solution:
To cool from 24℃ to -2℃ = 200 x 3.23(24 - (-2))
= 16796 KJ
To freeze = 200 x 233 = 46600 KJ
To cool from -2℃ to -18℃ = 200 x 1.68(-2 - (-18))
= 5376 KJ
Total = 16796 KJ + 46600 KJ + 5376 KJ
= 68772 KJ/24hr
= 800 W or 0.8 KW

Heat transfer due to opening and closing of


door

Hc = V x Ac x He Fig: Pressure-Enthalpy diagram


= (2 x 2 x 2 x) 34 x 1
= 3.148 x 10-3 KW 5. Material Selection
Heat load due to lamps Insulating Material

HL = (No. of lamps) x (Lamp power rating) The selection appropriate of insulating material
x (Functioning time) for preventing heat gain from the outside
= 2 x 40W/hr x 8hrs surroundings is very important. Besides being a good
= 0.64 KW heat insulating material, it should also be
economical, practical and durable. Cold storage
Heat load due to occupancy insulation material has several types: one is that it
can be processed into fixed shape and specification
At -18℃ heat released by a person is 1372 KJ/hr or which has fixed length, width and thickness.
0.3811 KW Different panels are available according to different
Ho = (No. of persons working) x (Heat released) assembling needs.
x (Working time) High and medium temperature cold storage rooms
= 1 x 0.3811 x 1 generally need 10cm thick panel whereas low
= 0.3811 KW temperature cold storage and freezing cold storage
rooms need 12cm or 15cm thick panels. Another
Therefore, cold storage can use spray polyurethane foam. The
Total heat load = 0.8 KW + 3.148 x 10-3 KW material is directly sprayed to brick or concrete
+ 0.64 KW + 0.3811 KW which, after shape settled, is moisture proof and heat
= 1.8242 KW insulating. Heat insulation material includes PU and
From the table of refrigerant 134a PHB. Pu is not bibulous, heat insulating but highly-
H1= 386.7 KJ/kg, H3 = H4 = 234.3 KJ/kg cost. PHB is bibulous, less heat insulating but low-
And calculating H2 = 420 KJ/kg cost. Modern structures are developing fabricated
Therefore, cold storage rooms which make moisture proof
Compressor work = H2 – H1 layers and insulating layers in advance and
= 420 – 386.7 assembling is done on site. It advantages in
= 33.3042 KJ/kg construction convenient, quick, mobile nut the highly
cost.
Refrigerating effect = H1 – H4 Therefore as per the temperature considerations
= 386.7 – 234.3 and also considering the economics and durability,
= 152.4 KJ/kg Urethane is best suited insulating material for the

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Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-3, Issue-4, 2017
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

insulating panels of the refrigerating room. The 6. Design calculations


thickness of the panel will be about 10cm and for
ceiling it will be about 12cm. Compressor design

Refrigerant Mass flow rate of refrigerant (M)

The life blood of any refrigerating system is the = Cooling load / H1 – H4


refrigerant circulating inside the system. It carries
heat from the refrigerated space to the outside = 1.8242 / 152.4
surroundings. During the operation the refrigerant is
= 0.01196 kg/s
subjected to cyclic thermodynamic processes.
The refrigerant selected should have following Compressor capacity = M x compressor work
properties:
1. The refrigerant should have low boiling = 0.01196 x 33.3042
temperature at boiling pressure.
2. Freezing temperature should be below = 0.3986 kW or 0.5345 HP
evaporator temperature.
3. It should have low condensing pressure. = 1 HP
4. It should have high latent heat of
vaporization. Compressor rated power
5. The evaporating pressures should be above
atmospheric pressures. = compressor capacity / (COP)Actual
6. The refrigerant should have higher thermal
= 0.3986 / 1.52 = 0.2622 kW or 0.35HP
conductivity for better heat transfer rates.
7. The refrigerant used should be non-
Evaporator design
corrosive.
8. The refrigerant should have no effect on the Evaporator capacity = M x Refrigerating effect
foodstuff if it comes in contact.
9. Refrigerating should be capable of = 0.01196 x 152.4
withstanding the effect of pressure and
temperature inside the system. = 1.82 kW or 3 HP
10. The refrigerating should not be poisonous or
injurious. It should also be non-irritating. Rated evaporated capacity
11. The refrigerant should be easy and safe to
handle and should also be economical and = evaporator capacity / (COP)Actual
easily available in the market.
12. It should be eco-friendly. = 1.82 / 1.52 = 1.2 kW or 1.6HP

The refrigerant, R134a was selected. It is an Condenser design


almost odorless liquid with a low boiling point of -
Condenser capacity = M x condenser work
26℃ at atmospheric pressure. It has low specific
volume of vapor with a good volumetric efficiency. = 0.01196 x (420 – 234.3)
It is non-toxic, non-corrosive, non-irritating and non-
flammable. Its ozone depletion potential is zero with = 2.22 kW or 2.97 HP
a little global warming potential. More importantly,
its cost is comparatively low, and it produces = 3 HP
relatively good refrigerating effect at moderate and
economical operating condition. Also, its leakage can Rated condenser power
be easily detected by soap solution.
= condenser capacity / (COP)Actual

