Anda di halaman 1dari 61

1

CHAPTER 1
INTRODUCTION
2

1.INTRODUCTION

1.1 About KSE Limited


KSE Limited was established in 1963, as ‘Kerala Solvent Extractions Ltd.’, now
known as ‘KSE Ltd.’, entered the Solvent Extraction Industry, setting up the very first
solvent extraction plant in Kerala. The solvent extraction plant went on stream in 1972
and in 1976, a new plant was set up to manufacture ready mixed cattle.KSE Limited is a
public limited company with around 4500 shareholders. The shares are listed in BSE &
NSE. They are the largest manufacturer of compound cattle feed in Private sector in the
country. The last three decades have seen KSE emerging as a leader in solvent extraction
and ready mixed cattlefeed in the country. Today KSE commands the resources, expertise
and infrastructure to manufacture a range of livestock feed in high volumes, coconut oil
from coconut oil cake and refined edible oil. Driven by a commitment to high standards
of quality, KSE has not only won customer confidence but also national recognition
through several awards and accolades.With modern manufacturing facilities spread over
three states, KSE caters to the vast belt stretching across Southern India and enjoys a
significant presence in exports too. Since the early days, KSE has endeavoured to supply
its products to customers through an extensive network of dealers and retailers, which
form a dedicated force behind the success of KSE. Its a matter of pride that KSE is a
household name today. With a strong commitment to customers and product quality and
being cost competitive, KSE stands poised to meet new challenges.
3

1.2.INDUSTRY PROFILE

1.2.1 SOLVENT EXTRACTION INDUSTRY


The solvent industry has achieved a phenomenal progress and at present there are
520 units having overall oil cake or oil seed processing capacity of more than 9.9
million/year. The solvent extraction plays important role in the oil economy. Solvent
extraction in India was started in 1945. It had to struggle for more than 20 years to
establish itself.
1.2.2 CRISIS OF COCONUT INDUSTRIES IN KERALA IN 1960’
In the 1960’s there was a crisis in coconut oil extraction industry in Kerala. After
conversion from wooden ghani’s to rotaries the cost of the production had increased
considerably. By using this new method they were able to extract more oil from the
coconut cake. Earlier 20% of the oil was retained in the coconut cake, now it has reduced
to 12%.
Although Kerala produces 80% of copra produced in the country large part of it was
sold to other state as copra itself and they were earning good profit when mills in Kerala
wasn’t able to get enough copra for their daily needs. When oil industry in other parts of
the country was thriving in Kerala it was struggling. So they understood the need for
modernization of their mills. At that time Dr. P. S. Lokanathan committee set up to study
the feasibility of starting new industries in Kerala, recommended of establishment of 3
solvent plants in Kerala and it was also proposed that one should be located in Thrissur
itself.
1.2.3 COCONUT OIL MILLER’S CO-OPERATIVE SOCIETY
Lion share of copra went to mills in Bombay and they were able to generate good
profits. To overcome the situation a co-operative society formed by name Coconut Oil
Miller’s Co-operative Society and it was decided that this society would act as an agent
of state trading corporation for distribution of copra.
By seeing the performance of the Bombay group an investigation department was
assigned to investigate it. Then they found out that they were using expeller mills for
extracting oil and was able to reduce the oil content up to 6%. The industries in Kerala
later began to follow it.
4

1.2.4 CATTLE FEED INDUSTRY


From the beginning KSE Ltd marketed the buy product obtained from its solvent
extraction division in the brand name of Jersey Copra Cake. Most of the progress in the
cattle feed sector has come about in the past 30 years only. There are only few cattle feed
units in the country especially in Kerala. The cattle industry of the state has been utilizing
the indigenous raw material i.e. coconut cake, which is the residue left after the extraction
of oil from copra which is mainly used as cattle feed. Coconut cake contains 4-5% oil is
generally used for industrial purpose and deoiled cakes is used to make mixed cattle feed.
In Kerala the rotary cake was used as a cattle feed and actually this excessive oil
on cakes reduced the keeping quality of the cake and also upset the digestive system of
the cattle e. In foreign countries, the cattle is feed only with de-oiled cakes and according
to the dairy experts, the milk and fact contend of milk depends solely on the protein
contend of the feed. All these factors stress the importance of having a few cattle field
industry in the state.
Thus in 1996, KSE Ltd. Entered the cattle field industry, setting up the new plant
for manufacturing ready mixed cattle feed. The last three decades have been KSE
emerging as the leader in ready mixed cattle feed in the country. Today KSE Ltd.
Commands the recourses, expertise and infrastructure of manufacture a range of livestock
feed in high volumes, driven by a commitment to high standards of quality
1.2.5 DIARY INDUSTRY
Most of the progress in the dairy sector has come about in the past 25 years only.
Till 1970, the country’s milk production increased merely by 1% a year. But after the
intensification of cattle improvement programme through artificial insemination, using
sasses of exotic breeds and launch of operation flood, the production started rising rapidly
from the mid 19.
The transformation of India from a milk deficit to a milk surplus country is
essentially the result of an intensive campaign launch by the Govt. and semi Govt. bodies
to promote animal husbandry as a means of generating income for the landless poor.
Many of these producers have organized themselves into co-operative under the
umbrella if the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) which had been running a
highly successful animal husbandry promotion programme named operation flood.
5

The private sector has now entered into this field in a big way, capitalizing on the
availability of cheap surplus milk to produce various kinds of dairy products for the
domestic and international market. Several dairy products like skimmed milk powder,
whole milk powder, and infant milk foods of western origin are now being produced in
India. A variety of cheeses, milk drinks, ice creams, pasteurized butter etc. which, were
very common in this country till a few decades ago are now available in abundance in
department stores of big and small cities.
The main objective of this programme is to build a viable and self sustaining
national dairy industry capable of meeting the domestic demand for fresh liquid milk and
milk products and competing in the international area.
6

1.3 COMPANY PROFILE


1.3.1 INTRODUCTION
Cattle play a vital role in the economy of India. Majorities of Indian cattle are
seriously underfed particularly cows in rural areas. Due to these reasons, the importance
of the cattle feed industry has been increased in India.
Kerala Solvent Extractions was registered as a public limited company on 25 th
September, 1963. The company was later renamed as KSE Limited and listed in the stock
exchanges of Mumbai, Chennai and Kochi. KSE, a company having annual turn of Rs.
250 crore, is the largest manufacturer of cattle feed. It is marketing annually about 2.2
lakh tones of superior quality cattle feed. KSE is in the oil extraction industry for the past
32 years.The company has secured the National Productivity Award for the year 2001-
2002 for being first in terms of production efficiency in the animal feed sector. KSE, with
a capital base of Rs. 36 crore embarks on an expansion to double its solvent extraction
capacity and add a most modern eco-friendly vegetable oil refining plant.
1.3.2 ORIGIN
Copra crushing has been a native industry of Kerala. But inefficient crushing
methods and competition from the modernized oil mills elsewhere shattered coconut oil
industry in Kerala in early 1960’s. It was as a part of the package program to revive
coconut oil industry in the state of Kerala that oil millers of Irinjalakuda and surrounding
places formed themselves into a corporate body to start a solvent extraction plant.
7

1.3.3 HISTORY
In 1963, KSE Ltd was established according to Indian Companies Act 1956. It
was registered as a public limited company on 25 th September, 1963. Its first production
was started in 1972 with a capacity of 40 tones per day. In 1980 the capacity of plant was
raised to 60 tonnes per day. In 1983, a fully automatic cattle feed plant was added with a
capacity of 120 tonnes per day capacity. By 1992 the capacity of solvent extraction plant
was further increased to 100 tonnes per day. In 1987, the plant capacity was increased to
180 tonnes over day.
The company’s second production unit with a capacity of 150 tonnes per day
solvent extraction commenced operation at Swaminathapuram. Dildigul district of Tamil
Nadu in 1988 and 1989 respectively. The cattle feed capacity was subsequently increased
to 180 tonnes per day.
The third cattle feed plant of the company started operation at Vedagiri in
Kottayam district of Kerala in 1995. This plant is now working on three shifts producing
around 150 tonnes per day. This plant has a basic installed capacity to go up to 240
tonnes per day. The plant at Irinjalakuda and Vedagiri are fully automatic and key
manufacturing operations are controlled by microprocessors. Vedagiri project costing
around Rs. 6 crore was fully financed out of internal sources of company. Company put
up a vegetable oil refining plant at Irinjalakuda at a cost of Rs. 1 crore in 1995. This
project was also fully financed from internal accruals. The company is reaming solvent
extracted coconut oil and expeller sunflower oil in the refinery plant.

Oil millers of Thrissur are the promoters of the company. It was registered in 1956
and incorporated as a public limited company in 1963 as per Indian Companies
Act.Kerala Solvent Extraction Limited was registered as a public limited company on 25 th
September 1963. The company was later renamed as KSE Limited. The company is listed
in three stock exchanges- Mumbai, Chennai, Cochin.The company started production
in1972 with a solvent extraction capacity of 40 MTS per day. On1976 the company is
modernized to cattle feed industry with a capacity of 50 tons per day.
8

KSE Limited is a product oriented company. Cattle feed is the main product of the
company. The other products are oil-cake, de-oiled cake (JERSEY), Milk, Ice cream, etc..
De-oiled cake is marketed under the brand name “JERSEY”. Their Ice cream marketed
under the brand name “Vesta”, is well accepted in the market. Now they are trying to
expand their milk products.

In the early stages, the company faced financial difficulties, but was assisted by
K.S.I.D.C. (Kerala State Industrial Development Corporation) by subscribing to it’s
twenty five percent equity capital and I.F.C.I. (Industrial Finance Corporation of India).

KSE had computerized its operations way back. In the year 1999, KSE went on to
upgrade its EDP set up further. A custom made ERP soft ware was developed for its units
and head office through M/s R.R. Software Pvt. Ltd. Cochin and online computerization
was fully implemented at all its plants. Being custom made for KSE this ERP software,
with SQL RDBMS front end on Visual basic and Windows NT OS , selflessly had
integrated all function of the organization viz FA, inventory, billing payroll ,PPC. MIS,
share accounting etc.

The head office at irinjalakuda has two servers and 40 Nodes running the
application. Other units, in all, have about 8 servers and about 50 Nodes. Their plant at
Vadagiri, Kottayam, has a computerized control room for monitoring, homogenization,
size reduction, batching, pelletisation , pellet cooling and aspiring system.

The manufacturing processes used in the company are

1) Wooden canes 2) Oil mill

3) Expeller mill 4) Solvent extraction

Now-a-days, the first three processes are out of use. Irinjalakkuda unit of the
company is mainly concentrated on solvent extraction process. Irinjalakuda unit of the
company consists of cattle feed plant and refining plant.
9

1.3.4 COMPETITORS
Kerala feeds; Milma, Godrej, Prima, etc. are the main competitors to the
company. But the company is the number one producer of cattle feed in private sector.
Now the company is concentrated on producing more milk products. Projects for this
purpose are on consideration.

1.3.5 SHARE CAPITAL OF THE COMPANY


The authorized share capital of the company is Rs.4 crores and issued and
subscribed capital is Rs. 32 crore. The par at value of one equity share capital is Rs. 10.
The company issued 6000, 135% redeemable cumulative preference shares of Rs. 100
each. The redemption of these shares is at par after ten years but before fifteen years from
the date of their allotment. The company has made 2 bonus issues and one right issue.
The company went in for public issue of shares in 1994. Company shares are listed at the
stock exchanges at Cochin, Chennai, and Mumbai. The present market value of the
company’s share is Rs. 160 as on 22nd December, 2006. The reserves and surplus on 31st
March, 2005 is Rs. 25 crores. The company declared a dividend of 125% for the year
ended 31st March, 2006.
1.3.6 ENVIRONMENT AND SAFETY
The company is maintaining safety standards and ensuring pollution free
environment. The working environment has been made pollution free, noiseless,
conductive atmosphere. The plant was erected in such a way to monitor and maintain
the dust free environment. The safety measures are strictly followed.
10

1.3.7 QUALI TY POLICY


Companies quality policy is to produce and distribute good quality compounded
cattle feed in pellet from mineral mixture and other fodder materials through a quality
system, which registers continual improvement by setting and reviewing functional
quality objectives aimed to create enhanced customer satisfaction. The quality policy
objectives aimed to create enhanced customer satisfaction. The quality policy will be
communicated to all and will be reviewed periodically for continued suitability. The
management and staff are determined and committed to achieve this quality policy and
to make dairying.
Quality management principles
 Customer focus
 Leadership
 Involvement of people
 Process approach
 System approach to management
 Continual improvements
 Mutually beneficial supplier relationships

The management of KSE ltd recognizes that measurement and monitoring of


customer satisfaction as a vital tool for evaluating the performance of KSE LTD.
Customer complaints revived by customer complaints received by customer care cell are
properly monitored for prompt redressed in the best possible ways to ensure customer
delight and thus keep up the quality level. The finance and accounts department tries to
improve the effectiveness and efficiency of the quality management systems by
providing positively the financial results to the concerned and suggest them for suitable
Improvement actions in the concerned and suggest them for suitable improvement
actions in the monthly performance review meeting.

FEED ANALYTICAL LAB


11

Quality control, feed analytical lab is located inside the Kerala feeds ltd campus.
This department was starting functioning from. The department lab equipped with latest
and most modern analytical instrument for analyzing moisture, crude protein, crude
fiber, other extract, sand and silica and aflatoxin for the coded samples of raw materials
in process product and finished product.
VISION
KSE is committed to provide quality livestock feed and service to farmers at a
reasonable cost.
MISSION
 Increase the production of balanced compounded cattle feed in pellet form 240
metric tons to 500 metric tons per day
 To produce 240 metric tons per day of other livestock feed (goats, buffaloes,
elephants, laboratory animals & pets)
 To manufacture appropriate type of feed and feed supplement for different stages
of livestock
 To become a market driving company to a market driven company
 Educate and train the livestock farmers to practice scientific feed to optimize
livestock productivity
 To support the development of knowledge based network on feed related
activities if
 To offer consultancy services for the procurement of feeds ingredients, logistics
solution, feed manufacturing, setting up of feed if analytical labs
 To achieve the turnover of RS 250 cores
 To be active partner in community development programs.

1.3.8 UNITS OF KSE Ltd.


Head office :- KSE Limited, Irinjalakkuda.

I. Production units (Kerala):


12

1. Irinjalakkuda unit;
2. Vedagiri unit, Kurumullur;
3. Palakkad unit, Palakkad;
4. Diary unit, Konikkara;
5. Edayar, Cochin;
6. NIDA unit, Kanchikkode, Palakkad;
7. Parapadi unit, Calicut.