= 2.22 / 1.52 = 0.2622 kW or 2HP

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Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-3, Issue-4, 2017
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

thermostatic system, the air-blowing fan switches off


7. Refrigeration room cooling system when heat load is low and switches on when heat
equipment load is high. This helps the air in circulation cool the
refrigerant efficiently
Refrigeration is accomplished by the evaporator
as the refrigerant takes the heat from inside. The Expansion Valve
dimensions of the refrigerating room are 2m x 2m x
2m. Selection of cold storage cooling system is The expansion valve used for our application is
mainly the selection of refrigeration compressor and automatic type. The valve has a diaphragm on one
the evaporator side and evaporator pressure on the other side. A rise
in evaporator pressure moves the diaphragm and
reduces the flow of refrigerant through the valve and
thereby reduces the evaporator pressure. Similarly
the flow is increased when evaporator pressure
drops. Thus it tries to maintain constant pressure in
the evaporator.

Generator

A generator system should have the capacity to


maintain critical temperatures within the cold storage
facility. In case of failure of the electrical system the
Evaporator generator should be immediately switched on. As the
fall in temperature inside the cabinet will degrade the
The evaporator can be classified as Shell and coil product stored.
type, Shell and tube type or tank type evaporators. The generator selected is capable of supplying
The type of evaporator selected for the application 4HP of power and the fuel required for its operation
is a bare tube coil, forced connection, dry expansion; is diesel.
and made of aluminium material. It is forced
connection because air is forced over the coil by a 8. Cost Estimation
fan, to increase heat transfer rate as well as
distributing the cooling effect evenly round the room. Total cost = Material cost + Workmanship
The bare tube is chosen because of its relatively low Material cost:
cost due to ease of construction. 1. Compressor = $300
2. Evaporator = $200
Condenser 3. Condenser = $150
4. Expansion valve = $20
The selection of a condensing unit depends on the 5. Generator = $300
type of condensing medium to be used, air or water, 6. Cost of insulation = $150
the design ambient temperature or water temperature, 7. Others = $100
and the capacity of the condenser selected. The Workmanship = $800
condensers are basically classified as air cooled type So, Total cost = ($300 + $200 + $150 + $20
and water cooled type. In air cooled condensers the + $300 + $150 + $100) + $800
air is used as the cooling medium. Abundant and free = $2020
availability of the air makes it suitable for certain The above mentioned cost does not include the
applications. Basic limitation of gas to gas heat cost of transportation and other miscellaneous costs.
transfer makes it less efficient and suitable only for Therefore, considering an overhead of 20% the final
smaller capacities. The air circulation around the cost becomes
tubes can be natural or forced convection. In contrary Final cost = 2020 + (0.2 x 2020)
to this, Water cooled type compressors use water as = $2424
the cooling medium. Water due to wetting of surface Thus, the refrigeration room would two thousand
gives better heat transfer. Generally water two hundred and twenty four dollars for its design,
temperatures are less than that of air. So condensing development, machinery and auxiliary equipment.
temperature is also lower which gives better COP.
The condenser selected for our application is a
base mounted, forced convection, air cooled type of
condenser made of copper material. It lies on the
same base with the compressor. With the aid of the

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Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR)
Vol-3, Issue-4, 2017
ISSN: 2454-1362, http://www.onlinejournal.in

9. Conclusion
The refrigeration room of 2m x 2m x 2m was
successfully designed having a total refrigeration
load of 0.52 TR. The equipment designed for
handling the load was based on the load calculations.
The evaporator has a refrigeration capacity of 3 HP,
the condenser has a capacity of 2 HP and the
compressor required is of 1 HP. Also a generator of 4
HP is suggested along with other equipment. The
overall equipment and workmanship cost goes to
$2020 (Two thousand and twenty dollars) and
including other costs it amounts to about $2424(Two
thousand four hundred and twenty four dollars). So it
is economical considering the purpose. Therefore,
the objective of the design has been justified and
achieved effectively

10. References
[1] Authors: S J James Bruce James, Meat Refrigeration,
1st Edition.

[2] R.K. Rajput, Heat and Mass Transfer, 3rd Edition, S.


Chand & Company Limited, Ram Nagar, New Delhi,
2006.

[3] Shan K. Wang, Handbook of Air conditioning nnd


refrigeration, Second Edition, McGraw-Hill.

[4] Ian McNeil, Neil G. Mcphail and David Macfarlane,


Carcass Chilling.

[5] American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-


Conditioning Engineers, Inc., 2010 ASHRAE Handbook -
Refrigeration (SI Edition).

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