II. Tamil nadu:


1. Swaminathapuram unit, Dindugal
2. Diary unit, Thalayuthu.

III. Karnataka:

1. Hinkal, Mysore.

1.3.9 MILESTONES OF THE COMPANY


Year Events
1976 A new plant was set up to produce 50 MTS of ready mixed cattle feed
1979 Production capacity of cattle feed plant is increased to 60 MTS per day
13

1983 A fully automatic cattle feed plant started operation. Capacity 120 MTS Per
day
1984 The solvent extraction plant capacity increased to 80 MTS per day
1987 Cattle feed plant capacity increased to 180 MTS per day
1988 Cattle feed plant in Tamil nadu went in to operation. Capacity 100 MTS per
day
1989 The capacity of solvent extraction plant of Tamil nadu unit is expanded to
100 MTS per day
1990 Cattle feed production capacity of Tamil nadu increased to 150 MTS per day
1991 Palakkad branch started
1993 The company enters export market. Keyes forte, the new feed supplement for
cattle introduced. Cattle feed manufacturing capacity of Swaminathapuram
unit increased to 180 MTS per day
1995 Cattle feed production is started in Mysore in Karnataka state. Calicut branch
opened
1996 240 TPD cattle feed plant at Vedagiri in Kottayam district started operation.
Company renamed to KSE Limited
1998 Company acquired its fourth manufacturing unit at Palakkad and decided to
manufacture and market poultry feed from this unit.
Company celebrated the silver jubilee of the Irinjalakuda unit on completion
of 25th year of commencement of production.
Feeds and extractions, Swaminathapuram( a unit of KSE Limited) was
renamed as KSE Limited Swaminathapuram.

1999 A modern children’s park and information centre has been completed for the
benefit of the public. The company introduced ‘KS Deluxe plus’, the new
pelleted feed in HDPE bags for Kerala market.

2000 Company started production and marketing of pasteurized milk and milk
products from Konikkara diary, Thrissur, Kerala, and Thalayuthu diary, Tamil
nadu.
2002 Started operating a solvent extraction plant and oil refineryon lease at
Kanchikkode for processing coconut cake. Cattle feed production capacity of
the Irinjalakuda plant increased to 199 MTS per day. Ice cream ‘Vesta’
launched
2003 Started produced cattle feed at a leased plant at Edayar, Kalamassery.
14

Cattle feed capacity of Swaminathapuram unit increased to 195 MTS per day.
‘Vesta’ haven ice cream parlours at Irinjalakuda an Marathakkara started
2004 New project of 200 TPD solvent plant and 100 TPD oil physical refining
plant started. Acquires hand from KINFRA for starting a new project at
Kinfra park, koratty.
2005 Cattle feed production capacity at irinjalakuda unit increased to 210 MTS
per day,
Started producing cattle feed in a leased unit at Erode.
Company acquired its 5th cattle feed manufacturing unit at Mysore.
ISO 9001-2000 accreditation for Vadagiri and Swaminathapuram units.
2006 The 200 TPD solvent extraction plant at Koratty commissioned.
100 TPD physical refining plant at Koratty commissioned.
A branch at Nilamel, Kollam district started.
A branch at coimbatore started for marketing Vesta ice cream.

1.3.10 BOARD OF DIRECTORS


Board of directors of the company has ten members including the managing director.

NAME DESIGNATION
Mr. M. C. Paul Chairman and Managing director
Mr.P.K. Varghese Executive director
Mr. A. P. George Director and legal advisor
Mr. K. P. John Director
Mr.Joseph Xavier Director
Mr. P. D. Anto Director
Mr. John francis K. Director
Dr. K. C. Vijayaraghavan Director
Mr. T. R. Ragulal Director
Dr.Jose Paul Thaliyath Director
15

Chief General Manager of the company is Mr. Anand Menon.

Mr. R. Sankaranarayanan is the secretary-cum-chief finance manager.

BANKERS

KSE Limited banks with ICICI BANK LIMITED.

1.4 PRODUCT PROFILE


In the beginning stage of KSE limited had only solvent unit. After some time the
company started to produce jersey copra Cakes, compound cattle feed & refined
sunflower oil. Jersey copra cake, the coconut cake, which comes out of Solvent
Extraction process is made pure by de-solvent sing & named as ‘Jersey Brand Copra
Cake’.
At present it is marketed in Kerala, Tamil Nadu & Gujarat Company started to
produce ready mix compound cattle feed because it was not able to fulfil the demand of
‘Jersey copra cake’. The company was also producing food supplement for cattle feed .
PRODUCT PROFILE
The main products marketed are
1. K S CATTLE
It includes six types. They are:
 K.S
 K.S. SUPER
 K.S SUPER
 K.S DELUX PELLETS
 K.S DELUX PLUS PELLETS
 K.S SUPREME PELLETS
16

1.4.1 CATTLE FEED DEVISION


Cattle feed in 1976, the company started manufacturing ready mixed compound
cattle under the brand name “K.S.Cattle Feed”. The balanced ready mix feed
manufactured after due consideration of needs of the cattle in the state is well received all
over Kerala, therefore constituting its share in the milk production of the state.
Fully automatic & sophisticated live stock feed plant at 120 tonne productions per
day was established at Irinjalakuda to meet the increasing demand for cattle & this went
into commercial production in 1983.

1.4.2 CATTLE FEED SEGMENTATION

Cattle Feed

Pellet Mash

Delux Delue Suprem Jersey Ordinary Super Special


x Mash
e Mash
e Plus Mash
Pellet
17

Figure 1.4.2.1

CHAPTER 2
OBJECTIVE, SCOPE, METHODOLOGY,LIMITATIONS
AND REVIEW LITERATURE
18

2.1OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


 To analyse the management working capital in the company
 To analyze the liquidity position of the firm.
 To know about the Debtor turnover ratio and Debtors collection period.
 To know about the schedule of changes in working capital.
19

2.2 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

The achievement of adequate profitability is specific to each situation and outside


the scope of the digest. The problem of liquidity is less dependent on particular
circumstances and it is easier to make useful generalizations. There are two distinct
requirement for liquidity firstly, profitability and secondly, care and thoroughness in
administration.
It is only if a firm is profitable that in the long run it will receive in cash more
than it pays out. This is the most clearly imaginable in the case of trading business which
buys and skills exclusively on cash basis. If such a firm makes losses it is paying out in
cash more than it coming in from sales. It can only sustain its cash balance by injections
of capital or by selling off its assets, processes which cannot continually indefinitely.
Profitability may be necessary but it is not sufficient. A firm must be careful to ensure
that it does not ensure commit itself to payments that it cannot cover. Thus detailed
records require be keeping, ideally on a “real time” basis, of cash in hand and expecting
and cash to be paid. The accounting statement showing this detail is the cash budget
.every item will be tracked in terms of the time of flow, and the whole managed so that
there is never a time when payments cannot be made when due .this is requires the
steady exercise of the bureaucratic virtues of thoroughness, reliability and accuracy,
together with contingency planning to cope with uncertainty
20

“The scope of the study is confined to analyze and study the management of
working capital for a period of five financial years from 2005-06 to 2009-10”.

2.3 METHODOLOGY

Collection of data
The data is collected from annual reports of the ‘KSE Ltd., IRINJALAKUDA’.
Source of data
Source of data is mainly collected through the secondary data’s of the company.
 Balance sheet of last 5 years
 Profit & loss a/c of last 5 years
 Cash flow statement of last 5 years
Secondary data
Secondary data’s were collected from various books, annual reports, company’s
documents and from company’s website.
Tools used for analysis of data
Analysis of liquidity posission
1) Current Ratio
2) Quick Ratio or Acid test Ratio or Liquidity Ratio
3) Absolute Liquidity Ratio
Analysing the efficiency of components of working capital
1) Cash to current assets ratio
21

2) Inventory to current assets ratio


3) Inventory turnover ratio
4) Working capital turnover ratio
5) Debtors turnover ratio
6) Average debt collection period
7) Creditors turnover ratio
8) Average debt payment period
Type of research
The researcher used analytical research for analyzing the working capital
management of the company from its various financial statements.

2.4 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

 Limited time and resources prevented from making a detailed study.


 Secondary data was the main source of information.
 Reports (trading profit and loss account, balance sheet) of financial year 2010-11
were not available for the study.
22

2.5 REVIEW LITERATURE

2.5.1 WORKING CAPITAL

Working capital (abbreviated WC) is a financial metric which represents operating


liquidity available to a business, organization, or other entity, including governmental
entity. Along with fixed assets such as plant and equipment, working capital is considered
a part of operating capital. Net working capital is calculated as current assets minus
current liabilities. It is a derivation of working capital, that is commonly used in valuation

techniques such as DCFs (Discounted cash flows). If current assets are le ss than
current liabilities, an entity has a working capital
deficiency, also called a working capital deficit.
 Working Capital = Current Assets
 Net Working Capital = Current Assets − Current Liabilities
 Net Operating Working Capital = Current Assets − Non Interest-bearing
Current Liabilities
 Equity Working Capital = Current Assets − Current Liabilities − Long-term
Debt
23

A company can be endowed with assets and profitability but short of liquidity if
its assets cannot readily be converted into cash. Positive working capital is required to
ensure that a firm is able to continue its operations and that it has sufficient funds to
satisfy both maturing short-term debt and upcoming operational expenses. The
management of working capital involves managing inventories, accounts receivable and
payable, and cash.

2.5.2 CALCULATION OF WORKING CAPITAL

Current assets and current liabilities include three accounts which are of special
importance. These accounts represent the areas of the business where managers have the
most direct impact:

 accounts receivable (current asset)

Accounts receivable (A/R) in American English, receivables or debtors in British


English, is money owed to a business by its clients and shown in its accounts as an asset.
It is one of a series of accounting transactions dealing with the billing of a customer for
goods and services that the customer has ordered.

 inventory (current assets)

In the USA and Canada the term has developed from a list of goods and materials
to the goods and materials themselves, especially those held available in stock by a
business; and this has become the primary meaning of the term in North American
24

English, equivalent to the term "stock" in British English. In accounting, inventory or


stock is considered an asset.

 accounts payable (current liability)

Accounts payable is a file or account sub-ledger that records amounts that a


person or company owes to suppliers, but has not paid yet (a form of debt), sometimes
referred as trade payables. When an invoice is received, it is added to the file, and then
removed when it is paid. Thus, the A/P is a form of credit that suppliers offer to their
customers by allowing them to pay for a product or service after it has already been
received.

The current portion of debt (payable within 12 months) is critical, because it


represents a short-term claim to current assets and is often secured by long term assets.
Common types of short-term debt are bank loans and lines of credit.

An increase in working capital indicates that the business has either increased
current assets (that is has increased its receivables, or other current assets) or has
decreased current liabilities, for example has paid off some short-term
creditors.Implications on M&A: The common commercial definition of working capital
for the purpose of a working capital adjustment in an M&A transaction (i.e. for a working
capital adjustment mechanism in a sale and purchase agreement) is equal to:

Current Assets – Current Liabilities excluding deferred tax assets/liabilities,


excess cash, surplus assets and/or deposit balances.Cash balance items often attract a
one-for-one purchase price adjustment.
25

2.5.3 WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT

Decisions relating to working capital and short term financing are referred to as
working capital management. These involve managing the relationship between a firm's
short-term assets and its short-term liabilities. The goal of working capital management is
to ensure that the firm is able to continue its operations and that it has sufficient cash flow
to satisfy both maturing short-term debt and upcoming operational expenses.

DECISION CRITERIA

By definition, working capital management entails short term decisions -


generally, relating to the next one year period - which are "reversible". These decisions
are therefore not taken on the same basis as Capital Investment Decisions (NPV or
related, as above) rather they will be based on cash flows and / or profitability.

 One measure of cash flow is provided by the cash conversion cycle - the net number
of days from the outlay of cash for raw material to receiving payment from the
26

customer. As a management tool, this metric makes explicit the inter-relatedness of


decisions relating to inventories, accounts receivable and payable, and cash. Because
this number effectively corresponds to the time that the firm's cash is tied up in
operations and unavailable for other activities, management generally aims at a low
net count.
 In this context, the most useful measure of profitability is Return on capital (ROC).
The result is shown as a percentage, determined by dividing relevant income for the
12 months by capital employed; Return on equity (ROE) shows this result for the
firm's shareholders. Firm value is enhanced when, and if, the return on capital, which
results from working capital management, exceeds the cost of capital, which results
from capital investment decisions as above. ROC measures are therefore useful as a
management tool, in that they link short-term policy with long-term decision making.
 Credit policy of the firm: Another factor affecting working capital management is
credit policy of the firm. It includes buying of raw material and selling of finished
goods either in cash or on credit. This affects the cash conversion cycle.

2.5.4 MANAGEMENT OF WORKING CAPITAL

Guided by the above criteria, management will use a combination of policies and
techniques for the management of working capital. These policies aim at managing the
current assets (generally cash and cash equivalents, inventories and debtors) and the short
term financing, such that cash flows and returns are acceptable.

 Cash management.

Identify the cash balance which allows for the business to meet day to day
expenses, but reduces cash holding costs.

In United States banking, cash management, or treasury management, is a


marketing term for certain services offered primarily to larger business customers. It may
be used to describe all bank accounts (such as checking accounts) provided to businesses
of a certain size, but it is more often used to describe specific services such as cash
27

concentration, zero balance accounting, and automated clearing house facilities.


Sometimes, private banking customers are given cash management services.

 Inventory management.

Identify the level of inventory which allows for uninterrupted production but
reduces the investment in raw materials - and minimizes reordering costs - and hence
increases cash flow. Besides this, the lead times in production should be lowered to
reduce Work in Progress (WIP) and similarly, the Finished Goods should be kept on as
low level as possible to avoid over production - see Supply chain management; Just In
Time (JIT); Economic order quantity (EOQ); Economic quantity.

 Debtors management.

Identify the appropriate credit policy, i.e. credit terms which will attract
customers, such that any impact on cash flows and the cash conversion cycle will be
offset by increased revenue and hence Return on Capital (or vice versa); see Discounts
and allowances.

 Short term financing.

Identify the appropriate source of financing, given the cash conversion cycle: the
inventory is ideally financed by credit granted by the supplier; however, it may be
necessary to utilize a bank loan (or overdraft), or to "convert debtors to cash" through
"factoring".
28

2.5.5 DETERMINANTS OF WORKING CAPITAL

Working capital requirements of a concern depends on a number of factors, each


of which should be considered carefully for determining the proper amount of working
capital. It may be however be added that these factors affect differently to the different
units and these keeps varying from time to time. In general, the determinants of working
capital which re common to all organization’s can be summarized as under:

1. Nature of business
Need for working capital is highly depends on what type of business, the firm in.
there are trading firms, which needs to invest a lot in stocks, ills receivables, liquid cash
etc. public utilities like railways, electricity, etc., need much less inventories and cash.
Manufacturing concerns stands in between these two extends. Working capital
requirement for manufacturing concerns depends on various factors like the products,
technologies, marketing policies.
29

2. Production policies
Production policies of the organization effects working capital requirements very
highly.Seasonal industries, which produces only in specific season requires more working
capital . some industries which produces round the year but sale mainly done in some
special seasons are also need to keep more working capital.
3. Size of business
Size of business is another factor to determines the need for working capital
4. Length of operating cycle.
Operating cycle of the firm also influence the working capital . longer the orating
cycle, the higher will be the working capital requirement of the organization.
5. Credit policy
Companies; follows liberal credit policy needs to keep more working capital with
them.Efficiency of debt collecting machinery is also relevant in this matter. Credit
availability form suppliers also effects the company’s working capital requirements. A
company doesn’t enjoy a liberal credit from its suppliers will have to keep more working
capital.

6. Business fluctuation
Cyclical changes in the economy also influence the level of working capital.
During boom period, the tendency of management is to pile up inventories of raw
materials and finished goods to avail the advantage of rising prove. This creates demand
for more capital. Similarly, during depression when the prices and demand for
manufactured goods. Constantly reduce the industrial and trading activities show a
downward termed. Hence the demand for working capital is low.
7. Current asset policies.
The quantum of working capital of a company is significantly determined by its
current assets. Policies. A company with conservative assets policy may operate with
relatively high level of working capital than its sales volume. A company pursuing an
aggressive amount assets policy operates with a relatively lower level of working capital.
8. Fluctuations of supply and seasonal variations
30

Some companies need to keep large amount of working capital due to their
irregular sales and intermittent supply. Similarly companies using bulky materials also
maintain large reserves’ of raw material inventories. This increase the need of working
capital . some companies manufacture and sell goods only during certain seasons.
Working capital requirements of such industries will be higher during certain season of
such industries period.
9. Other factors
Effective co ordination between production and distribution can reduce the need
for working capital . transportation and communication means. If developed helps to
reduce the working capital requirement.
31

CHAPTER 3
ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

3.1 ANALYSIS OF LIQUIDITY POSITION OF


KSE Ltd., IRINJALAKUDA

These ratio’s indicate the capacity of the business to meet it’s short term
application. Liquidity is the ability of the firm to meet it’s current liabilities as they fall
due. It is extremely essential for a firm to be able to meet it’s obligations as they become
due. Liquidity ratios measure the ability of a firm to meet it’s short-term financial
strength or solvency.
Theses ratios are much helpful not only to creditors,bankers and other shor-term
lenders ,but also to long-term lenders, employees, management, and the shareholders.
The trade creditors, bankers, and other short –term lenders are very much interested in
obligation out of it’s short-term resourses. The long term lenders are interested in these
32

ratio’s ,as they would like to know whether the concern would be able to pay the interest
on loans on the due date. The employees of the concern are interested in these ratio’s in
the sense that they would like to know the ability of the concern to pay the remuneration
of the staff in time. The management is interested in it for judging the efficiency with
which the working capital is employed in the business. The shareholders are interested in
these ratio’s in the sense that they would be able to pay the dividend. Following are the
important liquidity ratio’s:
1) Current Ratio
1) Quick Ratio or Acid test Ratio or Liquidity Ratio
2) Absolute Liquidity Ratio

1) CURRENT RATIO
Current ratio is the most common ratio for measuring liquidity. It represents the
ratio of current assets to current liabilities. It is also called working capital ratio. It is
calculated by dividing current assets by current liabilities.
CURRENT ASSETS
CURRENT RATIO =
CURRENT LIABILITIES

The current ratio of firm measures it’s short-term solvency. In a sound business a
current ratio of 2:1 is considered as ideal one. A high ratio indicates sound solvency
posission and low ratio indicate inadequate working capital.

CURRENT RATIO
(Rs in lakhs)
Year Current assets Current liabilities Current ratio
33

2005-06 4590.76 1632.56 2.8120


2006-07 3063.73 840.48 3.6452
2007-08 2870.67 1016.37 2.8244
2008-09 3270.91 1142.61 2.8627
2009-10 3277.43 1259.56 2.6020
Source: Annual reports of the company
Table 3.1.1

INTERPRETATION

As a conventional rule, idle current ratio should be 2:1. The actual current ratio is
2:1 it can be reasonably being taken as a sign of liquidity or the short term solvency of
concern. The company has maintained the current ratio favorable from 2005-06 to 2009-
10, but the year 2006-2007 the ratio was highly increased to 3.6452.
The main reason for increasing current ratio in the year 2006-2007 is
dipping the sail in that year, it is because of increased price of the products. So the stock
increased. To recover this problem the sales have to increase.

Figure 3.1.2
INFERENCES
From the above diagram current ratio of the company is favorable in the study
period 2005-06 to 2009-10 and in the year 2006-07 it is high because of the increase in
various current assets like rawmaterials and inventory.
34

2) QUICK RATIO OR ACID TEST RATIO


This ratio shows the relation between quick assets to quick liabilities. It is
determined by dividing quick assets by current liabilities or quick liabilities.

QUICK ASSETS
QUICK RATIO =
CURRENT LIABILITIES

The term quick assets refers to current assets ,which can be converted in to cash
immediately. It consist of all current assets except stock and prepaid expenses. Quick
liabilities compraise current liabilities excluding bank overdraft.
Quick ratio of 1:1 is considered satisfactory as a firm can easily meet all it’s
current liabilities. If the ratio is less than 1:1 then the financial position of the concern is
sound and good.
QUICK RATIO
(Rs in lakhs)
35

Year Quick assets Current liabilities Quick ratio


2005-06 2535.94 1632.56 1.5534
2006-07 1210.17 840.48 1.4399
2007-08 1328.97 1016.37 1.3076
2008-09 1255.04 1142.61 1.0984
2009-10 1539.95 1259.56 1.2623
Source: Annual reports of the company
Table 3.1.2
INTERPRETATION
Quick ratio is expressed as quick asset/quick liability. Quick ratio of 1:1 is
considered to represent a satisfactory financial position. If actual quick ratio is equal or
more than the standard quick ratio of 1:1,the conclusion can be the concern is liquid and
so it can pay of its short-term liability out of its quickly.The company has maintained
quick ratio favorable from 2005-06 to 2009-10. In year 2008-09 the company shows
lower quick ratio because of the company had highest stock in the year.

Figure 3.1.3

INFERENCES
From the above diagram quick ratio of the company has favorable in the study
period 2005-06 to 2009-10. In year 2008-09 the company shows lower quick ratio
because of the company had highest stock in the year.
.
36

3) ABSOLUTE LIQUIDITY RATIOS


This ratio is the most rigorous and conservative test of a firm’s liquidity position.
It gives a more meaningful measure of liquidity when used in conjunction with current
and acid test ratio. Absolute liquidity ratio relates the sum of cash and marketable
securities to the current liabilities. It is expressed as follows :

CASH +MARKETABLE SECURITIES


ABSOLUTE LIQUIDITY RATIO =
CURRENT LIABILITIES

The ideal absolute liquidity ratio is 0.75:1. It is fixed at 0.75:1 because for the
payment of quick liabilities besides the 100% cash from the absolute liquid assets, a good
amount of cash may also result from other curret assets like receivables and sundry
debtors. If the absolute liquid ratio is equal to or more than the standard ratio of 0.75:1,
the concern can be taken as liquid. On the other hand , if the actual absolute liquid ratio
is less than 0.75:1, the concern is considered as not liquid.
The absolute liquid ratio of KSE Ltd.is shown in the following table:
37

ABSOLUTE LIQUIDITY RATIO


(Rs. In lakhs)
Year Cash balance Current liabilities Absolute liquid ratio
2005-06 1813.95 1632.56 1.1111
2006-07 459.80 840.48 0.5471
2007-08 530.99 1016.37 0.5224
2008-09 439.04 1142.61 0.3842
2009-10 860.31 1259.56 0.6830
Source: Annual reports of the company
Table 3.1.3
INTERPRETATION
The ideal absolute liquidity ratio is 0.75:1. we can see that except the year 2005-
06 cash position of the company is very weak when we compare it with it’s current
liabilities. Moreover , during the last year KSE’s cash position was abnormally poor the
continuing trend of which shall negatively affect it’s future operations.

Figure 3.1.4
INFERENCES
From the above diagram shows absolute liquidity ratio of the company has
favorable in the study period 2005-06 to 2009-10 except in the year 2005-06, the
company shows 1.1111 as absolute liquidity ratio. which is less than the ideal ratio 0.75:
1, because of the company’s poor cash position.
.
38

III.2 ANALYSING THE EFFICIENCY OF COMPONENTS OF


WORKING CAPITAL
(ACTIVITY RATIO’S OR TURNOVER RATIO’S)
Activity ratio indicates operational efficiency of the business concern. Activity
ratio’s measure how efficiently the assets are employed by the firm. These ratio’s
indicates the speed with which assets are being converted in to sales. The important
turnover ratio’s are analysed below :
1) CASH
Cash is the money,which a firm can disburse continuously. It is the common
denominator to which all current assets can be reduced because other major current assets
,that is , receivables and inventory get eventually converted in to cash.
CASH TO CURRENT ASSETS RATIO
This ratio is calculated by dividing cash by current assets. Cash is compared with
current assets first to know the proportion of cash to current assets ,which directly affects
the profitability of the firm because cash as such is an unproductive asset. Even though
cash is an unproductive asset , it cannot be reduced below a certain limit because
contingencies may arise during the course of business. There is no standard or fixed norm
for this ratio.
39

CASH AND BANK BALANCE


CASH TO CURRENT ASSETS RATIO =
CURRENT ASSET

CASH TO CURRENT ASSETS


(Rs. In lakhs)
Year Cash and bank balance Current assets Cash to current assets(%)
2005-06 1813.95 4590.77 39.51%
2006-07 459.80 3063.73 15.01%
2007-08 530.99 2870.68 18.50%
2008-09 439.04 3270.91 13.42%
2009-10 860.31 3277.43 26.25%
Source:annual reports of the company
Table 3.2.4
INTERPRETATION
As per the above table it is found that the percentages of cash to current assets are
39.51,15.01,18.50,13.42, and 26.25 respectively. The higher percentage of cash to current
assets is shown in the year 2005-06. which shows the greater liquidity of the company,
but after that the percentage is gradually decreased. In the year 2009-10 it was 26.25%,
this shows the improvement of liquidity position of the company,because of the increase
of the liquid cash.
40

Figure 3.2.5
INFERENCES
From the above diagram shows variability in the cash to current assets ratio of the
company ,the 2005-06 shows39.51% , but after that itn will decrease. In the year 2009-10
indicates better increase in cash position.
2) INVENTORY TO CURRENT ASSETS
Inventory includes stock of raw materials, spares and stores including goods-in-
transit, goods- in-process, finished goods and others. Every enterprise needs inventory for
smooth functioning of it’s activities. It serves as a link between production and
distribution process.

INVENTORY
INVENTORY TO CURRENT ASSETS =
CURRENT ASSETS

INVENTORY TO CURRENT ASSETS


(Rs. In lakhs)
Year Inventory Current assets Inventory to current assets(%)
2005-06 2429.82 4590.77 52.93%
2006-07 2217.66 3063.73 73.03%
2007-08 1930.15 2870.68 67.24%
2008-09 2469.86 3270.91 75.51%
2009-10 2082.62 3277.43 63.54%
Source:annual reports of the company
41

Table 3.2.5
INTERPRETATION
The tamle shows that the inventory is the largest component of the company’s
current assets. During the period of study the inventory is varied from 52.93% to 75.51%.
This shows the large portion of current assets stands the inventory. As far as a
manufacturing concern is keep such level of investment is justifiable.
However , suspicious investment in inventory should affect the company’s
working capital.

Figure 3.2.6
INFERENCES
From the above diagram shows variability in the inventory to current assets ratio
of the company ,in 2008-09 shows 75.51% of inventory as the part of current assets.
Increased level of inventory will badly affect the working capital of the company. In
2009-10 it has reduced 10% than the last year.
42

3) INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO


Inventory turnover ratio indicates whether investment in inventory is efficiently
used or not. It also measures the effectiveness of the firms sales efferts. This ratio shows
the number of times the stock is converted in to sales. A high inventory ratio shows
satisfactory sales. A low inventory turnover ratio results in blocking of funds in inventory.
There is no standared rates for the inventory turnover.

COST OF GOODS SOLD


INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO =
AVERAGE STOCK

COST OF GOODS SOLD = SALES GROSS PROFIT


OR
COST OF GOODS SOLD = (OPENING STOCK + PURCHASE +
DIRECT EXPENSES CLOSSING STOCK)

OPENING STOCK + CLOSSING STOCK


AVERAGE STOCK =
2

It is also decided to analyse the inventory conversion period which represents the
number of days taken to convert inventory in to cash. A high conversion period indicates
the inefficiency of management.
43

INVENTORY TURNOVER RATIO &INVENTORY HOLDING PERIOD


(Rs. In lakhs)
Year Cost of goods sold Average inventory Inventory Turnover
Ratio(times)
2005-06 22829.11 1659.51 13.76
2006-07 27179.67 1628.34 16.69
2007-08 27988.34 1340.48 20.88
2008-09 33971.92 1394.56 24.36
2009-10 35176.81 1412.97 24.90
Source:annual reports of the company
Table 3.2.6
INTERPRETATION
The above table shows the inventory conversion period of KSE Ltd. From the
part of the company ideal period is 20 days. Company is not achieve the inventory
conversion period as ideal in last three years , that is 21,24 and 25 days have takento
convert the stock in to cash in 2007-08,2008-09, and 2009-10 respectively. The reason of
taking this much dates , company purchased rawmaterial in bulk quantity with discount.
44

Figure 3.2.7
INFERENCES
The diagram shows the inventory turnover ratio , the high ratio shows the delay in
conversion of rawmaterials in to finished goods and finished goods in to cash. The last
three year shows the more than 20 days for the conversion. Because of purchasing raw
materials in bulk for discount.
4) WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO
This ratio reflects the turnover of the firms net working capital in the course of the
year. It is a good measure of over trading and under trading .The different use of overall
working capital in a firm can be measured with the help of working capital turnover ratio.
The ratio indiactes the ratio of working capital utilization in the firm. A higher ratio
indicates the efficient utilization of working capital and vice versa

NET SALES
WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO =
NET WORKING CAPITAL

WORKING CAPITAL TURNOVER RATIO


(Rs. In lakhs)
Year Net sales Net working capital Working capital turnover ratio
2005-06 24030.84 2958.21 8.12
2006-07 27503.59 2223.25 12.37
2007-08 28947.50 1854.30 15.61
2008-09 35007.87 2128.30 16.45
2009-10 37094.10 2017.87 18.38
Source:annual reports of the company
Table 3.2.7
INTERPRETATION

The higher ratio indicated efficient utilization of working capital and a low ratio
indicates inefficient utilization. The above table shows the working capital and high ratio
45

is due to high net working capital. In the year 2005-06 shows the working capital is 8
times but after that year the company getting good working capital utilization.

Figure 3.2.8
INFERENCES
From the above diagram shows the working capital turnover ratio is gradually in
creased during the study period 2005-2006. In the year 2009-10 has show 18.38 times. It
shows the efficient utilization of the working capital.
46

5) DEBTORS TURNOVER (DRs VELLOCITY)


The purpose of this ratiois to discuss the credit collection process and policy of
the firm. This ratio shows relation between accounts receivable and net credit sales of the
period. The term accounts receivable include debtors and bills receivable. The higher the
ratio the better it is :

NET CREDIT SALES


DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO =
AVERAGE ACCOUNTS RECIEVABLES

AVERAGE DEBT COLLECTION PERIOD :-


This ratio measures the quality of debtors . it shows the average number of days
allowed in between the receipt of the invoice and the actual payment of the invoice. A
short collection period implies prompt payment by debtors. A shorter cpllection period
reduces the chance of bad debts. A longer collection period implies inefficient credit
collection performance.

AVERAGE DEBT ( DEBTORS + BILLS RECIEVABLES) * 365


COLLECTION PERIOD =
(IN DAYS) NET CREDIT SALES
OR
ADCP(in month) ( DEBTORS + BILLS RECIEVABLES) * 12
=
NET CREDIT SALES
47

DEBTORS TURNOVER RATIO & AVERAGE DEBT COLLECTION


PERIOD
(Rs. In lakhs)
Year Net sales Average Trade Debtors Turnover Average Collection
Debtors Ratio Period(days)
2005-06 24030.84 96.88 248.52 1.47
2006-07 27503.59 47.25 582.08 0.63
2007-08 28947.50 39.42 734.33 0.50
2008-09 35007.87 31.70 1104.35 0.33
2009-10 37094.10 32.21 1151.63 0.32
Source: annual reports of the company
Table 3.2.8
INTERPRETATION
It is an indicative of credit management. The shorter the average collection period
the better the trade credit management and liquidity of debtors. The ratio is gradually
increased this shows the better position of the company . The lower collection period in
2009-10 ,0.32 which reduces firms baddebts.
The reason is inceasing of cash sales and better collection performance.
48

Figure 3.2.9
INFERENCES
The above diagram shows debtors turnover ratio of the company. The increased
ratio shows the chances to increase bad debt. Here the ratio is increased in every
year.1151.63 times in the year 2009-10.

Figure 3.2.10
INFERENCES
The above diagram shows average debt collection period of the company. The low
collection period shows power of the company to collect the amount from it’s debtors.
The collection period of the year 2009-10 is 0.32 days. The company has win to keep
their collection period as low in past five years. Which help the company to get enough
working capital assistance.
49

6) CREDITORS TURNOVER RATIO (Crs VELLOCITY)


This ratio indicates the number of times the accounts payablerotate in a
year.accouts payable include trade creditors and bills payable. This ratio shows the
relationship between net credit purchase and accounts payable.

NET CREDIT PURCHASE


CREDITORS TURNOVER RATIO =
AVERAGE ACCOUNTS PAYABLES

AVERAGE DEBT PAYMENT PERIOD:-


Average credit payment period indicates credit period enjoyed by the firm
payingto it’s creditors.

( CREDITORS + BILLS PAYABLES)*365


AVERAGE DEBT PAYMENT PERIOD =
(IN DAYS) NET CREDIT PURCHASE

( CREDITORS + BILLS PAYABLE)*12


ADPP (in month) =
NET CREDIT PURCHASE

Both the creditors turnover ratio and average debt payment period indicate about
the promptness in making payment for credit purchases.
50

CREDITORS TURNOVER RATIO & AVERAGE DEBT PAYMENT


PERIOD
(Rs. In lakhs)
Year Annual Ave. trade Creditors Ave. paymemt
Purchase creditors turnover ratio (in days)
2005-06 17987.75 787.61 22.84 15.98
2006-07 21910.96 418.80 52.32 6.98
2007-08 23071.44 491.29 46.96 7.77
2008-09 29308.93 557.82 52.54 6.95
2009-10 29794.75 451.95 65.92 5.54
Source: annual reports of the company
Table 3.2.9
INTERPRETATION
Higher the average payment period shows the company can enjoy the
considerable time from it’s suppliers before they can claim dues from the company. The
table shows higher payment period in the year 2005-06 during the study period .

Figure 3.2.11

INFERENCES
The above diagram shows average debt payment period of the company. This
shows the considerable increase in debt payment period during the study period. In the
year 2005-06 turnover ratio is 22.84 times , but it is increased in last year 2009-10,it is
65.92 times. Increase in turnover affect the company’s working capital.
51

Figure 3.2.12
INFERENCES
The above diagram shows the average debt payment period of the company. The
payment period was decreased in to 5.54 day’s in the year 2009-10. The decrease in
payment period reduce company’s time for paying credit amount.
52

CHAPTER – 4
FINDINGS, SUGGESSIONS
AND
CONCLUSION
53

FINDINGS

 The current ratio of the company is faire during the study period. It shows more than
2 as ratio.
 The quick ratio of the company is satisfactory. In the study period it shows more than
1:1.
 The ratio of cash to the current liabilities of the company is very poor during the
study period except in the year 2005-06.
 The ratio of cash to current assets is very poor. In the year 2005-06 it shows 39.51%.
The low percentage shows the liquidity position of the company is very low.
 The major portion of the current assets is inventory. This will reduce the company’s
working capital availability. Only reason is bulky purchase of rawmaterials.
 The working capital turnover ratio of the company is icreased from 8.12 to 18.38
during study period.
 Debtors turnover ratio and average debt collection period shows working capital
efficiency of the company.
 Creditors turnover ratio and average payment period shows working capital
availability and better management of the company.
 The management of working capital in the company is satisfied. They have to reduce
cost of the rawmaterials through bulky purchase. But it shows rduction in quick cash
liquidity.
 The company’s liquidity position is sound , when we analyse the liquidity ratio’s.
 The debtors turnover and collection period shows better management of the working
capital of the company.
 The changes in the schedule of working capital is increased over the years. The
company try to utilize maximam sources of working capital.

SUGGESSIONS
54

 The liquidity position of the company is better, but working capital is fluctuating over
the years. So, the company try to maintain a stable working capital position by giving
better attention and diligence to the working capital management.

 The major part of the company’s current assets is inventory. This will rduce
company’s liquidity position. So ,company should place timely order for raw materials and
ensure it’s availability on time. The following factors will consider when determining the
optimum level of stock:-
 the average level of daily sales (adjusted for seasonal variations);
 the lead time between ordering goods and their delivery;
 the reliability of suppliers;
 the type of good and the danger of their perishing or becoming obsolete;
 the cost of re-ordering stock;
 storage and security costs;
 other factors such as rumours of a shortage or an increase in price.

 The companies debt collection period is more than 30 days . So,with this in mind an
effective credit control policy is necessary. This should include the following:
 Before allowing credit, an organisation should check the credit rating of potential
customers, where necessary seeking references from a third party. Often this will involve
using the services of a credit agency such as Dunn and Bradstreet.
 Based upon the results of a credit check, credit limits can be set. Once the credit limit
is reached it cannot be exceeded without the authorisation of senior management.
 Credit customers should be informed in writing of the normal credit period (for
example 30 days after the invoice date).
 A small cash discount is often used as an incentive to encourage early payment by
debtors. For example, many firms offer a discount of 2.5% of the invoice value for
payment within seven working days of the invoice date.
 It is essential that an organisation maintains accurate records detailing all transactions
with customers and the amounts owing. An aged debtors' list detailing the length of time
55

that a debt has been owing is useful since it highlights those debts which management
needs to concentrate on.
 An organisation should issue regular statements (normally monthly), and where
necessary these should be followed up with reminders and phone calls/letters.

CONCLUSION
56

KSE Ltd. ,IRINJALAKUDA was established in the year 1963. Now KSE Ltd.
have different units in south India and also they have farm and ice cream factory. Mainly
they have concentrated on cattle feed industry. Now it has the largest private sector cattle
feed company in an India.
During the course of this project we have looked at the items which make up
working capital and considered how organisations can improve their management of
working capital. We have seen that the ideal level of working capital is difficult to
calculate and will vary from one organisation to another depending upon the industry in
which they operate. What is essential is that a business avoids both the situation of too
little or too much working capital.
The project entitled “A STUDY ON WORKING CAPITAL MANAGEMENT
IN KSE Ltd. ” was undertaken with the object of creating an idea about the management
of the working capital of the business firm. The study in KSE Ltd. helped me to attain a
good knowledge about practices inworking capital management and I conclude that the
study was a successful and a memorable one.

BIBLIOGRAPHY
57

REFERENCES
Books

1) Dr.K.G.Chandrasekharan Nair and Dr. Jayakumar ‘CORPORATE


ACCOUNTING’
Chapter 8,’ Ratio analysis’,page no:8.1 – 8.46

Websites

1) www.kselimited.com
2) http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Working_capital
3) www.studyfinance.com/lessons/workcap/
58

APPENDICES

BALANCE SHEET , PROFIT & LOSS A/C, AND


CASH FLOW STATEMENT

Appendix-1
59

BALANCE SHEET OF KSE Ltd. , IRINJALAKUDA


---------------IN RS . Cr.----------
Mar '06 Mar '07 Mar '08 Mar '09 Mar '10
12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths
Sources Of Funds
Total Share Capital 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.20
Equity Share Capital 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.20 3.20
Share Application Money 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Preference Share Capital 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Reserves 23.51 22.12 23.50 24.83 29.37
Revaluation Reserves 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Networth 26.71 25.32 26.70 28.03 32.57
Secured Loans 26.06 14.77 13.35 24.04 20.97
Unsecured Loans 6.98 12.51 6.45 5.95 8.26
Total Debt 33.04 27.28 19.80 29.99 29.23
Total Liabilities 59.75 52.60 46.50 58.02 61.80

Mar '06 Mar '07 Mar '08 Mar '09 Mar '10
12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths

Application Of Funds
Gross Block 47.20 52.65 52.86 54.53 68.60
Less: Accum. Depreciation 19.77 22.38 24.48 26.13 29.63
Net Block 27.43 30.27 28.38 28.40 38.97
Capital Work in Progress 3.78 0.51 1.00 9.98 0.97
Investments 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.08 4.08
Inventories 24.30 22.18 19.30 24.70 20.83
Sundry Debtors 0.97 0.47 0.39 0.32 0.32
Cash and Bank Balance 2.62 4.39 5.00 3.47 6.77
Total Current Assets 27.89 27.04 24.69 28.49 27.92
Loans and Advances 2.84 4.31 4.07 3.46 3.21
Fixed Deposits 15.52 0.21 0.31 0.92 1.83
Total CA, Loans & Advances 46.25 31.56 29.07 32.87 32.96
Deffered Credit 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Current Liabilities 12.21 8.89 10.37 11.24 11.21
Provisions 5.51 0.87 1.62 2.05 3.96
Total CL & Provisions 17.72 9.76 11.99 13.29 15.17
Net Current Assets 28.53 21.80 17.08 19.58 17.79
Miscellaneous Expenses 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total Assets 59.76 52.61 46.49 58.04 61.81

Contingent Liabilities 0.17 0.15 4.38 1.72 1.74


Book Value (Rs) 83.46 79.13 83.44 87.60 101.80
Appendix-2
60

PROFIT & LOSS A/C OF KSE Ltd. ,IRINJALAKUDA


---------------IN RS . Cr.----------
Mar '06 Mar '07 Mar '08 Mar '09 Mar '10
12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths
Income
Sales Turnover 240.60 275.06 289.51 350.28 370.97
Excise Duty 0.30 0.02 0.03 0.03 0.03
Net Sales 240.30 275.04 289.48 350.25 370.94
Other Income 0.35 0.43 0.95 -0.41 1.31
Stock Adjustments -1.28 0.59 0.04 0.60 0.49
Total Income 239.37 276.06 290.47 350.44 372.74
Expenditure
Raw Materials 190.68 238.24 249.31 305.40 318.31
Power & Fuel Cost 5.43 6.02 5.55 6.87 7.51
Employee Cost 10.12 10.35 10.81 12.77 14.99
Other Manufacturing Expenses 6.22 6.66 5.74 6.58 4.86
Selling and Admin Expenses 13.19 10.36 8.32 7.07 6.52
Miscellaneous Expenses 1.35 0.82 0.74 0.79 0.85
Preoperative Exp Capitalised 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Total Expenses 226.99 272.45 280.47 339.48 353.04

Mar '06 Mar '07 Mar '08 Mar '09 Mar '10
12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths

Operating Profit 12.03 3.18 9.05 11.37 18.39


PBDIT 12.38 3.61 10.00 10.96 19.70
Interest 1.82 2.50 2.88 3.52 3.23
PBDT 10.56 1.11 7.12 7.44 16.47
Depreciation 1.57 2.81 2.87 2.59 3.84
Other Written Off 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Profit Before Tax 8.99 -1.70 4.25 4.85 12.63
Extra-ordinary items -0.11 0.17 -0.01 0.21 0.02
PBT (Post Extra-ord Items) 8.88 -1.53 4.24 5.06 12.65
Tax 2.85 -0.57 1.62 1.87 4.38
Reported Net Profit 5.91 -1.01 2.58 3.21 8.27
Total Value Addition 36.32 34.22 31.16 34.07 34.72
Preference Dividend 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00 0.00
Equity Dividend 4.00 0.32 1.12 1.60 3.20
Corporate Dividend Tax 0.56 0.05 0.19 0.27 0.53
Per share data (annualised)
Shares in issue (lakhs) 32.00 32.00 32.00 32.00 32.00
Earning Per Share (Rs) 18.48 -3.16 8.07 10.02 25.85
Equity Dividend (%) 125.00 10.00 35.00 50.00 100.00
Book Value (Rs) 83.46 79.13 83.44 87.60 101.80
Appendix-3
61

CASH FLOW OF KSE Ltd. ,IRINJALAKUDA


---------------IN RS . Cr.----------
Mar '06 Mar '07 Mar '08 Mar '09 Mar '10
12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths 12 mths
Net Profit Before Tax 8.88 -1.75 4.21 5.01 12.66
Net Cash From Operating
12.04 -0.17 10.50 2.28 17.52
Activities
Net Cash (used in)/from
-9.96 -2.38 -1.34 -11.40 -9.34
Investing Activities
Net Cash (used in)/from
12.41 -10.99 -8.45 8.20 -3.97
Financing Activities
Net (decrease)/increase In
14.49 -13.54 0.71 -0.92 4.21
Cash and Cash Equivalents
Opening Cash & Cash
3.65 18.14 4.60 5.31 4.39
Equivalents
Closing Cash & Cash
18.14 4.60 5.31 4.39 8.60
Equivalents